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War Ensign
Commander in Chief,
Emperor Franz Joseph I.
Soldier of the Landwehr-Regiment Nr. 6 in Battledress

The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy (1867 - 1918). It was composed of the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee - Common Army - recruited from all parts of the country), the Austrian Landwehr (recruited from Cisleithania), and the Hungarian Honvédség (recruited from Transleithania).

Most of Hungarian cavalry, infantry and artillery troops fought for the Hungarian royal government which waged an unsuccessful War of Independence from 1848 until 1849 when it surrendered to the Czarist army dispatched to help out the Austrian Imperial army. After the surrender, Hungarian units were either disbanded or relocated and national Hungarian military units could not be organized again until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

The joint army (or k.u.k.) came into existence after the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy in 1867 and was disbanded after the end of World War I in 1918. Prior to 1867, Austria's ground forces were those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (named k.k. for kaiserlich, königlich).

The joint "Imperial and Royal" units were poorly trained and had very limited access to new equipment because the governments of the cisleithanian and transleithaian parts of the empire often preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k. regiments had four.

The long standing white-coloured infantry uniforms were replaced with a dark blue, which would remain the standard version in following decades until a pike grey uniform, later used during World War I, was introduced in 1909.

The last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107.

Contents

Austro-Hungarian Army in July 1914

  • 30,000 Officers
  • 410,000 NCOs and troops
  • 87,000 horses (estimate)
  • 1,200 guns in field artillery

Official designations were as follows:

  • regiments of the joint army were designated Imperial and Royal (German: "kaiserlich und königlich" (k.u.k.); Hungarian: "Császári és Királyi")
  • Austrian Landwehr regiments were Imperial/Royal (German: "kaiserlich/königlich" (k.k.) (which stands for Imperial Austrian / Royal Bohemian (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)); Hungarian: "császári/királyi")
  • Hungarian Honvéd regiments, or "Honvédség", were called Royal Hungarian (German: "königlich ungarisch"; Hungarian: "Magyar Királyi")

After the war was declared, 3.35 million men (including the first call up of the reserves and the 1914 recruits) gathered for action.

The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Army was officially under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, Emperor Franz Josef. By 1914 Josef was 84 years old and the chief of staff, Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, had more power over the armed forces. Conrad favoured an aggressive foreign policy and advocated the use of military action to solve Austro-Hungary's territorial disputes with Italy and Serbia. [1]

Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen was appointed Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army by Franz Joseph on July 11, 1914. It was thought he would not interfere with the operational and tactical talents of Conrad von Hötzendorf. Friedrich remained Supreme Commander until February 1917, when Emperor Charles I decided to assume the office himself.

The common Army (k.u.k. - Kaiserlich und königlich)

Corps-areas of the Austro–Hungarian Army
  • 16 Corps
  • 49 Infantry Divisions - 76 Infantry Brigades - 14 Mountain Brigades
  • 8 Cavalry Divisions - 16 Cavalry Brigades
  • 102 Infantry Regiments (four battalions each) - 4 Bosnian-Herzegovinian (Bosnisch-Hercegowinische) Infantry regiments (four battalions each)
  • 4 Imperial Tyrolian Rifles Regiments (Tiroler Kaiserjäger) (four battalions each)
  • 32 Rifles-Battalions (Feldjäger) - 1 Bosnian-Herzegovinian Rifles Battalion (Bosnisch-Hercegowinisches Feldjäger Bataillon)
  • 42 Field Artillery Regiments (Feldkanonen-Regimenter) - 14 Field Howitzer Regiments (Feldhaubitz-Regimenter)
  • 11 Mounted Artillery Battalions (originally named Reitende Artillerie Division) - 14 Heavy Howitzer Battalions (originally named schwere Haubitz-Division)
  • 11 Mountain Artillery Regiments (Gebirgsartillerie Regimenter)
  • 6 Fortress Artillerie Regiments (Festungsartillerie Regimenter) - 8 independent Fortress Artillery Battalions (selbst. Festungsartillerie Bataillone)
  • 15 Regiments of Dragoons (Dragoner) - 16 Regiments of Hussars (Husaren) - 11 Regiments of Lancers (Ulanen)
  • 16 Transportation Battalions (Railroad)
  • 23 Engineers Battalions (Sappeure/Pioniere) - 1 Bridge Construction Battalion (Brücken Bataillon) - 1 Railroad Regiment (Eisenbahn-Regiment) - 1 Signal Regiment (Telegraphen-Regiment)
Officers-Czapka (Helmet) 2nd Landwehr Lancers Regiment

k.k. Landwehr (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)

