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The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule is the gold standard instrument for diagnosing and assessing Autism. It was created by Catherine Lord, Ph.D., Michael Rutter, M.D., FRS, Pamela C. DiLavore, Ph.D., and Susan Risi, Ph.D. in 1989 [1] and became commercially available in 2001 through the WPS, or Western Psychological Services.[2] The protocol consists of a series of structured and semi-structured tasks that involve social interaction between the examiner and the subject. The examiner observes the subject's behavior and assigns identified segments to predetermined observational categories. Categorized observations are subsequently combined to produce quantitative scores for analysis. Research-determined cut-offs identify the potential diagnosis of autism or related autism spectrum disorders, allowing a standardized assessment of autistic symptoms. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), a companion instrument, is a structured interview conducted with the parents of the referred interview and covers the full developmental history of the referred individual.[3] The ADOS should not be used for formal diagnosis with individuals who are blind, deaf, or otherwise seriously impaired by sensory or motor disorders, such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.[3]

Contents

Method

The ADOS takes somewhere from 30 to 60 minutes to administer. During this period of time there are many opportunities for the child to show behaviors relevant to the diagnosis of autism.[4] Each child is given only one of the four modules to be evaluated on. The module that is used is based upon chronological age and language level of a person. However, the ADOS is not used on adolescents and adults that are nonverbal.[5] A revision, the ADOS-2, is currently in development for release in 2010 and will include improved algorithms for Modules 1 to 3 and a Toddler Module to facilitate assessment in children ages 12 to 20 months.

Modules

Module 1 is for children that do not use phrase speech very often. Children that do use phrase speech but do not speak fluently use Module 2. These both require the children and administer to move around the room. Module 3 is for children who are fluent and Module 4 is used with adolescents and adults who are fluent. Some examples of Modules 1 or 2 include response to name and social smile, and free or bubble play. Modules 3 or 4 can include interactive play and social difficulties or annoyance.[6]

References

  1. ^ Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.” Western Psychological Services. Western Psychological Services. n.d. Web. 6 March 2010.
  2. ^ Akshoomoff, Natacha, Christina Corsello and Heather Schmidt. “The Role of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in School and Community Settings” The California School Psychologist 11 (2006): 7-19. Print.
  3. ^ a b General references:
    • Lord C, Rutter M, Goode S et al. (1989). "Autism diagnostic observation schedule: a standardized observation of communicative and social behavior". J Autism Dev Disord 19 (2): 185–212. doi:10.1007/BF02211841. PMID 2745388. 
    • Gotham K, Risi S, Dawson G et al. (2008). "A replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) revised algorithms". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47: 642. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816bffb7. PMID 18434924. 
    • Luyster R, Gotham K, Guthrie W et al. (2009). "The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Toddler Module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders". J Autism Dev Disord. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0746-z. PMID 19415479. 
  4. ^ Akshoomoff, Natacha, Christina Corsello and Heather Schmidt. “The Role of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in School and Community Settings” The California School Psychologist 11 (2006): 7-19. Print.
  5. ^ Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.” Western Psychological Services. Western Psychological Services. n.d. Web. 6 March 2010.
  6. ^ Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.” Western Psychological Services. Western Psychological Services. n.d. Web. 6 March 2010.

External links

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