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Autism
Classification and external resources
Young red-haired boy facing away from camera, stacking a seventh can atop a column of six food cans on the kitchen floor. An open pantry contains many more cans.
Repetitively stacking or lining up objects may indicate autism.
ICD-10 F84.0
ICD-9 299.00
OMIM 209850
DiseasesDB 1142
MedlinePlus 001526
eMedicine med/3202 ped/180
MeSH D001321
GeneReviews Autism overview
.Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior.^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.These signs all begin before a child is three years old.^ He was only three years old!!!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Carly, the W-5 13 year-old girl with autism (who types her thoughts) also endorses ABA as the therapy that helped her to achieve all that she has already at a young age.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood.^ Children and Dogs Best Books to Understanding Autism Autism is a disorder that is profound and has affected many adults as well as children over the years.

^ I do agree with "challenging the official view of autism and working to change how the world sees autism", which is grossly understood, and that there are many "positives of living life as a person with autism".
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Most psychoactive medicines work by changing brain chemistry, which in turn regulates how neurons (nerves) in the brain connect and talk to one another.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .The two other autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and PDD-NOS, diagnosed when full criteria for the other two disorders are not met.^ Several instruments have been developed to diagnose autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The work will chronicle her development as an educator of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.

^ It differentiates children with autism spectrum disorders from children with schizophrenia and other psychoses .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations, or by rare combinations of common genetic variants.^ Although psychoanalytic approaches to treatment of children with autism were common in the mid-20th century, these approaches were not found to be effective and are no longer used.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A child with ASD who was born following a risky pregnancy may not be as strong a marker for autism recurrence if the subsequent pregnancy is without complications or is a girl.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the Amish are a genetically inbred group, and, given that autism has a strong genetic component, that inbreeding alone could explain any difference, again if there even is a difference.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects.^ Although toxins may play a role in the development of isolated cases of autism in Japan, toxins have not been proved to be causative of autism in Japan in general.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But some parents say millions of previous exposures helped caused a spike in autism cases since the 1980s.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers hoping to uncover an environmental cause behind autism instead found that cases cluster near treatment centers and around highly educated residents.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[5] .Controversies surround other proposed environmental causes, such as heavy metals, pesticides or childhood vaccines;[6] the vaccine hypotheses are biologically implausible and lack convincing scientific evidence.^ Childhood vaccinations do not cause autism.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Childhood vaccinations do not cause autism."
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US, a similar non-debate to the one taking place here has been on whether vaccines cause childhood autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The prevalence of autism is about 1–2 per 1,000 people; the prevalence of ASD is about 6 per 1,000, with about four times as many males as females.^ That was the first time I heard about autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Estimates of the prevalence of autism suggest that as many as 400,000 individuals in the United States have autism and related conditions.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mr Blaxill "proves" there has been a similar increase in autism in both countries, at about the same time, therefore showing that there is no relationship between dose of mercury and prevalence of autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number of people diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.^ Note that there have been numerous changes since DSM III which affect the diagnoses of Autism and related disorders.

^ And finally, the apparent increase in incidence of pervasive developmental disorders is likely a consequence of more sophisticated case findings and changes in diagnostic criteria.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Playmates Pesticide Linked to Autism What's up with the big increase in autism diagnoses?

[8]
.Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life.^ Dahlgren SO, Gillberg C. Symptoms in the first two years of life.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One would have had to have been living in a cave in the greater disability community two years ago not to have noticed the Ransom Notes Campaign and the furor that followed it.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[9] .The signs usually develop gradually, but some autistic children first develop more normally and then regress.^ Some line up toys not usually lined up, or simply re-enact the same play over and over until it is more rote than a spontaneous composition.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And as much as I would like to believe it is normal to be autistic, I don't think that by not helping them to overcome some challenges will do any good.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Body movement Some children with autistic disorder display choreoathetotic movements that resemble the movements seen in Sydenham chorea and other movement disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Although early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help autistic children gain self-care, social, and communication skills, there is no known cure.^ Autistic children try to communicate.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no such children!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .Not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful.^ Autism Diva has a hard time picturing this, it's easier to picture the "hordes of autistic children" from his earlier press release, though the reference is just as weird and demeaning.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many parents believe that their children developed autism or other neurological problems because of the MMR vaccines.

^ This finding raises some interesting questions - though it almost certainly says nothing about environmental factors related to autism.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[11] .An autistic culture has developed, with some individuals seeking a cure and others believing autism should be tolerated as a difference and not treated as a disorder.^ Other make-believe play may be substituted based on cultural relevance.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hameury L, Roux S, Barthelemy C, Adrien JL, Desombre H, Sauvage D, et al. Quantified multidimensional assessment of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After regression in CDD, development is in many ways very similar to other cases of autism.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Contents

Characteristics

.Autism is a highly variable neurodevelopmental disorder[13] that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission.^ Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually first identified during early childhood, that causes what is often referred to as a ‘triad of social impairments.’ This autism triad consists of effects on social development, the development of communication skills, and the activities and interests of the child.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interestingly, a following study showed this "special" condition to be highly prevalent in autistic individuals and a significant percentage of the general population.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I agree that society has a long way to go before people with various disbilities including Autism can live freely without societies' prejudices.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Overt symptoms gradually begin after the age of six months, become established by age two or three years,[15] and tend to continue through adulthood, although often in more muted form.^ As we move through adulthood, that continues to be true.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ We've tried three different times in the last two months to get the glutathione cream added so that we can move to next level of detox.
  • Autism-Mercury : Message: Re: [Autism-Mercury] Digest Number 15235 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although often difficult to evaluate with intelligence tests, three fourths of children with autism function in the mentally retarded range.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .It is distinguished not by a single symptom, but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and restricted interests and repetitive behavior.^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was not until 1940 that this constellation of problems with social interaction, communication, and focused interest came to be called autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis.[17] .Autism's individual symptoms occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathologically severe from common traits.^ Seizure disorders are common in individuals with autism.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunization for the general population is highly recommended.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For information concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders and related conditions without mental retardation, please see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]

Social development

.Social deficits distinguish autism and the related autism spectrum disorders (ASD; see Classification) from other developmental disorders.^ It differentiates children with autism spectrum disorders from children with schizophrenia and other psychoses .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For information concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders and related conditions without mental retardation, please see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .People with autism have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted.^ Athough the title doesn't give any hints (other than the mention of thimerosal), the article is all about autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually first identified during early childhood, that causes what is often referred to as a ‘triad of social impairments.’ This autism triad consists of effects on social development, the development of communication skills, and the activities and interests of the child.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After regression in CDD, development is in many ways very similar to other cases of autism.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicals, or people with normal neural development, as leaving her feeling "like an anthropologist on Mars".[19]
.Unusual social development becomes apparent early in childhood.^ Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually first identified during early childhood, that causes what is often referred to as a ‘triad of social impairments.’ This autism triad consists of effects on social development, the development of communication skills, and the activities and interests of the child.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism becomes apparent as these skills should develop and either don’t, or do so in characteristically atypical ways that will be described as we go on.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name.^ A portion of the documentary looks specifically at autism and Asperger’s and a young man named Jason who’s dealing with the issues surrounding Asperger’s and connecting socially.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Autistic children lack this empathetic responsiveness and may even respond oppositely to sadness in others.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It showed me a new way to "not judge" people, autistics as well as other disabilities.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms; for example, they have less eye contact and turn taking, and are more likely to communicate by manipulating another person's hand.^ As a parent of a child with autism, I think its very important that we teach our child how to communicate with us, as every child/person with autism is so different, we just can't do it, so its good to teach them how to communicate with us, so we can understand what they are thinking and what they mean by there actions.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Fortunately, most of the responses were, surprisingly, less hostile and more supportive than I had feared they would be.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Three- to five-year-old autistic children are less likely to exhibit social understanding, approach others spontaneously, imitate and respond to emotions, communicate nonverbally, and take turns with others.^ He was only three years old!!!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Autistic children try to communicate.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Social development is more effected than speech and language development, though almost all children with autism have difficulties with the social aspects of communications, like not making enough eye contact, not fully understanding facial expressions, and poorly understanding tone-of-voice, gestures, or other body language.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers.[21] .Most autistic children display moderately less attachment security than non-autistic children, although this difference disappears in children with higher mental development or less severe ASD.[22] Older children and adults with ASD perform worse on tests of face and emotion recognition.^ Fortunately, most of the responses were, surprisingly, less hostile and more supportive than I had feared they would be.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children and adults living with ASD/PDD do need to be accepted and respected.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.Contrary to a common belief, autistic children do not prefer being alone.^ Aberrant palmar creases and other dermatoglyphic anomalies are more common in children with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The article will cover what can be done to identify and then help the children now seen as being on the autistic spectrum.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is mad about what was done, and is being done, to his, and other autistic children; and he is pushing back with his full weight to fix the problem.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism.^ Children with autism do not naturally have much response to social praise, the coin of the realm in all early education settings, making learning there often very difficult.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although often difficult to evaluate with intelligence tests, three fourths of children with autism function in the mentally retarded range.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they feel. .Functional friendships, such as those resulting in invitations to parties, may affect the quality of life more deeply.^ Other families find such resources less beneficial for cultural or economic reasons, or when their child has more difficulties than those of other families they meet as feelings of helplessness and despair may increase rather than decrease.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I love my 2 boys more than anything and they bring such joy to my life.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't have an issue with you claiming that autism may in some cases be resultant from an environmental insult such as Mercury.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.There are many anecdotal reports, but few systematic studies, of aggression and violence in individuals with ASD. The limited data suggest that, in children with mental retardation, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and tantrums.^ Many cases that were related to autism and mental retardation were as well.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants, children with mental retardation, and young ex-preemies as well as children with ASDs may walk on their toes, flap hands at the wrist when excited, stare at fingers, or self-regulate arousal by rocking when excited, as self-soothing, or even when bored.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diagnosis of autism in a child with profound mental retardation requires an experienced clinician.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.A 2007 study interviewed parents of 67 children with ASD and reported that about two-thirds of the children had periods of severe tantrums and about one-third had a history of aggression, with tantrums significantly more common than in non-autistic children with language impairments.^ Despite the obvious expectations of the authors (one is on the Executive Board of SafeMinds, yet another is a well-known anti-mercury advocate), the study found that the autistic children had lower hair mercury levels than the neurotypical controls.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Books that are accounts of the experiences of autistic people and their parents receive more recommendations than any other books on this list.

^ The initial clinical descriptions of autism suggested that cold, rejecting parents ("refrigerator mothers") caused autism in offspring; however, careful study of children with autism and their parents has disproved this hypothesis.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[25] .A 2008 Swedish study found that, of individuals aged 15 or older discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of ASD, those who committed violent crimes were significantly more likely to have other psychopathological conditions such as psychosis.^ Other families find such resources less beneficial for cultural or economic reasons, or when their child has more difficulties than those of other families they meet as feelings of helplessness and despair may increase rather than decrease.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All 56,946 individuals comprising the targeted population cohort in this study are, as of today, the last day in the decade, 18 years of age or older.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I mean, we can just find a way to get those people who just can't relate in regular ways, to relate in some other way that anyone can understand, like music and stuff.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[26]

Communication

.About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs.^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is obvious that the majority of children exposed to these substances do not develop autism - since even the highest estimates of autism prevalence can only claim that a third of a percent of children are autistic.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism has been, naturally, receiving a great deal of focus in various research communities.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[27] .Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver.^ (This is quite different from loss of initial words or phrases that may occur between 1 and 3 years of age and is referred to as language regression).
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His life during the last 5 years was quite different than mine, but that is OK. We can learn a lot from one another.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The increase in head circumference becomes pronounced in the first few years of life.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words.^ It is obvious that the majority of children exposed to these substances do not develop autism - since even the highest estimates of autism prevalence can only claim that a third of a percent of children are autistic.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by: anne jefferies October 28, 2008 01:01 AM I spent a year working with autistic children in the schools as a substitute aide.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Because children with autistic disorder are often mentally retarded and nonverbal, expressing subjective experiences associated with the movement is often impossible for them.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words (echolalia)[28][29] or reverse pronouns.^ Because children with more educated parents are more likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, one need look no further for a cause, the authors say.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In a way he has more experience with this as he has been member of a family with children.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ With my background as an artist, I always thought that the approach with the children in the classroom missed the mark more or less as far as connecting with the child's innate humanity.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[30] .Joint attention seems to be necessary for functional speech, and deficits in joint attention seem to distinguish infants with ASD:[3] for example, they may look at a pointing hand instead of the pointed-at object,[20][29] and they consistently fail to point at objects in order to comment on or share an experience.^ Infants, children with mental retardation, and young ex-preemies as well as children with ASDs may walk on their toes, flap hands at the wrist when excited, stare at fingers, or self-regulate arousal by rocking when excited, as self-soothing, or even when bored.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The caregiver and clinicians may be asked to look for any motions in the mouth, face, hands, or feet of the patient and, if so, may be asked to describe them and how they bother the patient.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children with ASD (like children with some language disorders) may repeat whole things they’ve heard.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Autistic children may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language.^ Although children with autistic disorder may want to have friendships with other children, their actions may actually drive away other children.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although toxins may play a role in the development of isolated cases of autism in Japan, toxins have not been proved to be causative of autism in Japan in general.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response to febrile illnesses Children with autistic disorder may show a decrease in their odd behaviors during a febrile illness.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[28][29]
.In a pair of studies, high-functioning autistic children aged 8–15 performed equally well as, and adults better than, individually matched controls at basic language tasks involving vocabulary and spelling.^ Despite the obvious expectations of the authors (one is on the Executive Board of SafeMinds, yet another is a well-known anti-mercury advocate), the study found that the autistic children had lower hair mercury levels than the neurotypical controls.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children metabolize many psycho-active medications differently from adults—though most of these drugs are far better studied in adults than children.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About Paul McDonnell, a high-functioning autistic person, who wrote an afterword.

Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. .As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.^ Sometimes replacement activities are suggested which will provide the same function or purpose, while allowing the individual to behave in a more socially accepted manner.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I look forward to seeing more information that will educate the public and clear up the many misunderstandings and falicies about those on the autistic spectrum.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Books that are accounts of the experiences of autistic people and their parents receive more recommendations than any other books on this list.

[31]

Repetitive behavior

.Autistic individuals display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)[32] categorizes as follows.^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, a following study showed this "special" condition to be highly prevalent in autistic individuals and a significant percentage of the general population.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assessing stereotypies Movements observed in individuals with autistic disorder are frequently classified as stereotypies (eg, purposeless, repetitive, patterned motions, postures, and sounds).
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Young boy asleep on a bed, facing the camera, with only the head visible and the body off-camera. On the bed behind the boy's head is a dozen or so toys carefully arranged in a line, ordered by size.
.
A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made
  • Stereotypy is repetitive movement, such as hand flapping, making sounds, head rolling, or body rocking.
  • Compulsive behavior is intended and appears to follow rules, such as arranging objects in stacks or lines.
  • Sameness is resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted.
  • Ritualistic behavior involves an unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual.^ Infants, children with mental retardation, and young ex-preemies as well as children with ASDs may walk on their toes, flap hands at the wrist when excited, stare at fingers, or self-regulate arousal by rocking when excited, as self-soothing, or even when bored.
    • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Stereotypies are divided into the following 3 topological classes: Oro-facial (eg, tongue, mouth, and facial movements; smelling; sniffing; and other sounds) Extremity (eg, hand, finger, toe, leg) Head and trunk (eg, rolling, tilting, or banging of the head; rocking the body) Stereotypies occur in nonautistic infants and children with mental retardation.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some line up toys not usually lined up, or simply re-enact the same play over and over until it is more rote than a spontaneous composition.
    • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.[32]
  • .
  • Restricted behavior is limited in focus, interest, or activity, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game.
  • Self-injury includes movements that injure or can injure the person, such as eye poking, skin picking, hand biting, and head banging.^ Self-injury may take the form of skin picking; self-biting; head punching and slapping; head-to-object and body-to-object banging; body punching and slapping; poking the eye, the anus, and other body parts; lip chewing; removal of hair and nails; and teeth banging.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For example, eye poking and head banging may cause retinal detachments resulting in blindness.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Self-injurious behaviors A particularly serious form of stereotypy is self-injurious behavior.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [3] A 2007 study reported that self-injury at some point affected about 30% of children with ASD.[25]
.No single repetitive behavior seems to be specific to autism, but only autism appears to have an elevated pattern of occurrence and severity of these behaviors.^ These are books not specifically about autism that have been recommended by readers of the AUTISM list.

^ However, a child who only flapped his hands, but was neither aloof nor had specifically autistic language problems might have another disorder, or in fact, no disorder.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[33]

Other symptoms

.Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family.^ Individuals with autistic disorder and profound mental retardation may require constant care in a residential treatment facility.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The medicines in autistic children, just like in adults work in a symptom-specific manner, not a diagnosis-specific manner.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a particular individual with autistic disorder may not exhibit familial traits seen in populations.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .An estimated 0.5% to 10% of individuals with ASD show unusual abilities, ranging from splinter skills such as the memorization of trivia to the extraordinarily rare talents of prodigious autistic savants.^ Individuals with autistic disorder and their mothers show elevated levels of C-terminally directed beta-endorphin protein immunoreactivity.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, a following study showed this "special" condition to be highly prevalent in autistic individuals and a significant percentage of the general population.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autistic disorder and related conditions affect up to 10-20 individuals per 10,000 population.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[34] .Many individuals with ASD show superior skills in perception and attention, relative to the general population.^ Interestingly, a following study showed this "special" condition to be highly prevalent in autistic individuals and a significant percentage of the general population.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, many people with ASD have some difficulties in three other domains -- memory, perception and motor behavior.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It makes sense, therefore, that treatments for ASDs, in general, and for autism in particular, will need to be individualized, too.
  • Autism - a knol by Bryna Siegel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Sensory abnormalities are found in over 90% of those with autism, and are considered core features by some,[36] although there is no good evidence that sensory symptoms differentiate autism from other developmental disorders.^ Also considered a pretty good introduction to Autism, e.g.

^ It differentiates children with autism spectrum disorders from children with schizophrenia and other psychoses .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] Differences are greater for under-responsivity (for example, walking into things) than for over-responsivity (for example, distress from loud noises) or for sensation seeking (for example, rhythmic movements).[38] .An estimated 60%–80% of autistic people have motor signs that include poor muscle tone, poor motor planning, and toe walking;[36]; deficits in motor coordination are pervasive across ASD and are greater in autism proper.^ You featured 3 highly communicative autistic people, while excluding lower functioning persons with ASD. .
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a “spectrum” diagnosis, which includes many varying forms of abilities, and diagnoses such as Asperger’s, Pervasive Development Disorder – Not Otherwise Specific (PPD-NOS) etc.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Aside from the many factual errors in the book and aside from the poor science used to underpin it there are larger issues to do with making assumptions about autism and autistic people that this book doesn't just use but actually swallows wholesale.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.Unusual eating behavior occurs in about three-quarters of children with ASD, to the extent that it was formerly a diagnostic indicator.^ Nevertheless, many people with ASD have some difficulties in three other domains -- memory, perception and motor behavior.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur;[25] this does not appear to result in malnutrition.^ It becomes a disorder only when a regression into low functioning occurs and this appears to be the source of most of the angst amongst parents.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Most such books have been on the problems associated with sensitivity to food and other substances.

.Although some children with autism also have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, there is a lack of published rigorous data to support the theory that autistic children have more or different GI symptoms than usual;[40] studies report conflicting results, and the relationship between GI problems and ASD is unclear.^ More than a dozen studies done over the past… Autism Jabberwocky .
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, some of the children in the study were their clients!
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zeolites seem to be beneficial for some children due to their effects on the gut (absorbing bad stuff) but there is no evidence they chelate metals, other than the information from the companies that sell it.
  • Autism-Mercury : Message: Re: [Autism-Mercury] Digest Number 15235 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
Parents of children with ASD have higher levels of stress.[42] .Siblings of children with ASD report greater admiration of and less conflict with the affected sibling than siblings of unaffected children or those with Down syndrome; siblings of individuals with ASD have greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults.^ A causal relationship between gastrointestinal disorders and the behavioral features of children with autism spectrum disorder has been acknowledged for years by parents caring for those affected, yet dismissed by mainstream medicine...
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Trends in autism reported to VAERS clearly have far more to do with changes in the fraction of autistic children who are reported to VAERS than with actual changes in the number of autistic children.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ QUESTION: If the actual number of children being chelated is less than 10,000, will the number of deaths per million treated go up, go down or stay the same?
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]

Classification

.Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.^ Several instruments have been developed to diagnose autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Kanner syndrome, Kanner's syndrome, movement abnormalities, motion anomalies, communication abnormalities, social interaction abnormalities, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, unspecified pervasive developmental disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, rubella, measles, mumps, Rett syndrome, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegration disorder, Sydenham chorea, akathisia, pseudoakathisia .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] These symptoms do not imply sickness, fragility, or emotional disturbance.[16]
.Of the five PDD forms, Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes; Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder share several signs with autism, but may have unrelated causes; PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; also called atypical autism) is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder.^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For information about individuals with later onset of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder, see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Childhood Disintegration Disorder , Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Rett Syndrome , Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome , and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (not otherwise specified).
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Kanner syndrome, Kanner's syndrome, movement abnormalities, motion anomalies, communication abnormalities, social interaction abnormalities, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, unspecified pervasive developmental disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, rubella, measles, mumps, Rett syndrome, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegration disorder, Sydenham chorea, akathisia, pseudoakathisia .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Unlike with autism, people with Asperger syndrome have no substantial delay in language development.^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For information concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders and related conditions without mental retardation, please see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A herd mentality can develop, as it seems no big deal to skip vaccinations, because lots of other people are doing it.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .The terminology of autism can be bewildering, with autism, Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS often called the autism spectrum disorders (ASD)[9] or sometimes the autistic disorders,[45] whereas autism itself is often called autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism.^ I am AUTISTIC and on the AUTISM Spectrum just words!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Autistic disorder manifests in early childhood.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this article, autism refers to the classic autistic disorder; in clinical practice, though, autism, ASD, and PDD are often used interchangeably.^ Because children with autistic disorder are often mentally retarded and nonverbal, expressing subjective experiences associated with the movement is often impossible for them.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children with autistic disorder also often display motor tics and are unable to remain still.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both articles focused on gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with autism.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[46] .ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype, which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.^ Oh well, as an autistic person, I feel it's really great that when you make a program about autism, the speakers are AUTISTIC INDIVIDUALS, and not some random or "proffesional" non-autistic person pretending to know what it's like to be autistic.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ However, a particular individual with autistic disorder may not exhibit familial traits seen in populations.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Take antibiotics; the infection goes away; you’re “cured.” For autism, it would appear that the “cure” would be to somehow make an autistic brain function like an NT brain.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[47]
.The manifestations of autism cover a wide spectrum, ranging from individuals with severe impairments—who may be silent, mentally disabled, and locked into hand flapping and rocking—to high functioning individuals who may have active but distinctly odd social approaches, narrowly focused interests, and verbose, pedantic communication.^ Most of that is high functioning autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of them have a high functioning autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The majority are not however as "high" functioning as this special may portray.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[48] Because the behavior spectrum is continuous, boundaries between diagnostic categories are necessarily somewhat arbitrary.[36] .Sometimes the syndrome is divided into low-, medium- or high-functioning autism (LFA, MFA, and HFA), based on IQ thresholds,[49] or on how much support the individual requires in daily life; these subdivisions are not standardized and are controversial.^ Most of that is high functioning autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ We all have a high functioning autism - Asperger’s Syndrome.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of them have a high functioning autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Autism can also be divided into syndromal and non-syndromal autism; the syndromal autism is associated with severe or profound mental retardation or a congenital syndrome with physical symptoms, such as tuberous sclerosis.^ Additionally, tuberous sclerosis is associated with autism as a comorbid disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnosis of autism in a child with profound mental retardation requires an experienced clinician.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many cases that were related to autism and mental retardation were as well.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .Although individuals with Asperger syndrome tend to perform better cognitively than those with autism, the extent of the overlap between Asperger syndrome, HFA, and non-syndromal autism is unclear.^ I am a person who as been once diagnosed with asperger syndrome (a high functioning form of autism) and I’ve had bi-polar disorder sine I have been little.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Although individuals with Autism can have intellectual difficulties, the majority are as intelligent as the next person.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For information concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders and related conditions without mental retardation, please see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[51]
.Some studies have reported diagnoses of autism in children due to a loss of language or social skills, as opposed to a failure to make progress, typically from 15 to 30 months of age.^ In fact, some of the children in the study were their clients!
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horvath K, Stefanatos G, Sokolski KN, Wachtel R, Nabors L, Tildon JT. Improved social and language skills after secretin administration in patients with autistic spectrum disorders.  J Assoc Acad Minor Phys . 1998;9(1):9-15.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The validity of this distinction remains controversial; it is possible that regressive autism is a specific subtype,[10][20][28][52] or that there is a continuum of behaviors between autism with and without regression.^ Salon.com Letters: More readers sound off on the controversial link between mercury and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a 2004 Institute of Medicine review of five large epidemiological studies did conclude that there is no causal association between thimerosal and autism...
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible for an unvaccinated child to be autistic and to regress into autism right around the same time they would normally be vaccinated.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
Research into causes has been hampered by the inability to identify biologically meaningful subpopulations[54] and by the traditional boundaries between the disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, neurology and pediatrics.[55] .Newer technologies such as fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging can help identify biologically relevant phenotypes (observable traits) that can be viewed on brain scans, to help further neurogenetic studies of autism;[56] one example is lowered activity in the fusiform face area of the brain, which is associated with impaired perception of people versus objects.^ One such parent, and his fansite, hosts videos of all of the big autism-biomed celebrities along with pictures of the directors posing with 'legendary' autism rockstars.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This mess of headlines and claims was generated in response to one autism prevalence study, Baird et al.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In Brain Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Bindings in Adults With High-Functioning Autism the authors are careful in the title to make it clear that their study subjects were persons with High Functioning Autism.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[2] .It has been proposed to classify autism using genetics as well as behavior.^ Campbell M, Palij M. Behavioral and cognitive measures used in psychopharmacological studies of infantile autism.  Psychopharmacol Bull . 1985;21(3):1047-53.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[57]

