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Axis Powers
Military alliance
1939–1945
Capital Not specified
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War II
 - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1939
 - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936
 - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939
 - Dissolved 1945
.The Axis powers (German: Achsenmächte, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse, Japanese: Suujikukoku (枢軸国?), Hungarian: Tengelyhatalmak, Romanian: Puterile Axei, Bulgarian: "Сили от Оста"), also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or just the Axis, comprised the countries that were opposed to the Allies during World War II.^ War; Retaliation; Alliances; Axis powers; Allies .
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^ World War II provided by PBS .
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^ World War II list Not a member?
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[1] .The three major Axis powers—Germany, Japan, and Italy—were part of a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite Pact in September 1940, which officially founded the Axis powers.^ War; Defeat; Alliances; Axis powers .
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^ Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact.

^ On September 27, Germany, Italy, and Japan formalized the Axis coalition by signing the Tripartite Pact in Berlin.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

.At their zenith, the Axis powers ruled empires that dominated large parts of Europe, Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, but World War II ended with their total defeat and dissolution.^ In Europe, World War II was fought from 1939 to 1945.
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^ Southeast Asia on the brink of World War II ("brink" defined as late 1930s).
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^ World War II provided by PBS .
  • U.S. History - Standards of Learning | Instructional Resources - USII.6.a 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ushistory.pwnet.org [Source type: Reference]

.Like the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, and other nations entered and later left the Axis during the course of the war.^ Other products in the "Axis & Allies" series.
  • Fair Play Games - Axis and Allies Accessories - Discounted Board Games and Card Games - Table Tactics - 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fairplaygames.com [Source type: General]

^ What is axis versus allied in world war 2?
  • WikiAnswers - What was the allied and axis power of World War 2 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

^ Allies and Central powers during WWI Allies and Axis powers during WWII what nations?
  • Axis and Allies during WWI and WWII? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[2]

Contents

Origins

.
Tripartite Pact signing.
^ Marshal Antonescu signs the Tripartite Pact.
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^ Yugoslavia signs the Tripartite Pact.
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^ Slovakia signs the Tripartite Pact .
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Seated on the left starting with Saburo Kurusu, Galeazzo Ciano and Adolf Hitler.
.The term "axis" is believed to have been first coined by Hungary's fascist prime minister Gyula Gömbös who advocated an alliance of Germany, Hungary, and Italy and worked as an intermediary between Germany and Italy to lessen differences between the two countries to achieve such an alliance.^ Germany and Italy divided Slovenia between them.
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^ Leader of Italy who made a military alliance with Germany and Japan .
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^ The military alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan .
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[3] .Gömbös' sudden death in 1936 while negotiating with Germany in Munich and the arrival of a non-fascist successor to him ended Hungary's initial involvement in pursuing a trilateral axis, but the lessening of differences between Germany and Italy would lead to a bilateral axis being formed.^ Germany and Italy divided Slovenia between them.
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^ Alliance between Germany,  Italy and Japan.

^ I hoped that his death would result in the forming of Germany into a fascist state paralleling Italy.

[3]
.In November 1936, the term "axis" was first officially used by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini when he spoke of a Rome-Berlin axis arising out of the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on 25 October 1936, around which the other states of Europe (and of the world) would revolve.^ In 1952, a peace treaty was signed between Japan and the United States.
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^ Mussolini joins with German fascist dictator Adolf Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis.
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^ Rome-Berlin Axis formed; By 1936 Japan, Germany, & Italy out of League .
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.This treaty was forged when Italy, originally opposed to Nazi Germany, was faced with opposition to its war in Abyssinia from the League of Nations and received support from Germany.^ Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
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^ (Liddell 116) Thus Italy ended the war as an Allied nation at war with Nazi Germany.
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^ Germany and Italy declare war on US .

Later, in May 1939, this relationship transformed into an alliance, which Mussolini called the "Pact of Steel".
.The "Axis powers" formally took the name after the Tripartite Pact was signed by Germany, Italy and Japan on September 27, 1940 in Berlin, Germany.^ Rome-Berlin Axis formed; By 1936 Japan, Germany, & Italy out of League .
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^ Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact.

^ On September 27, Germany, Italy, and Japan formalized the Axis coalition by signing the Tripartite Pact in Berlin.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

.The pact was subsequently joined by Hungary (November 20, 1940), Romania (November 23, 1940), Slovakia (November 24, 1940) and Bulgaria (March 1, 1941).^ In 1941, Bulgaria joined the Axis Powers.

^ November 20-December 7, 1941 .
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^ Hungary joins the Tripartite Pact.
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.The Italian name Roberto briefly acquired a new meaning from "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo" between 1940 and 1945. Its most militarily powerful members were Germany and Japan.^ Its most militarily powerful members were Germany and Japan.
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^ By 1932 it was the most powerful party in Germany.
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^ Some Italians born in this time were named Roberto, which briefly acquired a new meaning from "Roma-Berlino-Tokio".
  • Axis Powers; Major and Minor; Pact of Steel; Anti-Comintern Pact 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

These two nations had also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with each other as allies before the Tripartite Pact in 1936.

Participating nations

Belligerents

Germany

.Germany was unofficially the leader of the Axis powers as it had authored the Tripartite Pact that formed the Axis powers.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
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^ The three major Axis powers were the original signatories to the Tripartite Pact : .
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^ Japan joins Axis (Tripartite Pact).
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

.Germany was ruled at this time by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party.^ Hitler withdraws Germany from the League of Nations [ Germany ] .
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^ Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany .
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^ Germany was ruled by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.
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.German citizens felt that their country had been humiliated as a result of the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I in which Germany was forced to pay enormous reparations payments, and forfeit German-populated territories and its colonies.^ The treaties limited the armed forces of the defeated countries and required them to pay war damages.
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^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles , which followed First World War , Germany lost its colonies to the Allies and had much its territory transferred to France or Poland.
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^ World War II had ended.
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.German nationalists blamed the country's defeat on pacifists, Communists, and Jews.^ After their defeat in World War I and years of economic depression, Germans were vulnerable to Hitler's rhetoric of nationalism and racial purity, which blamed Communists and Jews for Germany's social and economic problems.
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^ He vowed to ignore the Versailles Treaty and avenge Germany's defeat in World War I. Hitler preached that Germans were a "superior race,” while calling Jews and Slavs inferior.
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^ He began a campaign of hatred against Jews and Communists and promised to rid the country of them.
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.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Germans had to pay large reparations, which placed pressure on the German economy that led to hyperinflation during the early 1920s.^ Hyperinflation - German Economy Collapses Failed Beer Hall Putsch - Hitler imprisoned - writes Mein Kampf .
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^ A Japanese fighting plane shot down during the attack on Dutch Harbor, Alaska in early June, before shipment to the United States.
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^ Many Germans blamed all their country's economic woes on the hated Treaty of Versailles, which forced Germany to give up territory and resources and pay large reparations.
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.In 1923, the French occupied the Ruhr region as a result of late payments leading to greater feelings of discontent.^ A united Korea might be inhospitable to a continued U.S. military presence, might result in growing Chinese influence over the peninsula, and could lead to the political isolation of Japan in the region.
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^ When the German Government defaults on its reparation payments, the French Army occupies the Ruhr.
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^ This was followed up shortly after by an Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa , which resulted in the region joining the Allies.
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.Although Germany began to improve economically in the mid-1920s, the Great Depression created more economic hardship and a rise in political forces that advocated radical solutions to Germany's woes.^ Germany's economic depression 2.
  • What were the causes for World War II - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Great Depression Definition A period of worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and extended into the early 1930s, characterized by unemployment, poverty, hunger, and despair Context Many historians think that the hardship brought on by the Great Depression contributed to the onset of World War II. .

^ The severe economic reparations helped bring on a serious economic crisis, hyperinflation , and civil unrest in Germany that made possible the rise of the National Socialist( Nazi ) Party.
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.The Nazis under Adolf Hitler followed and promoted the nationalist belief that Germany had been betrayed by Jews and Communists and promised to rebuild Germany as a major power and create a Greater Germany that would include Alsace-Lorraine, Austria, Sudetenland, and other German-populated territories in Europe.^ Main article: Nazi Germany Greater German Reich Germany was the principal Axis power in Europe.
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^ Racism was the core belief of German Nazis and other Fascists .
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^ Adolf Hitler was the leader of Germany.
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.In addition to this, the Nazis aimed to occupy non-German territory of Poland, Baltic countries, and the Soviet Union, to colonize with Germans as part of the Nazi policy of seeking Lebensraum ("living space") in eastern Europe.^ The ultimate goal of Hitler's policy was to secure "living space" for the German "master race" in eastern Europe.
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^ Eastern Europe was subjected to Soviet hegemony.
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^ Lublink, Poland is occupied by the Soviets.
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.Germany renounced the Versailles treaty in 1935 and began to rearm.^ German troops at the 1935 Nuremberg Rally in 1933, National Socialist Adolf Hitler became the leader of Germany and began a massive rearming campaign.
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^ In 1922, the politically isolated Germany began to skirt the Treaty of Versailles through a treaty of cooperation with the equally isolated Soviet Russia: in exchange for German industrial equipment and technical expertise, Russia provided raw materials and secret training grounds.
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^ Hitler reintroduces conscription to the armed forces, and also starts to rearm ignoring The Treaty Of Versailles , which was signed in 1919 after World War I to nullify further threats of aggressive acts by Germany.
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The Rhineland was remilitarised. .Germany later annexed Austria in 1938, the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and Memel from Lithuania in 1939. Germany then invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939, creating the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and Slovakia as a country.^ In March 1939, Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, effectively killing appeasement.

^ In March 1939, Germany annexed the remainder of Czechoslovakia.
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^ Germany invades and annexes Austria (Anschluss) [ Germany ] .
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.On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which contained a secret protocol dividing eastern Europe into spheres of influence.^ August 23 : Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact signed: non-aggression pact between Soviet Union and Germany.
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^ In Moscow, on the night of August 23, 1939, the Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed.
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^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
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[4] .Germany's invasion of its part of Poland under the Pact eight days later[5] led to the subsequent beginning of World War II.^ World War II: Marseille liberated.
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^ World War II provided by PBS .
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^ World War II list Not a member?
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.By 1941, Germany occupied most of Europe and its military forces were fighting the Soviet Union, nearly capturing its capital of Moscow.^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
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^ The capture of Berlin, then Germany's capital, was left to Soviet forces.
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^ In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
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.However, crushing defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk devastated the German armed forces.^ German forces capture Kursk .
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^ German tanks at the Battle of Kursk German Panther tank.
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^ German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad .
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This, combined with Western Allied landings in France and Italy, led to a three-front war that depleted Germany's armed forces and resulted in Germany's defeat in 1945.

Italy

.The Kingdom of Italy and the Italian Empire was under the leadership of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in the name of King Victor Emmanuel III.^ Victor Emmanuel III becomes King of Albania.
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^ Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and German dictator Adolph Hitler.

^ Fascist "March on Rome"; Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini prime minister .

.During World War I, Italy had entered the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary.^ Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy joined the war against Germany as a cobelligerent.
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^ Germany, Italy and later Japan in the second world war.
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.At the end Italy made only minor gains rather than the large concessions promised by the London Pact.^ But at the end, Montgomery's forces gained the upper-hand and Romell's forces had to retreat, thereby not only losing one of the most crucial battles of the war but also paving the way for the Allies to launch their offensive against Mussolini's Italy.
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^ Wada also testified that, between late February and the end of July 1942, General Homma made 10 separate requests to Tokyo for large supplies of medicines.
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^ Because Hawaii's population was made up mostly of minorities, they were considered much less of a threat than the Japanese-Americans living on the mainland.
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.The London pact was nullified with the treaty of Versailles, Italian nationalists and the public saw this as an injustice and an outrage; there had been over 600,000 Italian casualties.^ There were also great advertisements for German state-of-the-art products that might be able to be marketed to Italian and Japanese firms that also received these fine publications.

^ Pages) Rasons leading to World War II There were many reasons leading up to World War II, and many of them were based on conditions of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 following World War I On.

^ Even though this was a direct challenge to the Versailles Treaty, there was little reaction (its existence was already known anyway).

This resentment together with internal discontent and an economic downturn allowed the Italian Fascists under Benito Mussolini to rise to power in 1922.
.In the late 19th century, after the reunification, a nationalist movement grew around the concept of Italia irredenta, which advocated the incorporation of Italian-speaking areas under foreign rule into Italy.^ Rescued by German paratroopers, Mussolini escaped to Salo in northern Italy, where he established a puppet government, the Italian Social Republic under German protection.
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^ Pavelic was the leader of the Ustaski Pokret (Ustashe Movement) that came into being in 1929 under his leadership.

^ Benito ("Il Duce") Mussolini, a former Socialist, organized discontented Italians in 1919 into the Fascist Party to "rescue Italy from Bolshevism."
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.There was a desire to annex Italian speaking areas in Dalmatia.^ Under the terms of the secret London Pact Italy was promised the Italian-speaking areas still held by Austria as well as colonial concessions.
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^ All heavy industry was to be dismantled or destroyed, and the main industrial areas (Upper Silesia , Saar , Ruhr , and the German speaking parts of Alsace-Lorraine ) were to be annexed.
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^ Germany and Italy annexed Slovenia, Italy annexed Dalmatia , Bulgaria annexed Macedonia, and Italian-controlled Albania annexed Montenegro.
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.Italy's Fascist regime's intention was to create a "New Roman Empire" in which Italy would dominate the Mediterranean Sea.^ In Italy, Benito Mussolini seized power as a fascist dictator promising to create a "New Roman Empire".
  • World War 2 Page 1 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC vetshome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Italy, Benito Mussolini seized power as a fascist dictator promising to create a "New Roman Empire."
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Italy, Benito Mussolini seized power as a fascist dictator promising to create a " New Roman Empire .
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1935-1936, Italy invaded and annexed Ethiopia.^ Italy annexes Ethiopia.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005248.html 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: News]

^ Italy invaded Albania, Ethiopia, Libya.
  • allAfrica.com: Gambia: Celebrations of the Anniversary of the 70th Year of the Beginning of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His successful, ruthless war against Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935–1936 was opposed by the League of Nations and that opposition eventually led to Hitler seeking an alliance with fascist Italy.
  • Benito Mussolini and his Survivors 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.usmbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The League of Nations protested, however no serious action was taken, though Italy faced After conquering Ethiopia, the Fascist government proclaimed the creation of the "Italian Empire".[6] diplomatic isolation by many countries.^ THE KINGDOM OF ITALY The new nation faced many serious problems.
  • Brief History of Italy | Asia Travel Europe 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Britain and no isolated action will be taken by Great Britain.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy withdraws from League of Nations .
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005248.html 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: News]

.In 1937 Italy left the League of Nations, and in the same year joined the Anti-Comintern Pact signed by Germany and Japan the preceding year.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan joins Axis (Tripartite Pact).
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The military alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan .
  • Jan07_article03 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.itdl.org [Source type: Academic]

.In March/April 1939 Italian troops invaded and annexed Albania.^ Mussolini, following suit, invaded and annexed Albania in April.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1939, German troops invaded Poland.
  • World War II: An Overview | Scholastic.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: News]

^ On April 7, 1939 , Italian troops landed in Albania.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Germany and Italy signed the Pact of Steel on May 22.
.Italy entered World War II on June 10, 1940. In September 1940 Germany, Italy and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact.^ Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ England entered World War II after the Germans invaded Poland in September of 1939.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - World War II Flags 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: Reference]

^ World War II list Not a member?
  • World War II list 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.listal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1941, however, the Italians had suffered multiple military defeats; in Greece and against the British in Egypt.^ Despite its numerical strength and the fact that British forces in the Mediterranean were greatly outnumbered and very stretched, the Italian military could not defeat them anywhere, and was severely beaten by the British, and simply had to call for the help of the much more capable Germans.
  • World War 2 Leaders 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.2worldwar2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy joins Germany in declaring war on France and Great Britain, then suffers defeat at the hands of the British and the Greeks in Europe and of the Ethiopians and the British in East Africa.
  • Commanding Heights : Italy Overview | on PBS 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Carl A. Spaatz, commander of the Eighth Air Force, which flew bombing raids from British airfields against industrial and military targets on the European continent.

