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Ten avatars of Vishnu (clockwise, from upper left): Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Vamana, Krishna, Kalki, Buddha, Parshurama, Rama & Narasimha, and Krishna (centre)
In Hinduism, Avatar or Avatāra (Devanagari अवतार, Sanskrit for "descent" [viz., from heaven to earth]) refers to a deliberate descent of a deity from heaven to earth, and is mostly translated into English as "incarnation", but more accurately as "appearance" or "manifestation".[1]
The term is most often associated with Vishnu, though it has also come to be associated with other deities.[2] Varying lists of avatars of Vishnu appear in Hindu scriptures, including the ten Dashavatara of the Garuda Purana and the twenty-two avatars in the Bhagavata Purana, though the latter adds that the incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable.[3] The avatars of Vishnu are a primary component of Vaishnavism. An early reference to avatar, and to avatar doctrine, is in the Bhagavad Gita.[4]
Shiva and Ganesha are also described as descending in the form of avatars. The various manifestations of Devi, the Divine Mother principal in Hinduism, are also described as avatars or incarnations by some scholars and followers of Shaktism.[4][5] .The avatars of Vishnu carry a greater theological prominence than those of other deities, which some scholars perceive to be imitative of the Vishnu avatar lists.^ The bad: Inconsistent depth: Several of the scenes in the military buildings were rendered with a greater separation than some of the outdoor scenes that should have had a much greater depth than that of the military buildings.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ I think some scenes were rendered further than others.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ OK, I get that it cost around a bazillion dollars, but are those blue people supposed to be remotely believable as anything other than cartoons?
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Etymology and meaning

The Sanskrit noun avatāra is derived from the verbal root tṝ "to cross over", joined with the prefix ava "off , away , down". The word doesn't occur in the Vedas, but is recorded in Pāṇini (3.3.120). Avatāra was initially used to describe different deities, then around the 6th century CE it began to be used primarily to describe the manifestations of Vishnu.[6] While earlier texts mention deities taking on different forms, the Bhagavad Gita (4.5-9) is the first text to discuss the doctrine associated with the term even though the word avatāra itself is not mentioned.[7]
The common translation "incarnation" due to its christological implications is somewhat misleading as the concept of avatar corresponds more closely to the view of Docetism in Christian theology, as distinct from the idea of God 'in the flesh' in mainstream Christology.[8][9]
.Related to the concept of avatar is that of vibhūti, that is, the idea of manifestations of the divine in various aspects of human life and the natural world.^ I’d have liked to see the subplot tension being built around the idea that the world-mind was shifting from a passive to an active approach, with the human presence as an impetus.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ The movie's subtext makes this especially clear - humans are referred to as "The Sky People," and the word "Avatar" means "The Earthly manifestation of a God."
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ They’re grounded in reality, their notions of balance not rooted in the spiritual but in the nature of a world in which each life form can interface with every other.
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

[10]

Avatars of Vishnu

Matsya, fish avatar of Vishnu
The concept of avatar within Hinduism is most often associated with Vishnu, the preserver or sustainer aspect of God within the Hindu Trinity or Trimurti. The descents of Vishnu are also integral to his teaching and tradition, whereas the accounts of other deities are not so strictly dependent on their avatar stories. .Although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avatars, within the Vaishnavism branch of Hinduism Narayana, Vasudeva, and Krishna are also seen as names denoting divine aspects which descend as avatars.^ With Avatar the violations were usually small objects (Tree branches, logs, ect).
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

[1]
.The Bhagavata Purana describes Vishnu's avatars as innumerable, though there are ten incarnations (Dasavatara, Sanskrit: ten avatars) that are widely seen as his major appearances.^ He’s pulled it off — there are things in Avatar you really have never seen on screen before.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ Though characters get battered and bloody, and wounds are shown after the fact, when characters are actively seen being shot/arrowed/sliced in battle, there's little, if any, blood shown.
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

[1][3] Krishna and Rama are the two mostly widely known and worshiped avatars of Vishnu, with their stories told in the two popular epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.[11] .Different lists of Vishnu's avatars appear in different texts, including: the dasavatara from the Garuda Purana; lists of twenty-two, twenty-three, and sixteen avatars in the Bhagavata Purana;[12] thirty-nine avatars in the Ahirbudhnya saṃhitā;[13] the dasavatara again in Agni Purana; the first eight of the dasavatara in Padma Purana.^ Miscellaneous Steve on 21 Dec 2009 at 12:44 pm After I saw Avatar my eight-year-old asked me what it was about.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ However Phase One Step Seven, Phase Two Step Eight, and Phase Three Step Two are ignored.
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

