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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells the world's motor vehicles. In 2008, more than 70 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide.[1]

In 2007, a total of 79.9 million new automobiles were sold worldwide: 22.9 million in Europe, 21.4 million in Asia-Pacific, 19.4 million in USA and Canada, 4.4 million in Latin America, 2.4 million in the Middle East and 1.4 million in Africa.[2] The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant, while those in South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. Of the major markets, China, Russia, Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth.

About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007; they burn over 260 billion gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China.[3] In the opinion of some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations, and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars.[4][5][6] The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.

In 2008, with rapidly rising oil prices, industries such as the automotive industry, are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs and changes in consumer buying habits. The industry is also facing increasing external competition from the public transport sector, as consumers re-evaluate their private vehicle usage.[7] Roughly half of the US's fifty-one light vehicle plants are projected to permanently close in the coming years, with the loss of another 200,000 jobs in the sector, on top of the 560,000 jobs lost this decade.[8] China became both the largest automobile producer and market in the world after experiencing massive growth in 2009.

Contents

History

The first practical automobile with a Petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 - from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back - that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.

Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle in 1886, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.[9]:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.[9]:p.26

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Australia

Australia first began to produce cars in 1897 with cars made by Tarrant Motor & Engineering Co.[10] The first major Australian carmaker was the Ford Motor Company of Australia, followed by Holden.

Brazil

The Brazilian automotive industry produced over 3,5 million vehicles in 2009. Most of large global companies are present in Brazil; such as Fiat, Volkswagen Group, Ford, General Motors, Nissan Motors, Toyota, MAN SE, Mitsubishi, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, Honda, Hyundai etc, and also the emerging national companies such as Troller, Marcopolo S.A., Agrale, Randon S.A. among others.

The Brazilian industry in regulated by the Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (Anfavea), created in 1956, which includes automakers (automobiles, light vehicles, trucks and buses) and agriculture machines with factories in Brazil. Anfavea is part of the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA), based in Paris.

Canada

Canada is currently the 11th largest auto producer in the world (as per 2008 statistics), down from 7th a few years ago. Brazil and Spain recently surpassed Canadian production for the first time ever. Canada's highest ranking ever was 2nd largest producer in the world between 1918 and 1923. The Canadian auto industry traces its roots to the very beginning of the automobile. The first large-scale production of automobiles in Canada took place in Walkerville, near Windsor, Ontario in 1904. In the first year of operations, Gordon McGregor and Wallace Campbell, along with a handful of workmen produced 117 Model "C" Ford vehicles at the Walkerville Wagon Works factory.

Through marquees such as Brooks Steam, Redpath, Tudhope, McKay, Galt Gas-Electric, Gray-Dort, Brockville Atlas, C.C.M., and McLaughlin, Canada had many domestic auto brands. In 1918 McLaughlin was bought by an American firm, General Motors, and was re-branded as General Motors of Canada. Driven by the demands of World War I, Canada's automotive industry had grown, by 1923, into the second-largest in the world, although it was still made up of relatively inefficient plants producing many models behind a high tariff wall. High consumer prices and production inefficiencies characterized the Canadian auto industry prior to the signing of the 1965 Automotive Products Trade Agreement with the United States.

The 1964 Automotive Products Trade Agreement or “Auto Pact” represents the single most important factor in making the Canadian automotive industry what it is today: a US-controlled industry that has a significant negative impact on the Canadian lung. Key features of the Auto Pact were the 1:1 production to sales ratio and Canadian Value Added requirements.

Magna International is Canada's biggest domestic firm in the sector, and is the world's third-largest auto parts firm, producing entire vehicles at its Magna Steyr plant in Austria.

China

China's automobile industry has been developing rapidly since the year 2000. In 2009, 13.83 million motor vehicles were manufactured in China, surpassing Japan as the largest automobile maker. Moreover, with total sales of 13.64 million, China became the largest automobile market in the world for the full year 2009, overtaking the United States. The top nine car sellers for year 2009 are Volkswagen,General Motors, Hyundai, Nissan Motors, BYD, Chery, Honda, Toyota and Geely.[11]

Germany

Volkswagen assembly line, Wolfsburg, in 1973

The petrol engined automobile was invented in Germany by Karl Benz. Furthermore, the four-stroke internal combustion engine used in most automobiles worldwide today was invented by Nikolaus Otto in Germany. In addition, the diesel engine was also invented by German Rudolf Diesel.