  • 35 Landwehr Infantry Regiments - 3 battalions each (Landwehr Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 6 Landwehr Regiments of Lancers
  • 8 Landwehr Field Artillery Battalions (Feldkanonen) - 8 Landwehr Field Howitzer Battalions (Feldhaubitz)

The Mountain Infantry with the following units:

  • 2 Landwehr Mountain Infantry Regiments (Gebirgsinfanterie-Regimenter) No. 4 and No. 27
  • 3 Tyrolian Fusiliers Regiments (Tiroler Landesschützen Regimenter) - since January 1917 named Kaiserschützen
  • 1 Mounted Tyrolian Fusiliers Battalion (Reitende Tiroler Landesschützen)
  • 1 Mounted Dalmatian Fusiliers Battalion (Reitende Dalmatiner Landesschützen)
k.u.k. Dragoons Officers Helmet

k.u. Honvéd (königlich ungarische Landwehr)

A part od Royal Hungarian Landwehr whose an Royal Croatian Landwehr ( Kraljevsko hrvatsko domobranstvo ), it consisted of 1 infantry division ( out of 7 in Honved ) and 1 cavalry regiment ( out od 10 in Honved ).

  • 6 k.u. Honvéd Landwehr Districts (Distrikte)
  • 2 k.u. Honvéd Infantry Divisions (Infanterie Truppendivisionen)
  • 2 k.u. Honvéd Cavalry Divisions (Kavallerie Truppendivisionen)
  • 4 k.u. Honvéd Infantry Brigades (Infanteriebrigaden) - 12 independent k.u. Honvéd Infantry Brigades
  • 4 k.u. Honvéd Cavalry Brigades (Kavalleriebrigaden)
  • 32 Honvéd Infantry Regiments (Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 10 Honvéd Regiments of Hussars (Husaren-Regimenter)
  • 8 Honvéd Field Artillery Regiments (Feldkanonen Regimenter) - 1 Honvéd Mounted Artillery Battalion (Reitende Artillerie Abteilung)

The infantry regiments of the k.u.k. Army had four battalions each; the infantry regiments of the k.k. and k.u. Landwehr had three battalions each, except the 3rd Regiment of the “Tiroler Landesschützen“ (Tyrolian Fusiliers), that had also four battailons.

Medals for Valour 1914 - 1918

In 1915 units which had nicknames or names of honor lost them by order of the war ministry. Thereafter units were designated only by number. For instance, the k.u.k. Infanterie-Regiment (Hoch und Deutschmeister) No.4 became Infanterie-Regiment No. 4.

Medals (Example)

The following were the medals awarded to a Zugsführer (Staff-Sergeant) of the 2nd Regiment of the Tyrolian Imperial Rifles (later transferred to the 30th High Mountain Company), who saw action at:

  • Galicia
  • the Carpathian Mountains (Romania - Hungary eastern border area.)
  • Col di Lana - Austria-Italian border
  • Monte Piano - Austria-Italian border
  • bei Lafraun (Lavarone/seven communities area) - Austria-Italian border
  • Monte Pasubio - Austria-Italian border
  • Sextner Dolomiten Mountains - Austria-Italian border
  • Ortler Mountain - Austria-Italian border
  • Hohe Schneid (Ortler Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Tonale Paß (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Cima Presena (Mountain (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Busazza Mountain (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border

He received the following decorations:

    • Silver Medal of Bravery 1st Class (Kaiser Karl I. / after January 1917)
    • Silver Medal of Bravery 2nd Class (Kaiser Karl / after January 1917)
    • Bronze Medal of Bravery Emperor Franz Joseph / before January 1917)
    • Karl-Cross (for a minimum of 12 weeks in active fight)
    • Casualty Medal (after January 1917) (wounded on 9/20/1918 at the Zigolon Mountain near the Adamello)
    • Medal of Honor of the State of Tyrol to its defenders

Ranks and rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army

The different colors of the rank patches and buttons on the tunic are the marks for identifying the infantry regiments (except Generals)
Infantry Cavalry Artillery Rifles Rank insignias Rank insignias mountain rifles
Troops
Infanterist /
Honvéd (Hung.)
(Private)
Dragoner
Husar
Ulan
Kanonier Jäger
SoldatLichtdrap.PNG
JägerGebirgstruppe.PNG
Gefreiter /
Őrvezető (Hung.)
(Private 1st Class)
Gefreiter Vormeister
Főtűzér
Patrouillenführer
Járőrvezető
GefreiterDunkelbraun.PNG
PatrouillenführerGebirgstruppe.PNG
(NCO's)
Korporal /
Tizedes (Hung.)
Kaprál (Polish)/Desátník (Czech)
(Corporal)
Korporal Geschütz-Vormeister Unterjäger
KorporalStahlgrün.PNG
UnterjägerGebirgstruppe.PNG
Zugsführer /
Szakaszvezető (Hung.)
(Master Corporal)
Zugsführer Zugsführer Zugsführer
ZugsführerKrapprot.PNG
ZugsführerGebirgstruppe.PNG
Feldwebel /
Őrmester (Hung.)
(Sergeant)
Wachtmeister Feuerwerker Oberjäger
K.u.k. Feldwebel.PNG
K.k. Oberjäger-Gebirgstruppe.PNG
Kadett-Feldwebel / Kadétőrmester (Hung.)
Hadapród)
(Cadet-Sergeant, since 1908 Cadet)
Kadett-Wachtmeister
(Kadett)
Kadett-Feuerwerker
(Kadett)
Kadett-Oberjäger
(Kadett)
K.u.k. Kadett.png
K.k. Kadett Gebirgstruppe.PNG
Stabs-Feldwebel /
Törzsőrmester (Hung.)
(Staff Sergeant since 1913 - insignias until 1914)
Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger
K.u.k. Stabsfeldwebel - 1914.PNG
K.k. Stabsoberjäger - 1914.PNG
Stabs-Feldwebel /
Törzsőrmester (Hung.)
(Staff Sergeant, insignias after 1914)
Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger
K.u.k. Stabsfeldwebel.PNG
K.k. Stabsoberjäger.PNG
Offiziersstellvertreter (seit dem 6. Juni 1915) /
Tiszthelyettes (Hung.)
(Warrant-Officer)
Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter
K.u.k. Offzstellv.PNG
K.k. Offzstellv.PNG
Officers-Candidates
Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter
Hadapród-Tiszthelyettes (Hung.)
(Cadet-Warrant-Officer) (until 1908)
Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter
K.u.k. Fähnrich.PNG
Fähnrich Gebirgstruppe.PNG
Fähnrich (ab 1908) /
Zászlós (Hung.)
(Officers-Candidate) (since 1908 - replaced the CWO)
Fähnrich Fähnrich Fähnrich
K.u.k. Fähnrich.PNG
Fähnrich Gebirgstruppe.PNG
Low Grade Officers
Leutnant /
Hadnagy (Hung.)
(Lieutenant)
Leutnant Leutnant Leutnant
LtOrangegelb.PNG
LtGebirgstruppe.PNG
Oberleutnant /
Főhadnagy (Hung.)
(1st Lieutenant)
Oberleutnant Oberleutnant Oberleutnant
OltDunkelgrün.PNG
OltGebirgstruppe.PNG
Captains
Hauptmann /
Százados (Hung.)
(Captain)
Rittmeister Hauptmann Hauptmann
HptmBlassrot.PNG
HptmGebirgstruppe.PNG
Staff-Officers
Major /
Őrnagy (Hung.)
Major Major Major
K.u.k. Major.PNG
MajGebTrp.JPG
Oberstleutnant /
Alezredes (Hung.)
(Lieutenant-Colonel)
Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant
K.u.k. Oberstleutnant.PNG
OtlGebirgstruppe.PNG
Oberst /
Ezredes (Hung.)
(Colonel)
Oberst Oberst Oberst
K.u.k. Oberst.PNG
OtGebirgstruppe.PNG
Generals
Generalmajor /
Vezérőrnagy (Hung.)
(Major-General equiv. to Brigadier-General)
K.u.k. Generalmajor.png
Feldmarschalleutnant /
Altábornagy (Hung.)
(Lieutenant-Field-Marshall equiv. to Major-General)
K.u.k. Feldmarschalleutnant.jpg
General der Infanterie
Gyalogsági tábornok (Hung.)
(General of the Infantry)
General der Kavallerie
Lovassági tábornok
(General of the Cavalry)
Feldzeugmeister /
Táborszernagy
(General of the Artillery)
K.u.k. General.png
Generaloberst /
Vezérezredes (Hung.)
(Colonel-General) (since 1915)
K.u.k. Generaloberst.png
Feldmarschall /
Tábornagy (Hung.)
(Field-Marshall)
K.u.k. Feldmarschall.png
k.u.k. Cavalry 1898
k.u.k. Infantry 1898