Causes

.It has long been presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for autism's characteristic triad of symptoms.^ What if, there is a massive conspiracy to take the heat off of pesticides as the environmental cause of a supposed increase in autism rates??
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I repeat, there would, under Danish law, be no liability for childhood vaccinations containing thimerosal causing autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strange thing was there were at least 5000 families in the Autism Omnibus Proceedings who believed that vaccines had caused their child’s [...
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[58] .However, there is increasing suspicion that autism is instead a complex disorder whose core aspects have distinct causes that often co-occur.^ Note that there have been numerous changes since DSM III which affect the diagnoses of Autism and related disorders.

^ Because children with more educated parents are more likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, one need look no further for a cause, the authors say.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Pharmacotherapy is ineffective in treating the core deficits of autism but may be effective in treating associated behavioral problems and comorbid disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[58][59]
Three diagrams of chromosome pairs A, B that are nearly identical. 1: B is missing a segment of A. 2: B has two adjacent copies of a segment of A. 3: B's copy of A's segment is in reverse order.
Deletion (1), duplication (2) and inversion (3) are all chromosome abnormalities that have been implicated in autism.[60]
.Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations with major effects, or by rare multigene interactions of common genetic variants.^ This is considered a rare autobiographical account in as much as the majority of the people with autism have not developed such sophisticated communication abilities.

^ Although individuals with Autism can have intellectual difficulties, the majority are as intelligent as the next person.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Although psychoanalytic approaches to treatment of children with autism were common in the mid-20th century, these approaches were not found to be effective and are no longer used.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[4][61] Complexity arises due to interactions among multiple genes, the environment, and epigenetic factors which do not change DNA but are heritable and influence gene expression.[16] .Studies of twins suggest that heritability is 0.7 for autism and as high as 0.9 for ASD, and siblings of those with autism are about 25 times more likely to be autistic than the general population.^ Athough the title doesn't give any hints (other than the mention of thimerosal), the article is all about autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I suggest that a more appropriate title of the article would have been "Vaccine/Thimerosal Link to Autism Lacks Proof."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high rates of autism reported in many Japanese studies may reflect higher incidence and prevalence in Japan.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[36] .However, most of the mutations that increase autism risk have not been identified.^ Autism Diva is not a toxicologist, however, she recently she discovered the basic answer to the question, "What are the two most toxic substances on earth?"
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However most children with autism, if left to their own devices, would spiral into a bottomless pit of non- communicative despair, isolation and rage.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian (single-gene) mutation or to a single chromosome abnormality like fragile X syndrome, and none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs has been shown to selectively cause ASD.[4] Numerous candidate genes have been located, with only small effects attributable to any particular gene.^ Today's feature on autism presents again the truth that people cannot be clasified as normal or abnormal by grading them on a checklist of most typical behaviours.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as natural selection goes, the function of autism genes is to benefit the population as a whole--but this is only possible if autistic genetics do not replace NT genetics.Consider:1.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Williams G, King J, Cunningham M. Fetal valproate syndrome and autism: additional evidence of an association.  Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology . 2001;43:202-206.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The large number of autistic individuals with unaffected family members may result from copy number variations—spontaneous deletions or duplications in genetic material during meiosis.^ An infectious basis for autistic disorder in some individuals is suggested by the large number of children with autistic disorder born to women who were infected in the rubella epidemic.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with autistic disorder and profound mental retardation may require constant care in a residential treatment facility.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those being interviewed were intelligent individuals from various places on the autistic spectrum, they represented themselves well, and I was glad to hear from them.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[62] .Hence, a substantial fraction of autism cases may be traceable to genetic causes that are highly heritable but not inherited: that is, the mutation that causes the autism is not present in the parental genome.^ Because children with more educated parents are more likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, one need look no further for a cause, the authors say.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The initial clinical descriptions of autism suggested that cold, rejecting parents ("refrigerator mothers") caused autism in offspring; however, careful study of children with autism and their parents has disproved this hypothesis.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism is not caused by a lack of warmth and affection in parents.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[60]
.Several lines of evidence point to synaptic dysfunction as a cause of autism.^ Apparently, J. B. is no longer content just to comment here occasionally when I point out that the evidence does not support his contention that mercury causes autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The logical reasons are the overwhelming evidence against a vaccine/autism causative connection and the underwhelming evidence to support that theory.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Some rare mutations may lead to autism by disrupting some synaptic pathways, such as those involved with cell adhesion.^ Children may be fascinated with items that are not typical toys, such as pieces of string.  Media file 5 illustrates the fascination of a boy with autism with a string of yarn.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I don't have an issue with you claiming that autism may in some cases be resultant from an environmental insult such as Mercury.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a parent of two boys with autism, it worries me that current genetic research may lead to the eventual elimination of autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[63] .Gene replacement studies in mice suggest that autistic symptoms are closely related to later developmental steps that depend on activity in synapses and on activity-dependent changes.^ Sometimes replacement activities are suggested which will provide the same function or purpose, while allowing the individual to behave in a more socially accepted manner.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Dahlgren Sandberg A, Ehlers S, Hagberg B. The Rett syndrome complex: communicative functions in relation to developmental level and autistic features.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Samson K. CDC-backed study suggests possible link between autistic disorders, maternal perticide exposure in California.  Neurology Today . September 2007;7:7.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[64] .All known teratogens (agents that cause birth defects) related to the risk of autism appear to act during the first eight weeks from conception, and though this does not exclude the possibility that autism can be initiated or affected later, it is strong evidence that autism arises very early in development.^ Note that there have been numerous changes since DSM III which affect the diagnoses of Autism and related disorders.

^ We have a very interesting conversation about his son, Graham, who was initially diagnosed with autism at an early age.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Many individuals with autism and related conditions experienced untoward events in the prenatal and neonatal periods and during delivery.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Although evidence for other environmental causes is anecdotal and has not been confirmed by reliable studies,[6] extensive searches are underway.^ On the other hand, anecdotal reports that autism may be linked with vaccinations for measles , mumps , and rubella have not been confirmed.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CHAT screening Although the CHAT has been reported to identify infants and toddlers in Britain who develop autism, the reliability and the validity of the CHAT have not been confirmed by other investigators with other populations.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although anecdotal case reports suggest that exposures to toxins and other substances may play a role in isolated cases of autistic disorder, a causative role for toxins in the development of autism in general has not been demonstrated.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] .Environmental factors that have been claimed to contribute to or exacerbate autism, or may be important in future research, include certain foods, infectious disease, heavy metals, solvents, diesel exhaust, PCBs, phthalates and phenols used in plastic products, pesticides, brominated flame retardants, alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs, vaccines,[8] and prenatal stress.^ He notes that we aren't certain about the extent to which thimerosal remained in vaccines between 1999 and 2003, and that it may be too early to tell whether reduction in thimerosal has had an impact on autism caseload in California.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, anecdotal reports that autism may be linked with vaccinations for measles , mumps , and rubella have not been confirmed.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies suggest that infectious diseases that are prevalent in parts of Japan may account for higher rates of autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[66] .Parents may first become aware of autistic symptoms in their child around the time of a routine vaccination, and this has given rise to theories that vaccines or their preservatives cause autism.^ Orac Mercury in vaccines and chelation therapy http://skeptico.blogs.com/skeptico/2005/05/mercury_in_vacc.html A Californian couple is convinced chelation therapy has alleviated the symptoms of their autistic son, who they believe got his autism from mercury in the thimerosal preservative in a vaccine...
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US, a similar non-debate to the one taking place here has been on whether vaccines cause childhood autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parents may report that when their autistic child has a fever, the child's behavior appears to be improved.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Although these theories lack convincing scientific evidence and are biologically implausible, parental concern about autism has led to lower rates of childhood immunizations and higher likelihood of measles outbreaks.^ Perhaps more than any other historical nostrum -- from the shark-cartilage cure for cancer to magnetic therapy for pain -- the theories about mercury poisoning and autism convince more parents each day, despite a lack of clear scientific evidence.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are books not specifically about autism that have been recommended by readers of the AUTISM list.

^ The parents of most of the children who got sick said they had refused measles vaccination for their children because of fears about vaccine safety.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Mechanism

.Autism's symptoms result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain.^ Note that there have been numerous changes since DSM III which affect the diagnoses of Autism and related disorders.

^ Samson K. New studies shed light on brain changes in early autism.  Neurology Today . 2002;2 (8):1, 18, 19.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.How autism occurs is not well understood.^ I do agree with "challenging the official view of autism and working to change how the world sees autism", which is grossly understood, and that there are many "positives of living life as a person with autism".
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Its mechanism can be divided into two areas: the pathophysiology of brain structures and processes associated with autism, and the neuropsychological linkages between brain structures and behaviors.^ Similar problems were found in six other studies by Geier and one study by Blaxill, which reported findings of an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pharmacotherapy is ineffective in treating the core deficits of autism but may be effective in treating associated behavioral problems and comorbid disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a 2004 Institute of Medicine review of five large epidemiological studies did conclude that there is no causal association between thimerosal and autism...
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] The behaviors appear to have multiple pathophysiologies.[18]