The commonly accepted number of ten was fixed well before the 10th century CE.[12] In addition, various Vaishnava saints and founders are considered to be partial avatars.[14]
Vishnu's avatars typically descend for a very specific purpose. An oft-quoted passage describes the typical role of an avatar of Vishnu—to bring dharma, or righteousness, back to the social and cosmic order:[1][2]
Whenever righteousness wanes and unrighteousness increases I send myself forth.
.In order to protect the good and punish the wicked,
In order to make a firm foundation for righteousness,
I come into being age after age.
^ Come on James Cameron- you got a few hundred mil you can put towards making this happen, right?
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

^ Making A Splash : Waterbenders Malfunction Malady : Aang's sneezes launch him 10 feet into the air, though this is arguable; Aang is known for being playful.
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Good Is Dumb : Lampshaded when, Right after getting into Aang's group, Zuko finds his firebending suddenly lacking and guesses, "I bet it's because I changed sides."
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

(4.7–8)
.Some Vaishnavism schools consider Krishna to be the source of all avatars, with the various avatars categorized in many different ways.^ I consider us all very lucky that Cameron blessed us with amazing films like Terminator, T2 and Aliens, but Avatar was nothing special.
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

^ In some ways it’s a deus ex machina, yes, but if you consider the world-mind to be a secret character whose presence is hinted at but not revealed, it’s not as arbitrary.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want to talk morphological differences across the species, besides the limbs there’s the way so many species have 2 pairs of eyes.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

.For example: Purusavatara is the first avatara; Gunavataras are represented by the Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) who each preside over one of the gunas (rajas, sattva, and tamas); Lilavataras are the well-known ones, and include Avesavataras (beings into whom part of God Himself has entered) and saktyamsavesa (into whom only parts of His power enter); Kalpa-, Manvantara-, and Yuga-avataras descend during different cosmic ages.^ These forearms fused into two by the time the Na'Vi had evolved, leaving them the only ones with four limbs.
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ The first season is currently being made into a live-action film The Last Airbender , which will be the second Shyamalan film to be inspired by a Nickelodeon show .
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Making A Splash : Waterbenders Malfunction Malady : Aang's sneezes launch him 10 feet into the air, though this is arguable; Aang is known for being playful.
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

[15]

Dashavatara

Varaha, the boar avatar of Vishnu
The ten most well known descents of Vishnu are collectively known as the Dasavatara (Sanskrit: ten avatars). This list is included in the Garuda Purana (1.86.10"11).[16]
The first four are said to have appeared in the Satya Yuga (the first of the four Yugas or ages in the time cycle described within Hinduism). The next three avatars appeared in the Treta Yuga, the eighth descent in the Dwapara Yuga and the ninth in the Kali Yuga. The tenth, Kalki, is predicted to appear at the end of the Kali Yuga.[17]
  1. Matsya, the fish-avatar who saved Manu - the progeniter of mankind from the great deluge and rescued the Vedic scriptures by killing a demon
  2. Kurma, the tortoise-avatar, who helped in the Samudra manthan - the churning of the ocean
  3. Varaha, the boar-avatar, who rescued the earth from the ocean, by killing her kidnapper-demon Hiranyaksha
  4. Narasimha, the half man-half lion avatar, who killed the tyrant demon-king Hiranyakashipu, to rescue the demon's son Prahlada, who was a Vishnu-devotee
  5. Vamana, the dwarf-avatar, who defeated the demon-king Bali
  6. Parashurama, sage with the axe who killed the thousand-armed king Kartavirya Arjuna
  7. Rama, the king of Ayodhya and the hero of the Hindu epic Ramayana
  8. Krishna, the king of Dwarka, a central character in the Bhagavata Purana and the Mahabharata and reciter of Bhagavad Gita
  9. Gautama Buddha[18][19][20][21] [22][23][24][25] [26][27][28][29][30]
  10. Kalki ("Eternity", or "time", or "The Destroyer of foulness"), who is expected to appear at the end of Kali Yuga.
Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna, is sometimes considered as one of the Dasavatar[citation needed], omitting Buddha from the list. In other traditions, Balarama is considered as a partial avatar of Vishnu or an avatar of Shesha, the serpent on which Vishnu sleeps.[31][32]

