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Autoimmune diseases
Classification and external resources
ICD-9 279.4
OMIM 109100
DiseasesDB 28805
MedlinePlus 000816
MeSH D001327

Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body actually attacks its own cells. The immune system mistakes some part of the body as a pathogen and attacks it. This may be restricted to certain organs (e.g. in thyroiditis) or involve a particular tissue in different places (e.g. Goodpasture's disease which may affect the basement membrane in both the lung and the kidney). The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication which decreases the immune response.

There is an on-going discussion about when a disease should be considered autoimmune, leading to different criteria such as Witebsky's postulates.



Name Accepted/suspected Hypersensitivity Autoantibody
Ankylosing Spondylitis Accepted [1] [2] [3]
Chagas disease Suspected[4]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Suspected[5][6] anti-elastin, Abys against epithelial cells
Crohns Disease (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[7] IV
Dermatomyositis Accepted[8]
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Accepted[7] IV
Endometriosis Suspected[9]
Goodpasture's syndrome Accepted[7] II Anti-Basement Membrane Collagen Type IV Protein
Graves' disease Accepted[7] II
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) Accepted[7] IV Anti-ganglioside
Hashimoto's disease Accepted[7] IV
Hidradenitis suppurativa Suspected[10]
Kawasaki disease Suspected
IgA nephropathy Suspected
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Accepted[7] II
Interstitial cystitis Suspected[11]
Lupus erythematosus Accepted[7] III
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Accepted[7]
Morphea Suspected[12]
Myasthenia gravis Accepted[7] II
Narcolepsy Accepted.[13]
Neuromyotonia Suspected[14]
Pemphigus vulgaris Accepted[7] II Anti-Desmogein 3
Pernicious anaemia Accepted[15] II
Psoriasis Accepted[16] T-cells |
Psoriatic Arthritis Accepted[17]
Polymyositis Accepted[8]
Primary biliary cirrhosis Accepted[18] Anti-p62, Anti-sp100, Anti-Mitochondrial(M2)
Rheumatoid arthritis Accepted[7] III Rheumatoid factor
Schizophrenia Suspected[19][20][21]
Scleroderma Suspected[12] Anti-topoisomerase
Sjögren's syndrome Accepted[7]
Stiff person syndrome Suspected
Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis") Accepted[7] IV
Ulcerative Colitis (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[7] IV
Vasculitis Accepted[22] III
Vitiligo Suspected[23][24]
Wegener's granulomatosis Accepted[25] Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic(cANCA)

Development of therapies

In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient’s immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc), which causes problems.

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity.[26] It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years.[27]

Currently, a considerable amount of research is being conducted into treatment of these conditions. According to a report from Frost & Sullivan, the total alliance payouts in the autoimmune/inflammation segment from 1997 to 2002 totaled $489.8 million, where Eli Lilly, Suntory, Procter & Gamble, Encysive, and Novartis together account for 98.6 percent of alliance payouts.[28]

See also


  1. ^ HLA-B27 and Ankylosing Spondylitis,
  2. ^ Inflammatory Diseases of Immune Dysregulation,
  3. ^ Khan MA, Khan MK (1982). "Diagnostic Value of HLA-B27 Testing in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Reiter's Syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine January 1, 1982 vol. 96 no. 1 70-76 96 (1): 70-76; author reply 76. PMID 7053711. 
  4. ^ Hyland KV, Engman DM (2006). "Further thoughts on where we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease". Trends Parasitol. 22 (3): 101–2; author reply 103. doi:10.1016/ PMID 16446117. 
  5. ^ Agustí A, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Cosio M. (2003). "Hypothesis: does COPD have an autoimmune component?". Thorax 58 (10): 832–834. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.10.832. PMID 14514931. 
  6. ^ Lee SH, Goswami S, Grudo A, et al. (2007). "Antielastin autoimmunity in tobacco smoking-induced emphysema". Nat. Med. 13 (5): 567–9. doi:10.1038/nm1583. PMID 17450149. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o MeSH Autoimmune+Diseases
  8. ^ a b "Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Edition". 
  9. ^ Gleicher N, el-Roeiy A, Confino E, Friberg J (1987). "Is endometriosis an autoimmune disease?". Obstetrics and gynecology 70 (1): 115–22. PMID 3110710. 
  10. ^ "Clinical Trial: Etanercept in Hidradenitis Suppurativa". Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  11. ^ Kárpáti F, Dénes L, Büttner K (1975). "[Interstitial cystitis=autoimmune cyatitis? Interstitial as a participating disease in lupus erythematosus]" (in German). Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie 68 (9): 633–9. PMID 1227191. 
  12. ^ a b Takehara K, Sato S (2005). "Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder". Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 44 (3): 274–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh487. PMID 15561734. 
  13. ^ "Narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, Stanford researcher says". EurekAlert. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  14. ^ Maddison P (2006). "Neuromyotonia". Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 117 (10): 2118–27. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.03.008. PMID 16843723. 
  15. ^ "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pernicious anemia". Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  16. ^ National Psoriasis Foundation,
  17. ^ National Psoriasis Foundation,
  18. ^ Eaton WW, Byrne M, Ewald H, et al. (2006). "Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers". The American journal of psychiatry 163 (3): 521–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.521. PMID 16513876. 
  19. ^ Jones AL, Mowry BJ, Pender MP, Greer JM (2005). "Immune dysregulation and self-reactivity in schizophrenia: do some cases of schizophrenia have an autoimmune basis?". Immunol. Cell Biol. 83 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1711.2005.01305.x. PMID 15661036. 
  20. ^ Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y (2006). "Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited". J. Autoimmun. 27 (2): 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2006.07.006. PMID 16997531. 
  21. ^ "Autoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition". 
  22. ^ "Questions and Answers about Vitiligo". Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  23. ^ "A New Gene Linked to Vitiligo and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disorders - Journal Watch Dermatology". Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  24. ^ Sánchez-Cano D, Callejas-Rubio JL, Ortego-Centeno N (April 2008). "Effect of rituximab on refractory Wegener granulomatosis with predominant granulomatous disease". J Clin Rheumatol 14 (2): 92–3. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e31816b4487. PMID 18391678. 
  25. ^ National Institutes of Health[1]
  26. ^ Noel R. Rose and Ian R. MacKay, “The Autoimmune Diseases” fourth edition
  27. ^ Frost & Sullivan Report, “Antibody Technology Developments” September 2005

External links

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