Pathophysiology

Two diagrams of major brain structures implicated in autism. The upper diagram shows the cerebral cortex near the top and the basal ganglia in the center, just above the amygdala and hippocampus. The lower diagram shows the corpus callosum near the center, the cerebellum in the lower rear, and the brain stem in the lower center.
.
Autism affects the amygdala, cerebellum, and many other parts of the brain.
^ For example, many studies have demonstrated that some asymptomatic first-degree relatives of some probands with autism have abnormalities in serotonin and other chemicals similar to the probands with autism.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many people affected by autism suffer from sensory sensitivities which cause them great pain and discomfort.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Autism Spectrum Disorders are so unique in comparison that I feel it is impossible for any one individual to comment on what is the best course of action for others affected by this.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.Unlike many other brain disorders such as Parkinson's, autism does not have a clear unifying mechanism at either the molecular, cellular, or systems level; it is not known whether autism is a few disorders caused by mutations converging on a few common molecular pathways, or is (like intellectual disability) a large set of disorders with diverse mechanisms.^ Seizure disorders are common in individuals with autism.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US, a similar non-debate to the one taking place here has been on whether vaccines cause childhood autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .Autism appears to result from developmental factors that affect many or all functional brain systems,[69] and to disturb the timing of brain development more than the final product.^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus alerted, doctors and school counselors suddenly began seeing more childhood autism than ever before.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people affected by autism suffer from sensory sensitivities which cause them great pain and discomfort.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[68] .Neuroanatomical studies and the associations with teratogens strongly suggest that autism's mechanism includes alteration of brain development soon after conception.^ Similar problems were found in six other studies by Geier and one study by Blaxill, which reported findings of an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept of "autism" was expanded to include a large group of people who, by definition, do not have intellectual disabilities or cognitive impairment.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The initial clinical descriptions of autism suggested that cold, rejecting parents ("refrigerator mothers") caused autism in offspring; however, careful study of children with autism and their parents has disproved this hypothesis.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] This anomaly appears to start a cascade of pathological events in the brain that are significantly influenced by environmental factors.[70] .Just after birth, the brains of autistic children tend to grow faster than usual, followed by normal or relatively slower growth in childhood.^ (Review of Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal, by Vijendra K. Singh and Jeff Hanson.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trends in autism reported to VAERS clearly have far more to do with changes in the fraction of autistic children who are reported to VAERS than with actual changes in the number of autistic children.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike many other children with mental retardation, children with autistic disorder are typically physically normal in appearance, without dysmorphic features.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is not known whether early overgrowth occurs in all autistic children.^ Although autistic disorder was initially reported in children of high social class, subsequent research has established that autistic disorder equally afflicts all social classes.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Head features The head circumference is increased in a subgroup of children with autistic disorder without known comorbid conditions.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because optimal results occur when intensive interventions are administered early in childhood, autistic children should be placed in specialized programs as soon as the diagnosis is entertained.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It seems to be most prominent in brain areas underlying the development of higher cognitive specialization.^ Most of the areas, or clusters, are in locations where parents have higher-than-average levels of educational attainment...
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the areas, or clusters, are in locations where parents have higher-than-average levels of educational attainment.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Although young brains seem to be the most capable of gross reorganization, a… Disability Scoop .
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[36] Hypotheses for the cellular and molecular bases of pathological early overgrowth include the following:
  • An excess of neurons that causes local overconnectivity in key brain regions.[71]
  • Disturbed neuronal migration during early gestation.[72][73]
  • Unbalanced excitatory–inhibitory networks.[73]
  • Abnormal formation of synapses and dendritic spines,[73] for example, by modulation of the neurexinneuroligin cell-adhesion system,[74] or by poorly regulated synthesis of synaptic protein.[75] .Disrupted synaptic development may also contribute to epilepsy, which may explain why the two conditions are associated.^ Careful research has not demonstrated an association between immunization for measles, mumps, and rubella and the subsequent development of autism and related conditions in the general population.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, several population studies have demonstrated no association between childhood immunization and the development of autism and related conditions.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [76]
Interactions between the immune system and the nervous system begin early during the embryonic stage of life, and successful neurodevelopment depends on a balanced immune response. .It is possible that aberrant immune activity during critical periods of neurodevelopment is part of the mechanism of some forms of ASD.[77] Although some abnormalities in the immune system have been found in specific subgroups of autistic individuals, it is not known whether these abnormalities are relevant to or secondary to autism's disease processes.^ Oh well, as an autistic person, I feel it's really great that when you make a program about autism, the speakers are AUTISTIC INDIVIDUALS, and not some random or "proffesional" non-autistic person pretending to know what it's like to be autistic.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The only commonality is that autism appears shortly after the period during which childhood vaccinations are given.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a “spectrum” diagnosis, which includes many varying forms of abilities, and diagnoses such as Asperger’s, Pervasive Development Disorder – Not Otherwise Specific (PPD-NOS) etc.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[78] .As autoantibodies are found in conditions other than ASD, and are not always present in ASD,[79] the relationship between immune disturbances and autism remains unclear and controversial.^ Athough the title doesn't give any hints (other than the mention of thimerosal), the article is all about autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar problems were found in six other studies by Geier and one study by Blaxill, which reported findings of an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The possible role of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of autism and related conditions is unclear.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[72]
.The relationship of neurochemicals to autism is not well understood; several have been investigated, with the most evidence for the role of serotonin and of genetic differences in its transport.^ Also, the Amish are a genetically inbred group, and, given that autism has a strong genetic component, that inbreeding alone could explain any difference, again if there even is a difference.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potenza MN, McDougle CJ. The role of serotonin in autism-spectrum disorders.  CNS Spectrums . 1997;2 (5):25-42.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cook EH. Autism: review of neurochemical investigation.  Synapse . 1990;6(3):292-308.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Some data suggest an increase in several growth hormones; other data argue for diminished growth factors.^ Some studies suggest that some cases of autism in Japan result from GI infections and other infections due to the ingestion of seafood and other aquatic sources of food characteristic of Japan.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I argued that the California data in fact show continued increases in reported autism among young children in California.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .Also, some inborn errors of metabolism are associated with autism but probably account for less than 5% of cases.^ Lately the media has loudly featured, with more noise than facts, the increase in reported cases of autism and the unproved allegation that the mercury derivatives in some vaccines and dental fillings have caused this increase.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A society that allows people to be discriminated against and treated as less-than-human because some people think they're "weird", a society that allows people to be bullied and abused because some people think they're "weird" - THAT'S sick.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Considering that less than 20 years ago, people with autism were institutionalized, we have certainly come a long way...but we still have a long way to go.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[81]
.The mirror neuron system (MNS) theory of autism hypothesizes that distortion in the development of the MNS interferes with imitation and leads to autism's core features of social impairment and communication difficulties.^ A genetic contribution to the development of autism has been hypothesized.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

The MNS operates when an animal performs an action or observes another animal perform the same action. .The MNS may contribute to an individual's understanding of other people by enabling the modeling of their behavior via embodied simulation of their actions, intentions, and emotions.^ I mean, we can just find a way to get those people who just can't relate in regular ways, to relate in some other way that anyone can understand, like music and stuff.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Children may have problems making friends and understanding the social intentions of other children.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[82] .Several studies have tested this hypothesis by demonstrating structural abnormalities in MNS regions of individuals with ASD, delay in the activation in the core circuit for imitation in individuals with Asperger syndrome, and a correlation between reduced MNS activity and severity of the syndrome in children with ASD.[83] However, individuals with autism also have abnormal brain activation in many circuits outside the MNS[84] and the MNS theory does not explain the normal performance of autistic children on imitation tasks that involve a goal or object.^ I am a person who as been once diagnosed with asperger syndrome (a high functioning form of autism) and I’ve had bi-polar disorder sine I have been little.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Why in the world did this paper call these comparably very high levels "normal" and call the autistic babies' hair levels "reduced"?
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kevin Leitch Perfect Example of how NOT to do a Study, Part One http://photoninthedarkness.blogspot.com/2005/07/pefect-example-of-how-not-t o-do-study.html A week ago, I posted an article that touched on a truly appalling study of autism and mercury, "Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]
A human brain viewed from above. About 10% is highlighted in yellow and 10% in blue. <a name=.There is only a tiny (perhaps 0.5%) green region where they overlap."^ There was the year I dragged TEN people out of my house on Christmas Eve to go to the display only to find out that they were closed on Christmas Eve.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/3/6/5/26250381263223310.jpeg" width="170" height="211" class="thumbimage" />
.
Autistic individuals tend to use different areas of the brain (yellow) for a movement task compared to a control group (blue).
^ A new study, in the BMC Neuroscience journal, has found significant differences in the right cerebellum in dyslexics when compared to non-dyslexic controls.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Kemner C, Verbaten MN, Cuperus JM, Camfferman G, van Engeland H. Auditory event-related brain potentials in autistic children and three different control groups.  Biol Psychiatry . Aug 1 1995;38(3):150-65.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Assessing stereotypies Movements observed in individuals with autistic disorder are frequently classified as stereotypies (eg, purposeless, repetitive, patterned motions, postures, and sounds).
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[86]
ASD-related patterns of low function and aberrant activation in the brain differ depending on whether the brain is doing social or nonsocial tasks.[87] .In autism there is evidence for reduced functional connectivity of the default network, a large-scale brain network involved in social and emotional processing, with intact connectivity of the task-positive network, used in sustained attention and goal-directed thinking.^ I do agree with "challenging the official view of autism and working to change how the world sees autism", which is grossly understood, and that there are many "positives of living life as a person with autism".
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In a new theoretical model, one researcher recommends a uniform way to think about these four types of difficulties, which she believes are linked by a common brain structure/brain function connection involving the medial prefrontal cortex.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The logical reasons are the overwhelming evidence against a vaccine/autism causative connection and the underwhelming evidence to support that theory.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In people with autism the two networks are not negatively correlated in time, suggesting an imbalance in toggling between the two networks, possibly reflecting a disturbance of self-referential thought.^ There needs to be a balance struck between the negative and positive aspects of autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I think it was very timing and important to show what autism is like through people with autism views.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ DeStefano F, Chen RT. Negative association between MMR and autism.  Lancet . Jun 12 1999;353(9169):1987-8.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[88] A 2008 brain-imaging study found a specific pattern of signals in the cingulate cortex which differs in individuals with ASD.[89]
.The underconnectivity theory of autism hypothesizes that autism is marked by underfunctioning high-level neural connections and synchronization, along with an excess of low-level processes.^ For example, the high incidence of autism in portions of Japan has been hypothesized to be due to a toxic effect of fish.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The logical reasons are the overwhelming evidence against a vaccine/autism causative connection and the underwhelming evidence to support that theory.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can the results of studies involving subjects with High Functioning Autism automatically be applied to persons with Low Functioning Autism, to the 75-80% of persons with Autistic Disorder who are cognitively impaired?
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[90] .Evidence for this theory has been found in functional neuroimaging studies on autistic individuals[31] and by a brainwave study that suggested that adults with ASD have local overconnectivity in the cortex and weak functional connections between the frontal lobe and the rest of the cortex.^ You featured 3 highly communicative autistic people, while excluding lower functioning persons with ASD. .
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar problems were found in six other studies by Geier and one study by Blaxill, which reported findings of an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies suggest that infectious diseases that are prevalent in parts of Japan may account for higher rates of autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[91] .Other evidence suggests the underconnectivity is mainly within each hemisphere of the cortex and that autism is a disorder of the association cortex.^ Hameury L, Roux S, Barthelemy C, Adrien JL, Desombre H, Sauvage D, et al. Quantified multidimensional assessment of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pharmacotherapy is ineffective in treating the core deficits of autism but may be effective in treating associated behavioral problems and comorbid disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maternal rubella is associated with significantly higher rates of autism and other conditions in children.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[92]
.From studies based on event-related potentials, transient changes to the brain's electrical activity in response to stimuli, there is considerable evidence for differences in autistic individuals with respect to attention, orientiation to auditory and visual stimuli, novelty detection, language and face processing, and information storage; several studies have found a preference for non-social stimuli.^ Lincoln AJ, Courchesne E, Harms L, Allen M. Sensory modulation of auditory stimuli in children with autism and receptive developmental language disorder: event-related brain potential evidence.  J Autism Dev Disord . Oct 1995;25(5):521-39.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Kemner C, Verbaten MN, Cuperus JM, Camfferman G, van Engeland H. Auditory event-related brain potentials in autistic children and three different control groups.  Biol Psychiatry . Aug 1 1995;38(3):150-65.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many individuals with autism and related conditions experienced untoward events in the prenatal and neonatal periods and during delivery.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[93] .For example, magnetoencephalography studies have found evidence in autistic children of delayed responses in the brain's processing of auditory signals.^ Given that the only thing they measured in this study was hair mercury level, the only thing that their data support is that autistic children have low hair mercury levels.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to febrile illnesses Children with autistic disorder may show a decrease in their odd behaviors during a febrile illness.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite the obvious expectations of the authors (one is on the Executive Board of SafeMinds, yet another is a well-known anti-mercury advocate), the study found that the autistic children had lower hair mercury levels than the neurotypical controls.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]