In the Bhagavata Purana

Mohini, the only female avatar of Vishnu
As many as forty specific avatars of Vishnu are mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana, though the book adds that the number is innumerable.[33] Twenty-two avatars of Vishnu are listed numerically in the first book:[34]
  1. Four Kumaras [BP 1.3.6] - the four Sons of god Brahma
  2. Varaha [BP 1.3.7]
  3. Narada [BP 1.3.8] the divine-sage who travels the worlds as a devotee of Vishnu
  4. Nara-Narayana [BP 1.3.9] - the twin-sages
  5. Kapila [BP 1.3.10] - a sage and one of the founders of the Samkhya school of philosophy
  6. Dattatreya [BP 1.3.11] - the combined avatar of the Hindu trinity Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.
  7. Yajna [BP 1.3.12] - the lord of fire-sacrifice, who took was the Indra - the lord of heaven
  8. Rishabha [BP 1.3.13] - the father of King Bharata and Bahubali
  9. Prithu [BP 1.3.14] - the sovereign-king who milked the earth as a cow to get the world's grain and vegetation and also invented agriculture
  10. Matsya [BP 1.3.15]
  11. Kurma [BP 1.3.16]
  12. Dhanvantari [BP 1.3.17] - the father of Ayurveda medicine
  13. Mohini [BP 1.3.17] - the enchantress
  14. Narasimha[BP 1.3.18]
  15. Vamana [BP 1.3.19]
  16. Parasurama [BP 1.3.20]
  17. Vyasa [BP] 1.3.21] - the compiler of the scriptures - Vedas and writer of the scriptures Puranas and the epic Mahabharata
  18. Rama [BP 1.3.22]
  19. Balarama [BP 1.3.23]
  20. Krishna [BP 1.3.23]
  21. Buddha [BP 1.3.24]
  22. Kalki [BP 1.3.25]
Besides these, another four avatars are described later on in the text as follows:
  1. Prshnigarbha [BP 10.3.41] - the son of Prshni
  2. Hayagriva [BP 2.7.11] - the horse-faced avatar
  3. Hamsa [BP 11.13.19] - the swan
  4. Golden avatra [BP 11.5.32] - the avatara in Kali-yuga for propagating hari-namasankirtan

Avatars of Ganesha

(Clockwise from left top) The four of Ganesha from Ganesha Purna: Mahotkata, Mayuresvara, Dhumraketu and Gajanana.
.The Linga Purana declares that Ganesha incarnates to destroy demons and to help the gods and pious people.^ God sent angels to help fight them and won…that’s what this battle was symbolic of….for people that may not understand the concept….
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

[35] The two upapuranas - Ganesha Purana and Mudgala Purana - detail the avatars of Ganesha. Both these upapuranas are core scriptures of the Ganapatya sect - exclusively dedicated to Ganesha worship.
Four avatars of Ganesha are listed in the Ganesha Purana:Mohotkata, Mayūreśvara, Gajanana and Dhumraketu. Each avatar corresponds to a different yuga, has a different mount and different skin complexion, but all the avatars have a common purpose - to slay demons.[36]
The Mudgala Purana describes eight avatars of Ganesha:[37]
  1. Vakratunda (Vakratuṇḍa) ("twisting trunk"), his mount is a lion.
  2. Ekadanta ("single tusk"), his mount is a mouse.
  3. Mahodara ("big belly"), his mount is a mouse.
  4. Gajavaktra (or Gajānana) ("elephant face"), his mount is a mouse.
  5. Lambodara ("pendulous belly") , his mount is a mouse.
  6. Vikata (Vikaṭa) ("unusual form", "misshapen"), his mount is a peacock.
  7. Vighnaraja (Vighnarāja) ("king of obstacles"), his mount is the celestial serpent Śeṣa.
  8. Dhumravarna (Dhūmravarṇa) ("grey color") corresponds to Śiva, his mount is a horse.

