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Richard Francis Burton
See biography, media, quotes, indexes. An English explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, ethnologist, linguist, poet, hypnotist, fencer and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia and Africa as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke twenty-nine European, Asian, and African languages.
Richard Francis Burton





  • Notes Relative to the Population of the Sind; and the Customs, Language, and Literature of the People, 1847
  • The Sotadic Zone, 1933 essay suggesting a geographical origin of homosexuality


Burton's translations of ancient and foreign works were often heavily annotated by himself, and as such add considerably more information than mere translations.

Original works

  • Goa and the Blue Mountains (1851)
  • Scinde or the Unhappy Valley (1851)
  • Sindh and the Races That Inhabit the Valley of the Indus (1851)
  • Falconry in the Valley of the Indus (1852)
  • A Complete System of Bayonet Exercise (1853)
  • Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al Madinah and Meccah (1855)[5]
  • First Footsteps in East Africa (1856)
  • Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa (1860)
  • Lake Regions of Central Equatorial Africa, 1860
  • The City of the Saints, and Across the Rocky Mountains to California (1861) DjVu proofread
  • Wanderings in West Africa (1863)
  • Abeokuta and The Cameroon Mountains (1863)
  • The Prairie Traveller, 1863[6]
  • A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahomé (1864)
  • The Nile Basin (1864). Part one only; part two was by James M'Queen
  • Wit and Wisdom From West Africa (1865)
  • Stone Talk (1865)
  • Explorations of the Highlands of Brazil (1869)
  • Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay (1870)[7]
  • Unexplored Syria (1872)[8]
  • Zanzibar; City, Island, and Coast (1872)
  • Ultima Thule ("A Summer in Iceland") (1875)
  • Two Trips to Gorilla Land and the Cataracts of the Congo (1876)[9]
  • Etruscan Bologna (1876)
  • A New System of Sword Exercise for Infantry (1876)
  • Scind Revisited (1877)
  • The Gold Mines of Midian (1878)
  • The Land of Midian (1879)
  • Camoens: His Life and His Lusiads (1881)
  • A Glance at the Passion Play (1881)
  • To the Gold Coast for Gold (1883)
  • The Book of the Sword (1884)
  • The Jew, the Gypsy and El Islam (1898)
  • Wanderings in Three Continents (1901)
  • The Sentiment of the Sword (1911)
  • Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome[10]


  • The Prairie Traveller, a Hand-book for Overland Expeditions. By Randolph B. Marcy, (1863)
  • The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse in A.D. 1547-1555 (1874). Annotations to a translation by Albert Tootal
  • Marocco and the Moors 2nd edition (1891), by Arthur Leared


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Works about Burton

PD-icon.svg Works by this author published before January 1, 1923 are in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted. Posthumous works may be copyrighted based on how long they have been published in certain countries and areas.


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