.It was only through German intervention in Yugoslavia, the Balkans and North Africa that Italy managed to avert a major military collapse.^ Germans give up North Africa .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hinduism 's only major expansion was in the Middle East and North East Africa .
  • World War VI - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in 1940 Italy launched an unprovoked invasion of GreeceÑa fiasco, requiring German intervention to rescue an Italian army fought to a standstill by the Greeks.
  • Fascist Italy 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By 1943 the Italian people had lost faith in Mussolini and no longer supported the war; Italy had lost its colonies, the allies had taken North Africa in May and Sicily had been invaded in July.^ The Allies prepare to land in Sicily and Italy.
  • Benito Mussolini killer file 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ITALY: The Allies invaded Sicily (the island was liberated on 17 August).
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC warchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Covers the Allied invasion of Sicily from July 9 to August 17, 1943.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Reference]

.On July 25, 1943, King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Mussolini, placed him under arrest, and began secret negotiations with the Allies.^ Victor Emmanuel III becomes King of Albania.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mussolini had fallen from power on July 25.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 25 the king, Victor Emmanuel III , ordered the arrest of Mussolini and entrusted Marshal Pietro Badoglio with the formation of a new government.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Italy then signed an armistice with the Allies on September 8, 1943 and later joined the Western Allies as a co-belligerent.^ On September 3 the Allies invaded Italy itself and the Italians signed an armistice .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy signs a secret armistice with the Allies and declares war on Germany.
  • Commanding Heights : Italy Overview | on PBS 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy was forced to sign the Italian Armistice in September 1943.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On September 12, 1943, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans in Operation Oak and a puppet state was formed in northern Italy (see "German puppet states" below), although it exercised little real power and Italy continued as a member of the Axis Tripartite Pact in name only.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan joins Axis (Tripartite Pact).
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rescued by German paratroopers, Mussolini forms a small Fascist regime in Northern Italy.
  • Commanding Heights : Italy Overview | on PBS 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.This resurrected Fascist state was referred to as Repubblica di Salò or the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana/RSI).^ On 23 September 1943, Mussolini set up the Italian Social Republic (RSI, Repubblica Sociale Italiana ), a fascist state in German-occupied northern Italy.
  • Benito Mussolini and his Survivors 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.usmbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second incarnation of Fascist Italy was officially known as Repubblica Sociale Italiana meaning Italian Social Republic .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian ) succeeded the Kingdom of Italy as a member of the Axis in 1943.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Japan

.Japan was the principal Axis power in Asia and the Pacific.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September Japan joined the Axis powers.
  • North Dakota Studies 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ndstudies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan in China and the Pacific (Axis victory) .
  • Causes of the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rpfuller.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Empire of Japan, commonly referred to as Imperial Japan, was a constitutional monarchy ruled by Emperor Shōwa.^ Japan then created the puppet state of Manchukuo ruled by Henry P'u-i, the last Manchu emperor who was overthrown in 1912.
  • : Lee Saunders : World War II : 1930 -1937 : 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.leesaunders.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spread the idea that the military clique is ruling Japan and has shoved the nation into war, deceiving the Emperor, misleading him, and misguiding him.
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its official name was Dai Nippon Teikoku meaning Empire of Greater Japan, known commonly as Imperial Japan for its imperial ambitions toward Asia and the Pacific .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The constitution prescribed that "The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution" (article 4) and that "The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and the Navy" (article 11).^ As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense, that always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us.

^ Few of the Royal Yugoslav Army's 30 divisions actively resisted, and after 11 days the Yugoslav High Command surrendered.
  • Osprey Publishing - Axis Forces in Yugoslavia 1941–45 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ospreypublishing.com [Source type: General]

^ Determine the fate of the world as you command the army, navy, and air force of one of five world powers in a real-time strategy game.
  • Axis & Allies for PC - GameRankings 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gamerankings.com [Source type: General]
  • Axis & Allies for PC - GameRankings 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gamerankings.com [Source type: General]

.Under the imperial institution were a political cabinet and Imperial General Headquarters with two chiefs of staff.^ On December 3, 1941, the Imperial General Headquarters authorized general Yasuji Okamura to implement the sanko sakusen in North China.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major General Joseph W. Stilwell served as Chiang's chief of staff and trained the Chinese army.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Handy, working in the Pentagon, contacted Lieutenant General W. Bedell Smith, Eisenhower's chief of staff, for his opinion.
  • The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.At its height, Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere included Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, large parts of China, Malaysia, French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, The Philippines, Burma, some of India, and various other Pacific Islands - specifically in the central Pacific.^ Japan attacked and occupied various islands in Pacific.
  • World War II How America Came to War, Theses & Dissertations, Free Essays @ ChuckIII College Resources 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.chuckiii.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Print "Island hopping in the Central Pacific" subsection The liberation of the Philippines.
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For propaganda purposes, Japan's leaders stated that the goal of its military campaigns was to create the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result of the internal discord and economic downturn of the 1920s, militaristic elements set Japan on a path of expansionism. .Japan had plans to establish its hegemony in Asia and thus become self-sufficient, as the Japanese home islands lacked natural resources needed for growth, by acquiring areas with abundant natural resources.^ Japan seeks its natural resources and land to the west in Asia.
  • World War II How America Came to War, Theses & Dissertations, Free Essays @ ChuckIII College Resources 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.chuckiii.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan wanted to gain territory in Asia and the Pacific for needed resources.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.iq.poquoson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese home islands .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japan's expansionist policies alienated it from other countries in the League of Nations and by the mid-1930s brought it closer to Germany and Italy, who had both pursued similar expansionist policies, which resulted in condemnation by a number of countries.^ Leader of Italy who made a military alliance with Germany and Japan .
  • Jan07_article03 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.itdl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The military alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan .
  • Jan07_article03 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.itdl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1936, Germany and Italy agreed to support each other's foreign policy.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initial steps of Japan aligning militarily with Germany began with the Anti-Comintern Pact, in which the two countries agreed to ally with each other to challenge any attack by the Soviet Union.^ Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact in which they agreed not to go to war against each other.
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
  • World War II timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidetorussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allied powers were those countries aligned against Hitler and Japan.
  • World War II - An Educator's Reference Desk Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.eduref.org [Source type: Original source]

.Japan's first major belligerent action was against the Chinese in 1937. The subsequent Japanese invasion and occupation of parts of China resulted in numerous atrocities against civilians such as the Nanking massacre and the Three Alls Policy.^ Chinese against the Japanese.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.iq.poquoson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese occupation policy .

^ In Japanese overconfidence lay the seeds of Japan's first major defeats.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Japanese also fought skirmishes with Soviet-Mongolian forces in Manchukuo in 1938 & 1939. Japan sought to avoid potential war with the Soviet Union by signing a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union later in 1941.
.With European colonial powers focused on the war in Europe, Japan sought to acquire their colonies.^ In the China-Burma-India Theater, the war was motivated by the European nations' desire to recover their Asian colonial possessions taken over or threatened by Japan in 1941.
  • Memories of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.littleton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In World War I non-European theatres had seen quick and short colonial battles, but in World War II these theatres demanded far more resources and human sacrifice.
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - Phantis 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC wiki.phantis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the Axis and the British-French-American powers sought either to retain or to acquire colonies, markets, sources of raw material and areas of cheap labor where capital could be invested at a high rate of profit.
  • The Militant - April 25, 2005 -- World War II: Three wars in one 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.themilitant.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1940 Japan responded to the collapse of France to the Germans, by occupying French Indochina.^ Then in 1941 Japan took over French Indochina.
  • Mrs. Huffman's 6th Grade Class of 2002-03 World War II Essays 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.huffmanworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Free French Flag 1940-1944 The occupied part of France and those French citizens and fighters who fled the Nazi conquest, mainly to England, were known as the Free French and were led by General Charles de Gaulle.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - World War II Flags 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: Reference]

^ I used Italy because I'm mostly Italian, Germany, because I'm part German, France, because I'm part french, and America because I live in America~!
  • Court Records • Hetalia: Axis Powers : Global Studios - Page 2 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.court-records.net [Source type: General]

.The regime of Vichy France, a de-facto ally of Germany, accepted Japan's takeover of Indochina.^ Japan accepts Allied surrender terms.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But we declared war on Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy because of that Japanese action a half-world away because Hitler and Mussolini were publicly declared allies of Japan.
  • Observations of an old World War II Marine 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC wais.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations with Germany became increasingly strained, and the aggressive acts of Japan in China, Indochina, and Thailand provoked protests from the United States.
  • World War II - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Entry - Facts from the Encyclopedia on Yahoo! Kids 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC kids.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Allied forces did not respond with war.^ Many Italians, including Mussolini, felt that the Treaty of Versailles, which did not give Italy the lands it had been promised when it entered the war on the side of the Allies, was unfair.

^ During World War II, Allied forces begin landing at Anzio Italy 1944-01-29 - World War II: The Battle of Cisterna takes place in central Italy.
  • Today in World War Two History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.historyorb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The author is the editor of the New York newspaper PM and was on the planning staff of SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces) during the war.
  • Ralph Graham: Behind the Scenes of World War II (1946) 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, with the continuing war in China, the United States instituted in 1941 an embargo against Japan cutting off the supply of scrap metal and oil needed for its industry, trade and war effort.^ War between China and Japan .
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By late summer of 1941, however, the U.S. was in a state of undeclared war with Germany.
  • World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan since 1937 had been at war with China.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To isolate American forces in the Philippines, and American naval power, the Imperial General Headquarters ordered the Imperial Japanese Navy to attack the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. The Japanese forces also invaded Malaysia and Hong Kong.^ Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

^ What brought the United States fully into the war was the Japanese attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941.
  • World War II: a people's war? - Howard Zinn | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Brief History of World War II in America December 7, 1941, the Japanese Navy bombed the American base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • World War II: 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cfep.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese initially were able to inflict a series of defeats against the Allies, however by 1943 American industrial strength was made apparent and the Japanese forces were pushed back towards the home islands.^ Japanese forces invade the Aleutian Islands.
  • World War II - Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gmu.mossiso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead it pushed closer and closer to the Japanese home islands.
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Pacific, American forces continued to press back the Japanese perimeter.
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pacific War lasted until the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The Soviets formally declared war in August, 1945 and engaged Japanese forces in Manchuria and northeast China.^ Ground zero in Hiroshima after the atomic bombing.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 8, the USSR declared war (effective August 9).
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Japanese had declared war on the United States.
  • World War II How America Came to War, Theses & Dissertations, Free Essays @ ChuckIII College Resources 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.chuckiii.com [Source type: Original source]

Hungary

.Hungary was ruled by Regent Admiral Miklós Horthy.^ Hungary , under the authoritarian rule of Admiral Horthy as Regent, had been allied with Germany during the First World War as a member of the Dual Monarchy of Austria and Hungary.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admiral Miklos Horthy, elected Regent with power to appoint the prime minister, veto legislation, dissolve the parliament and command the armed forces.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kingdom of Hungary, actually a dictatorship under Admiral Horthy, formed after the Romanian Army pulled out of Hungary.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - World War II Flags 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: Reference]

Hungary was the first country apart from Germany, Italy, and Japan to adhere to the Tripartite Pact, signing the agreement on 20 November 1940.
.In the late 1910s and early 1920s, political instability plagued the country until a regency was established by Miklos Horthy.^ The king remained in his country, and until late in the war there was very little Danish resistance to the occupation.
  • World War 2 Leaders 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.2worldwar2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He early established a friendship with the dour and stubby Hermann Schmitz of I.G. Farben, entertaining him frequently for lunch at the Cloud Room in the Chrysler Building, Teagle's favorite Manhattan haunt of the late 1920s and the 1930s.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Excerpts Trading with the Enemy The Nazi - American Money Plot 1933-1949 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, they did not arrive in the ETO until early 1945, too late to have any effect on the battlefield.
  • The Power of sherman Tanks during World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Horthy, who was a Hungarian nobleman and Austro-Hungarian naval officer, became Regent in 1920. In Hungary, nationalism was strong, as was anti-Semitism, which drew Hungarian nationalists to support the Nazi regime in Germany.^ The Nationalist Party strongly supports the Nazis.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Horthy, a Hungarian nobleman and Austro-Hungarian naval officer, became Regent in 1920, ruling the kingdom in the absence of an acknowledged king.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi movement.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was a desire by Hungarian nationalists to recover the territories lost through the Trianon Treaty.^ The Nazi government increased the strength of the German armed forces and sought to overturn the Versailles Treaty, to recover German territory lost at the peace settlement, and to return to the so-called Fatherland German-speaking minorities within the borders of surrounding countries.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hungary's foreign policy under Horthy was driven by the ambition to recover the territories lost through the imposition on her of the Trianon Treaty.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles , which followed First World War , Germany lost its colonies to the Allies and had much its territory transferred to France or Poland.
  • world war ii - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hungary drew closer to Germany and Italy largely because of the shared desire to revise the peace settlements made after the First World War.^ Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany, Italy and later Japan in the second world war.
  • Axis, Allies and Others 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The First World War ended with Germanys defeat.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC warchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of its pro-German stance, the Hungarians received favourable territorial settlements in the form of territory from German annexed Czechoslovakia in 1939 and Northern Transylvania from Romania in the Vienna Awards of 1940. During the invasion of Yugoslavia, the Hungarians permitted German troops to transit through their territory and Hungarian forces also took part in the invasion.^ Germany forced Romania to relinquish Transylvania to Hungary on August 30, 1940 in the second Vienna Award .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland.
  • world War I and World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC primewritings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German troops enter Romania.
  • World War II Timeline: 1940@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parts of Yugoslavia were annexed to Hungary; in response, the United Kingdom immediately broke off diplomatic relations.^ Hungary breaks diplomatic relations with Uruguay.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with Hungary.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hungary breaks diplomatic relations with Brazil.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Although Hungary did not participate initially in the German invasion of the Soviet Union, on 27 June Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union.^ Hungary participated in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland declares war on the Soviet Union.
  • World War II - Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gmu.mossiso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 500,000 troops served in the Eastern Front.^ Impulse 4: Allies : Impulse 5: Axis : Impulse 6: Allies : Impulse 7: Axis : End: Germany continues to add troops to his eastern front-in-being but is slowed by bad winter weather.