Neuropsychology

.Two major categories of cognitive theories have been proposed about the links between autistic brains and behavior.^ Samson K. CDC-backed study suggests possible link between autistic disorders, maternal perticide exposure in California.  Neurology Today . September 2007;7:7.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In his book, Evidence of Harm, Kirby asserts they may be a link between the two.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first category focuses on deficits in social cognition. .The empathizing–systemizing theory postulates that autistic individuals can systemize—that is, they can develop internal rules of operation to handle events inside the brain—but are less effective at empathizing by handling events generated by other agents.^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those being interviewed were intelligent individuals from various places on the autistic spectrum, they represented themselves well, and I was glad to hear from them.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Many strongly desire close relationships with others, which they have trouble developing due to difficulties with social and relationship skills.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.An extension, the extreme male brain theory, hypothesizes that autism is an extreme case of the male brain, defined psychometrically as individuals in whom systemizing is better than empathizing;[95] this extension is controversial, as many studies contradict the idea that baby boys and girls respond differently to people and objects.^ The high rates of autism reported in many Japanese studies may reflect higher incidence and prevalence in Japan.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many cases that were related to autism and mental retardation were as well.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's time to think differently about autism and it's time that communication and theory of minds work *both* ways.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[96]
.These theories are somewhat related to the earlier theory of mind approach, which hypothesizes that autistic behavior arises from an inability to ascribe mental states to oneself and others.^ These obsessions often are destructive to oneself (like hitting themselves or chewing on electrical cords and appliances) or destructive to others (like jumping or climbing on or throwing objects).
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike many other children with mental retardation, children with autistic disorder are typically physically normal in appearance, without dysmorphic features.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cox RD, Schopler E. Aggression and self-injurious behaviors in persons with autism--the TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communications Handicapped Children) approach.  Acta Paedopsychiatr . 1993;56(2):85-90.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The theory of mind hypothesis is supported by autistic children's atypical responses to the Sally–Anne test for reasoning about others' motivations,[95] and the mirror neuron system theory of autism described in Pathophysiology maps well to the hypothesis.^ Athough the title doesn't give any hints (other than the mention of thimerosal), the article is all about autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you, dear reader, see it might not be a good idea to try to track trends in autism incidence through a system that can't account for even one percent of autistic children?
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to febrile illnesses Children with autistic disorder may show a decrease in their odd behaviors during a febrile illness.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[83] .However, most studies have found no evidence of impairment in autistic individuals' ability to understand other people's basic intentions or goals; instead, data suggests that impairments are found in understanding more complex social emotions or in considering others' viewpoints.^ What they found, instead, was that wealthy, white, college educated parents seem to have more children diagnosed with autism.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Many, many chemicals seem dangerous in test tubes or in animal studies but have no significance in the real world; thus, the most useful safety data come from large-scale "epidemiological" studies of people.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar problems were found in six other studies by Geier and one study by Blaxill, which reported findings of an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]
The second category focuses on nonsocial or general processing. .Executive dysfunction hypothesizes that autistic behavior results in part from deficits in working memory, planning, inhibition, and other forms of executive function.^ It was an interesting piece and it was great to hear from other Higher-Functioning Autistics.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Can the results of studies involving subjects with High Functioning Autism automatically be applied to persons with Low Functioning Autism, to the 75-80% of persons with Autistic Disorder who are cognitively impaired?
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Odd play may take the form of interest in parts of objects instead of functional uses of the whole object.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[98] Tests of core executive processes such as eye movement tasks indicate improvement from late childhood to adolescence, but performance never reaches typical adult levels.[99] .A strength of the theory is predicting stereotyped behavior and narrow interests;[100] two weaknesses are that executive function is hard to measure[98] and that executive function deficits have not been found in young autistic children.^ Response to febrile illnesses Children with autistic disorder may show a decrease in their odd behaviors during a febrile illness.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite the obvious expectations of the authors (one is on the Executive Board of SafeMinds, yet another is a well-known anti-mercury advocate), the study found that the autistic children had lower hair mercury levels than the neurotypical controls.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introducing children and young people to their autistic spectrum disorder . Philadelphia, Pa: Jessica Kingsley Publisher; 2000.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.Weak central coherence theory hypothesizes that a limited ability to see the big picture underlies the central disturbance in autism.^ Low rates of autism in countries outside Japan may reflect the limited abilities of clinicians to make the diagnosis of autism.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One such parent, and his fansite, hosts videos of all of the big autism-biomed celebrities along with pictures of the directors posing with 'legendary' autism rockstars.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lafargue T, Brasic J. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: a central sensory disturbance.  Med Hypotheses . Oct 2000;55(4):314-8.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.One strength of this theory is predicting special talents and peaks in performance in autistic people.^ Alex is the founder of WrongPlanet.net, one of the earliest and largest online communities for people on the autistic spectrum.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most common queries is some variation on, “Can autistic people be smart?” or from another angle, “Can autistics be retarded?”.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ One thing that was not mentioned was the increase in sensitivity many autistic people have.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[101] .A related theory—enhanced perceptual functioning—focuses more on the superiority of locally oriented and perceptual operations in autistic individuals.^ Sometimes replacement activities are suggested which will provide the same function or purpose, while allowing the individual to behave in a more socially accepted manner.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autistic disorder and related conditions affect up to 10-20 individuals per 10,000 population.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[102] These theories map well from the underconnectivity theory of autism.
.Neither category is satisfactory on its own; social cognition theories poorly address autism's rigid and repetitive behaviors, while the nonsocial theories have difficulty explaining social impairment and communication difficulties.^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It's time to think differently about autism and it's time that communication and theory of minds work *both* ways.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It's often said that if you know one person with autism, you know ONE person with autism, so I can only really address this question from my own experience.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[59] A combined theory based on multiple deficits may prove to be more useful.[103]

Screening

.About half of parents of children with ASD notice their child's unusual behaviors by age 18 months, and about four-fifths notice by age 24 months.^ On the metafilter blog, in a discussion of the Kennedy article, a parent of an 18 month old toddler expressed fear over the fact that his child had just been vaccinated.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parents may report that when their autistic child has a fever, the child's behavior appears to be improved.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[52] As postponing treatment may affect long-term outcome, any of the following signs is reason to have a child evaluated by a specialist without delay:
  • No babbling by 12 months.
  • No gesturing (pointing, waving goodbye, etc.) by .12 months.
  • No single words by 16 months.
  • No two-word spontaneous phrases (other than instances of echolalia) by 24 months.
  • Any loss of any language or social skills, at any age.^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ What they won't tell you is that they have no data - other than their own "clinical experience" - to support what they say.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sussman F.  More than words: helping parents promote communication and social skills in children with autism spectrum disorder . Ontario, Canada: The Hanen Centre; 1999.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [17]
.U.S. and Japanese practice is to screen all children for ASD at 18 and 24 months, using autism-specific formal screening tests.^ For example, a checklist such as the Autism Screening Checklist can be distributed to all parents and guardians of a target population.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Autism Screening Checklist identifies those children with characteristics of autism spectrum disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although psychoanalytic approaches to treatment of children with autism were common in the mid-20th century, these approaches were not found to be effective and are no longer used.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In contrast, in the UK, screening targets children whose families or doctors recognize possible signs of autism.^ Namely the impact of autism spectrum disorders on children, families and society as a whole.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, a checklist such as the Autism Screening Checklist can be distributed to all parents and guardians of a target population.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a speech-language pathologist, I work with children with autism and their families on a daily basis.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

