The Full Wiki

More info on Ax–Grothendieck theorem

Ax–Grothendieck theorem: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In mathematics, the Ax–Grothendieck theorem is a result that was proved independently by James Ax and Grothendieck.[1][2]

The theorem is often given as the special case as follows: If P is a polynomial from \mathbf{C}^n to \mathbf{C}^n and P is injective then P is bijective. That is, if P is one-to-one then P is onto.[1][2]

The full theorem generalizes to any algebraic variety over an algebraically closed field.[1]

Contents

Proof via finite fields

Grothendieck's proof of the theorem[1] [2] is based on proving the analogous theorem for finite fields and their algebraic closures. That is, for any field F that is itself finite or that is the closure of a finite field, if a polynomial P from Fn to itself is injective then it is bijective.

If F is a finite field, then Fn is finite. In this case the theorem is true for trivial reasons, and true more generally for arbitrary functions, not just for polynomials: any injection of a finite set to itself is a bijection. When F is the algebraic closure of a finite field, the result follows from Hilbert's Nullstellensatz. The Ax–Grothendieck theorem for complex numbers can therefore be proven by showing that a counterexample over \mathbf{C} would translate into a counterexample in some algebraic extension of a finite field.

This method of proof is noteworthy in that it is an example of the idea that finitistic algebraic relations in fields of characteristic 0 translate into algebraic relations over finite fields with large characteristic.[1]. Thus, one can use the arithmetic of finite fields to prove a statement about \mathbf{C} even though there is no non-trivial homomorphism from any finite field to \mathbf{C}. The proof thus uses model theoretic principles to prove an elementary statement about polynomials. The proof for the general case uses a similar method.

Other proofs

There are other proofs of the theorem. Armand Borel gave a proof using topology.[2] The case of n = 1 and field \mathbf{C} follows since \mathbf{C} is algebraically closed and can also be thought of as a special case of the result that for any analytic function f on \mathbf{C}, f injective implies f surjective. This is a corollary of Picard's theorem.

Related results

Another example of reducing theorems about morphisms of finite type to finite fields can be found in EGA IV: There, it is proved that a radicial S-endomorphism of a scheme X of finite type over S is bijective (10.4.11), and that if X/S is of finite presentation, and the endomorphism is a monomorphism, then it is an automorphism (17.9.6).

References

Further reading

External links

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message