^ More than 3 million German troops invaded over a 2,000 mile (3,220 kilometer) front.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, over 10,000 Greek and 500 Commonwealth troops remained at large and caused serious problems for the German occupiers over the next four years.
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All five of Hungary's field armies ultimately participated in the war against the Soviet Union; the largest and the most significant contribution was made by the Second Army.^ Hungary participated in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet army began the war under significant disadvantages.

^ Finland declares war on the Soviet Union.
  • World War II - Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gmu.mossiso.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 25 November 1941, Hungary was one of thirteen signatories to the revived Anti-Comintern Pact.^ November 25, 1941 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On November 26, 1941 , Hungary was one of 13 signatories to the revived Anti-Comintern Pact .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hungarian troops like their other Axis counterparts were involved in numerous actions against the Soviets.^ Up until the last year of the war in Europe, nearly 95 per cent of all German troops were engaged against the Soviet forces.
  • Revolutionaries and World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war pitted some 50 Allied nations, most notable among which were the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, against the Axis nations.
  • World War II - Death toll, Communism and the Spanish Civil War, Munich and Mussolini, Japan, militarism, and expansionism, 193941: The Axis triumphant 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Millions Like Us , mostly women, work in factories providing planes, tanks, weapons and other supplies for the troops.
  • World War II - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of 1943, however, the Soviets had gained the upper hand while the Germans found themselves in retreat.^ This loss, along with Germany‟s accepted defeat on Sicily proved that the tide was turning and the Allied forces were now gaining the upper hand.
  • The Yalta Conference and Its Role in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dispersion of the Axis forces throughout Europe during this time was an important reason why the Allies were able to gain the upper hand in North Africa.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.u-s-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in 1943 Mussolini announced the new Italian Social Republic, limited to the parts of northern Italy still under German occupation.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - World War II Flags 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: Reference]

.The Hungarian Second Army was destroyed in fighting near Voronezh, on the banks of the Don River.^ July 6 --Germans capture Voronezh, near Don River.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An Italian and a Hungarian army were deployed farther upstream on the Don River.
  • World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly after the armies reached the Rhine at Cologne, we were driving along the west bank within sight of the undamaged I.G. Farben plant at Leverkusen across the river.
  • CHAPTER ELEVEN: Wall Street-Nazi Collaboration in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1944, with Soviet troops advancing toward Hungary, Horthy attempted to reach an armistice with the Allies.^ Soviet troops, meanwhile, advance from the east.
  • Adolf Hitler killer file 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jan 6, 1944 - Soviet troops advance into Poland.
  • The History Place - World War Two in Europe Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied troops land in Normandy, 1944.
  • The Second World War - a knol by Oliver Kim 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Germans replaced the existing regime with a new one.^ However, in 1943 Mussolini announced the new Italian Social Republic, limited to the parts of northern Italy still under German occupation.
  • Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - World War II Flags 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.loeser.us [Source type: Reference]

^ Existing cancels were modified, or new ones were created.
  • Page 1 of the Catalog 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.gps.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Germans introduced a new method of warfare called blitzkrieg (lightning war), stressing speed and surprise.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually Budapest was taken by the Soviets, after fierce fighting.^ Furious fighting broke out in Budapest between the protesters and Hungarian security forces and Soviet soldiers.
  • This day in military history.. - International Military Forums 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.military-quotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By March, Soviet troops had reached Berlin and were engaged in fierce street-to-street fighting for control over the city.
  • The Second World War - a knol by Oliver Kim 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet forces close in on Budapest; heavy fighting takes place in Lake Balaton area of Hungary.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

.A number of pro-German Hungarians retreated to Italy and Germany where they fought until the end of the war.^ Italy declares war on Nazi Germany.
  • Hall of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.worldwarii.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But RAF bombers pounded Germany until the end of the war.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy declares war on Germany.
  • World War II | Deutsche Welle 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www6.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

Romania

.When war erupted in Europe in 1939, Romania was pro-British and was allied to the Poles.^ Blitzkrieg: War in Europe 1939-1945 .

^ War breaks out in Europe: 1939 .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allied Bomber War, 1939-45 .
  • Airpower Doctrine - World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.However following the invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union, and the German conquest of France and the low countries, Romania found itself increasingly isolated.^ Hungary participated in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
  • World War II timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidetorussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nazi conquest of the Low Countries (BENELUX) .
  • Causes of the Cold War 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rpfuller.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pro-German and pro-fascist elements began to grow.^ There was also anxiety that disaffected pro-German elements in the South might provoke civil unrest or even encourage an opportunistic Argentine invasion.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.The August 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union contained a secret protocol ceding Bessarabia, part of northern Romania, to the Soviet Union.^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
  • World War II timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidetorussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in Moscow .

^ In August 1939, Germany broke the terms of the Anti-Comintern Pact when it signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany.
  • Asia Times Online :: Korea News - Proliferation, imperialism - and the 'China threat' 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed Bessarabia, as well as Northern Bukovina and the Hertza region.^ Later that year, in June the Soviet Union occupied Latvia , Lithuania , and Estonia , and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union annexes Baltic states .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after that, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, in addition, it annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .On August 30, 1940, Germany forced Romania to cede Northern Transylvania to Hungary as a result of the second Vienna Award.^ Germany forced Romania to relinquish Transylvania to Hungary on August 30, 1940 in the second Vienna Award .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany also forced Romania to cede Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria on September 5, 1940 .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allies held conferences which resulted in peace treaties with Axis countries (Italy, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria) and Finland (a co-belgerant, but not an Axis country) signed in Paris (1947).
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Southern Dobruja was also ceded to Bulgaria in September 1940. In an effort to appease the Fascist elements with the country and obtain German protection, King Carol II appointed the General Ion Antonescu as Prime Minister on September 6, 1940.
.Two days later, Antonescu forced the king to abdicate and installed the king's young son Michael on the throne, then declared himself Conducător (Leader) with dictatorial powers.^ Britain and France declare war on Germany two days later.
  • Adolf Hitler killer file 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 1800, Italy was unified by Napoléon, who crowned himself king of Italy in 1805; but with the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Austria once again became the dominant power in a disunited Italy.
  • Italian Republic. History. Geography. The useful information. 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.tiwatiwa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under King Mihai I and the military government of Antonescu, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact on November 23, 1940. German troops entered the country in 1941 and used the country as platform for invasions of both Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.^ Bulgaria signs Tripartite Pact with Germany in advance of German invasion of Greece .
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ German troops entered Paris on June 14, 1940.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both countries also agreed not to sign a separate peace with the Germans.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Romania was also a key supplier of resources, especially oil and grain.^ Romania was also a key supplier of resources, especially oil and grain.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German troops entered the country in 1941, and used it as a base for the invasion of the Soviet Union as well as a key supplier of resources, especially oil and grain.Romanian troops fought with Germany against the Soviet Union , regaining Moldova .
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because Japan was poor in natural resources, its government viewed these steps, especially the embargo on oil as a threat to the nation's survival.

.Romania joined the German led invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Nearly 800,000 Romanian troops fought on the Eastern front.^ Eastern Front 1941-45 .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union : 13,700,000 .
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 22, 1941 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • World War II Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.shmoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Areas that were annexed by the Soviets were reincorporated into Romania.^ Later that year, in June the Soviet Union occupied Latvia , Lithuania , and Estonia , and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after that, the Soviet Union occupied Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, in addition, it annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, Soviet troops drove into Romania and Bulgaria.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1943, the tide began to turn and the Soviets pushed further west closer to Romania.^ (MC, 7/3/02) 1943 Jul 5, The battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in history, began as German tanks attacked the Soviet salient.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After January 1943, Soviet soldiers slowly pushed the Germans back.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advancing from both the east and west, the Allies completely pushed the Wehrmacht out of Africa and on May 13 , 1943 , the remnants of the Axis forces in North Africa surrendered.
  • world war ii - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Foreseeing the fall of Nazi Germany, Romania switched sides during King Michael's Coup on 23 August 1944. Romanian troops then fought alongside the Soviet Army until the end of war, reaching as far as Czechoslovakia and Austria.^ Italy then switched sides declaring war on Germany.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So during World War 2 Austria was a fully integrated part of Nazi Germany.
  • World War 2 Leaders 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.2worldwar2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boulogne, France, falls to Nazi Germany .
  • Hall of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bulgaria

.Bulgaria was ruled by Тsar Boris III when the country signed the Tripartite Pact on March 1, 1941. Bulgaria had been an ally of Germany in the First World War and like Germany, sought a return of lost territory, specifically Macedonia and Aegean Thrace.^ Bulgaria signs Tripartite Pact with Germany in advance of German invasion of Greece .
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgaria came under effective German domination in February 1941, and signed the Tripartite Pact on March 1.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ World War was the first real air war.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 1930s, because of traditional right-wing elements Bulgaria drew closer to Nazi Germany.^ Like the other Balkan nations, Bulgaria drew closer to Nazi Germany during the 1930s.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GERMANY: Hitlers followers, the Nazi political party, grew in strength during the worldwide economic depression.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC warchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Right wing nationalist elements under a variety of movements, but most notably the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler, sought to blame Germany's "humiliating" status on the harshness of the post-war settlement, on the weakness of democratic government, and on the Jews, whom it claimed possessed a financial stranglehold on Germany.
  • World War II - Valkyrie Movie Wiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC valkyriemovie.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1940, under the terms of the Treaty of Craiova, Germany pressured Romania to return Southern Dobrudja to Bulgaria, which was ceded in 1913. The promised reward for joining the axis powers was establishment of the Bulgaria within the borders defined by the Treaty of San Stefano.^ Romania joins the Axis Powers.
  • World War II Timeline: 1940@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nov 23, 1940 - Romania joins the Axis Powers.
  • The History Place - World War Two in Europe Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, and annexed Vardar Banovina from Yugoslavia and eastern Greek Macedonia and Western Thrace from Greece.^ Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, and annexed Vardar Banovina from Yugoslavia and Western Thrace from Greece.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of its former enemies Greece and Yugoslavia, but refused to participate in Hitler's invasion of Russia.
  • World War 2 Leaders 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.2worldwar2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1941 Hungary participated in the German invasions of Yugoslavia and Russia.
  • World War 2 Leaders 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.2worldwar2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgarian forces garrisoned in the Balkans fought various resistance movements.^ Besides this, Bulgarian armed forces garrisoned in the Balkans battled various resistance groups.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various organizations were also formed to establish foreign resistance cells or support existing resistance movements, like the British SOE and the American OSS (the forerunner of the CIA ).
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denmark did not resist, but Norway fought back and was joined by British, French, and Polish (exile) forces landing in support of the Norwegians at Namsos , Åndalsnes , and Narvik .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite German pressure, Bulgaria did not join the German invasion of the Soviet Union and never declared war on this country.^ Hungary participated in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The USSR declares war on Bulgaria.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, despite the lack of official declarations of war by both sides, the Bulgarian Navy was involved in a number of skirmishes with the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, which attacked Bulgarian shipping.^ Despite the lack of official declarations of war by both sides, the Bulgarian Navy was involved in a number of skirmishes with the Soviet Black Sea Fleet , which attacked Bulgarian shipping.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apart from a brief attack by the French across the Rhine there was little hostilities as both sides built up their forces.
  • WW2 World War 2 - 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite the enemy being deeply malnourished and barely willing to fight, casualties are still suffered on both sides in the ensuing bloodbath.
  • World War II list 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.listal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bulgarian government declared war on the Western Allies.^ Germany’s war against the Western Allies .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thai government, after signing a ten-year Treaty of Alliance with Japan in December 1941, declared war on the United States and Great Britain.
  • Chronology 1942 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, this turned into a disaster for the citizens of Sofia and other major Bulgarian cities, which were heavily bombed by the USAAF and RAF in 1943 and 1944. As the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, on September 2, 1944, a coup brought to power a new government, which sought peace with the Allies.^ Bulgaria surrendered to the Red Army in September.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other German cities were likewise heavily damaged by the bombing strikes.
  • Remembering World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC wwii.byu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strength of the Red Army was in the country, not the cities.
  • Post World War II Blues - Avalon Hill Boards 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: General]

.However, on September 5 the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria and the Red Army marched into the country, meeting no resistance.^ German army marches into the Rhineland .
  • Chronology of the Holocaust 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.webster.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany, Italy, Romania and Bulgaria declare war on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgaria surrendered to the Red Army in September.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the coup d'état of 9 September 1944, a new government of the Fatherland Front took power and Bulgarian troops fought on the Allies' side throughout the rest of the war.^ World War II on the side of the Allies.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.iq.poquoson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, on September 9 1944 , a coup brought to power a new government of the pro-Allied Fatherland Front .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied troops land in Normandy, 1944.
  • The Second World War - a knol by Oliver Kim 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgaria kept Southern Dobrudja but lost the occupied parts of the Aegean region and Vardar Macedonia resulting in 150,000 Bulgarians being expelled from Western Thrace.^ In 1941 Ivan Mihailov 's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization ( IMRO ) welcomed Bulgaria 's annexation of Vardar Macedonia .
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, and annexed Vardar Banovina from Yugoslavia and Western Thrace from Greece.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, during the 1930s, the main threat was perceived to be Bulgaria and her aspirations to reclaim Western Thrace .
  • World War II - Phantis 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC wiki.phantis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Co-belligerents

San Marino

.Since 1923, San Marino was ruled by the Sammarinese Fascist Party (PFS) and was closely allied to Italy.^ In 1922 Benito Mussolini and the Fascist party had risen to power in Italy, and formed the Axis with Germany.
  • WW2 World War 2 - 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ German Surrender in Italy - Since February senior German officers had secretly negotiated with the Allies to end the war in Italy.
  • Italy, Sicily, Mussolini, Fascist, Somaliland, Abyssinia, League of Nations, Albania, Pact of Steel, Axis, Rome 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently, after the fall of the Fascist government in Italy the Allies used the same printing plant.
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 17 September 1940, San Marino declared war on the United Kingdom though the UK and other Allied nations did not reciprocate.^ The United Kingdom and France declared war.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese had declared war on the United States.
  • World War II How America Came to War, Theses & Dissertations, Free Essays @ ChuckIII College Resources 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.chuckiii.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The third Allied country, was the United Kingdom.
  • World War 2 Weapons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .San Marino also restored relations with Germany as it did not attend the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.^ San Marino declares war on Germany.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Allies held conferences which resulted in peace treaties with Axis countries (Italy, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria) and Finland (a co-belgerant, but not an Axis country) signed in Paris (1947).
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A paper presented at the International Conference on Peace Movements in National Societies, 1919-1939, held in Stadtschlaining, Austria, September 25-29, 1991 .
  • Irwin Abrams: "The Multinational Campaign for Carl Von Ossietzky" 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.irwinabrams.com [Source type: Original source]

This was done to avoid a repeat of the 1936 incident when San Marino denied a Turkish student entry because he was an enemy alien.[9]
.Three days after the fall of Mussolini, PFS rule collapsed and the new government declared neutrality in the conflict.^ Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, US president Franklin D Roosevelt had declared his country neutral in the European conflict.
  • Asia Times Online :: Korea News - Proliferation, imperialism - and the 'China threat' 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The day is not far-distant when Hitler will invite the French and British Governments to Berchtesgaden, to accept the new European order created by the will of the Führer.'
  • 1938: Austria - Archive Article - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Fascists regained power on 1 April 1944 but kept neutrality intact.^ The British kept most of their Hawker Tempest V fighters, which entered service in April 1944, in England.
  • The Super Warbirds of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.chuckhawks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 26 June, the Royal Air Force accidentally bombed the country, killing 63. The Fascists and the Axis used this tragedy in propaganda about "Allied aggression" against a neutral country.^ Midway was the first decisive blow against the Axis by Allied forces.
  • World War II Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Force A B-26 dropping a string of bombs.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the skies over Germany the Allied air forces intensify their bombing raids.
  • Adolf Hitler killer file 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Retreating Axis forces occupied San Marino on 17 September but were forced out by the Allies in less than three days.^ Axis forces retreated to Libya on 4 November.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC warchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The dispersion of the Axis forces throughout Europe during this time was an important reason why the Allies were able to gain the upper hand in North Africa.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.u-s-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On D-Day, more than 150,000 troops were landed, and the Allies took 10,000 casualties (both numbers are estimates, exact numbers will never be known).
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC warchronicle.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Allied occupation threw the Fascists out of power and San Marino declared war on Germany on 21 September.^ Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany has (again) declared war on Poland.