Germany is famous for the high-performance and high-quality sports cars made by Porsche, and the cars of Mercedes, Audi and BMW are famous for their quality and technological innovation. Daimler-Benz's predecessor Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft was the industry's oldest firm, Daimler-Benz company dates from 1926. In 1998, it bought the American automobile manufacturer Chrysler, then sold out in 2007 at a heavy loss, as it never managed to bring the division to long term profitability.

In the popular market, Opel and Volkswagen are most well known. Opel was a bicycle company that started making cars in 1898; General Motors bought it out in 1929, but the Nazi government took control, and GM wrote off its entire investment. In 1948, GM returned and restored the Opel brand. Volkswagen is dominant in the popular market; it purchased Audi in 1964, which eventually lead to the formation of today's Volkswagen Group. Volkswagen's most famous car was the small, beetle-shaped economical "people's car", with a rear-mounted, air-cooled engine. It was designed in the 1930s by Ferdinand Porsche upon orders from Adolf Hitler, who was himself a car enthusiast. However, production models only appeared after the war; until then, only rich Germans had automobiles. By 1950, Volkswagen was the largest German automobile producer.[12] Today, the Group is one of the three biggest automotive companies in the world, and the largest in Europe; and is now part-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE.[13] In the meantime, ten different car manufacturers belong to the multicorporate enterprise: Porsche AG, Volkswagen, Audi AG, Bugatti Automobiles SAS, Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., Bentley Motors Limited, SEAT, S.A., Škoda Auto, along with truck makers MAN AG and Scania AB.

Germany is famous for its upscale saloons. They feature advanced suspension systems that provide both a soft ride, and good handling characteristics. Many manufacturers limit their automobiles electronically to driving speeds of 250 kilometres per hour (155 mph) for safety reasons. For factory-tuned models like Mercedes-AMG from Mercedes Benz, Audi RS from quattro GmbH, and BMW M from BMW M GmbH, for an additional payment, it is possible to derestrict their top speed, so that the fastest models easily reach more than 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph).

India

India holds excellent potential to become a hub for manufacturing cars and will be the largest manufacturer of cars. An embryonic automotive industry started in India in the 1940's. For the next 50 years, the growth of the industry was hobbled by the Socialist policies and the bureaucratic hurdles of the license raj. Following economic liberalisation in India from 1991, and the gradual easing of restrictions on industry, India has seen a dynamic 17% annual growth in automobile production and 30% annual growth in exports of automotive components and automobiles. India produces around 2 million automobiles currently. The Largest automotive companies in India are Maruti Suzuki, Hyundai Motor India, Tata Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra. Total turnover of the Indian automobile industry is expected to grow from USD 34 Billion in 2006 to USD 122 Billion in 2016.[14] Tata Motors has just launched Tata Nano, the cheapest car in the world at USD 2200.[15] Foreign auto companies with assembly plants in India include, General Motors, Ford, Hyundai, Honda, Suzuki, Nissan Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, Audi, Škoda, BMW, Fiat and Mercedes Benz. India has overtaken China in global auto exports of compact cars for 2009 . Suzuki Motor Corp, Hyundai Motor Co, and Nissan Motor Co are making India a manufacturing hub for small cars.

Iran

As of 2001, there were 13 public and privately owned automakers within Iran, of which two - Iran Khodro and Saipa - accounted for 94% of the total domestic production. Iran Khodro, which produced the most prevalent car brand in the country - the Paykan, which has been replaced in 2005 by the Samand -, was still the largest with 61% of the market in 2001, while Saipa contributed 33% of Iran’s total production in the same year. The other car manufacturers, such as the Bahman Group, Kerman Motors, Kish Khodro, Raniran, Traktorsazi, Shahab Khodro, and others together produced only 6%.[16] These automakers produce a wide range of automobiles including motorbikes, passenger cars such as Saipa's Miniator, vans, mini trucks, medium sized trucks, heavy duty trucks, minibuses, large size buses and other heavy automobiles used in commercial and private activities in the country. Iran ranked the world's 16th biggest automaker in 2006 and has a fleet of 7 million cars, which translates to almost one car per ten persons in the country (including pick-ups and buses).[17][18][19] Automobile production crossed the 1 million mark in 2005 and Iran car exports are projected to reach $1 billion by March 2009.[20][21]