Avatars of Shiva

Sharabha(right) with Narasimha
Although Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to avatars of Shiva, the idea is not universally accepted in Saivism.[4][38] The Linga Purana speaks of twenty-eight avatars of Shiva.[39] .In the Shiva Purana there is a distinctly Saivite version of a traditional avatar myth: Shiva brings forth Virabhadra, one of his terrifying forms, in order to calm Narasimha, an avatar of Vishnu.^ As to the script, it was one of his poorer scripts plot-wise and there was no really good back-and-forths in the dialogues which I’ve enjoyed in his previous films.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ There are multiple levels on which I can believe the avatar program and the freedom/release it offers for him would bring him around to being on the side of the natives.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ In Avatar, there really isn’t a “good old” days myth going on.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

When that fails, Shiva manifests as the human-lion-bird Sharabha. The story concludes with Narasimha becoming a devotee of Shiva after being bound by Sharabha.[40] However, Vaishnava followers including Dvaita scholars, such as Vijayindra Tirtha (1539-95) refute this Shaivite view of Narasimha based on their reading of Sattvika Puranas and Śruti texts.[41]
The monkey-god Hanuman who helped Rama - the Vishnu avatar is considered by some to be the eleventh avatar of Rudra (Shiva).[42][43] .Some regional deities like Khandoba are also believed by some to be avatars of Shiva.^ Avatar made me think of Citizen Kane in that Citizen Kane pioneered deep focus camera work and Avatar's 3D worked like some sort of extreme deep focus.
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

^ The other thing that is common with the NST is that the savages are noble because they believe some religious hokum like “all things are connected”, and humans don’t.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

[44][45]

Avatars of Devi

A 17th century painting depicting Hanuman worshiping Rama and his wife Sita. Lakshmana is also seen in this painting from Smithsonian Institution collection. Rama is considered the avatar of Vishnu, Sita of Vishnu's consort Lakshmi, Lakshmana of Shesha - the serpent on whom Vishnu sleeps, and Hanuman is believed to be an avatar of Shiva.
Avatars are also observed in Shaktism, the sect dedicated to the worship of the Goddess (Devi), but they do not have universal acceptance in the sect. The Devi Bhagavata Purana describes the descent of Devi avatars to punish the wicked and defend the righteous—much as the Bhagavata Purana does with the avatars of Vishnu.[46] Like Vishnu, his consort Lakshmi incarnates as Sita and Radha - the consorts of Rama and Krishna avatars.[47] Nilakantha, an 18th century commentator on the Devi Bhagavata Purana - which includes the Devi Gita - says that various avatars of the Goddess includes Shakambhari and even the masculine Krishna and Rama - generally thought to be Vishnu's avatars.[48] Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati are also goddesses worshipped as Devi avatars.[49]

Other Vaishnava avatars

.There are many senses and shades of meaning of the term avatar within Hinduism.^ Not to be confused with the recent movie Avatar , or other meanings of the term 'avatar' .
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Purusha avatars

Purusha avatars are sometimes described as the original avatars of Vishnu or Krishna within the Universe:[50][51]

Guna avatars

The personalities of the Trimurti (Hindu trinity) are also sometimes referred to as Guna avatars, because of their roles of controlling the three modes (gunas) of nature,[51] even though they have not descended upon an earthly planet in the general sense of the term 'avatar'.
  • Vishnu - As controller of the mode of goodness (sattva)
  • Brahma - Controller of the mode of passion and desire (rajas)
  • Shiva - Controller of the mode of ignorance (tamas)

Manvantara avatars

.Manvantara avatars are beings responsible for creating progeny throughout the Universe, said to be unlimited in number.^ More than one word: Well, when Avatar was being discussed over at MetaFilter last week, in advance of seeing the film, this is what I said: .
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ This trope is pulled throughout the entire universe of Avatar, which lends more humor to the situation.
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

[52] They do not take birth.

Shaktyavesa and Avesa avatars

Avataric incarnations are classified as two kinds
  • direct (sakshat)
  • indirect (avesa).
When Vishnu himself descends, he is called sakshat or shaktyavesa-avatara, a direct incarnation of God. But when he does not incarnate directly, but indirectly empowers some living entity to represent him, that living entity is called an indirect or avesa avatar.[53]
There are said to be a great number of avesa avatars. Examples include Narada Muni, Shakyamuni Buddha, and Parashurama. .Parashurama is the only one of the traditional ten avatars that is not a direct descent of Vishnu.^ Only the Avatar, one person born every generation, is capable of mastering all the elements and serving as peacekeeper and protector.
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