It is not known which approach is more effective.[2] .Screening tools include the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire, and the First Year Inventory; initial data on M-CHAT and its predecessor CHAT on children aged 18–30 months suggests that it is best used in a clinical setting and that it has low sensitivity (many false-negatives) but good specificity (few false-positives).^ Autism screening checklist.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CLOSE WINDOW ] Autism screening checklist.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted by: John James October 28, 2008 06:20 PM It's sad to me that the neurodiversity message, which has so many positive aspects, also includes negativity toward quality early intervention to help young children with autism to be able to reach their potential in life.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[52] .It may be more accurate to precede these tests with a broadband screener that does not distinguish ASD from other developmental disorders.^ Hameury L, Roux S, Barthelemy C, Adrien JL, Desombre H, Sauvage D, et al. Quantified multidimensional assessment of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And finally, the apparent increase in incidence of pervasive developmental disorders is likely a consequence of more sophisticated case findings and changes in diagnostic criteria.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, children who manifest symptoms of autistic disorder, other pervasive developmental disorders, and other autism spectrum disorders are likely to benefit from the highly specialized intensive intervention programs designed for children with these disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[104] .Screening tools designed for one culture's norms for behaviors like eye contact may be inappropriate for a different culture.^ I loved what the one gentleman in the program had to say about our differences and comparing them to any other type of difference that we may come across with anyone we meet.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[105] .Although genetic screening for autism is generally still impractical, it can be considered in some cases, such as children with neurological symptoms and dysmorphic features.^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although toxins may play a role in the development of isolated cases of autism in Japan, toxins have not been proved to be causative of autism in Japan in general.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Considering that less than 20 years ago, people with autism were institutionalized, we have certainly come a long way...but we still have a long way to go.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[106]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on behavior, not cause or mechanism.[18][107] .Autism is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as exhibiting at least six symptoms total, including at least two symptoms of qualitative impairment in social interaction, at least one symptom of qualitative impairment in communication, and at least one symptom of restricted and repetitive behavior.^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One would have had to have been living in a cave in the greater disability community two years ago not to have noticed the Ransom Notes Campaign and the furor that followed it.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The key point for pediatricians and other clinicians is that the criteria for autism and related conditions in the DSM-IV-TR(TM) and the ICD-9-CM are presented in an outline form without a discussion of the terms used.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sample symptoms include lack of social or emotional reciprocity, stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.^ Odd play may take the form of interest in parts of objects instead of functional uses of the whole object.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Onset must be prior to age three years, with delays or abnormal functioning in either social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play.^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am a mother of Twin boys, both diagnosed with severe Autism, one using non- functional language, the other is non-verbal.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ As a parent of an autistic child (diagnosed at 3 years of age) who was non-verbal, non-communicative and extremely injurious to himself and others we decided to follow the therapy path.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The disturbance must not be better accounted for by Rett syndrome or childhood disintegrative disorder.^ This disorder along with many others such as Tourette Syndrome are often misunderstood by the public and education programs must continue.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For information about individuals with later onset of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder, see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Childhood Disintegration Disorder , Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Rett Syndrome , Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome , and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (not otherwise specified).
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Kanner syndrome, Kanner's syndrome, movement abnormalities, motion anomalies, communication abnormalities, social interaction abnormalities, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, unspecified pervasive developmental disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, rubella, measles, mumps, Rett syndrome, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegration disorder, Sydenham chorea, akathisia, pseudoakathisia .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] ICD-10 uses essentially the same definition.[14]
Several diagnostic instruments are available. .Two are commonly used in autism research: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a semistructured parent interview, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) uses observation and interaction with the child.^ I chose this curriculum because a friend uses it and did two months of research to find it and because it's one that many states use as their online school curriculum.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ There it is - the curse of autism, the disappointment as a parent to produce a perfect child.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They use it to explain why nobody is doing research that finds a connection between mercury and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is used widely in clinical environments to assess severity of autism based on observation of children.^ Stereotypies are assessed for clinical purposes through regular use of the Timed Stereotypies Rating Scale.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The initial clinical descriptions of autism suggested that cold, rejecting parents ("refrigerator mothers") caused autism in offspring; however, careful study of children with autism and their parents has disproved this hypothesis.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am a mother of Twin boys, both diagnosed with severe Autism, one using non- functional language, the other is non-verbal.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[20]
A pediatrician commonly performs a preliminary investigation by taking developmental history and physically examining the child. .If warranted, diagnosis and evaluations are conducted with help from ASD specialists, observing and assessing cognitive, communication, family, and other factors using standardized tools, and taking into account any associated medical conditions.^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ That assistance should be in helping those with ASD to communicate and educating the rest of us in trying to understand whatever mode of comm.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Toddlers typically learn to use protodeclarative pointing to communicate their concern for an object to others.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[108] .A pediatric neuropsychologist is often asked to assess behavior and cognitive skills, both to aid diagnosis and to help recommend educational interventions.^ Autism interventions immensely assist individuals with autism to improve cognition, to develop skills of all sorts, and to use strategies to assist them to cope with the difficulties that the autism presents them.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[109] .A differential diagnosis for ASD at this stage might also consider mental retardation, hearing impairment, and a specific language impairment[108] such as Landau–Kleffner syndrome.^ Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a “spectrum” diagnosis, which includes many varying forms of abilities, and diagnoses such as Asperger’s, Pervasive Development Disorder – Not Otherwise Specific (PPD-NOS) etc.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The diagnosis of autism in a child with profound mental retardation requires an experienced clinician.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For information concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders and related conditions without mental retardation, please see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[110] .The presence of autism can make it harder to diagnose coexisting psychiatric disorders such as depression.^ Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a “spectrum” diagnosis, which includes many varying forms of abilities, and diagnoses such as Asperger’s, Pervasive Development Disorder – Not Otherwise Specific (PPD-NOS) etc.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I am a person who as been once diagnosed with asperger syndrome (a high functioning form of autism) and I’ve had bi-polar disorder sine I have been little.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Because children with more educated parents are more likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, one need look no further for a cause, the authors say.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[111]
.Clinical genetics evaluations are often done once ASD is diagnosed, particularly when other symptoms already suggest a genetic cause.^ The initial clinical descriptions of autism suggested that cold, rejecting parents ("refrigerator mothers") caused autism in offspring; however, careful study of children with autism and their parents has disproved this hypothesis.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Absence of the expected response merits specialized clinical evaluation to rule out autism and other developmental disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[46] .Although genetic technology allows clinical geneticists to link an estimated 40% of cases to genetic causes,[112] consensus guidelines in the U.S. and UK are limited to high-resolution chromosome and fragile X testing.^ Although toxins may play a role in the development of isolated cases of autism in Japan, toxins have not been proved to be causative of autism in Japan in general.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[46] A genotype-first model of diagnosis has been proposed, which would routinely assess the genome's copy number variations.[113] As new genetic tests are developed several ethical, legal, and social issues will emerge. .Commercial availability of tests may precede adequate understanding of how to use test results, given the complexity of autism's genetics.^ Test findings suggest that low-functioning children with autism may have impairment in the metabolism of phenolic amines.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I don't have an issue with you claiming that autism may in some cases be resultant from an environmental insult such as Mercury.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the Amish are a genetically inbred group, and, given that autism has a strong genetic component, that inbreeding alone could explain any difference, again if there even is a difference.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114] Metabolic and neuroimaging tests are sometimes helpful, but are not routine.[46]
.ASD can sometimes be diagnosed by age 14 months, although diagnosis becomes increasingly stable over the first three years of life: for example, a one-year-old who meets diagnostic criteria for ASD is less likely than a three-year-old to continue to do so a few years later.^ He was only three years old!!!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The increase in head circumference becomes pronounced in the first few years of life.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Carly, the W-5 13 year-old girl with autism (who types her thoughts) also endorses ABA as the therapy that helped her to achieve all that she has already at a young age.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[52] .In the UK the National Autism Plan for Children recommends at most 30 weeks from first concern to completed diagnosis and assessment, though few cases are handled that quickly in practice.^ We will continue to discuss recommendations for the annual update of the IACC Strategic Plan for Autism Spectrum Disorder Research.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Although only a minority of the population of children with autism manifest self-injury, they constitute some of the most challenging patients in developmental pediatrics.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also most children i know that have autism have sensitive systems, so why not help them, because if they are sensitive to something, why would you subject them to it.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[108] .A 2009 U.S. study found the average age of formal ASD diagnosis was 5.7 years, far above recommendations, and that 27% of children remained undiagnosed at age 8 years.^ All 56,946 individuals comprising the targeted population cohort in this study are, as of today, the last day in the decade, 18 years of age or older.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ And I remain in the minority, still considering 2010 rather than 2009 to be the final year of the Aughties decade.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Or to put it another way, we will finally have the answer to how many children born 13 years ago (in 1996) had a diagnosis five years ago.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[115] .Although the symptoms of autism and ASD begin early in childhood, they are sometimes missed; years later, adults may seek diagnoses to help them or their friends and family understand themselves, to help their employers make adjustments, or in some locations to claim disability living allowances or other benefits.^ Children may have problems making friends and understanding the social intentions of other children.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The only thing that makes autism disabling is the attitude of other people.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[116]
.Underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis are problems in marginal cases, and much of the recent increase in the number of reported ASD cases is likely due to changes in diagnostic practices.^ And finally, the apparent increase in incidence of pervasive developmental disorders is likely a consequence of more sophisticated case findings and changes in diagnostic criteria.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has become habit for various persons to review these reports for autism and to chart the number of supposed new cases and compare to the number of supposed new cases at the same time, the last year.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent years, most case reports to VAERS that were related to overdose, neuropathy, and thimerosal were related to litigation.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The increasing popularity of drug treatment options and the expansion of benefits has given providers incentives to diagnose ASD, resulting in some overdiagnosis of children with uncertain symptoms. Conversely, the cost of screening and diagnosis and the challenge of obtaining payment can inhibit or delay diagnosis.[117] .It is particularly hard to diagnose autism among the visually impaired, partly because some of its diagnostic criteria depend on vision, and partly because autistic symptoms overlap with those of common blindness syndromes.^ I am a person who as been once diagnosed with asperger syndrome (a high functioning form of autism) and I’ve had bi-polar disorder sine I have been little.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Because children with more educated parents are more likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, one need look no further for a cause, the authors say.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Can the results of studies involving subjects with High Functioning Autism automatically be applied to persons with Low Functioning Autism, to the 75-80% of persons with Autistic Disorder who are cognitively impaired?
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[118]

Management

A young child points, in front of a woman who smiles and points in the same direction.
.
A three-year-old with autism points to fish in an aquarium, as part of an experiment on the effect of intensive shared-attention training on language development.
^ He was only three years old!!!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Carly, the W-5 13 year-old girl with autism (who types her thoughts) also endorses ABA as the therapy that helped her to achieve all that she has already at a young age.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, the high incidence of autism in portions of Japan has been hypothesized to be due to a toxic effect of fish.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[86]
The main goals of treatment are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. No single treatment is best and treatment is typically tailored to the child's needs.[9] Families and the educational system are the main resources for treatment.[2] .Studies of interventions have methodological problems that prevent definitive conclusions about efficacy.^ Today there is a slew of stories in the media about a study by headed by Tim Buie of Harvard that claim that dietary interventions doesn't work for autism.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[119] .Although many psychosocial interventions have some positive evidence, suggesting that some form of treatment is preferable to no treatment, the methodological quality of systematic reviews of these studies has generally been poor, their clinical results are mostly tentative, and there is little evidence for the relative effectiveness of treatment options.^ Could our family's participation in research studies lead to option to the terminate pregnancies based on these genetic "flaws"?
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The initial clinical descriptions of autism suggested that cold, rejecting parents ("refrigerator mothers") caused autism in offspring; however, careful study of children with autism and their parents has disproved this hypothesis.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies suggest that infectious diseases that are prevalent in parts of Japan may account for higher rates of autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[120] .Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills,[9] and often improve functioning and decrease symptom severity and maladaptive behaviors;[121] claims that intervention by around age three years is crucial are not substantiated.^ Teaching the ABC’s of crucial social skills .
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, children who manifest symptoms of autistic disorder, other pervasive developmental disorders, and other autism spectrum disorders are likely to benefit from the highly specialized intensive intervention programs designed for children with these disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parents, pediatricians, other health care providers, and educators are advised to seek the assistance of people who are familiar with early intervention programs for children with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[122] .Available approaches include applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, social skills therapy, and occupational therapy.^ Teaching the ABC’s of crucial social skills .
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In those days, I read so much about hypersensitivity, and not so much about behavior.In fact, when I suggested ABA because of Catherine Maurice's voluminous book pages regarding teaching language I was told it was "cruel'.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ We drove him across town back and forth every day five days a week, 50 weeks a year for 3 years so he can receive Applied Behavior Intervention (ABA).
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Educational interventions have some effectiveness in children: intensive ABA treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing global functioning in preschool children[123] and is well-established for improving intellectual performance of young children.^ Lovaas OI. Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effective treatment of associated behavioral problems includes intensive behavioral, educational, and psychological components.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although psychoanalytic approaches to treatment of children with autism were common in the mid-20th century, these approaches were not found to be effective and are no longer used.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[121] Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in a gap between what a report recommends and what education is provided.[109] .It is not known whether treatment programs for children lead to significant improvements after the children grow up,[121] and the limited research on the effectiveness of adult residential programs shows mixed results.^ But there has been research on children for lead poisoning (what they now claim the child who died during chelation actually had).
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although psychoanalytic approaches to treatment of children with autism were common in the mid-20th century, these approaches were not found to be effective and are no longer used.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This was irresponsible not to show the flip side of the coin: children learn to communicate under treatment.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[124]
.Many medications are used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails.^ I chose this curriculum because a friend uses it and did two months of research to find it and because it's one that many states use as their online school curriculum.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This great parody of the classic Calvin & Hobbes cartoons highlights the problems and ethical considerations of using medication to treat ADHD. Many thanks to The Ephemerist for finding this.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ ASD has total acceptance in my home and I have no misguided notion of wanting to change my son into someone he isn't.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[16][125] .More than half of U.S. children diagnosed with ASD are prescribed psychoactive drugs or anticonvulsants, with the most common drug classes being antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics.^ Fortunately, most of the responses were, surprisingly, less hostile and more supportive than I had feared they would be.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What they found, instead, was that wealthy, white, college educated parents seem to have more children diagnosed with autism.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Because children with more educated parents are more likely to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, one need look no further for a cause, the authors say.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[126] .Aside from antipsychotics,[127] there is scant reliable research about the effectiveness or safety of drug treatments for adolescents and adults with ASD.[128] A person with ASD may respond atypically to medications, the medications can have adverse effects,[9] and no known medication relieves autism's core symptoms of social and communication impairments.^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ You featured 3 highly communicative autistic people, while excluding lower functioning persons with ASD. .
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[129] .Experiments in mice have reversed or reduced some symptoms related to autism by replacing or modulating gene function after birth,[64] suggesting the possibility of targeting therapies to specific rare mutations known to cause autism.^ Sometimes replacement activities are suggested which will provide the same function or purpose, while allowing the individual to behave in a more socially accepted manner.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Estimates of the prevalence of autism suggest that as many as 400,000 individuals in the United States have autism and related conditions.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The possible role of obstetric complications in the pathogenesis of autism and related conditions is unclear.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[63]
Although many alternative therapies and interventions are available, few are supported by scientific studies.[23][130] .Treatment approaches have little empirical support in quality-of-life contexts, and many programs focus on success measures that lack predictive validity and real-world relevance.^ I do agree with "challenging the official view of autism and working to change how the world sees autism", which is grossly understood, and that there are many "positives of living life as a person with autism".
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I sold my successful business to support my wife and my daughter in our fight against autism, the provincial autism program, the education system and the red tape surrounding autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[24] Scientific evidence appears to matter less to service providers than program marketing, training availability, and parent requests.[131] .Though most alternative treatments, such as melatonin, have only mild adverse effects[132] some may place the child at risk.^ I don't have an issue with you claiming that autism may in some cases be resultant from an environmental insult such as Mercury.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sounds, such as vacuum cleaners or motorcycles, may elicit incessant screaming from a child with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is relevant because it places some context as to why we see such depth and diversity in the logic fallacies in autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2008 study found that compared to their peers, autistic boys have significantly thinner bones if on casein-free diets;[133] in 2005, botched chelation therapy killed a five-year-old child with autism.^ Skeptico Sadly, it was only a matter of time: An autistic boy dies during chelation therapy http://oracknows.blogspot.com/2005/08/sadly-it-was-only-matter-of-time.html Because there are no good studies that demonstrate its efficacy in treating autism, chelation therapy for this purpose should be considered at best an experimental therapy (at worst it is a completely ineffective therapy).
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Michael Fitzpatrick, Spiked Online Death of 5-year-old boy linked to controversial chelation therapy http://post-gazette.com/pg/06006/633541.stm A 5-year-old autistic boy who went into cardiac arrest in his doctor's office died as a result of the controversial chelation therapy he was receiving as a treatment for his autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orac Mercury in vaccines and chelation therapy http://skeptico.blogs.com/skeptico/2005/05/mercury_in_vacc.html A Californian couple is convinced chelation therapy has alleviated the symptoms of their autistic son, who they believe got his autism from mercury in the thimerosal preservative in a vaccine...
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134]
Treatment is expensive; indirect costs are more so. For someone born in 2000, a U.S. study estimated an average lifetime cost of $3.74 million (net present value in 2010 dollars, inflation-adjusted from 2003 estimate[135]), with about 10% medical care, 30% extra education and other care, and 60% lost economic productivity.[136] .Publicly supported programs are often inadequate or inappropriate for a given child, and unreimbursed out-of-pocket medical or therapy expenses are associated with likelihood of family financial problems;[137] one 2008 U.S. study found a 14% average loss of annual income in families of children with ASD,[138] and a related study found that ASD is associated with higher probability that child care problems will greatly affect parental employment.^ This report from the CDC is like that - these same lines have been repeated over and over again for over a decade.In 2006, on average, approximately 1% or one child in every 110 in the 11 ADDM sites was classified as having an ASD (approximate range: 1:80--1:240 children [males: 1:70; females: 1:315]).
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The answer came out of a discussion between some some of these professionals, including at least one medical doctor and a double-board-certified toxicologist.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar problems were found in six other studies by Geier and one study by Blaxill, which reported findings of an association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[139] .U.S. states increasingly require private health insurance to cover autism services, shifting costs from publicly funded education programs to privately funded health insurance.^ I sold my successful business to support my wife and my daughter in our fight against autism, the provincial autism program, the education system and the red tape surrounding autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[140] .After childhood, key treatment issues include residential care, job training and placement, sexuality, social skills, and estate planning.^ Individuals with autistic disorder and profound mental retardation may require constant care in a residential treatment facility.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism is a condition that manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, marked aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[141]