Italy

The automotive industry in Italy began with the construction of the first FIAT plant (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino) in 1899 by Giovanni Agnelli. In the following years at least 50 other manufacturers appeared, the best known being Isotta Fraschini in 1900, Lancia in 1906, Alfa Romeo in 1910, Maserati in 1914, Ferrari in 1939, and Lamborghini in 1963. During the first and the second World Wars and the economic crisis of the 70's, many of these brands disappeared or were bought by Fiat or foreign manufacturers. Today the Italian automotive industry boasts a wide range of products, from very compact city cars to sport supercars such as Ferrari and Maserati. As of June 2009 Fiat also holds roughly 20% stake in the American brand Chrysler.

Japan

Japan, with its large population squeezed into very high density cities with good public transit, has limited roadways that carry very heavy traffic. Hence, most automobiles are small in terms of size and weight. From a humble beginning, Japan is now the largest auto manufacturing country in the world. Nissan Motors began making trucks in 1914, and sold cars under the Datsun brand until it switched to Nissan in the 1980s. It opened its first U.S. plant in Tennessee in the early 1980s, and a UK plant in 1986. In the North American markets, its luxury models carry the brand Infiniti. Honda, which began with motorcycles, emerged after World War II. In the North American markets, its luxury vehicles are sold under the Acura brand. Mazda was the only successful auto company to incorporate the unique rotary engine starting with the RX series, later the company was partly bought by Ford during which time vehicles such as the mx series, 323, 626, 929, as well as the B series trucks were joint built with Ford, it wasn't until late '99 Mazda had bought back its sold shares from Ford, current models such as the Mazda 3 have little to none ties with Ford. Toyota began making cars in the 1936s, and is now the world's largest producer. The Toyota Corolla is the world's best selling nameplate. Its luxury models carry the Lexus brand. Toyota is famous for its innovative, quality-conscious management style, and its hybrid gas-electric vehicles, especially the Prius, which was launched in 1997. In the early days of 2010 Toyota was held accountable for many safety failures that had become a new calling card for the brand. This culminated in a visit of the operating boss to speak before congress. Other major companies include Subaru, Mitsubishi, Mazda, Daihatsu, Suzuki, and Isuzu. Japan's production of cars increased from 3.179 million to 7.038 million between 1970 and 1980, while demand for larger American cars was disastrously falling.[22] Japanese cars are often credited with superior reliability and dependability, efficiency, and advanced technology.

Malaysia

The Automotive industry in Malaysia is perhaps one of the freshest and the steadily growing market, catering for needs Worldwide (except for America and Continental Europe). The list of car manufacturers are as follows:
- Proton Edar (PeRusahaan OTOmobil Nasional), being the pioneer of Malaysian Car Manufacturer.
- Perodua (PERusahaan Otomobil keDUA), of which engines are based on Daihatsu models.
- Bufori & TD2000, "Antique Cars" manufacturers based in Malaysia (Although originally from Australia).
- DRB-HICOM (Diversified Resources Berhad - The Heavy Industries Corporation of Malaysia Berhad).

Pakistan

The Automobile industry has been an active and growing field in Pakistan for a long time, however not as much established to figure in the prominent list of the top automotive industries. Surprisingly, despite its large size in terms of production volume, only a few car models are assembled in the country and customers have a very small variety of vehicles to choose from. The lack of competition in the auto industry due to the dominance of a few players, and restrictions on imports in the form of heavy duties have resulted in very high prices of Cars in the country. Currently some of the major world automakers have set up assembly plants or are in joint ventures with local companies these include Toyota, Honda, Suzuki, Nissan Motors. The total contribution of Auto industry to GDP in 2007 was 2.8% which is likely to increase up to 5.6% in the next 5 years. Auto sector presently, contributes 16% to the manufacturing sector which is predicted to increase 25% in the next 7 years.