Note

The ranks displayed after the "/" are the Hungarian equivalents of the Austrian ranks, since they were used in this format in the Magyar Királyi Honvédség / königlich ungarische Landwehr (Royal Hungarian Home Defence Forces). The English equivalents are from the Austrian Bundesheer's homepage. The general ranks are equivalent of today's NATO standard.

Types of uniforms

References

  • Das K.u.k. Heer Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums in Wien by Oskar Brüch and Günter Dirrheimer (Vienna/Austria) Edited by Leopold Stocker Graz/Austria 1997 ISBN 3-7020-0783-0
  • Heinz von Lichem: Spielhahnstoß und Edelweiß. Stocker Verlag, Graz 1977
  • Heinz von Lichem: Der Tiroler Hochgebirgskrieg 1915 - 1918. Steiger Verlag, Berwang (Tirol) 1985
  • Julius Lohmeyer Das Militär Bilderbuch - Die Armeen Europas Carl Flemming Verlag, Glogau o.J.
  • Allmeyer-Beck/Lessing: Die K.u.K. Armee 1848-1918. Bertelsmann, München 1974
  • Rest-Ortner-Ilmig: Des Kaisers Rock im 1. Weltkrieg. Verlag Militaria, Wien 2002
  • Georg Schreiber Des Kaisers Reiterei Verlag Kremayr&Scheriau, Wien 1967
Officer of the k.u.k. Dragoons

See also

Austro-Hungarian POWs in Russia; a 1915 photo by Prokudin-Gorskii

External links


.]] The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy (1867 - 1918). It was composed of the joint army (k.u.k. Armee - recruited from all parts of the country), the Austrian Landwehr (recruited from Cisleithania), and the Hungarian Honvédség (recruited from Transleithania). [[File:|thumb|Soldier of the Landwehr-Regiment Nr. 6 in Battledress]] Official designations were as follows:

  • regiments of the joint army were designated Imperial and Royal (German: "kaiserlich und königlich" (k.u.k.); Hungarian: "Császári és Királyi")
  • Austrian Landwehr regiments were Imperial/Royal (German: "kaiserlich/königlich" (k.k.) (which stands for Imperial Austrian / Royal Bohemian (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)); Hungarian: "császári/királyi")
  • Hungarian Honvéd regiments, or "Honvédség", were called Royal Hungarian (German: "königlich ungarisch"; Hungarian: "Magyar Királyi")

Most of Hungarian cavalry, infantry and artillery troops fought for the Hungarian royal government which waged an unsuccessful War of Independence from 1848 until 1849 when it surrendered to the Czarist army dispatched to help out the Austrian Imperial army. After the surrender, Hungarian units were either disbanded or relocated and national Hungarian military units could not be organized again until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

The joint army (or k.u.k.) came into existence after the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy in 1867 and was disbanded after the end of World War I in 1918. Prior to 1867, Austria's ground forces were those of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (named k.k. for kaiserlich, königlich).