According to the Sri Vaishnavism sect of Hinduism, there are two types of primary or direct avatars, Purna avatars and Amsarupavatars:
.
  1. Purna avatars are those in which Vishnu takes form directly and all the qualities and powers of God are expressed, (e.g.^ At no point in avatar is there ever any hint that the god-planet can direct all the animals to do its bidding, until it was demonstrated in the big finale.
    • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In his alien form, he begins to befriend and sympathize with these aliens and subsequently turns against the evil humans, all while taking several levels in badass .
    • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

    Narasimha, Rama and Krishna).[54],[55]
  2. Amsarupavatars are those in which Vishnu takes form directly but He is manifest in the person only partially. (e.g. avatars from Matsya to Parashurama).
.The avesa or indirect avatars are generally not worshiped as the Supreme being.^ Anyway, the true test of AVATAR being this generations Star Wars, is if it can be rereleased 20 years from now and be #1 in the box office on its release day.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

Only the direct, primary avatars are worshiped in this way. In practice, the direct avatars that are worshiped today are the Purna avatars of Narasimha, Rama and Krishna. Among most Vaishnava traditions, Krishna is considered to be the highest Purna avatar. .However, followers of Chaitanya (including ISKCON), Nimbarka, and Vallabha Acharya differ philosophically from other Vaishnavas, such as Ramanujacharya and Madhvacharya, and consider Krishna to be the ultimate Godhead, not simply an avatar.^ Do you see parallels in Avatar to current issues, such as America invading other countries?” .
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

.That said, all Hindus believe that there is no difference between worship of Vishnu and His avatars as it all leads to Him.^ There is no AVATAR. by FlickaPoo .
  • UPDATE!! The AVATAR Teaser Is Here!! -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are all different tastes.
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

^ There were no demolition ball testicles, or jive-talking robots in Avatar!
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

.According to Madhvacharya (chief proponent of Dvaita or school of differential monism), all avatars of Vishnu are alike in potency and every other quality.^ Only the Avatar, one person born every generation, is capable of mastering all the elements and serving as peacekeeper and protector.
  • Avatar: The Last Airbender - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.There is no gradation among them, and perceiving or claiming any differences among avatars is a cause of eternal damnation.^ I think it's safe to say that there is no legitimate defense to claims that Cameron and his crew did not think things out well.
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

^ There were no demolition ball testicles, or jive-talking robots in Avatar!
  • Avatar Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: General]

^ At no point in avatar is there ever any hint that the god-planet can direct all the animals to do its bidding, until it was demonstrated in the big finale.
  • Avatar Review « Whatever 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

See Madhva's commentary on Katha Upanishad.