Prognosis

No cure is known.[2][9] .Children recover occasionally, so that they lose their diagnosis of ASD;[142] this occurs sometimes after intensive treatment and sometimes not.^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I have 2 non-verbal children with autism and I am certain of their potential even though they are considered to have an intellectual disability (a diagnosis criteria established by the neuro-typical).
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Because optimal results occur when intensive interventions are administered early in childhood, autistic children should be placed in specialized programs as soon as the diagnosis is entertained.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is not known how often recovery happens;[121] reported rates in unselected samples of children with ASD have ranged from 3% to 25%.^ Although often difficult to evaluate with intelligence tests, three fourths of children with autism function in the mentally retarded range.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We have a wide ranging conversation about "explosive" children and how best to work with children that do not easily transition from one activity to another.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ How is it that these hair samples from presumably randomly selected neurologically NORMAL babies could have rates of mercury up past 100 times the statistically normed level for children age 1-5?
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[142] .A few autistic children have acquired speech at age 5 or older.^ The book claims to offer 'evidence of harm' in that American children have been systematically poisoned over the last few decades and 'made' autistic.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, 90% of children on the autistic spectrum develop speech by the age of nine.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[143] .Most children with autism lack social support, meaningful relationships, future employment opportunities or self-determination.^ Quill K.  Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication with socialization . Albany, NY: Delmar Publisher; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Analysis of literally hundreds of thousands of study patients has confirmed the lack of any association between children's vaccines and neurological impairments, including autism-spectrum disorders.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Koegel RL, Koegel LK.  Teaching children with autism: strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities . Baltimore, Md: Brookes; 1995.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] Although core difficulties tend to persist, symptoms often become less severe with age.[16] .Few high-quality studies address long-term prognosis.^ Howlin P. Prognosis in autism: do specialist treatments affect long-term outcome?.  Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry . Jun 1997;6(2):55-72.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some adults show modest improvement in communication skills, but a few decline; no study has focused on autism after midlife.^ The very high functioning persons shown are a very small portion of the autism community and represent no one but themselves.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For the autism community, Show and Tell promises to be a great asset: once you tell your story and it's approved, your story becomes a permanent part of the Autism.About.Com website.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ However, a 2004 Institute of Medicine review of five large epidemiological studies did conclude that there is no causal association between thimerosal and autism...
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144] .Acquiring language before age six, having an IQ above 50, and having a marketable skill all predict better outcomes; independent living is unlikely with severe autism.^ Many parents report normal development in their child until age 2 years before noticing the deficits in social and communicative skills.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am a mother of Twin boys, both diagnosed with severe Autism, one using non- functional language, the other is non-verbal.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ I agree that society has a long way to go before people with various disbilities including Autism can live freely without societies' prejudices.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[145] .A 2004 British study of 68 adults who were diagnosed before 1980 as autistic children with IQ above 50 found that 12% achieved a high level of independence as adults, 10% had some friends and were generally in work but required some support, 19% had some independence but were generally living at home and needed considerable support and supervision in daily living, 46% needed specialist residential provision from facilities specializing in ASD with a high level of support and very limited autonomy, and 12% needed high-level hospital care.^ In fact, some of the children in the study were their clients!
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autism Clusters Found: areas with high incidence of autistic children .
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Acceptance again I feel is so crucial, however there is such a different level of independence for each of us, not just people diagnosed with autism, however the children that I have worked with who do have very severe forms of autism greatly differ in their skills and abilities as well as their challenges and obstacles.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[11] A 2005 Swedish study of 78 adults that did not exclude low IQ found worse prognosis; for example, only 4% achieved independence.[146] .A 2008 Canadian study of 48 young adults diagnosed with ASD as preschoolers found outcomes ranging through poor (46%), fair (32%), good (17%), and very good (4%); 56% of these young adults had been employed at some point during their lives, mostly in volunteer, sheltered or part-time work.^ Children and adults living with ASD/PDD do need to be accepted and respected.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The statement that "autistic people are persons" is part of the 2008 decision by the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal in Dawson vs Canada Post Corporation.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ As part of my commitment to writing, I participate in Script Frenzy and NaNoWriMo each year.For NaNoWriMo, I write Young Adult novels about teens with disabilities.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[147] .Changes in diagnostic practice and increased availability of effective early intervention make it unclear whether these findings can be generalized to recently diagnosed children.^ Delays in placement of a young child in a specialized program for children with autistic disorder may reduce the effectiveness of those interventions.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of indications of an “autism epidemic”, these clusters point to the fact that minority and poor children are much less likely to receive autism diagnoses.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Because optimal results occur when intensive interventions are administered early in childhood, autistic children should be placed in specialized programs as soon as the diagnosis is entertained.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]

Epidemiology

Bar chart versus time. The graph rises steadily from 1996 to 2007, from about 0.7 to about 5.3. The trend curves slightly upward.
Reports of autism cases per 1,000 children grew dramatically in the U.S. from 1996 to 2007. It is unknown how much, if any, growth came from changes in autism's prevalence.
.Most recent reviews tend to estimate a prevalence of 1–2 per 1,000 for autism and close to 6 per 1,000 for ASD;[8] because of inadequate data, these numbers may underestimate ASD's true prevalence.^ Even if the data from these databases were more useful for determining the incidence of autism, the way the Geiers did their analysis is utterly laughable.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high rates of autism reported in many Japanese studies may reflect higher incidence and prevalence in Japan.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has become habit for various persons to review these reports for autism and to chart the number of supposed new cases and compare to the number of supposed new cases at the same time, the last year.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .PDD-NOS's prevalence has been estimated at 3.7 per 1,000, Asperger syndrome at roughly 0.6 per 1,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder at 0.02 per 1,000.[148] The number of reported cases of autism increased dramatically in the 1990s and early 2000s.^ Autistic disorder manifests in early childhood.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For information about individuals with later onset of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder, see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Childhood Disintegration Disorder , Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Rett Syndrome , Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome , and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (not otherwise specified).
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This increase is largely attributable to changes in diagnostic practices, referral patterns, availability of services, age at diagnosis, and public awareness,[148][149] though unidentified environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out.^ And finally, the apparent increase in incidence of pervasive developmental disorders is likely a consequence of more sophisticated case findings and changes in diagnostic criteria.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If there are families out there who wish to live in denial, hope for a miracle or do nothing for a child affected with autism I cannot change that.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They also contend that the apparent explosion of autism cases is largely an illusion, brought about by greater awareness of the disease and more aggressive diagnosis of it.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The available evidence does not rule out the possibility that autism's true prevalence has increased;[148] a real increase would suggest directing more attention and funding toward changing environmental factors instead of continuing to focus on genetics.^ Even in the case of a real shill, however, this sort of "outing" is not a refutation of that person's arguments; it merely serves to increase appropriately the level of skepticism about what that person is saying.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I suggest that a more appropriate title of the article would have been "Vaccine/Thimerosal Link to Autism Lacks Proof."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baron-Cohen and colleagues (1992, 1996) developed the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) to screen newborns and toddlers to rule out autism.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[65]
Boys are at higher risk for ASD than girls. .The sex ratio averages 4.3:1 and is greatly modified by cognitive impairment: it may be close to 2:1 with mental retardation and more than 5.5:1 without.^ I may or may not edit the colors on this theme or make a few minor tweaks, but overall this theme’s solidity is much more comforting than the other one’s fragility.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Individuals with autistic disorder and profound mental retardation may require constant care in a residential treatment facility.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For information concerning individuals with autism spectrum disorders and related conditions without mental retardation, please see Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Asperger Syndrome .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Although the evidence does not implicate any single pregnancy-related risk factor as a cause of autism, the risk of autism is associated with advanced age in either parent, and with diabetes, bleeding, and use of psychiatric drugs in the mother during pregnancy.^ Mercury can only cause autism if the child is exposed to it in his or her mother's womb when he or she was very tiny (3 - 8 weeks into gestation).
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ David Kirby Evidence of Harm States Its Case http://kevinleitch.co.uk/wp/?p=187 No proof that mercury poisoning either is, or causes, autism.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newschaffer CJ, Cole SR. Risk factors for autism---perinatal factors, parental psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status.  American Journal of Epidemiology . 2005;161:926-928.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[150] .The risk is greater with older fathers than with older mothers; two potential explanations are the known increase in mutation burden in older sperm, and the hypothesis that men marry later if they carry genetic liability and show some signs of autism.^ As a recently new mother, I have some fears about how common autism is becomming.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Are they going to come up with some genetically engineered virus that will be injected into my vein and modify my DNA? Will that make the autism disappear?
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Although only a minority of the population of children with autism manifest self-injury, they constitute some of the most challenging patients in developmental pediatrics.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[36] Most professionals believe that race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background do not affect the occurrence of autism.[151]
.Several other conditions are common in children with autism.^ An expert panel says there’s no rigorous evidence that digestive problems are more common in children with autism compared to other children, or that special diets work, contrary to claims by celebrities and vaccine naysayers.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Japanese studies often indicate the more common occurrence of autism in Japan than in other countries.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such a scenario derives from outdated definitions of autism that relegated the label to severely impaired children.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] They include:
  • Genetic disorders. .About 10–15% of autism cases have an identifiable Mendelian (single-gene) condition, chromosome abnormality, or other genetic syndrome,[152] and ASD is associated with several genetic disorders.^ Athough the title doesn't give any hints (other than the mention of thimerosal), the article is all about autism.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Silicon Valley's concentration of autism cases has triggered a spate of theories, from neighborhood contamination to a "geek gene."
    • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Autism Screening Checklist identifies those children with characteristics of autism spectrum disorders.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [153]
  • Mental retardation. .The fraction of autistic individuals who also meet criteria for mental retardation has been reported as anywhere from 25% to 70%, a wide variation illustrating the difficulty of assessing autistic intelligence.^ Although individuals with Autism can have intellectual difficulties, the majority are as intelligent as the next person.
    • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are individuals who have been damaged by vaccines, and there are Autistic individuals.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An infectious basis for autistic disorder in some individuals is suggested by the large number of children with autistic disorder born to women who were infected in the rubella epidemic.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [154] .For ASD other than autism, the association with mental retardation is much weaker.^ Athough the title doesn't give any hints (other than the mention of thimerosal), the article is all about autism.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The diagnosis of autism in a child with profound mental retardation requires an experienced clinician.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Many cases that were related to autism and mental retardation were as well.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [155]
  • .
  • Anxiety disorders are common among children with ASD; there are no firm data, but studies have reported prevalences ranging from 11% to 84%.^ There are no such children!
    • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Given that the only thing they measured in this study was hair mercury level, the only thing that their data support is that autistic children have low hair mercury levels.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The high rates of autism reported in many Japanese studies may reflect higher incidence and prevalence in Japan.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    Many anxiety disorders have symptoms that are better explained by ASD itself, or are hard to distinguish from ASD's symptoms.[156]
  • Epilepsy, with variations in risk of epilepsy due to age, cognitive level, and type of language disorder.[157]
  • Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms.[81]
  • .
  • Minor physical anomalies are significantly increased in the autistic population.^ Given the increasing population of autistic clients in the CDDS, the importance of these considerations cannot be overstated.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [158]
  • Preempted diagnoses. .Although the DSM-IV rules out concurrent diagnosis of many other conditions along with autism, the full criteria for ADHD, Tourette syndrome, and other of these conditions are often present and these comorbid diagnoses are increasingly accepted.^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the criteria for autism and other pervasive developmental disorders differ between the DSM-IV-TR(TM) and the ICD-9-CM, they are both widely accepted and are used around the world by clinicians and researchers.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The key point for pediatricians and other clinicians is that the criteria for autism and related conditions in the DSM-IV-TR(TM) and the ICD-9-CM are presented in an outline form without a discussion of the terms used.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [159]
  • Sleep problems affect about two-thirds of individuals with ASD at some point in childhood. .These most commonly include symptoms of insomnia such as difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings.^ All cases for the most frequently reported symptoms in litigation (overdose, neuropathy, autism, "mental retardation," arthralgia, and "speech disorder") were reviewed.
    • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sleep problems are associated with difficult behaviors and family stress, and are often a focus of clinical attention over and above the primary ASD diagnosis.^ Effective treatment of associated behavioral problems includes intensive behavioral, educational, and psychological components.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pharmacotherapy is ineffective in treating the core deficits of autism but may be effective in treating associated behavioral problems and comorbid disorders.
    • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [160]