The joint "Imperial and Royal" units were poorly trained and had very limited access to new equipment because the governments of the cisleithanian and transleithaian parts of the empire often preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k. regiments had four.

The long standing white-coloured infantry uniforms were replaced with a dark blue, which would remain the standard version in following decades until a pike grey uniform, later used during World War I, was introduced in 1909.

The last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107.

Contents

Austro-Hungarian Army in July 1914

  • 30,000 Officers
  • 410,000 NCOs and troops
  • 87,000 horses (estimate)
  • 1,200 guns in field artillery

After the war was declared, 3.35 million men (including the first call up of the reserves and the 1914 recruits) gathered for action.

The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Army was officially under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, Emperor Franz Josef. By 1914 Josef was 84 years old and the chief of staff, Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, had more power over the armed forces. Conrad favoured an aggressive foreign policy and advocated the use of military action to solve Austro-Hungary's territorial disputes with Italy and Serbia. [1]

Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen was appointed Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army by Franz Joseph on July 11, 1914. It was thought he would not interfere with the operational and tactical talents of Conrad von Hötzendorf. Friedrich remained Supreme Commander until February 1917, when Emperor Charles I decided to assume the office himself.

The common Army (k.u.k. - Kaiserlich und königlich)

  • 16 Corps
  • 49 Infantry Divisions - 76 Infantry Brigades - 14 Mountain Brigades
  • 8 Cavalry Divisions - 16 Cavalry Brigades
  • 102 Infantry Regiments (four battalions each) - 4 Bosnian-Herzegovinian (Bosnisch-Hercegowinische) Infantry regiments (four battalions each)
  • 4 Imperial Tyrolian Rifles Regiments (Tiroler Kaiserjäger) (four battalions each)
  • 32 Rifles-Battalions (Feldjäger) - 1 Bosnian-Herzegovinian Rifles Battalion (Bosnisch-Hercegowinisches Feldjäger Bataillon)
  • 42 Field Artillery Regiments (Feldkanonen-Regimenter) - 14 Field Howitzer Regiments (Feldhaubitz-Regimenter)
  • 11 Mounted Artillery Battalions (originally named Reitende Artillerie Division) - 14 Heavy Howitzer Battalions (originally named schwere Haubitz-Division)
  • 11 Mountain Artillery Regiments (Gebirgsartillerie Regimenter)
  • 6 Fortress Artillerie Regiments (Festungsartillerie Regimenter) - 8 independent Fortress Artillery Battalions (selbst. Festungsartillerie Bataillone)
  • 15 Regiments of Dragoons (Dragoner) - 16 Regiments of Hussars (Husaren) - 11 Regiments of Lancers (Ulanen)
  • 16 Transportation Battalions (Railroad)
  • 23 Engineers Battalions (Sappeure/Pioniere) - 1 Bridge Construction Battalion (Brücken Bataillon) - 1 Railroad Regiment (Eisenbahn-Regiment) - 1 Signal Regiment (Telegraphen-Regiment)
(Helmet) 2nd Landwehr Lancers Regiment]]

k.k. Landwehr (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)

  • 35 Landwehr Infantry Regiments - 3 battalions each (Landwehr Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 6 Landwehr Regiments of Lancers
  • 8 Landwehr Field Artillery Battalions (Feldkanonen) - 8 Landwehr Field Howitzer Battalions (Feldhaubitz)

The Mountain Infantry with the following units:

  • 2 Landwehr Mountain Infantry Regiments (Gebirgsinfanterie-Regimenter) No. 4 and No. 27
  • 3 Tyrolian Fusiliers Regiments (Tiroler Landesschützen Regimenter) - since January 1917 named Kaiserschützen
  • 1 Mounted Tyrolian Fusiliers Battalion (Reitende Tiroler Landesschützen)
  • 1 Mounted Dalmatian Fusiliers Battalion (Reitende Dalmatiner Landesschützen)

s Officers Helmet]]

k.u. Honvéd (königlich ungarische Landwehr)

A part od Royal Hungarian Landwehr whose an Royal Croatian Landwehr ( Kraljevsko hrvatsko domobranstvo ), it consisted of 1 infantry division ( out of 7 in Honved ) and 1 cavalry regiment ( out od 10 in Honved ).