^ Russia became America's Ally after Germany declared war on them.
  • was russia an ally of the united states during world war 2 - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[10] .The newly elected government banned the Fascists on 16 November.^ Then when Albania and Bulgaria, newly free from the grip of communism, as the media would put it, dare to elect governments not acceptable to Washington.

Finland

.Although Finland never signed the Tripartite Pact and legally (de jure) was not a part of the Axis, it was Axis-aligned in its fight against the Soviet Union.^ Finland was never a signatory to the Tripartite Treaty, although it did sign the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yugoslav government sign Tripartite Pact aligning the country with the Axis.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union, however, refused to sign.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The common term used in that kind of relationship is co-belligerence.^ The most effecient German armored vehichles in terms of use of resources and reliabilty were the PzKw IV and the Stug III, the two most common German AFVs.
  • The Power of sherman Tanks during World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as Euler to matrix conversions are a many-to-one relationship (due to sin and cos), I do not know how to get the reverse even using atan2.
  • GameDev.net - Quaternion Powers 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.gamedev.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland characterized its relationship with Nazi Germany during the Continuation War as co-belligerence.
  • Axis Powers; Major and Minor; Pact of Steel; Anti-Comintern Pact 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

Finland signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of November 1941.
.The August 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union contained a secret protocol dividing much of eastern Europe and assigning Finland to the Soviet sphere of influence.^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
  • World War II timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidetorussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europe was informally split into Western and Soviet spheres of influence.
  • World War 2 Weapons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historical Eastern Germany , not contained in this map was annexed by Poland, Lithuania and the Soviet Union.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][12] .After unsuccessfully attempting to force territorial and other concessions on the Finns, in November 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Finland during the Winter War with the intention of establishing a communist puppet government in Finland.^ In the areas occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of the war, puppet communist regimes were installed, over the objections of the other Allies and the governments in exile.
  • WW2 World War 2 - 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Soviet Union demanded territory exchange but Finland rejected these demands, The Soviet Union attacked on November 30 , 1939 , which started the Winter War .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The focus is in Finlands attempt to take back the areas lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War.

[13][14] .The conflict threatened Germany's iron-ore supplies and offered the prospect of Allied interference in the region.^ The Soviet Union supported Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement with supplies of raw materials (phosphates, chrome and iron ore, mineral oil, grain, cotton, rubber).
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A13) 1940-1945 Turkey supplied Germany and the Allies with chromite ore, an essential metal for stainless steel.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early April 1940, both German and Allied forces launched nearly simultaneous operations around Norway over access to Swedish iron ore .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]. .Despite Finnish resistance, a peace treaty was signed in March 1940. After the war, Finland sought protection and support from the United Kingdom[16][17] and neutral Sweden,[18] but was thwarted by Soviet and German actions.^ Finland signs peace treaty with Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After its loss of the Winter War to the Soviet Union in March 1940, Finland first sought protection from Great Britain [1] [2] and neutral Sweden [3] , but was thwarted by Soviet and German actions.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • World War II: 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cfep.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This resulted in Finland being drawn closer to Germany, first with the intent of enlisting German support as a counterweight to thwart continuing Soviet pressure and later to help regain lost territories.^ This resulted in Finland drawing closer to Germany, first with an intent of enlisting German support as a counterweight to thwart continuing Soviet pressure, but later to help regain its lost territories.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland lost territory to the Soviet Union.

^ The relationship more closely resembled a formal alliance during the six weeks of the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement , which was presented as a German condition for much needed help with munitions and air support as the Soviet offensive coordinated with D-day threatened Finland with complete occupation.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the opening days of Operation Barbarossa, which marked Germany's breaking of the Pact by invading the Soviet Union, Finland permitted German planes returning from mine dropping runs over Kronstadt and Neva River to refuel at Finnish airfields before returning to bases in East Prussia.^ At the start of the operation Barbarossa, Finland mobilised its own army, allowed German naval units to base in the Finnish archipelago before the mining of the Gulf of Finland and allowed German bombers returning from bombing runs from Leningrad to refuel at Finnish airfields before returning to German East Prussia .
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany attacks Soviet Union .
  • World War II timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidetorussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On September 17, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east.
  • World War II - Valkyrie Movie Wiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC valkyriemovie.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In retaliation the Soviet Union launched a major air offensive against Finnish airfields and towns, which resulted in a Finnish declaration of war against the Soviet Union on June 25, 1941. The Finnish conflict with the Soviet Union is generally referred as the Continuation War.^ In Soviet and Russian sources, the conflict is referred to as the Great Patriotic War .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finns refer to the conflict with the Soviet Union as the Continuation War , viewing it as continuation of the Winter War .
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finland's main objective was to regain territory lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War.^ The focus is in Finlands attempt to take back the areas lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War.

^ The focus is in Soviet Unions attempt to conquer Finland, the Winter War.

^ The Finns sought to regain the territory lost in the Winter War and to conquer East Karelia.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, on July 10, 1941, Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim issued an Order of the Day that contained a formulation understood internationally as a Finnish territorial interest in Russian Karelia.^ Finnish Marshal Carl von Mannerheim .
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Finns maintain that their sole objective was to regain the territory lost to the Soviet Union in the Winter War, but on July 10, 1941 , Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim issued an Order of the Day declaring that the war aim of the Finns was "to expel the Bolsheviks out of Russian Karelia , to liberate the Karelian nations and to accord to Finland a great future."
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 27th July 27, 1941: Hitler orders Guderian's Panzers to turn south, away from Moscow, in order to conquer Russia's economic centers.
  • WWII Axis Military History Day-by-Day: July 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Finland were severed on August 1, 1941, after the British bombed German forces in the Finnish city of Petsamo.^ Finland breaks diplomatic relations with Poland.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By May 1941, Germany’s bombing of the United Kingdom had largely stopped.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By May 1941, the bombing of the United Kingdom had largely stopped.
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Kingdom repeatedly called on Finland to cease its offensive against the Soviet Union, and on December 6, 1941, declared war on Finland, although no other military operations followed.^ The United States and the Soviet Union ended the war with vast advantages in military strength.
  • World War II: the Rise of the Superpowers 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom and France declared war.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.War was never declared between Finland and the United States, though relations were severed between the two countries in 1944 as a result of the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement.^ DEC 41: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom and France declared war.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and Italy declare war on the United States of America.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Finland maintained command of its armed forces and pursued its war objectives independently of Germany.^ Unlike other Axis powers, Finland maintained command of its armed forces and pursued its war objectives independently of Germany.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 3 --Finland declares war on Germany.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This caused Germany to lose a significant portion of its territory, prohibited the annexation of other states, limited the size of the German armed forces and imposed massive reparations.
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finland refused German requests to participate in the Siege of Leningrad, and also granted asylum to Jews, while Jewish soldiers continued to serve in his army.^ Finland refused German requests to participate in the Siege of Leningrad , stating that capturing Leningrad was not among its goals.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland also granted asylum to Jews, and Jewish soldiers continued to serve in her army.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HmHS 940.54 JOSEPH SCHULTZ. Based on an actual event in WWII, moral courage of a German soldier in Yugoslavia who refused to follow orders to kill Jews, and was executed himself.
  • History of Europe (World War I & World War II) | Canyon Owyhee Library Group, Ltd. 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC colg.lili.org [Source type: General]

.The relationship between Finland and Germany more closely resembled an alliance during the six weeks of the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement, which was presented as a German condition for help with munitions and air support, as the Soviet offensive coordinated with D-Day threatened Finland with complete occupation.^ The relationship more closely resembled a formal alliance during the six weeks of the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement , which was presented as a German condition for much needed help with munitions and air support as the Soviet offensive coordinated with D-day threatened Finland with complete occupation.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets cited Finland's cooperation with Germany as provocation for the air raids.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 28 --Germans complete defeat of Soviet Kharkov offensive.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

.The agreement, signed by President Risto Ryti, but never ratified by the Finnish Parliament, bound Finland not to seek a separate peace.^ The agreement, signed by President Risto Ryti , but never ratified by the Finnish Parliament, bound Finland not to seek a separate peace.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alliance was decreed a " personal union " and his successor, President Mannerheim , declared it void right after Ryti left office, which he did after the Soviet offensive was stalled and separate peace again became a realistic possibility.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allies held conferences which resulted in peace treaties with Axis countries (Italy, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria) and Finland (a co-belgerant, but not an Axis country) signed in Paris (1947).
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After Soviet offensives were fought to a standstill, Ryti's successor as president, Marshall Mannerheim, dismissed the agreement and opened secret negotiations with the Soviets, which resulted a ceasefire on September 4 and the Moscow Armistice on September 19, 1944. Under the terms of the armistice, Finland was obligated to expel German troops from Finnish territory, which resulted in the Lapland War.^ Ryti's successor, President Mannerheim , ignored the agreement and opened secret negotiations with the Soviets.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the terms of the armistice, Finland was obligated to expel German troops from Finnish territory.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish Marshal Carl von Mannerheim .
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1947, Finland signed a peace treaty with the Allied powers.^ March 12, 1940 - Finland signs a peace treaty with Soviets.
  • The History Place - World War Two in Europe Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia and Japan sign a peace treaty; .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A peace treaty was signed on 8 July 1858.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

Iraq

Iraq was briefly a co-belligerent of the Axis, fighting the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Iraqi War of May, 1941.
.Anti-British sentiments were widespread in Iraq prior to 1941. Seizing power on April 1, 1941, the nationalist government of Iraqi Prime Minister Rashid Ali repudiated the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 and demanded that the British abandon their military bases and withdraw from the country.^ Seizing power on April 3, 1941, the nationalist government of Iraqi Prime Minister Rashid Ali repudiated the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 and demanded that Britain close its military bases within the country.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iraqi government, led by Rashid Ali, invited German aid into the country.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ali sought support from Germany and Italy in expelling British forces from Iraq.^ British forces immediately enter Iraq.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ali sought support from Germany, Italy and Vichy France in expelling British forces from Iraq.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It went to a very selective readership: those who were associated with the diplomatic corps or those who supported the mission of the tri-nation pact among Germany, Italy, and Japan.

.In early May 1941, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Mufti of Jerusalem and associate of Ali, declared "holy war" against the British and called on Arabs throughout the Middle East to rise up against British rule.^ Operations against the British Isles, 1941 .
  • World War II, air war - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early May 1941, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni , the Mufti of Jerusalem and an ally of Ali, declared "holy war" against the United Kingdom and called on Arabs throughout the Middle East to rise up against Britain.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rise up and shatter the British fetters.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

.On May 25, 1941, the Germans stepped up offensive operations.^ On May 25, 1941, Hitler issued his Order 30, stepping up German offensive operations: "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British, Indian and Australian forces counter-attacked (see Operation Compass ), but this offensive stopped in 1941 when much of the Commonwealth forces were transferred to Greece to defend it from German attack.
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Barbarossa , the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the largest invasion in history, commenced on 22 June 1941 .
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hitler issued Order 30,
."The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England.^ On May 25, 1941, Hitler issued his Order 30, stepping up German offensive operations: "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of 2004, eight of our 10 active Army divisions will have been deployed for at least a year in the Middle East in support of Afghanistan or Iraq.
  • The Axis of War: Cheney, Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz - Salon.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In early May 1941, Mohammad Amin al-Husayni , the Mufti of Jerusalem and an ally of Ali, declared "holy war" against the United Kingdom and called on Arabs throughout the Middle East to rise up against Britain.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this connection special importance is attached to the liberation of Iraq...^ In this connection special importance is attached to the liberation of Iraq...
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I have therefore decided to move forward in the Middle East by supporting Iraq."
.Hostilities between the Iraqi and British forces began on May 2, 1941, with heavy fighting at the RAF air base in Habbaniya.^ "The RAF had to provide air support for British ground forces in Africa.
  • Airpower Doctrine - World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Hostilties between the Iraqi and British forces opened on April 18, 1941 with heavy fighting at the British air base at Lake Habbaniya .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British forces are eager to fight.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Germans and Italians dispatched aircraft and aircrew to Iraq utilizing Vichy French bases in Syria, which would later invoke fighting between Allied and Vichy French forces in Syria.^ It also provided bases for German submarines and aircraft.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vichy forces in Syria surrender to the Allies .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans and Italians utilized Vichy French bases in Syria, precipitating fighting between British and French forces in Syria.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans planned to coordinate a combined German-Italian offensive against the British in Egypt, Palestine and Iraq.^ Hitler dispatched German air and armored forces to Libya and formed the Deutsches Afrikakorps to coordinate a combined German-Italian offensive against the British in Egypt, Palestine and Iraq.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 2nd July 2nd, 1940: The British liner Arandora Star, carrying 1,500 German and Italian prisoners of war to Canada, is sunk by U-47 (Kptlt.
  • WWII Axis Military History Day-by-Day: July 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In propaganda broadcasts from Berlin, the Mufti contined to call on Arabs to rise up against the United Kingdom and aid German and Italian forces.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraqi military resistance, however, ended by May 31, 1941. Rashid Ali and the Mufti of Jerusalem fled to Iran, then Turkey, Italy and finally Germany where Ali was welcomed by Hitler as head of the Iraqi government-in-exile in Berlin.^ The military alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan .
  • Jan07_article03 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.itdl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rashi Ali and his ally, the Mufti of Jerusalem, fled to Persia, then to Turkey , Italy and finally Germany where Ali was welcomed by Hitler as head of the Iraqi government-in-exile .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 31, 1941 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In propaganda broadcasts from Berlin, the Mufti continued to call on Arabs to rise up against the British and aid German and Italian forces.^ In propaganda broadcasts from Berlin, the Mufti contined to call on Arabs to rise up against the United Kingdom and aid German and Italian forces.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German and Italian forces then clashed with the British in Greece and northern Africa.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other side, the German and Italian forces continue to retreat.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also helped recruit Muslim volunteers in the Balkans for the Waffen SS.^ He also recruited Moslem volunteers in the Balkans for the Waffen SS .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The composition of the Waffen-SS ("Armed SS"), an all-volunteer ideological military unit, testified to the popularity of Nazism all over Europe outside of Germany.
  • Asia Times Online :: Korea News - Proliferation, imperialism - and the 'China threat' 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of Croats also volunteered for the German Waffen SS .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thailand

Thailand became a formal ally of Japan from January 25, 1942.
.In the immediate aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces invaded Thailand's territory on the morning of December 8, 1941. Only hours after the invasion, the then prime minister Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram, ordered the cessation of resistance against the Japanese.^ CaVMS 940.54 PEARL HARBOR: DECEMBER 7, 1941.
  • History of Europe (World War I & World War II) | Canyon Owyhee Library Group, Ltd. 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC colg.lili.org [Source type: General]

^ Entering Pearl Harbor on the morning of 8 December 1941, the day after the Japanese raid.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into the war.
  • Seventy years since the outbreak of World War II: Causes, Consequences and Lessons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 21, 1941, a military alliance with Japan was signed and Thailand declared war on Britain and the United States.^ In 1952, a peace treaty was signed between Japan and the United States.
  • World War 2 Weapons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy declares war on Britain and France .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain declares war on Germany.