See also

Part of a series on
Hinduism
Aum
Beliefs and practices
Related topics

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c d Matchett, Freda (2001). Krishna, Lord or Avatara?: the relationship between Krishna and Vishnu. 9780700712816. p. 4. http://books.google.com/books?id=1oqTYiPeAxMC&pg=PA4. 
  2. ^ a b Kinsley, David (2005). Lindsay Jones. ed. Gale's Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (Second Edition ed.). Thomson Gale. pp. 707–708. ISBN 0-02-865735-7. 
  3. ^ a b Bryant, Edwin Francis (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press US. p. 18. ISBN 9780195148916. http://books.google.com/books?id=0z02cZe8PU8C&pg=PT32. 
  4. ^ a b c Sheth, Noel (Jan. 2002). "Hindu Avatāra and Christian Incarnation: A Comparison". Philosophy East and West (University of Hawai'i Press) 52 (1 (Jan. 2002)): 98–125. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1400135. 
  5. ^ Hawley, John Stratton; Vasudha Narayanan (2006). The life of Hinduism. University of California Press. pp. 174. ISBN 9780520249141. http://books.google.com/books?id=7DLj1tYmoTQC&pg=PA174. 
  6. ^ Sheth, p. 116.
  7. ^ Sheth, pp. 98, 116.
  8. ^ Edward Geoffrey Parrinder, Avatar and incarnation (1970, 1997), chapter "Docetism, in Buddhism and Christology", pp. 240ff.; Mercy Amba Oduyoye, H. M. Vroom, One gospel - many cultures: case studies and reflections on cross-cultural theology, Rodopi, 2003, ISBN 9789042008977, p. 111.
  9. ^ Sheth, p. 108.
  10. ^ Sheth, p. 100
  11. ^ King, Anna S. (2005). The intimate other: love divine in Indic religions. Orient Blackswan. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9788125028017. http://books.google.com/books?id=0FvH1aCXETwC&pg=PA32. 
  12. ^ a b Mishra, Vibhuti Bhushan (1973). Religious beliefs and practices of North India during the early mediaeval period, Volume 1. BRILL. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9789004036109. http://books.google.com/books?id=nAQ4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA4. 
  13. ^ Schrader, Friedrich Otto (1916). Introduction to the Pāñcarātra and the Ahirbudhnya saṃhitā. Adyar Library. p. 42. http://books.google.com/books?id=OlgLAQAAIAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  14. ^ Sheth, p. 100.
  15. ^ Sheth, pp. 100-101.
  16. ^ Garuda Purana (1.86.10–11)
  17. ^ Matchett, p. 86.
  18. ^ List of Hindu scripture that declares Gautama Buddha as 9th Avatar of Vishnu as as follows [Harivamsha (1.41) Vishnu Purana (3.18) Bhagavata Purana (1.3.24, 2.7.37, 11.4.23 name="Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24">Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24
  19. ^ Garuda Purana (1.1, 2.30.37, 3.15.26) [Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1982.
  20. ^ Agni Purana (160.Narada Purana (2.72)Linga Purana (2.71) Padma Purana (3.252) etc. (Dhere Ramchandra Chintaman) [Dhere Ramchandra Chintaman, Shri Vitthal: ek maha samanvaya, Shri Vidya Prakashan, Pune, 1984 (Marathi
  21. ^ Bhagavata Purana, Canto 1, Chapter 3 - SB 1.3.24: "Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya, just for the purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist." ... SB 1.3.28: "All of the above-mentioned incarnations [avatars] are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord [Krishna or Vishnu]"
  22. ^ O Keshava! O Lord of the universe! O Lord Hari, who have assumed the form of Buddha! All glories to You! O Buddha of compassionate heart, you decry the slaughtering of poor animals performed according to the rules of Vedic sacrifice.] [http://www.salagram.net/Dasavatara-page.htm#Sri Dasavatara stotra
  23. ^ Lecture 1974 by founder of ISKCON - A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada "Because people were addicted so much in violence, in killing the animals, therefore Buddha philosophy was needed"'
  24. ^ Vivekananda: May he who is the Brahman of the Hindus, the Ahura Mazda of Zoroastrians, the Buddha of Buddhists, the Jehovah of the Jews, the Father in Heavens of Christians, give strength to you to carry out your noble ideas!] Hinduism, in The World's Parliament of Religions, J. H. Barrows (Ed.), Vol. II, Chicago 1893, p. 978.
  25. ^ Radhakrishnan: If a Hindu chants the Vedas on the banks of the Ganges, ... if the Japanese worship the image of Buddha, if the European is convinced of Christ's mediatorship, if the Arab reads the Koran in the mosque ... It is their deepest apprehension of God and God's fullest revelation to them.] Eastern Religions and Western Thought, New York 1969, pp. 326–7.