History

.A few examples of autistic symptoms and treatments were described long before autism was named.^ I agree that society has a long way to go before people with various disbilities including Autism can live freely without societies' prejudices.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ An example of a motion typical in autism occurs when the child places a hand with fingers separately outstretched before the eyes and rapidly moves the hand back and forth.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Regular screening of infants and toddlers for symptoms and signs of autistic disorder is crucial because it allows for early referral of patients for further evaluation and treatment.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Table Talk of Martin Luther contains the story of a 12-year-old boy who may have been severely autistic.^ Autistic disorder is most common in boys who have the 46,XY karyotype (ie, the karyotype of healthy normal boys).
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "There are kids who 20 years ago would not have been called autistic who now are being called autistic, but they are the same kids."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strictly speaking, Stars and Rain isn't so much a school for autistics as much as it is a school for their parents, who come (with their children) for 12 week courses in how to educate their child.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[161] According to Luther's notetaker Mathesius, Luther thought the boy was a soulless mass of flesh possessed by the devil, and suggested that he be suffocated.[162] .The earliest well-documented case of autism is that of Hugh Blair of Borgue, as detailed in a 1747 court case in which his brother successfully petitioned to annul Blair's marriage to gain Blair's inheritance.^ Many cases that were related to autism and mental retardation were as well.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dawson is well-known for her trenchant writings on the history of behaviorism, and for her role as an intervener in the Auton case, decided by the Supreme Court of Canada last November.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[163] .The Wild Boy of Aveyron, a feral child caught in 1798, showed several signs of autism; the medical student Jean Itard treated him with a behavioral program designed to help him form social attachments and to induce speech via imitation.^ We are using a picture system called PECS. It is a picture association program which helps him communicate better, to let us know if he needs something like a drink.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Orac Bogus Mercury/Autism Claims Linked to Death http://newsbusters.org/node/710 Stark described the child's death: The Pennsylvania boy was receiving the intravenous form of chelation when he went into cardiac arrest.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and unspecified pervasive developmental disorder typically benefit from behaviorally oriented therapeutic programs developed specifically for people with autistic disorder.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[164]
The New Latin word autismus (English translation autism) was coined by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1910 as he was defining symptoms of schizophrenia. He derived it from the Greek word autós (αὐτός, meaning self), and used it to mean morbid self-admiration, referring to "autistic withdrawal of the patient to his fantasies, against which any influence from outside becomes an intolerable disturbance".[165]
Head and shoulders of a man in his early 60s in coat and tie, facing slightly to his right. He is balding and has a serious but slightly smiling expression.
Leo Kanner introduced the label early infantile autism in 1943.
.The word autism first took its modern sense in 1938 when Hans Asperger of the Vienna University Hospital adopted Bleuler's terminology autistic psychopaths in a lecture in German about child psychology.^ I am AUTISTIC and on the AUTISM Spectrum just words!
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ That was the first time I heard about autism.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Hippler K, Klicpera C. A retrospective analysis of the clinical case records of 'autistic psychopaths'diagnosed by Hans Asperger and his team at the University Children's Hospital, Vienna.  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci . Feb 28 2003;358(1430):291-301.  [Medline] .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[166] .Asperger was investigating an ASD now known as Asperger syndrome, though for various reasons it was not widely recognized as a separate diagnosis until 1981.[164] Leo Kanner of the Johns Hopkins Hospital first used autism in its modern sense in English when he introduced the label early infantile autism in a 1943 report of 11 children with striking behavioral similarities.^ And it was not until 1980 that the diagnosis of autism was formalized.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meet the people who are working to change the negative view of living with autism play video Photo of Dr. Leo Kanner courtesy of The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Now that I’ve given the reasons why the current, “we can’t distinguish Autistic Disorder and Asperger’s Syndrome empirically, so instead we’ll just lump all autistics together into one diagnosis called Autism Spectrum Disorder” is faulty, from both a personal and research perspective, I thought I would offer my take on a possible solution.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[30] .Almost all the characteristics described in Kanner's first paper on the subject, notably "autistic aloneness" and "insistence on sameness", are still regarded as typical of the autistic spectrum of disorders.^ Because children with autistic disorder are often mentally retarded and nonverbal, expressing subjective experiences associated with the movement is often impossible for them.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children with autistic disorder also often display motor tics and are unable to remain still.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finding that all 94 autistic subjects in this study had low hair mercury levels, they then proceded to a conclusion that was not supported by their data.
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] It is not known whether Kanner derived the term independently of Asperger.[167]
.Kanner's reuse of autism led to decades of confused terminology like infantile schizophrenia, and child psychiatry's focus on maternal deprivation led to misconceptions of autism as an infant's response to "refrigerator mothers". Starting in the late 1960s autism was established as a separate syndrome by demonstrating that it is lifelong, distinguishing it from mental retardation and schizophrenia and from other developmental disorders, and demonstrating the benefits of involving parents in active programs of therapy.^ It differentiates children with autism spectrum disorders from children with schizophrenia and other psychoses .
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, children who manifest symptoms of autistic disorder, other pervasive developmental disorders, and other autism spectrum disorders are likely to benefit from the highly specialized intensive intervention programs designed for children with these disorders.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[168] .As late as the mid-1970s there was little evidence of a genetic role in autism; now it is thought to be one of the most heritable of all psychiatric conditions.^ Carly, the W-5 13 year-old girl with autism (who types her thoughts) also endorses ABA as the therapy that helped her to achieve all that she has already at a young age.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Autism spectrum disorder is one of the most common childhood developmental disabilities.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s a whole 24 hours later and there they all are, the most extraordinary collection of peculiar shaped items – gift wrapped.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[169] .Although the rise of parent organizations and the destigmatization of childhood ASD have deeply affected how we view ASD,[164] parents continue to feel social stigma in situations where their autistic children's behaviors are perceived negatively by others,[170] and many primary care physicians and medical specialists still express some beliefs consistent with outdated autism research.^ Autism Diva Generation Rescue Promotes the concept that "childhood neurological disorders such as autism, Asperger's, ADHD/ADD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder, and many other developmental delays are all misdiagnoses for mercury poisoning."
  • neurodiversity.com | autism-vaccine controversy 22 September 2009 11:33 UTC www.neurodiversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some behavioral abnormalities that plague the parents when their autistic child is well, such as self-injurious behaviors, aggression toward others, property destruction, temper tantrums, and hyperactivity, may diminish and resolve temporarily during a febrile illness.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A causal relationship between gastrointestinal disorders and the behavioral features of children with autism spectrum disorder has been acknowledged for years by parents caring for those affected, yet dismissed by mainstream medicine...
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[171] .The Internet has helped autistic individuals bypass nonverbal cues and emotional sharing that they find so hard to deal with, and has given them a way to form online communities and work remotely.^ It is only through this help that ASD/PDD children will have a chance to learn, communicate, socialize and be protected from the physical and emotional harm they inflict on themselves or others.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It has both embarassed me, and at the same time greatly challengened me, to rethink the way that we (I) interact with autistic individuals.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It's time to think differently about autism and it's time that communication and theory of minds work *both* ways.
  • Positively Autistic | Special Feature: Positively Autistic | CBC News: The National 11 September 2009 22:29 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Original source]

[172] .Sociological and cultural aspects of autism have developed: some in the community seek a cure, while others believe that autism is simply another way of being.^ Autism is his way of being.
  • Alltop - Top Autism News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC autism.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Some children developed autism after immunizations, including inoculations for measles, mumps, and rubella.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other make-believe play may be substituted based on cultural relevance.
  • Autism: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[12][173]

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External links


Simple English

File:Autism-stacking-cans 2nd
A boy with autism stacks up cans over and over again.

Autism is an emotional disorder characterized by a profound withdrawal from contact with people, repetitive behavior, and fear of change in the environment. The emotional disorder is impacting the brain's ability to receive and process information. People who have autism find it difficult to act in a way that other people think is "normal". They find it difficult to talk to other people, to look at other people and often do not like being touched by other people. A person who has autism seems to be turned inwards. They may talk only to themselves, rock themselves backwards and forwards, and laugh at their own thoughts. They do not like any type of change and may find it very difficult to learn a new behavior like using a toilet or going to school.

Autism is caused by the way that the brain develops, both before and after a baby is born. Autism is a "spectrum disorder". This means that some people who have autism are only mildly affected. These people may go to regular schools, go to work, and have partners and families. Mild autism is called Asperger Syndrome or "High functioning Autism". Some people are more badly affected. These people may be able to take care of most of their own needs at home like dressing and getting food, but not be able to have a regular job or travel alone. A person who has severe autism may need to be cared for all their life.

Autism seems to run in families. Parents with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Asperger Syndrome) often have children with Asperger Syndrome or with more severe Autism. Sometimes people who have autism are extraordinarily gifted or talented. These people are said to have savant syndrome.[1] They are often very good at just one thing in particular, like mathematics, playing the piano or remembering football scores.

About 1-2 people of every 1,000 have autism.[2]

Contents

Signs

Staying alone

A normal baby without autism will usually look at people talking, look at other people's faces, smile, and be interested in other people. Autistic babies, though, may like objects more than faces and other people. They may look for a second at a face, but quickly turn. They may not smile, or may just smile at what they are interested in.

Autistic children may usually like to be by themselves, without other people around. They may not be interested in making friends. They may also not react normally to hugging and other signs of love by their parents. This does not mean that they do not love their parents, they just do not know how to say it.

They may also not see other people's feelings; for example, they might not see much difference between whether a parent is smiling or being sad. They may laugh and cry at the wrong times.

Not talking

An autistic child might not try to talk, point, or otherwise try to get a message across by 1 year of age. Some do not understand their language at all. Some autistic people do not speak. Many are not good at talking with other people.

Doing things over and over again

Some autistic people spend a lot of time doing the same thing over and over again, or be interested in unusual things; some might spend a lot of time waving their arms around, walking on their toes, or putting things in order. An autistic person might spend a huge amount of time putting toys in lines or patterns and may get angry if someone bumps something out of place.

Some do not want any change, and will do exactly the same things every day without change—such as what they eat, when they eat, getting dressed, brushing their teeth, or going to school—and may even get upset if any change takes place to this. They may also be interested in strange things and may spend all of their time learning about their interest.

History

Autism was first named in 1943. Leo Kanner did a study of 11 children and found unusual things about them. He called it early infantile autism. Around the same time, another doctor, Hans Asperger, did another study on nearly the same thing. His discovery is now called Asperger syndrome, while Leo Kanner's discovery is called autistic disorder, childhood autism, infantile autism, or simply autism.

Other websites

Reference

  1. [1], accessed April 9, 2010
  2. medical document containing prevalance
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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Autism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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