.The Thai ambassador to the United States, Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj did not deliver his copy of the declaration of war, so although the British reciprocated by declaring war on Thailand and consequently considered it a hostile country, the United States did not.^ DEC 41: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom and France declared war.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and Italy declare war on the United States of America.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.On May 10, 1942, the Thai Phayap Army entered Burma's Shan State, at one time in the past the area had been part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.^ On May 10, 1942 , the Thai Phayap Army entered Burma's Shan State .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one time in the past the area had been part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 10, 1941-May 6, 1942 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The boundary between the Japanese and Thai operations was generally the Salween.^ The boundary between the Japanese and Thai operations was generally the Salween .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island.
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese government arranged a truce to end fighting between Thai and Vichy French forces in Indo-China.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, the area south of the Shan States known as Karenni States, the homeland of the Karens, was specifically retained under Japanese control.^ However, that area south of the Shan States known as Karenni States , the homeland of the Karens, was specifically retained under Japanese control.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese Embassy to the Department of State, 8 October 1940 Franklin Roosevelt, Address to the registrants under the selective-service law October 16, 1940 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported by the air force engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division.^ Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported ably by the air force, started their advance on May 10, and engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1st Armored and 9th Infantry Divisions coordinated an envelopment of Bizerte and the next day pushed retreating enemy into and through the city.
  • HyperWar: U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: Tunisia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Command the army, navy and air force of one of the 5...
  • Download Axis And Allies - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]
  • Axis And Allies Free Download - Shop Smarter.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.Kengtung, the main objective, was captured on May 27. Renewed offensives in June and November evicted the Chinese into Yunnan.^ Kengtung , the main objective, was captured on May 27.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Renewed offensives in June and November evicted the Chinese into Yunnan .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 27-June 29, 1942 .
  • Chronology 1942 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .The area containing the Shan States and Kengtung was annexed by Thailand in 1942. After the war, in 1946, the areas were ceded back to Burma.^ After the war, US influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but Britain demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from the British colony of Malaya during the war and invasion.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ United States Strategic Bombing survey "Japan's Struggle to End the War", July 1, 1946 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Free Thai Movement ("Seri Thai") was established during these first few months, parallel Free Thai organisations were also established in the United Kingdom and inside Thailand.^ The Seri Thai was established during these first few months.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parallel Free Thai organisations were established in Britain and inside Thailand.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Free Thai Movement ("Seri Thai") was established during these first few months.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Queen Ramphaiphanni was the nominal head of the British-based organisation, and Pridi Phanomyong, the regent, headed its largest contingent, which was operating within the country.^ Queen Ramphaiphanee was the nominal head of the Britain-based organisation, and Pridi Phanomyong , then regent, headed its largest contingent, which was operating within the country.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Queen Ramphaiphanni was the nominal head of the Britain-based organisation, and Pridi Phanomyong , the regent, headed its largest contingent, which was operating within the country.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first, U-boats primarily operated within British waters while the Atlantic Ocean was covered by German surface vessels.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aided by elements of the military, secret airfields and training camps were established while OSS and Force 136 agents fluidly slipped in and out of the country.^ Aided by elements of the military, secret airfields and training camps were established while OSS and Force 136 agents fluidly slipped in and out of the country.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aided by elements of the military, secret airfields and training camps were established while Allied agents fluidly slipped in and out of the country.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secret OSS Report: GERMAN AIR POWER April 1943 Special briefing film on the military air strength of Nazi Germany.
  • World War 2 Movies - Axis Powers, Japanese/German Newsreel Footage 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.realmilitaryflix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the war dragged on, the Thai population came to resent the Japanese presence.^ As the war dragged on, the Thai population came to resent the Japanese presence.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans were more likely to officially tell the Japanese that their beloved and revered Emperor wanted peace but that the evil militarists had dragged Japan into the war against his will.
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans and Japanese used terror bombing of civilian populations as an offensive tactic in the early phases of the War.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June 1944, Phibun was overthrown in a coup d'état.^ In June 1944, Phibun was overthrown in a coup d'état .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1944, Phibun was overthrown in a coup d'état engineered by the Seri Thai.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new civilian government under Khuang Aphaiwong attempted to aid the resistance while at the same time maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese.^ The new civilian government under Khuang Aphaiwong attempted to aid the resistance while at the same time maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new civilian government attempted to aid the Seri Thai while at the same time maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese.
  • Axis Powers at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 22nd, the Japanese army launched a ground assault from northern New Guinea, attempting to seize Port Moresby, but encountered stiff Australian resistance.
  • Chronology 1942 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war, U.S. influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but the British demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from the colony of Malaya during the war.^ After the war, U.S. influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but Britain demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from the British colony of Malaya during the war and invasion.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English and Canadians produced 11.9 million tons during the war.
  • RESULTS OF THE GERMAN AND AMERICAN SUBMARINE CAMPAIGNS OF WORLD WAR II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Axis during world war 2 .
  • 1.) who were the six primary axis countries in world war... - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Thailand also returned the portions of British Burma and French Indochina that had been annexed.^ Thailand also had to return the portions of British Burma and French Indochina that had been taken.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the war, U.S. influence prevented Thailand from being treated as an Axis country, but Britain demanded three million tons of rice as reparations and the return of areas annexed from the British colony of Malaya during the war and invasion.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Thailand, Japanese forces soon advanced into the British-ruled regions of Malaya (now part of Malaysia) and Burma.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phibun and a number of his associates were put on trial on charges of having committed war crimes and of collaborating with the Axis powers.^ Phibun and a number of his associates were put on trial on charges of having committed war crimes, mainly that of collaborating with the Axis powers.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Hitler wants nothing so much as to arrive at the state where he can commit crimes without guilt feelings; but despite his boasts of having transcended Good and Evil this had not been possible.
  • Adolf Hitler killer file 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That Justice Be Done - German WAR CRIMINALS Years before the Nuremberg trials, this film was made, and it compares the Nazi sense of justice, as exemplified in aggressive war and atrocities, with that of the war crimes tribunals at Nuremberg.
  • World War 2 Movies - Axis Powers, Japanese/German Newsreel Footage 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.realmilitaryflix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the charges were dropped due to intense public pressure.^ However, the charges were dropped due to intense public pressure.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Public opinion was favourable to Phibun, since he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests.^ Public opinion was favourable to Phibun, since he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along the mobilization line, it is interesting tho read about the efforts of the British to sway American public opinion in favor of intervention.
  • Knowing Your Enemy in World War II » HistoryNet 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: Original source]

Non-belligerents

Yugoslavia

.On 25 March 1941, fearing that Yugoslavia would be invaded otherwise, pro-Allied Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact with significant reservations.^ March 25, 1941 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yugoslavia's government succumbed to the pressure of Italy and Germany and signed the Tripartite Treaty on March 25 , 1941 .
  • world war ii - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yugoslavia's government signed an agreement with the Axis in March 1941.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike other Axis powers, Yugoslavia was not obligated to provide military assistance, nor to provide its territory for Axis to move military forces during the war.^ The remainder of Yugoslavia was divided among the other Axis powers.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan found that it was a good chance to declare war; and Being under Emperor Hirohito, the army, navy, and air force became more powerful.
  • What were the causes for World War II - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Main article: Spain in World War II Main article: Portugal in World War II Spanish State Estado Novo Together, Generalísimo Francisco Franco's Spanish State and Salazar's Portugal gave considerable moral, economic , and military assistance to the Axis Powers while nominally maintaining its neutrality .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two days after signing the alliance in 1941, after demonstrations in the streets, Prince Paul was removed from office by a coup d'état.^ Prince Paul adhered to the Tripartite Pact on March 25, 1941 , but was removed from office two days later by a coup that ended his regency.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thai government, after signing a ten-year Treaty of Alliance with Japan in December 1941, declared war on the United States and Great Britain.
  • Chronology 1942 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Yugoslav government declared that it would be bound by the treaty, but Hitler suspected that the British were behind the coup against Prince Paul and vowed to destroy the country.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.17-year-old Prince Peter was proclaimed to be of age, he was not crowned nor anointed (a custom of the Serbian Orthodox Church).^ After agonizing deliberation the Yugoslav government signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna on March 25, but on March 26-27, Serb patriots revolted against the regency government of Prince Paul and proclaimed the adolescent King Peter II of age.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Serbian children killed by Croatian Ustasha troops, shot against the wall of the Sadilovac Serbian Orthodox Church in Kordun, July 31, 1942.
  • The Perilous Country: World War II Novels on Draza Mihailovich and the Chetniks | Serbianna Analysis 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC serbianna.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patriarch Gavrillo, the head of the Serbian Orthodox Church, “appeared on the balcony and in front of the cheering crowd thanked Peter for having saved the nation’s honor.” .
  • A Novel of the Balkan Guerrilla War: World War II Novels on Draza Mihailovich and the Chetniks | Serbianna Analysis 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC serbianna.com [Source type: Original source]

.The new Yugoslavian government under King Peter II, still fearful of invasion, attempted to indicate that it would remain bound by the Tripartite Pact.^ It was not obligated to do so under the Tripartite Pact of 1940.
  • world war ii - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After agonizing deliberation the Yugoslav government signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna on March 25, but on March 26-27, Serb patriots revolted against the regency government of Prince Paul and proclaimed the adolescent King Peter II of age.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, in the grand tradition of modest proposals, I would like to nominate a new tripartite Axis of Evil to replace the old one.
  • Axis of Evil, version 2.0 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.But German dictator Adolf Hitler suspected that the British were behind the coup against Prince Paul and vowed to invade the country.^ The new Yugoslav government declared that it would be bound by the treaty, but Hitler suspected that the British were behind the coup against Prince Paul and vowed to destroy the country.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adolf Hitler , its leader, was elected as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 , and became de facto dictator on 2 August 1934 with the death of President Paul von Hindenburg .
  • world war ii - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The German invasion began on 6 April 1941. Yugoslavia was a country concocted by the Versailles World Order as multi-ethnic state from its creation and was heavily dominated by peoples of the Eastern Orthodox religion.^ Yugoslavia The operations against Greece and Yugoslavia began on April 6, 1941.
  • World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German invasion began on April 6, 1941 , and after two weeks of resistance, the country was completely occupied.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Yugoslavia refused to follow suit, Hitler ordered an invasion of that country.
  • World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also had unresolved questions of national identity so even the resistance to Nazi occupation wasn't united until major resistance groups like the partisans and Chetniks began forming and making offenses in the Balkans.^ The name of the party was itself changed from German's Workers Party to the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi for short) on April 1st 1920.   Hitler continued to expand his influence in the party and began to form a private group of thugs which he used to quash disorder at party meetings and later to break up rival party's meetings.
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Brazil's role in both wars was minor compared to the major powers, like the United States of America, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having evacuated the Balkan Peninsula, the Germans resisted in Hungary until Feb., 1945, but Germany itself was pressed.
  • World War II Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Resistance crumbled in less than two weeks and an unconditional surrender was signed in Belgrade on 17 April.^ The German army signs an unconditional surrender .
  • World War II Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.shmoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US industry shift production towards military equipment and we see no less than two battleships and four carriers being ordered.

^ At Iwo Jima in February and March 1945 the marines lost almost 6,000 dead and over 17,000 wounded and fought for five weeks to take an island less than five miles long.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By this time, King Peter II and much of the Yugoslavian government had already fled, taking the national gold reserves, foreign currency reserves and other possessions.^ The French government had already fled the capital.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King George II of Greece fled to Crete to reform a government.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he supported a cease fire, and just a few weeks ago he offered to take civilians out of the circle of violence, an offer dismissed by Sharon's government.
  • Who Won World War II? - by Ran HaCohen 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was no longer capable of being a member of the Axis, several Axis-aligned puppet states emerged after the kingdom was dissolved.^ Germany and Italy announce the dissolution of the state of Yugoslavia, with large portions annexed by Italy; an independent state of Croatia, allied to the Axis and with its capital at Agram (Zagreb), is proclaimed.
  • WWII Axis Military History Day-by-Day: July 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead it pursued one where class conflict no longer existed as the workers remained in their stations working towards the greater good of the state.
  • World War II - a knol by Neil McFarlane 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Local governments were set up in Serbia, Croatia, and Montenegro.^ In southern France, the Nazis set up a puppet government in this region .
  • Jan07_article03 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.itdl.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After the collapse of Yugoslavia in April, 1941, General Draja Mihajlovic, Minister of War in the loyalist government, escaped and set up a resistance organization....
  • Chapter 3: The Legacy of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.statecraft.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allied governments set up wartime agencies to engage in spying and sabotage.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remainder of Yugoslavia was divided among the other Axis powers.^ The remainder of Yugoslavia was divided among the other Axis powers.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied powers Great Britain, France, USA, and many other countries that fought against the Axis powers and won.
  • World War II: 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cfep.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roosevelt hoped to contribute to the defeat of the Axis powers by equipping the nations fighting them with ships, tanks, aircraft, and other war equipment.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany annexed parts of Drava Banovina.^ Germany and Hungary annexed large portions of Yugoslav territory in the north and east, while Italy acquired more than either of them, including the greater part of the coast.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Netherlands the original plans to demand a huge monetary compensation and even to annex a part of Germany that would have doubled the country's size were dropped.
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.Italy annexed south-western Drava Banovina, coastal parts of Croatia (Dalmatia and the islands), and attached Kosovo to Albania (occupied since 1939).^ Italy annexed Dalmatia , and Albania annexed Montenegro.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and Italy announce the dissolution of the state of Yugoslavia, with large portions annexed by Italy; an independent state of Croatia, allied to the Axis and with its capital at Agram (Zagreb), is proclaimed.
  • WWII Axis Military History Day-by-Day: July 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria participated in the German invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, and annexed Vardar Banovina from Yugoslavia and Western Thrace from Greece.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hungary annexed several border territories of Vojvodina.^ Hungary annexed border territories, and Bulgaria annexed Macedonia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and Hungary annexed large portions of Yugoslav territory in the north and east, while Italy acquired more than either of them, including the greater part of the coast.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 11, 1941 , five days after Germany invaded Yugoslavia and had largely destroyed the Yugoslav army, Hungary invaded Yugoslavia, occupying border territories.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgaria annexed Macedonia and parts of southern Serbia.^ Hungary annexed border territories, and Bulgaria annexed Macedonia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy annexed the Ionian Islands and added Greek territory to its holdings in Albania, while Bulgaria was permitted to seize part of Greek Macedonia and Thrace, thereby restoring the frontier of 1913.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Macedonia did not exist at that time, being annexed by Bulgaria and Albania.
  • A Novel of the Balkan Guerrilla War: World War II Novels on Draza Mihailovich and the Chetniks | Serbianna Analysis 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC serbianna.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the dismemberment of its territory, Yugoslavia developed a massive resistance movement primarily led by the Serbs, and was the only other country in Eastern Europe, (aside from the Soviet Union) to liberate itself.^ The Soviet Union forbade countries in eastern Europe to participate in the Marshall Plan.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finland lost territory to the Soviet Union.