  26. ^ name="Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24"/>Buddha as an Avatar of Vishnu at HinduWiki
  27. ^ Buddha: The Refiner of Hinduism? (hinduism.about.com)
  28. ^ The Buddha as an Avatar of Vishnu (article by A. Seshan from The Times of India)
  29. ^ Mahatma Gandhi and Buddhism (pdf file)
  30. ^ The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 1/Addresses at The Parliament of Religions/Buddhism, the Fulfilment of Hinduism|Buddhism, the Fulfilment of Hinduism, by Swami Vivekananda
  31. ^ Britannica list of dashavatara
  32. ^ George Mason Williams (2003). "Avatara, Balrama". Handbook of Hindu mythology. ABC-CLIO. pp. 70, 72-73. http://books.google.com/books?id=SzLTWow0EgwC&pg=PA70&dq=balarama+ten+incarnations&cd=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  33. ^ Rukmani, T. S. (1970). A critical study of the Bhagavata Purana, with special reference to bhakti. Chowkhamba Sanskrit studies. 77. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series. p. 4. 
  34. ^ Bhag-P 1.3 Canto 1, Chapter 3
  35. ^ Grimes, John A. (1995). Gaṇapati: song of the self. SUNY Press. pp. 105. ISBN 9780791424391. http://books.google.com/books?id=aoqB4n95pSoC&pg=PT105. 
  36. ^ Grimes, pp. 100-105.
  37. ^ Phyllis Granoff, "Gaṇeśa as Metaphor," in Robert L. Brown (ed.) Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God, pp. 94-5, note 2. ISBN 0-7914-0657-1
  38. ^ Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey (1982). Avatar and incarnation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 88. ISBN 0-19-520361-5. 
  39. ^ Winternitz, Moriz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1981). A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 543–544. ISBN 9788120802643. http://books.google.com/books?id=JRfuJFRV_O8C&pg=PA543. 
  40. ^ Soifer, pp. 91-92.
  41. ^ Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A history of the Dvaita school of Vedānta and its literature: from the earliest beginnings to our own times. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. pp. 412. http://books.google.com/books?id=FVtpFMPMulcC&pg=PA412&. 
  42. ^ Lutgendorf, Philip (2007). Hanuman's tale: the messages of a divine monkey. Oxford University Press US. p. 44. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fVFC2Nx-LP8C&pg=PT333&dq=avatara+Hanuman&lr=&client=firefox-a&cd=1#v=snippet&q=avatara%20%20Shiva&f=false. 
  43. ^ Catherine Ludvík. Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. pp. 10-11. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=KCXQN0qoAe0C&pg=PA10&dq=Hanuman+Rudra&client=firefox-a&cd=2#v=onepage&q=Hanuman%20Rudra&f=false. 
  44. ^ Sontheimer, Gunther-Dietz (1990). "God as King for All: The Sanskrit Malhari Mahatmya and it's context". in Hans Bakker. The History of Sacred Places in India as Reflected in Traditional Literature. BRILL. ISBN 9004093184. http://books.google.com/books?id=McwUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA129&dq=khandoba&as_brr=3&sig=ehrDuvjgTUjPr6SBpxYdUXEGjy0#PPP1,M1.  p.118
  45. ^ Sontheimer, Gunther-Dietz (1989). "Between Ghost and God: Folk Deity of the Deccan". in Alf Hiltebeitel. Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. SUNY Press. ISBN 0887069819. http://books.google.com/books?id=CLmuJhU3wC8C&pg=PA299&dq=Between+Ghost+and+God+Sontheimer&ei=LFVwR-f4NIyEiQHq5_B1&sig=_KDFDF3dMBnCxpRu5wSOkVP1tus.  p.332
  46. ^ Brown, Cheever Mackenzie (1990). The triumph of the goddess: the canonical models and theological visions of the Devī-Bhāgavata Purāṇa. SUNY Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780791403631. http://books.google.com/books?id=erENsMcblGAC&pg=PA32. 
  47. ^ Hindu Avatāra and Christian Incarnation: A Comparison, Noel Sheth Philosophy East and West, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Jan., 2002), pp. 98, 117.
  48. ^ The Devī Gītā: the song of the Goddess. pp. 272. http://books.google.com/books?id=OxayHczql9EC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Devi+Gita&cd=1#v=snippet&q=Devi%20avatara&f=false.  verses 9.22cd-23ab
  49. ^ Brown, p. 270.
  50. ^ Avatar - Categories of Incarnations
  51. ^ a b gaudiya.com - theology
  52. ^ Avatar - Categories of Incarnations, by Atmatattva Das, 06/17/2005
  53. ^ Teachings of Lord Chaitanya - Avatars
  54. ^ Types of Avatars; answers to questions #67-70.
  55. ^ DLSHQ.org