South Korea

The South Korean automobile industry is today the fifth largest in the world in terms of production volume and the sixth largest in terms of export volume. 50 years ago, its initial operations were merely the assembling of parts imported from Japan and the United States. The Hyundai Kia Automotive Group is today the second largest automaker in Asia, after Toyota. Annual domestic output exceeded one million units in 1988. In the 1990s, the industry manufactured numerous in-house models, demonstrating not only its capabilities, and signaling its coming of age thanks to the heavy investment to infrastructure in the country over the decades. The quality of their automobiles has improved dramatically in recent years, gaining international recognition.

Spain

In 2009 the automotive industry generated 3.5 percent of the country's GDP and gave employment to about nine percent of the working population. Spain is on the eight place in car manufacturing countries, but 2008 and 2009 showed a decrease in car production. The downward spiral started about ten years ago, with an abandoning policy of many consecutive governments. The result has been the loss of all Spanish car brands manufacturers, which are now in hands of foreign companies. Nowadays, Spain's major domestic firm is the Volkswagen Group's subsidiary brand SEAT, S.A..

Thailand

The Thai-based automobile manufacturer is ThaiRung or well-known as TR, manufactured by Thai Rung Union Car Public Co. Ltd. (TRU). The company was established in 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand. Original name was Thai Rung Engineering Co. Ltd., and changed its name to Thai Rung Union Car Co. Ltd. in 1973. TRU was listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand in 1994. TRU business is ranging from product design and development, automotive parts manufacturing, industrial equiptemnts manufacturing, car assembly lines and financial business. Some discontinued TR vans powered by Land Rover engine in combination with Thai-developed body design and platform. Modern TR cars are built on small or medium trucks base into SUV or seven-seat multi-purpose vehicles using TR-owned technology, design, development and assembly skills. The current models are 2009 TR Adventure and TR Allroader.

Turkey

The automotive industry in Turkey plays an important role in the manufacturing sector of the Turkish economy. The foundations of the industry was laid with the establishment of Otosan assembly factory in 1959 and the mass production of the domestic car Anadol in 1961. In 2008 Turkey produced 1,147,110 motor vehicles, ranking as the 6th largest producer in Europe and the 15th largest producer in the world. With a cluster of car-makers and parts suppliers, the Turkish automotive sector has become an integral part of the global network of production bases, exporting over $22,944,000,000 worth of motor vehicles and components in 2008. Global car manufacturers with production plants include Fiat/Tofaş, Oyak-Renault, Hyundai, Toyota, Honda and Ford/Otosan.

United Kingdom

The British motor industry has always been export-orientated. Today it employs over 800,000 people and produced about 1 million cars and 120,000 commercial vehicles last year, 75% of which are exported. The top five UK car producers are Nissan Motors, Toyota, Honda, MINI and Land Rover. However, international competitiveness of UK cars has declined consistently since the 1990s and the country became unable to sustain production on par with Germany or France. Since 2000, motor vehicle production has fallen from 1,813,894.[23] The country has been overtaken by fast industrialising economies such as Brazil, India and Mexico.[23] The UK is the 13th largest automobile producer in the world.[23]

United States

Crisis in the automotive industry

World motor vehicle production

By Country

By Manufacturer

Company relationships

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:

Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2008 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[24] for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque.