^ The Soviet Union was strong in much of Eastern Europe.

Japanese puppet states

.The Empire of Japan created a number of puppet states in the areas occupied by its military, beginning with the creation of Manchukuo in 1932. These puppet states achieved varying degrees of international recognition.^ Japan created a number of puppet states in the areas occupied by its military, beginning with the creation of Manchukuo in 1932.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These puppet states achieved varying degrees of international recognition.
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^ Japan had no Asian allies, except or the puppet state of Manchukuo.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Manchukuo (Manchuria)

.Manchukuo was a Japanese puppet state in Manchuria, the northeast region of China.^ Japanese puppet states .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 1 --Manchuria becomes Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Manchukuo Manchukuo was a Japanese puppet state in Manchuria , the northeast region of China.
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.It was nominally ruled by Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty, but in fact controlled by the Japanese military, in particular the Kwantung Army.^ It was nominally ruled by Puyi , the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty , but in fact controlled by the Japanese military, in particular the Kwantung Army .
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^ The Japanese Army assigned to the Indian National Army a number of military advisors, among them Hideo Iwakuro and wikipedia:Major-General Isoda .
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^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Manchukuo ostensibly meant a state for ethnic Manchus, the region had a Han Chinese majority.^ While Manchukuo ostensibly meant a state for ethnic manchus , the region had a Han Chinese majority.
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^ They used a minor clash with Chinese troops near Mukden in 1931 as a pretext for taking over all of Manchuria, where they proclaimed the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932.
  • World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political parties legalized but all religious, ethnic and regional organizations threatening the integrity and order of the state are banned.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

Following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the independence of Manchukuo was proclaimed on February 18, 1932, with Puyi as "Head of State." He was proclaimed the Emperor of Manchukuo a year later. .Twenty three of the League of Nations' eighty members recognised the new Manchu nation, but the League itself declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China.^ Twenty three of the League of Nations's eighty members recognised the new Manchu nation, but the League itself declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China, precipitating Japanese withdrawal from the League.
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^ Lord Clifford Allen, a staunch pacifist and member of the executive of the League of Nation's Union, was committed to working for reconciliation between his country and Germany.
  • Irwin Abrams: "The Multinational Campaign for Carl Von Ossietzky" 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.irwinabrams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January, the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, China and twenty-two smaller or exiled governments issued the Declaration by United Nations which affirmed the Atlantic Charter .
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This precipitated Japanese withdrawal from the League.^ Twenty three of the League of Nations's eighty members recognised the new Manchu nation, but the League itself declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China, precipitating Japanese withdrawal from the League.
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^ Japanese actions were therefore roundly criticized and led to Japan's withdrawal from the League of Nations.
  • World War II - Valkyrie Movie Wiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC valkyriemovie.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union were among the major powers who recognised Manchukuo.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union were among the major powers recognising Manchukuo.
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.Other countries who recognised the State were the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador, and the Vatican.^ When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama immediately declared war on the Axis powers.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French State Pétain became the last Prime Minister of the French Third Republic on June 16, 1940 as French resistance to the German invasion of the country was collapsing.
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^ The United states installed more wind power capacity in 2005 and 2006 than every other country in the world except for Germany and Spain.
  • Iraq war spending vs. spending on renewable energy 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.solarpowerrocks.com [Source type: General]

.Manchukuo was also recognised by the other Japanese allies and puppet states, including Mengjiang, the Burmese government of Ba Maw, Thailand, the Wang Jingwei regime, and the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose.^ Manchukuo was also recognised by the other Japanese allies and puppet states, including Mengjiang, the Burmese government of Ba Maw , Thailand , the Wang Chingwei regime, and the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose .
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^ Japanese puppet states .
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^ Burma (Ba Maw regime) .
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The Manchukuoan state ceased to exist after the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in 1945.

Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia)

.Mengjiang (alternatively spelled Mengchiang) was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia.^ Japanese puppet states .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mengjiang Mengjiang (alternatively spelled Mengchiang) was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia .
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^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was nominally ruled by Prince Demchugdongrub, a Mongol nobleman descended from Genghis Khan, but was in fact controlled by the Japanese military.^ It was nominally ruled by Prince Demchugdongrub , a Mongol nobleman descended from Ghengis Khan , but was in fact controlled by the Japanese military.
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^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Vichy French government granted the Japanese government permission to establish military control over French Indo-China.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Mengjiang's independence was proclaimed on February 18, 1936, following the Japanese occupation of the region.^ Mengjiang's independence was proclaimed on February 18, 1936 following the Japanese occupation of the region.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the independence of Manchukuo was proclaimed on February 18, 1932 with Puyi as "Head of State."
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese base at Truk was neutralized by a massive air raid on February 17 and 18, 1944.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, with the most important one being the policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to this vast region of open plains and desert.^ The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, with the most important one being the policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to this vast region of open plains and desert.
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^ In December 1937 , the capital, Nanking (now Nanjing ), fell and the Chinese government moved its seat to Chongqing for the rest of the war.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson developed a comprehensive plan for disarmament to fulfill one of his most important points.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Several of the young princes of Inner Mongolia began to agitate for greater freedom from the central government, and it was through these men that Japanese saw their best chance of exploiting Pan-Mongol nationalism and eventually seizing control of Outer Mongolia from the Soviet Union.^ The Japanese hoped to use pan-Mongolism to create a Mongolian ally in Asia and eventually conquer all of Mongolia from the Soviet Union.
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^ These became satellites of the Soviet Union.
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  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several of the young princes of Inner Mongolia began to agitate for greater freedom from the central government, and it was through these men that Japanese saw their best chance of exploiting Pan-Mongol nationalism and eventually seizing control of Outer Mongolia from the Soviet Union.
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.Japan created Mengjiang to exploit tensions between ethnic Mongolians and the central government of China, which in theory ruled Inner Mongolia.^ Japan created Mengjiang to exploit tensions between ethnic Mongolians and the central government of China which in theory ruled Inner Mongolia.
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^ The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, with the most important one being the policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to this vast region of open plains and desert.
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^ At its height, Japan's empire included Manchuria , Inner Mongolia , some of China , Malaysia , French Indochina , Dutch East Indies , The Philippines , Burma , some of India , and various other Pacific Islands ( Iwo Jima , Okinawa ).
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.The Japanese hoped to use pan-Mongolism to create a Mongolian ally in Asia and eventually conquer all of Mongolia from the Soviet Union.^ The Japanese hoped to use pan-Mongolism to create a Mongolian ally in Asia and eventually conquer all of Mongolia from the Soviet Union.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several of the young princes of Inner Mongolia began to agitate for greater freedom from the central government, and it was through these men that Japanese saw their best chance of exploiting Pan-Mongol nationalism and eventually seizing control of Outer Mongolia from the Soviet Union.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Image:Ww2-asia-overview.gif Overview map of World War II in Asia and the Pacific: Allies (green), Japanese conquests (yellow).
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the various puppet governments of China were unified under the Wang Jingwei government in March 1940, Mengjiang retained its separate identity as an autonomous federation.^ When the various puppet governments of China were unified under the Wang Chingwei government in March 1940, Mengjiang retained its separate identity as an autonomous federation.
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^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manchukuo was also recognised by the other Japanese allies and puppet states, including Mengjiang, the Burmese government of Ba Maw , Thailand , the Wang Chingwei regime, and the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose .
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.Although under the firm control of the Japanese Imperial Army, which occupied its territory, Prince Demchugdongrub had his own army that was, in theory, independent.^ Although under the firm control of the Japanese Imperial Army which occupied its territory, Prince Demchugdongrub had his own army that was, in theory, independent.
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^ The Nationalist Kuomintang Army under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese Army under Mao Zedong managed to put aside their differences and in opposition to the Japanese in the occupied areas of China, but never cooperated.
  • WW2 World War 2 - 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, in ground forces, the United States had the equivalent of three divisions in the Pacific to stand in the path of the Imperial Japanese Army.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mengjiang vanished in 1945 following Japan's defeat ending World War II and the invasion of Soviet and Red Mongol Armies.^ World War II began on Sept.
  • World War II Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ World War II in Europe: 1943-1945 .
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II had ended.
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the huge Soviet forces advanced into Inner Mongolia, they met limited resistance from small detachments of Mongolian cavalry, which, like the rest of the army, were quickly brushed aside.^ As the huge Soviet forces advanced into Inner Mongolia, they met limited resistance from small detachments of Mongolian cavalry, which, like the rest of the army, were quickly brushed aside.
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^ Taking full advantage of surprise and treachery, the Japanese forces quickly overran the territories of ourselves and our allies in the Far East and at one time it appears as though they might even invade the mainland of Australia and advance far into India but the tide turned.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler did force the Soviets to this strategy and philosophy, but did Hitler drive the western allies to the do or die strategy they were operating on?
  • Knowing Your Enemy in World War II » HistoryNet 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: Original source]

Wang Jingwei Government

.A collaborationist chinese government was founded on March 29, 1940 by Wang Jingwei, who became Head of State of this Japanese supported collaborationist government based in Nanking.^ Republic of China-Nanjing A short-lived state was founded on March 29, 1940 by Wang Jingwei , who became Head of State of this Japanese supported collaborationist government based in Nanking .
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^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manchukuo was also recognised by the other Japanese allies and puppet states, including Mengjiang, the Burmese government of Ba Maw , Thailand , the Wang Chingwei regime, and the Indian government of Subhas Chandra Bose .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan advanced from its bases in Manchuria to occupy much of East and Central China.^ Japanese victory over China in their war.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1941, Japan had occupied much of north and central China.
  • World War II - Valkyrie Movie Wiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC valkyriemovie.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War began in 1937, when Japan attacked deep into China from its foothold in Manchuria.

.Several Japanese puppet states were organised in areas occupied by the Japanese Army, including the Provisional Government of the Republic of China at Peking, which was formed in 1937 and the Reformed Government of the Republic of China at Nanking, which was formed in 1938. These governments were merged into the Reorganised Government of the Republic of China at Nanking in 1940. The government (known as the Wang Jingwei Government) was to be run along the same lines as the Nationalist regime and adopted symbols of the latter.^ Japanese puppet states .
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^ These governments were merged into the Reorganised Government of the Republic of China at Nanking in 1940.
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^ The government was to be run along the same lines as the Nationalist regime.
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.The Nanking Government had no real power, and its main role was to act as a propaganda tool for the Japanese.^ The Nanking Government had no real power, and its main role was to act as a propaganda tool for the Japanese.
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^ No war had been declared, but in December 1937 Time magazine estimated that the Japanese had killed 20,000 Chinese prisoners of war and civilians in Nanjing (Nanking).
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That belief facilitated the postwar enactment of the Employment Act, which formalized the government’s peacetime role as steward of the national economy.
  • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nanking Government concluded agreements with Japan and Manchukuo, authorising Japanese occupation of China and recognising the independence of Manchukuo under Japanese protection.^ (Under threat of Japanese military occupation.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nanking Government concluded agreements with Japan and Manchukuo, authorising Japanese occupation of China and recognising the independence of Manchukuo under Japanese protection.
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^ The Danish government-in-exile placed Greenland under U.S. protection and authorized the construction of air and naval bases there.
  • 78.03.05: The Foreign Policy of Franklin D. Roosevelt To The Entry Into World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Nanking Government signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom on January 9, 1943.
.The government had a strained relationship with the Japanese from the beginning.^ The government had a strained relationship with the Japanese from the beginning.
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.Wang's insistence on his regime being the true Nationalist government of China and in replicating all the symbols of the Kuomintang (KMT) led to frequent conflicts with the Japanese, the most prominent being the issue of the regime's flag, which was identical to that of the Republic of China.^ Wang's insistence on his regime being the true Nationalist government of China and in replicating all the symbols of the Kuomintang (KMT) led to frequent conflicts with the Japanese, the most prominent being the issue of the regime's flag, which was identical to that of the Republic of China .
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^ Republic of China (Nanjing puppet regime) .
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^ Provisional Government of Free India The Provisional Government of Free India was a shadow government led by Subhas Chandra Bose , an Indian nationalist who rejected Gandhi 's nonviolent methods for achieving independence.
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.The worsening situation for Japan from 1943 onwards meant that the Nanking Army was given a more substantial role in the defence of occupied China than the Japanese had initially envisaged.^ The worsening situation for Japan from 1943 onwards meant that the Nanking Army was given a more substantial role in the defence of occupied China than the Japanese had initially envisaged.
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^ The Nationalist Kuomintang Army under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Chinese Army under Mao Zedong managed to put aside their differences and in opposition to the Japanese in the occupied areas of China, but never cooperated.
  • WW2 World War 2 - 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Japan had invaded China in the early 1930s and had been actively engaged in military action there ( Sino-Japanese War ) since 1937 .
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.The army was almost continuously employed against the communist New Fourth Army.^ The army was almost continuously employed against the communist New Fourth Army .
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^ Mao's forces were incorporated into the New Fourth Army and the Eighth Route Army , subordinate units within the Nationalist Army.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beachhead was thereby reduced to a very shallow dimension, while the defenses at Monte Cassino held out unimpaired against a new assault by Clark’s 5th Army.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wang Jingwei died in a Nagoya hospital on November 10, 1944, and was succeeded by his deputy Chen Gongbo.^ Wang Jingwei died in a Tokyo clinic on November 10, 1944 , and was succeeded by his deputy Chen Gongbo .
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^ President Franklin D Roosevelt, Vice-President-elect Harry S Truman, November 10, 1944.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chen had little influence and the real power behind the regime was Zhou Fohai, the mayor of Shanghai.^ Chen had little influence and the real power behind the regime was Zhou Fohai , the mayor of Shanghai.
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.Wang's death dispelled what little legitimacy the regime had.^ Wang's death dispelled what little legitimacy the regime had.
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.The state stuttered on for another year and continued the display and show of a fascist regime.^ The state stuttered on for another year and continued the display and show of a fascist regime.
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^ Above the displays are five LED indicators that show current state and status.
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^ Nevertheless, Albania had a great partisan movement which fiercely resisted the Fascist and Nazi regime, as a result Albania was the state that alone managed to liberate itself from the German Nazis.
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.On September 9, 1945, following the defeat of Japan, the area was surrendered to General He Yingqin, a nationalist general loyal to Chiang Kai-shek.^ Order of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek supplementing the Act of Surrender, 9 September 1945 .
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^ General Umezu's Credentials, 1 September 1945 .
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^ Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945.