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.AVATAR, a Sanskrit word meaning "descent," specially used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose.^ The movie's subtext makes this especially clear - humans are referred to as "The Sky People," and the word "Avatar" means "The Earthly manifestation of a God."
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

The ten Avatars of Vishnu are the most famous. The Hindus believe he has appeared (I) as a fish, (2) as a tortoise, (3) as a hog, (4) as a monster, half man half lion, to destroy the giant Iranian, (5) as a dwarf, (6) as Rama, (7) again as Rama for the purpose of killing the thousand-armed giant Cartasuciriargunan, (8) as Krishna, (9) as Buddha. .They allege that the tenth Avatar has yet to occur and will be in the form of a white-winged horse (Kalki) who will destroy the earth.^ Fan Dumb : The popularity of Avatar has given rise to Na'vikin (a portmanteau of Na'vi and otherkin ), who believe that they are humans with the souls of Na'vi inside of them.
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Fan Hater : If you don't like Avatar, you are a heartless right-wing capitalist bastard who wants to kill the planet.
  • Avatar - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to avatar article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

.From Hindustani अवतार / اوتار (avatār), from Sanskrit अवतार (ava-tāra), descent of a deity from a heaven), a compound of अव (ava), off, away, down) and the vṛddhi-stem of the root √tṝ (to cross).^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica Hinduism Sanskrit Avatāra (“descent”), in Hinduism, the incarnation of a deity in human or animal form to counteract some particular evil in the world.
  • avatar (Hinduism) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avatar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In Hinduism, Avatar or Avatara (Devanagari अवतार, IAST avatāra, the Sanskrit for "descent" (viz., from heaven to earth, from the verbal root tṝ "to cross over ...
  • Avatar - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 1:36 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Avatar is the Sanskrit word meaning "coming down from far away."
  • AVATARS~AN OVERVIEW 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.souledout.org [Source type: Original source]

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈæv.əˌtɑɹ/, /ˌæv.əˈtɑɹ/
  • Hyphenation: av‧atar

Noun

Singular
avatar
Plural
avatars
avatar (plural avatars)
.
  1. In Hinduism the incarnation of a deity, particularly Vishnu.
  2. The physical embodiment of an idea or concept; a personification.^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica Hinduism Sanskrit Avatāra (“descent”), in Hinduism, the incarnation of a deity in human or animal form to counteract some particular evil in the world.
    • avatar (Hinduism) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Hindu cycle of creation and destruction contains the essence of the idea of "avatars" and indeed relies on a final avatar of Vishnu, that of Kalki, as the final destructive force at the end of the world.

    ^ The term is used primarily in Hinduism, for incarnations of Vishnu the preserver, whom many Hindus worship as God.

    • 1886, Robert Louis Stevenson, dedicatory letter to Kidnapped [contrasting the historical Alan Breac with his incarnation in the novel].
      And honest Alan, who was a grim fire-eater in his day, has in this new avatar no more desperate purpose than to steal some young gentleman's attention from his Ovid...
  3. (computing) A digital representation of a person or being. .As used in online communities such as Second Life.^ Online Life is an avatar community.

    ^ Change Life Beginners Guide to Second Life This Beginners Guide to Second Life explores some of the terms and gives beginning information about this popular online game.

    ^ For that reason, I use the "average population" of Second Life as a proxy for the population of an actual country or region.
    • Rough Type: Nicholas Carr's Blog: Avatars consume as much electricity as Brazilians 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.roughtype.com [Source type: General]

    • 1992 Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash
      The people are pieces of software called avatars. They are the audiovisual bodies that people use to communicate with each other in the Metaverse.
    • 1986 Habitat, video game published by Lucasfilms. Cited as the original source of this term in this context under the acknowledgments for Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash.

Translations


French

Etymology

.From Hindustani अवतार / اوتار (avatār), from Sanskrit अवतार (ava-tāra), descent of a deity from a heaven), a compound of अव (ava), off, away, down) and the vṛddhi-stem of the root √tṝ (to cross).^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica Hinduism Sanskrit Avatāra (“descent”), in Hinduism, the incarnation of a deity in human or animal form to counteract some particular evil in the world.
  • avatar (Hinduism) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avatar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In Hinduism, Avatar or Avatara (Devanagari अवतार, IAST avatāra, the Sanskrit for "descent" (viz., from heaven to earth, from the verbal root tṝ "to cross over ...
  • Avatar - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 1:36 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Avatar is the Sanskrit word meaning "coming down from far away."
  • AVATARS~AN OVERVIEW 10 February 2010 11:47 UTC www.souledout.org [Source type: Original source]

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /a.va.taʁ/, X-SAMPA: /a.va.taR/
  • Homophones: avatars
  • Hyphenation: a‧va‧tar

Noun

avatar m. (plural avatars)
  1. (religion, hinduism) avatar
  2. (computing) avatar

Serbo-Croatian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /aʋǎtaːr/
  • Hyphenation: a‧va‧tar

Noun

avàtār m. (Cyrillic spelling ава̀та̄р)
  1. avatar

Declension


Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Avatar can mean:


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Avatar, which are similar to those in the above article.








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