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia
Hino Japan Subsidiary Asia Pacific, North America and South America
Lexus Japan Division Global
Scion United States Division North America
Toyota Japan Division Global
2. General Motors Company ( United States)
Buick United States Division North America, Middle East, East Asia
Cadillac United States Division Global, except South America, South Asia, South East Asia, Pacific
Chevrolet United States Division Global, except Pacific
Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
GMC United States Division North America, Middle East
Holden Australia Subsidiary Pacific
Opel Germany Subsidiary Europe (except UK), Russia, South Africa, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia
Vauxhall United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom
3. Volkswagen AG* ( Germany)
Audi Germany Subsidiary Global
Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Bugatti France Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global
Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global
Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global
SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, South America, North Africa, Middle East
Škoda Czech Republic Subsidiary Global, except North America and South Africa
Volkswagen Germany Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Global
4. Ford Motor Company** ( United States)
Ford United States Division Global
Lincoln United States Division North America, Middle East, South Korea
Mercury United States Division North America, Middle East
Troller Brazil Subsidiary South America and Africa
Volvo Sweden Subsidiary Global
5. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
Acura Japan Division North America, East Asia, Russia
Honda Japan Division Global
6. Nissan Motor Company ( Japan)
Infiniti Japan Division Global, except South America and Africa
Nissan Japan Division Global
7. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
Citroën France Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
Peugeot France Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
8. Hyundai Motor Company ( South Korea)
Hyundai South Korea Division Global
9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Maruti Suzuki India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
Suzuki Japan Division Global
10. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)
Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global
Ferrari Italy Subsidiary Global
Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Fiat Professional Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Irisbus France Subsidiary Global, except North America
Iveco Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Lancia Italy Subsidiary Europe
Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global
11. Renault S.A. ( France)
Dacia Romania Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa
Renault (cars) France Division Global, except North America, South Asia
Renault Samsung South Korea Subsidiary Asia, South America
12. Daimler AG ( Germany)
Freightliner United States Subsidiary North America, South Africa
Master Pakistan Subsidiary Pakistan
Maybach Germany Division Global
Mercedes-AMG Germany Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Germany Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Japan Subsidiary Global
Orion Canada Subsidiary North America
Setra Germany Subsidiary Europe
Smart Germany Division North America, Europe, South East Asia, South Africa
Thomas Built United States Subsidiary North America
Western Star United States Subsidiary North America
13. Chrysler Group LLC ( United States)
Chrysler United States Division Global
Dodge United States Division Global
GEM United States Division North America
Jeep United States Division Global
Ram United States Division North America
14. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMW Germany Division Global
MINI United Kingdom Division Global
Rolls-Royce United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
15. Kia Motors Corporation ( South Korea)
Kia South Korea Division Global
16. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Mazda Japan Division Global
17. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
Mitsubishi Japan Division Global
18. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
Lada Russia Division Russia, Europe, North Africa
VAZ Russia Division Russia, Europe
19. Tata Motors Ltd ( India)
Hispano Carrocera Spain Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Land Rover United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Tata India Division India, South Africa
Tata Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
20. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Besturn People's Republic of China Division China
Freewind People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Haima People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Hongqi People's Republic of China Division China
Jiaxing People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Vita People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Xiali People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
21. Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd ( Japan)
Subaru Japan Division Global
22. Isuzu Motors Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Japan Division Global, except North America
23. Chana Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chana People's Republic of China Division China, South Africa
24. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Dongfeng People's Republic of China Division China
25. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
BAW People's Republic of China Division China
Foton People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
26. Chery Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chery People's Republic of China Division China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia
27. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
MG United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina
SsangYong South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
Roewe People's Republic of China Division China
Soyat People's Republic of China Division China
Yuejin People's Republic of China Division China
28. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
Mack United States Subsidiary Global
Nissan Diesel Japan Subsidiary Global
NovaBus Canada Subsidiary North America
Prevost Canada Subsidiary North America
Renault (trucks) France Subsidiary Global
Volvo (trucks) Sweden Division Global
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Brilliance People's Republic of China Division China, North Africa
Jinbei People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
30. Harbin Hafei Automobile Industry Group Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Hafei People's Republic of China Division China
31. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)
Geely People's Republic of China Division China, Russia, North Africa
Maple People's Republic of China Division China
32. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
JAC People's Republic of China Division China
33. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)
BYD People's Republic of China Division China, Russia
34. GAZ Group ( Russia)
GAZ Russia Division Russia
KAvZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
LiAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
Ural Russia Subsidiary Russia
35. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd ( India)
Mahindra India Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa
36. Proton Holdings Bhd ( Malaysia)
Proton Malaysia Division Asia Pacific, South Africa, United Kingdom
Lotus United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
37. Great Wall Motor Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Great Wall People's Republic of China Division China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa
38. Paccar Inc ( United States)
DAF Netherlands Subsidiary Global, except North America
Kenworth United States Division North America
Leyland United Kingdom Subsidiary Europe
Peterbilt United States Division North America
39. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Lifan People's Republic of China Division China
40. MAN SE ( Germany)
MAN Germany Division Europe
Neoplan Germany Division Europe and Middle East
Volkswagen (trucks) Brazil Division South America
41. Jiangxi Changhe Automobile Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Changhe People's Republic of China Division China
42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Sinotruk Hong Kong Division China
43. LuAZ ( Ukraine)
LuAZ Ukraine Subsidiary Ukraine
44. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)
IC United States Subsidiary North America
International United States Division North America, South Asia
45. Shaanxi Automobile Group Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Shaanxi People's Republic of China Division China
46. UAZ OJSC ( Russia)
UAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
47. Ashok Leyland ( India)
Ashok Leyland India Division India
48. Kuozui Motors Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Motors Ltd Republic of China Subsidiary Taiwan