.The Nanking Army generals quickly declared their alliance to the Generalissimo, and were subsequently ordered to resist Communist attempts to fill the vacuum left by the Japanese surrender.^ The Nanking Army generals quickly declared their alliance to the Generalissimo, and were subsequently ordered to resist Communist attempts to fill the vacuum left by the Japanese surrender.
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^ The Japanese Army assigned to the Indian National Army a number of military advisors, among them Hideo Iwakuro and wikipedia:Major-General Isoda .
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^ The start of the war is generally held to be September 1 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by most of the countries in the British Empire and Commonwealth, and by France.
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chen Gongbo was tried and executed in 1946.

Burma (Ba Maw regime)

.The Japanese Army seized control of Burma from the United Kingdom during 1942. A Japanese puppet state in Burma was then formed on August 1 under the Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw.^ Japanese puppet states .
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^ Burma (Ba Maw regime) .
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^ Japanese assets in the United States .
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Ba Maw regime established the Burma Defence Army (later renamed the Burma National Army), which was commanded by Aung San.^ Burma (Ba Maw regime) .
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^ The Ba Maw regime organised the Burma Defence Army (later renamed the Burma National Army ), which was commanded by Aung San .
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^ This cut the Burma Road which was the western Allies' supply line to the Chinese National army commanded by Chiang Kai-shek .
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Philippines (Second Republic)

.The Japanese established a puppet state in the Philippine Islands in 1942. In 1943, the Philippine National Assembly declared the Philippines an independent republic and elected Jose P. Laurel as President of the Second Republic of the Philippines.^ Japanese puppet states .
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^ Second Philippine Republic Jose P. Laurel was the President of the Second Republic of the Philippines , a Japanese puppet state organised on the Philippine Islands in 1942.
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^ The Second Republic ended in with the Japanese surrender.
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.There was never widespread support for the state, largely because of the anti-Japanese attitude of the people.^ There were pro-German factions in the US because of the large population of German descent, as well as anti-British elements such as Joseph Kennedy from the large Irish Catholic (versus Scots Irish) population.
  • The Start of World War II - Poland...or Peking?? - world war ii Discussion Forum 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Bose then gave anti-British speeches there that were broadcast by the Japanese in Thailand to India .
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also an upsurge in nationalism and anti-European feeling and the belief that Japanese policies in China could be justified by racial theories.
  • World War II - Valkyrie Movie Wiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC valkyriemovie.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Second Philippine Republic ended with the Japanese surrender.^ The Second Republic ended in with the Japanese surrender.
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^ Second Philippine Republic Jose P. Laurel was the President of the Second Republic of the Philippines , a Japanese puppet state organised on the Philippine Islands in 1942.
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^ Japanese forces in the Philippines surrender to Major General Edmond H. Leavy at 1210.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Laurel was arrested and charged with treason by the US government, but was granted amnesty and continued being involved in politics, ultimately winning a seat in the Philippine Senate.^ Laurel was arrested and charged with treason by the US government, but was granted amnesty and continued playing politics, ultimately winning a seat in the Philippine Senate.
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^ In case Brazil is attacked by any other nation, the US Government will supply political and military assistance according to the 7th Article in the previous agreement.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, that being said, the leaders of the US government were well aware that Japan would likely initiate hostilities as soon as they broke off negotiations.
  • The Start of World War II - Poland...or Peking?? - world war ii Discussion Forum 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

India (Provisional Government of Free India)

.The Provisional Government of Free India was a shadow government led by Subhas Chandra Bose, an Indian nationalist who rejected Gandhi's nonviolent methods for achieving independence.^ Who is the enemy of a Free India ?
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Provisional Government of Free India The Provisional Government of Free India was a shadow government led by Subhas Chandra Bose , an Indian nationalist who rejected Gandhi 's nonviolent methods for achieving independence.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On November 25, the Pact was renewed for another five years with Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungary, Spain, Bulgaria, Croatia, Demark, Finland, Romanian, Slovakia, the puppet state of Manchukuo, and the puppet Nanjing government of Wang Jingwei in Japan-occupied China and t he Provincial Government of Free India, a shadow government in Japan-occupied India led by Subhas Chandra Bose, a militant Indian nationalist who opposed Gandhi’s passive resistance to British imperialism.
  • More Geopolitical Dynamics of the Korea Proliferation Crisis 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC henryckliu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its authority existed only in those parts of India that came under Japanese control.^ It operated only in those parts of India which came under Japanese control.
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^ Second Sino-Japanese War Part of World War II Map showing the extent of Japanese control in 1940.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans successfully invades another Marshall Island, leaving only one under Imperial control.

.One of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement of the time and former president of the Indian National Congress, Bose was arrested by British authorities at the outset of the Second World War.^ World war ii leader...
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of World War II by nation .
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^ World War II: the warring nations .
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.In January 1941 he escaped from house arrest, eventually reaching Germany and then in 1942 to Japan where he formed the Indian National Army, made up largely from Indian prisoners of war.^ November 18, 1941-January 18, 1942 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Syria declares war on Germany and Japan.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Paraguay declares war on Germany and Japan.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Bose and A.M. Sahay, another local leader, received ideological support from Mitsuru Toyama, chief of the Dark Ocean Society along with Japanese Army advisers.^ Bose and A.M.Sahay , another local leader, received ideological support from wikipedia:Mitsuru Toyama , chief of the Dark Ocean Society along with Japanese Army advisers.
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^ With some popular support from peace societies, which were founded at that time, and with a concern for international law, national leaders were able to solve many of their differences by means of arbitration.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American sisters of charity were photographed as they left the Yukiang Mission Church to flee to the hills when they received word that a revenge bound army of Japanese was approaching.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Other Indian thinkers in favour of the Axis cause were Asit Krishna Mukherji, a friend of Bose and his wife Savitri Devi, a French writer who admired Hitler.^ Other Indian thinkers in favour of the Axis cause were Asit Krishna Mukherji , a friend of Bose and husband of Savitri Devi Mukherji , one of the women thinkers in support of the German cause, and the Pandit Rajwade of Poona .
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^ Jews and other "undesirables" -- Gypsies, homosexuals and anyone who disagreed with Hitler -- were moved to the concentration camps.

^ Such wisdom escapes Hitler, who then declares war on the USA, clearing the last obstacles for President Roosevelt to have his nation fight all the Axis powers.
  • World War II - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Bose was helped by Rash Behari Bose, founder of the Indian Independence League in Japan.^ Bose was helped by Rash Behari Bose , founder of the Indian Independence League in Japan.
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^ Provisional Government of Free India The Provisional Government of Free India was a shadow government led by Subhas Chandra Bose , an Indian nationalist who rejected Gandhi 's nonviolent methods for achieving independence.
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^ The British then jailed members of the Indian Congress and this helped to create a leadership vacuum and provided an impetus for the ascendancy of Subhash Chandra Bose as a leader of the militant opposition.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bose declared India's independence on October 21, 1943. The Japanese Army assigned to the Indian National Army a number of military advisors, among them Hideo Iwakuro and Saburo Isoda.^ Bose declared India's independence on October 21 1943 .
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^ The Indian National Army fought alongside the Japanese.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese Army assigned to the Indian National Army a number of military advisors, among them Hideo Iwakuro and wikipedia:Major-General Isoda .
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.The provisional capital was located at Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, these islands fallen to the Japanese.^ With its provisional capital at Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands after they fell to the Japanese , the state would last two more years until August 18, 1945 when it officially became defunct.
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^ By the end of March, 1944, the Allies had completed both of these objectives, and additionally neutralized another major Japanese base in the Caroline Islands .
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese marines capture the port Lae on Papua, and from there proceeds to take the western part of the island of New Britain.

.The government would last two more years until August 18, 1945, when it officially became defunct.^ With its provisional capital at Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands after they fell to the Japanese , the state would last two more years until August 18, 1945 when it officially became defunct.
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^ It became clear that victory over Germany would have to wait until 1945.

^ In August 1945, the United States dropped two nuclear devices on the defenseless and militarily insignificant cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Seventy years since the outbreak of World War II: Causes, Consequences and Lessons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During its existence it received recognition from nine governments: Germany, Japan, Italy, Croatia, Manchukuo, China (under the Nanking Government of Wang Jingwei), Thailand, Burma (under the regime of Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw), and the Philippines under de facto (and later de jure) president José Laurel.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burma (Ba Maw regime) .
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^ In its existence it received recognition from nine governments: Germany , Japan , Italy, Croatia , Manchukuo , China (under the Nanking Government of Wang Chingwei ), Thailand, Burma (under the regime of Burmese nationalist leader Ba Maw ), and the Philippines under de facto (and later de jure ) president José Laurel .
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Vietnam (Empire of Vietnam)

The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from March 11 to August 23, 1945.
.When the Japanese seized control of French Indochina, they allowed Vichy French administrators to remain in nominal control.^ Southern France remained in French control.
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^ Japan increased its blockade of China in September by seizing several bases in the northern part of the now-isolated French Indochina .
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^ Vichy French forces initially resisted the Americans, but within two days they had joined the Allied cause.
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.This ruling ended on March 9, 1945 when the Japanese officially took control of the government.^ The Axis states which assisted Japan included the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei Government (a puppet regime that nominally controlled most of the population of China).
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allied occupation forces brought to trial 25 Japanese war leaders and government officials who were accused of war crimes.
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  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of March, 1944, the Allies had completed both of these objectives, and additionally neutralized another major Japanese base in the Caroline Islands .
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soon after, Emperor Bảo Đại voided the 1884 treaty with France and Trần Trọng Kim, a historian, became prime minister.^ French State Pétain became the last Prime Minister of the French Third Republic on June 16, 1940 as French resistance to the German invasion of the country was collapsing.
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^ Japan was ruled by Emperor Hirohito and Prime Minister Hideki Tojo , and during the last days of the war, Prime Ministers Kuniaki Koiso and Kantaro Suzuki .
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^ Prince Fumumaro Konoye was forced to resign and General Hideki Tojo became the new Japanese Prime Minister and Minister of War.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the state's short existence, it suffered through a famine (see Vietnamese Famine of 1945) as well as succeeding in replacing French-speaking schools with Vietnamese language schools taught by Vietnamese scholars.^ In 1954, the French suffered a devastating military defeat in Dienbienphu at the hands of the Vietnamese liberation forces, which forced French withdrawal from Indochina.
  • Seventy years since the outbreak of World War II: Causes, Consequences and Lessons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese, as the United States government knew very well, were seeking from the spring of 1945 acceptable terms for a surrender.
  • Seventy years since the outbreak of World War II: Causes, Consequences and Lessons 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite what they have suffered through a most savage century, Merridale concludes, they are only now beginning to realize -- and acknowledge -- the effects.

Cambodia

The Kingdom of Cambodia was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from March 9, 1945 to April 15, 1945.
.In mid-1941, the Japanese entered Cambodia, but allowed Vichy French officials to remain in administrative posts.^ The Japanese continued their expansion, and entered French Indochina in 1941.

^ South African, British, and East African troops are seeking to take the Vichy French island, so that it does not become a Japanese base.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Entering Pearl Harbor on the morning of 8 December 1941, the day after the Japanese raid.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese calls of an "Asia for the Asiatics" won over many Cambodian nationalists, despite Tokyo's policy of keeping the colonial government in nominal control.^ The Japanese coveted this Dutch colony, and, of course, back in Holland, the Government knew it.
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^ The most senior German officials were tried at the Nuremberg Trials , and many Japanese officials at the Tokyo War Crime Trial and other war crimes trials in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Vichy French government granted the Japanese government permission to establish military control over French Indo-China.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This policy changed during the last months of the war.^ The air war achieved its goals only during the last 10 months of World War II. In that time, nearly three times as many bombs fell on Germany as in all the rest of the war.
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^ While many changes took place during and immediately after the War, it is not altogether clear how the war brought them about.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HBC can not, however, always connect changes changes that occurred during the War as an impact of the War.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese wanted to gain local support, so they dissolved French colonial rule and pressured Cambodia to declare its independence within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.^ Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere The Japanese leaders knew the value of slogans.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan's military leaders spoke of building an empire, which they called the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan's military leaders had hopes of an empire, which they called the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four days later, King Sihanouk declared Kampuchea (the original Khmer pronunciation of Cambodia) independent.^ Four days later Hitler declared war on the United States.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days later, Antonescu forced the king to abdicate, installed his young son Michael on the throne, and declared himself Conducător (Leader) with dictatorial powers.
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^ On June 11 , Saipan was bombarded from the sea and a landing was made four days later; it was captured by July 9 .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Co-editor of the Nagaravatta, Son Ngoc Thanh, returned from Tokyo in May and was appointed foreign minister.^ German and Italian foreign ministers meet with the Romanians in Vienna and present an ultimatum demanding the return of Transylvania to Hungary.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ YOSUKE MATSUOKA JAPAN'S FOREIGN MINISTER'S ADDRESS AT OPENING OF THAI-FRENCH INDO-CHINA BORDER DISPUTE, MEDIATION CONFERENCE, Tokyo, February 7, 1941 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STATEMENT OF YOSUKE MATSUOKA, JAPANESE FOREIGN MINISTER, UPON HIS RETURN TO TOKYO FROM EUROPE, April 22, 1941 .
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.On the date of Japanese surrender, a new government was proclaimed with Son Ngoc Thah as prime minister.^ Tojo becomes Japanese Prime Minister .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy's new prime minister, Field Marshal Pietro Badoglio, began secret peace talks with the Allies.
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^ The new government, under General Dushan Simovich, proclaims neutrality.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, in October, when the Allies occupied Phnom Penh, Son Ngoc Thanh was arrested for collaborating with the Japanese and was exiled to France.^ On August 19, Allied forces, mainly Canadian, launched the Dieppe Raid (codenamed Operation Jubilee) on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France.

^ The Allies, however, intercepted and turned back Japanese naval forces , preventing the invasion.
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^ As a result, Japanese and Allied forces both occupied various parts of Guadalcanal .
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of his supporters went to north-western Cambodia, which had been under Thai control since the French-Thai War of 1940, where they banded together as one faction in the Khmer Issarak movement, originally formed with Thai encouragement in the 1940s.^ Ever since France had surrendered to Adolf Hitler in June 1940, French officers had been struggling with Nazi demands that they fight the Allies on the one hand and with their need to retain a measure of --3-- .
  • HyperWar: U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: Tunisia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French and British did not declare war at first, hoping they could persuade Hitler through appeasement, but Hitler did not respond.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They eventually retreated losing 85,000 men, one of the largest Japanese defeats of the war.
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Laos

.Fears of Thai irredentism led to the formation of the first Lao nationalist organization, the Movement for National Renovation, in January 1941, led by Prince Phetxarāt and supported by local French officials, though not by the Vichy authorities in Hanoi.^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official beginning of the Iowa Air National Guard was 25 February 1941, the day the 124th Observation Squadron received its federal recognition.