  • 6 k.u. Honvéd Landwehr Districts (Distrikte)
  • 2 k.u. Honvéd Infantry Divisions (Infanterie Truppendivisionen)
  • 2 k.u. Honvéd Cavalry Divisions (Kavallerie Truppendivisionen)
  • 4 k.u. Honvéd Infantry Brigades (Infanteriebrigaden) - 12 independent k.u. Honvéd Infantry Brigades
  • 4 k.u. Honvéd Cavalry Brigades (Kavalleriebrigaden)
  • 32 Honvéd Infantry Regiments (Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 10 Honvéd Regiments of Hussars (Husaren-Regimenter)
  • 8 Honvéd Field Artillery Regiments (Feldkanonen Regimenter) - 1 Honvéd Mounted Artillery Battalion (Reitende Artillerie Abteilung)

The infantry regiments of the k.u.k. Army had four battalions each; the infantry regiments of the k.k. and k.u. Landwehr had three battalions each, except the 3rd Regiment of the “Tiroler Landesschützen“ (Tyrolian Fusiliers), that had also four battailons.


In 1915 units which had nicknames or names of honor lost them by order of the war ministry. Thereafter units were designated only by number. For instance, the k.u.k. Infanterie-Regiment (Hoch und Deutschmeister) No.4 became Infanterie-Regiment No. 4.

Medals (Example)

The following were the medals awarded to a Zugsführer (Staff-Sergeant) of the 2nd Regiment of the Tyrolian Imperial Rifles (later transferred to the 30th High Mountain Company), who saw action at:

  • Galicia
  • the Carpathian Mountains (Romania - Hungary eastern border area.)
  • Col di Lana - Austria-Italian border
  • Monte Piano - Austria-Italian border
  • bei Lafraun (Lavarone/seven communities area) - Austria-Italian border
  • Monte Pasubio - Austria-Italian border
  • Sextner Dolomiten Mountains - Austria-Italian border
  • Ortler Mountain - Austria-Italian border
  • Hohe Schneid (Ortler Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Tonale Paß (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Cima Presena (Mountain (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border
  • Busazza Mountain (Adamello - Presanella Massiv) - Austria-Italian border

He received the following decorations:

    • Silver Medal of Bravery 1st Class (Kaiser Karl I. / after January 1917)
    • Silver Medal of Bravery 2nd Class (Kaiser Karl / after January 1917)
    • Bronze Medal of Bravery Emperor Franz Joseph / before January 1917)
    • Karl-Cross (for a minimum of 12 weeks in active fight)
    • Casualty Medal (after January 1917) (wounded on 9/20/1918 at the Zigolon Mountain near the Adamello)
    • Medal of Honor of the State of Tyrol to its defenders