Notes

* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group.[13] However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed in mid-2011.[25][26]

** Ford has sold Volvo to Geely Automobile.

Minor automotive manufacturers

There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.

See also

References

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  2. ^ "2008 Global Market Data Book", Automotive News, p.5
  3. ^ Plunkett Research, "Automobile Industry Introduction" (2008)
  4. ^ Kenworthy, J R (2004). "Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Emissions in Urban Passenger Transport Systems" (PDF). Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. http://cst.uwinnipeg.ca/documents/Transport_Greenhouse.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
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  7. ^ IBISWorld Newsletter, June 2008, GLOBAL TRENDS Oil – The Crude Reality of Current trends, IBISWorld
  8. ^ Jeff Rubin (2009-03-02). "Wrong Turn" (PDF). CIBC World Markets. http://research.cibcwm.com/economic_public/download/sfeb09.pdf. 
  9. ^ a b Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  10. ^ http://www.cars.com.au/the-boot/australian-car-history.html
  11. ^ http://www.nitrobahn.com/news/2009-chinese-auto-sales-shanghai-volkswagen-leads-gm-trails-right-behind/
  12. ^ Terry Shuler, Volkswagen: Then, Now and Forever(1997)
  13. ^ a b "Volkswagen Group - Shareholder Structure". Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. VolkswagenAG.com. http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/content/en/investor_relations/share/Shareholder_Structure.html. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  14. ^ Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises Government of India (2006). "Draft Automotive Mission Plan". dhi.nic.in. http://www.dhi.nic.in/draft_automotive_mission_plan.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  15. ^ NICK KURCZEWSKI (2009). "Behind the Wheel". nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/28/automobiles/autoreviews/28NANO.html?scp=2&sq=tata%20nano&st=cse. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  16. ^ SAPCO: Iran Automotive Industry’s Market Shares (September 2001) Retrieved November 14, 2008
  17. ^ "Iran Automotive Forecast", Economist Intelligence Unit, August 18, 2008 
  18. ^ Iran 16th Biggest Automakerretrieved 12 February 2008
  19. ^ Gasoline Quota Will Change In Two Months retrieved 12 February 2008
  20. ^ Made In Iran Retrieved 12 February 2008
  21. ^ Payvand:Iran and car exports projected to reach $1b by March Retrieved October 24, 2008
  22. ^ Fuss M A and Waverman L Costs and productivity in automobile production: the challenge of Japanese efficiency Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 0521341418, 780521341417. P.225
  23. ^ a b c "List of countries by motor vehicle production - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_motor_vehicle_production. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 
  24. ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers 2008" (PDF). OICA. http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/world-ranking-2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  25. ^ Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart (20 November 2009). "Porsche Supervisory Board agrees on the contracts of implementation". Press release. http://www.porsche-se.com/pho/en/news/?pool=pho&id=2009-11-20. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  26. ^ Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (13 August 2009). "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche". Press release. http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2009/08/Volkswagen_Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 

Pioneer Auto Compaines 1897-1904; N.Y.S.

Amsterdam NY: Tillerwilliger Steamer
Buffalo; Thomas 1902 Runabout
Elmira,  Steam Car 1902
IlLion NY; 1900 Remington Runabout
Fort Plain NY; Spring and Axel. 1897, 1902, 1903  Dr. Runabouts
Utica NY:  1903 Buckmobile

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