Ranks and rank insignias of the Austria-Hungarian Army

The different colors of the rank patches and buttons on the tunic are the marks for identifying the infantry regiments (except Generals)
Infantry Cavalry Artillery Rifles Rank insignias Rank insignias mountain rifles
Troops
Infanterist /
Honvéd (hung.)
(Private)
Dragoner
Husar
Ulan
Kanonier Jäger[[File:|thumb|75px]]
Gefreiter /
Őrvezető (hung.)
(Private 1st Class)
Gefreiter Vormeister
Főtűzer
Patrouillenführer
Járőrvezető
[[File:|thumb|75px|]]
(NCO's)
Korporal /
Tizedes (hung)
kapral (polish)
(Corporal)
Korporal Geschütz-Vormeister Unterjäger
Zugsführer /
Szakaszvezető (hung.)
(Sergeant)
Zugsführer Zugsführer Zugsführer
Feldwebel /
Őrmester (hung.)
(Master-Sergeant)
Wachtmeister Feuerwerker Oberjäger
Kadett-Feldwebel / Kadétőrmester
Hadapród)
(Cadet-Sergeant, since 1908 Cadet)
Kadett-Wachtmeister
(Kadett)
Kadett-Feuerwerker
(Kadett)
Kadett-Oberjäger
(Kadett)
Stabs-Feldwebel /
Törzsőrmester
(Sergeant-Major since 1913 - insignias until 1914)
Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger
Stabs-Feldwebel /
Törzsőrmester
(Sergeant-Major, insignias after 1914)
Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger
Offiziersstellvertreter (seit dem 6. Juni 1915) /
Tiszthelyettes
(Warrant-Officer)
Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter
Officers-Candidates
Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter
Hadapród-Tiszthelyettes
(Cadet-Warrant-Officer) (until 1908)
Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter
Fähnrich (ab 1908) /
Zászlós
(Officers-Candidate) (since 1908 - replaced the CWO)
Fähnrich Fähnrich Fähnrich
Low Grade Officers
Leutnant /
Hadnagy
(Lieutenant)
Leutnant Leutnant Leutnant[[File:|thumb|75px]][[File:|thumb|75px]]
Oberleutnant /
Főhadnagy
(1st Lieutenant)
Oberleutnant Oberleutnant Oberleutnant[[File:|thumb|75px]]
Captains
Hauptmann /
Százados
(Captain)
Rittmeister Hauptmann Hauptmann[[File:|thumb|75px]][[File:|thumb|70px]]
Staff-Officers
Major /
Őrnagy
Major Major Major[[File:|thumb|75px]]
Oberstleutnant /
Alezredes
(Lieutenant-Colonel)
Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant[[File:|thumb|75px]]
Oberst /
Ezredes
(Colonel)
Oberst Oberst Oberst[[File:|thumb|75px]]
Generals
Generalmajor /
Vezérőrnagy
(Major-General equiv. to Brigadier-General)
Feldmarschalleutnant /
Táborhadnagy
(Lieutenant-Field-Marshall equiv. to Major-General)
General der Infanterie
Gyalogsági tábornok
(General of the Infantry)
General der Kavallerie
Lovassági tábornok
(General of the Cavalry)
Feldzeugmeister /
Táborszernagy
(General of the Artillery)
Generaloberst /
Vezérezredes
(Colonel-General) (since 1915)
Feldmarschall /
Tábornagy
(Field-Marshall)
1898]]
1898]]

Note

The ranks displayed after the "/" are the Hungarian equivalents of the Austrian ranks, since they were used in this format in the Magyar Királyi Honvédség / königlich ungarische Landwehr (Royal Hungarian Home Defence Forces).

Types of uniforms

References

  • Das K.u.k. Heer Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums in Wien by Oskar Brüch and Günter Dirrheimer (Vienna/Austria) Edited by Leopold Stocker Graz/Austria 1997 ISBN 3-7020-0783-0
  • Heinz von Lichem: Spielhahnstoß und Edelweiß. Stocker Verlag, Graz 1977
  • Heinz von Lichem: Der Tiroler Hochgebirgskrieg 1915 - 1918. Steiger Verlag, Berwang (Tirol) 1985
  • Julius Lohmeyer Das Militär Bilderbuch - Die Armeen Europas Carl Flemming Verlag, Glogau o.J.
  • Allmeyer-Beck/Lessing: Die K.u.K. Armee 1848-1918. Bertelsmann, München 1974
  • Rest-Ortner-Ilmig: Des Kaisers Rock im 1. Weltkrieg. Verlag Militaria, Wien 2002
  • Georg Schreiber Des Kaisers Reiterei Verlag Kremayr&Scheriau, Wien 1967

See also

in Russia; a 1915 photo by Prokudin-Gorskii]]

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External links








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