^ While a similar Allied policy may have been pursued with the Chetniks, their situation of overt collaboration with the occupation forces ultimately led to a break with the Allies, and near disintegration as an organized movement.
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.This group wrote the current Lao national anthem and designed the current Lao flag, while paradoxically pledging support for France.^ France and the Soviet Union had pledged their support.

^ France and the Soviet Union pledged to support the young nation against German aggression.
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^ France and the United Kingdom, treating the Soviet attack on Finland as tantamount to entering the war on the side of the Germans responded to the Soviet invasion by supporting its expulsion from the League of Nations.
  • World War II encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The country declared its independence in 1945.
.There matters rested until the liberation of France in 1944, bringing Charles de Gaulle to power.^ Grolier Online, Charles de Gaulle .
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^ Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill.
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^ General Charles de Gaulle speaks to the people of Cherbourg from the balcony of the City Hall during his visit to the French port city on August 20.
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.This meant the end of the alliance between Japan and the Vichy French administration in Indochina.^ Japan increased its blockade of China in September by seizing several bases in the northern part of the now-isolated French Indochina .
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^ Asia: In 1940 , Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam) upon agreement with the Vichy Government , despite local Free French, and joined Axis powers Germany and Italy.
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^ The Axis initially consisted of an alliance between Germany and Italy, which later expanded to include Japan and Eastern European countries such as Romania and Bulgaria.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese had no intention of allowing the Gaullists to take over, and in late 1944 they staged a military coup in Hanoi.^ U.S. reinforcements subsequently repulsed Japanese counterattacks in December, when they sank two destroyers, and in March 1944, when they killed almost 6,000 men.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They then suggest that rather than being killed on the battlefield, wouldn't it be better to allow yourself to be taken prisoner so that you can take part in the free tour.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marchi had no intention of having his 34th Division troops sit on the outskirts as they had at Tunis and Rome, while some other unit reaped the glory.

.Some French units fled over the mountains to Laos, pursued by the Japanese, who occupied Viang Chan in March 1945 and Luang Phrabāng in April.^ On the other hand, some Nationalist units, along with collaborationists, were deployed for blockading the Communists rather than against the Japanese.
  • World War II, Pacific - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1945.   A personal account of KingCol's march from Palestine to Baghdad and then to Palmyra by the MP and poet who was KingCol intelligence officer.
  • The Iraq coup of Raschid Ali in 1941, the Mufti Husseini and the Farhud (Farhoud) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 29, 1945, units of the 45th Division liberated the concentration camp of Dachau where more atrocities were committed.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.King Sīsavāngvong was detained by the Japanese, but his son Crown Prince Savāngvatthanā called on all Lao to assist the French, and many Lao died fighting against the Japanese occupiers.^ Japanese troops occupy French Indochina.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ More soldiers died fighting on the Eastern Front—about 10 million—than on all other fronts combined.
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^ As a final resistance effort, Hitler called for civilians, including teenagers and the elderly, to fight in the Volkssturm militia against the oncoming Red Army.

.Prince Phetxarāt, however, opposed this position, and thought that Lao independence could be gained by siding with the Japanese, who made him Prime Minister of Luang Phrabāng, though not of Laos as a whole.^ JAN 39: Prince Konoye resigns as Japanese Prime Minister.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Tojo becomes Japanese Prime Minister .
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^ He met with and impressed Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, and was sent to Singapore where he assumed the presidency of the Indian Independence League and command of the reconstituted Indian National Army (INA).
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.In practice the country was in chaos and Phetxarāt's government had no real authority.^ In practice, occupied countries and peoples were completely subordinate to Japanese authority.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Passage of the Lend-Lease Act, which gave the President authority to sell, transfer, or lease war goods to the government of any country whose --7-- .
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^ The Nanking Government had no real power, and its main role was to act as a propaganda tool for the Japanese.
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.Another Lao group, the Lao Sēri (Free Lao), received unofficial support from the Free Thai movement in the Isan region.^ The Free Thai Movement ("Seri Thai") was established during these first few months.
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^ The Thais received three-quarters of Campong-Thom Province, all of the Laos Province west of the Mekong, and territory in northern Cambodia.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Informal League of Nations support groups existed in many countries, and the peace movement was particularly enthusiastic in the United States.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Italian puppet states

Montenegro

.Sekula Drljević and the core of the Montenegrin Federalist Party formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on July 12, 1941, and proclaimed on the Saint Peter's Congress the "Kingdom of Montenegro" under protectorate of the Fascist Kingdom of Italy.^ July 12, 1941 .
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Independent State of Montenegro The leader of the Montenegrin Federalists, Sekule Drljević formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on July 12, 1941 .
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^ On July 25, he was removed from office by Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, and arrested with the positive consent of the Great Fascist Council.

.The country served Italy as part of its goal fragmenting the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, expanding the Italian Empire throughout the Adriatic Sea.^ However, an Italian invasion of Greece then drew part of the United Kingdom's force from Africa and ended the advance.
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^ The Axis countries (Germany, Italy, and Japan) were countries aspiring the carve out and enlarge colonial empires.
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^ In August, Italy invaded British Somaliland , located in the Horn of Africa , expelling British Commonwealth forces and enlarging the Italian Empire in Italian East Africa .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country was mostly caught by the rebellion of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland and Drljevic was already in October 1941 expelled from Montenegro, which became under direct Italian control with the remainder of the Montenegrin collaborators.^ In six short weeks two more countries fell under Nazi control, the French Army was defeated and the British ejected from the continent.

^ Thailand, an independent state before 1941, became Japan's ally under duress.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last Italian troops in Ethiopia surrendered at Gondar on November 27th, leaving Italian East Africa under British control.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1943 with the Italian capitulation, Montenegro became a direct sector of occupation of Nazi Germany.^ Austria was once again separated from Germany and it, too, was divided into four zones of occupation, which eventually reunited and became the state of Austria.
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^ Austria was once again separated from Germany and it, too, was divided into four zones of occupation, which eventually reunited in 1955 and became the Republic of Austria.
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^ Plans for the occupation of Germany were outlined by the British in 1943, negotiated in 1944, and formally approved at Yalta in 1945.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1944, Drljević formed a pro-Ustaše Montenegrin State Council in exile based in the Independent State of Croatia with the aims of restoring rule over Montenegro.^ In October 1941, Drljević was exiled from Montenegro and in 1944, he formed the Montenegrin State Council locates in the Independent State of Croatia.
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^ Independent State of Montenegro The leader of the Montenegrin Federalists, Sekule Drljević formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro on July 12, 1941 .
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^ The interior of the obverse pommel face has the raised letters, "NHD", which stood for the Independent State of Croatia.
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.It subsequently formed a Montenegrin People's Army out of various Montenegrin nationalist troops.^ Despite outnumbering Finnish troops by 4 to 1, the Red Army found the attack embarrassingly difficult, and the Finnish defence prevented an all-out invasion.

^ On all fronts, about 36,000 Indian troops died during World War II. An additional 2,600 died in the Indian National Army, a military force formed by Indian nationalists to seek Independence from the United Kingdom.
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^ The Indians are led by Subhas Chander Bose, who has organized Indian troops and formed an army in Germany to fight against the British .
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.By then the Partisans already liberated most of Montenegro, which became a federal state of the new Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.^ Yugoslavia had the most effective resistance movement of allthe Partisans.
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^ Nevertheless, Albania had a great partisan movement which fiercely resisted the Fascist and Nazi regime, as a result Albania was the state that alone managed to liberate itself from the German Nazis.
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^ Germany became the second most important trading partner of Brazil, just behind the United States.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

Montenegro endured intense air bombing by the Allied air forces in 1944.

German puppet states

.The collaborationist administrations of German-occupied countries in Europe had varying degrees of autonomy, and not all of them qualified as fully recognized sovereign states.^ OCT 40: German troops occupy Rumania to "protect" that country's largest oil fields.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All ground combat arms showed varying degrees of improvement during the campaign.
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^ Joseph Goebbels directed Germany's Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment, which controlled publications, radio programmes, films, and the arts in Germany and German-occupied Europe.
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.The General Government in occupied Poland had control over local police forces, known as the Blue Police, but did not qualify as a legitimate Polish government and was essentially a German administration.^ Mooney is known to be in sympathy with the German government."
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^ The start of the war is generally held to be September 1 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by most of the countries in the British Empire and Commonwealth, and by France.
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^ Guerilla forces continue resistance to German control.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In occupied Norway, the National Government headed by Vidkun Quisling - whose name came to symbolize pro-Axis collaboration in several languages - was subordinate to the Reichskommissariat Norwegen : it was never allowed to have any armed forces, be a recognized military partner or have autonomy of any kind.^ American military government in occupied Germany.
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^ Nevertheless, eight years of war greatly taxed the central government, and many of its nation-building measures adopted since it came to power in 1928 were disrupted by the war.
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^ It exalts might and recognizes no right except that which is backed by the sword; it consecrates force as the arbiter of the destiny of nations; it glorifies war as an instrument of empire building.
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the occupied Netherlands, Anton Mussert was given the symbolic title of "Führer of the Netherlands' people", but while his National Socialist Movement formed a cabinet assisting the German administration, it was never recognized as a real Dutch government.^ Dutch government of Colijn, forms .

^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
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^ Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

Slovakia (Tiso regime)

The Slovak Republic under President Josef Tiso signed the Tripartite Pact on November 24, 1940.
Slovakia had been closely aligned with Germany almost immediately from its declaration of independence from Czechoslovakia on March 14, 1939. Slovakia entered into a treaty of protection with Germany on March 23, 1939.
.Slovak troops joined the German invasion of Poland, having interest in Spiš and Orava.^ German troops in Poland .
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^ Slovak troops joined the German invasion of Poland, fighting to reclaim territories lost in 1918.
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^ Salazar protests German invasion of Poland .
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Those two regions (alongside with Cieszyn Silesia) were divided and disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia since 1918, until the Poles fully annexed them following the Munich agreement.^ When Hitler annexed parts of Czechoslovakia and Poland, he was welcomed enthusiastically by these ethnic Germans.

^ The United Nations Charter was adopted unanimously at San Francisco on June 26, but the dispute over the seating of Poland was typical of other problems on which no agreement had been found.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agreement of Mutual Assistance between the United Kingdom and Poland.-London, August 25, 1939 .
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.After the September Campaign, Slovakia reclaimed control of those territories.^ Animation of alliances during the Second World War Animation of alliances and territories controlled during the Second World War, every few months from September 1939 to September 1945.
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^ They can never move into hostile territories (not even those that contain no combat units but are enemy-controlled).
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.Slovakia declared war on the Soviet Union in 1941 and signed the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Slovak troops fought on Germany's Eastern Front, with Slovakia furnishing Germany with two divisions totalling 20,000 men.^ Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany has (again) declared war on Poland.

^ Eastern Front 1941-45 .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Slovakia declared war on the United Kingdom and the United States of America in 1942.
.Slovakia was spared German military occupation until the Slovak National Uprising, which began on August 29, 1944, and was almost immediately crushed by the Waffen SS and Slovak troops loyal to Josef Tiso, the Catholic priest-turned-dictator of Slovakia.^ The military occupation of Japan began in August 1945.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slovakia was spared German military occupation until the Slovak National Uprising , which began on August 29, 1944 and was almost immediately crushed by the Waffen SS and Slovak troops loyal to Tiso.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequent to the US military occupation, when no WMD were discovered, Washington justified the invasion and occupation by citing the removal of a dictator and the establishment of a prosperous democracy in the Arab world.
  • print:Zion-power and War: From Iraq to Iran. The Deadly Embrace | Critical Analysis |Axisoflogic.com 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC axisoflogic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war, Tiso was executed and Slovakia was rejoined with Czechoslovakia.^ After the war, Tiso was executed and Slovakia was rejoined with Czechoslovakia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The border with Poland was shifted back to the pre-war state.^ North America, in fact, prospered during World War II. In the United States and Canada, most people fully backed the war effort.

^ The War marked the shift of world power from the states of Werstern Europe to the Soviet Union and America.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same day, Konev's forces reached the German pre-war border.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Slovakia and the Czech Republic finally separated into independent states in 1993.

Serbia (Nedić regime)

.In April 1941, Germany invaded and occupied Yugoslavia.^ Hungary occupies former territories in Yugoslavia after that country is invaded by Germany.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler's forces then invaded Greece and Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941 .
  • World War II - SgWiki 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.sgwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 9, 1940 , citing intended British mining of Norwegian and Danish waters as a pretext, Germany occupied both countries.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On April 30, a pro-German Serbian administration was formed under Milan Aćimović.^ Unable either to escape or to counterattack, the German commander finally surrendered on 30 April 1945.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureacracy functioning under German command.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingdom of Serbia Serbian General Milan Nedić formed the National Government of Salvation in German-occupied Serbia on September 1, 1941 .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .In 1941, after the invasion of the Soviet Union, a guerilla campaign against the Germans and Italians was launched by the communist Partisans under Josip Broz Tito.^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German troops fighting in the Soviet Union.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German strategy, 1939–42 - Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The uprising became a serious concern for the Germans as most of their forces were deployed to Russia; only three divisions of which were in the country.^ The upgrades which any given player will research, depends mostly three basic factors: General/Country, Game Situation, and Regiments Deployed.

^ The start of the war is generally held to be September 1 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by most of the countries in the British Empire and Commonwealth, and by France.
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German forces keep falling back both in the East and the West as USA and CW keep building up forces in France and Russia keeps up the pressure in the east.

.On August 13, 546 Serbs, including many of the country's most prominent and influential leaders, issued an appeal to the Serbian nation that called for loyalty to the Nazis and condemned the Partisan resistance as unpatriotic.^ Yugoslavia had the most effective resistance movement of allthe Partisans.
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ELAS incorporated many former officers of the Greek national army, including its principal w.artime leader Colonel Stefanos Serafis; its political side, the underground National Liberation Front (EAM) was dominated by the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
  • Chapter 3: The Legacy of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.statecraft.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the Nazi leaders had either been killed or captured.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Two weeks after the appeal, with the Partisan insurgency beginning to gain momentum, seventy five prominent Serbs convened a meeting in Belgrade where it was decided to form a Government of National Salvation under Serbian General Milan Nedić to replace the existing Serbian administration.^ A new government is formed under General Noboyuki Abe.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The government of Serbia was reorganised as the "National Government of Salvation" under General Milan Nedić on September 1, 1941 .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingdom of Serbia Serbian General Milan Nedić formed the National Government of Salvation in German-occupied Serbia on September 1, 1941 .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .On August 29, the German authorities installed General Nedić and his government in power.^ Within these states native governments were allowed to function under varying degrees of supervision by German occupation authorities.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They further believe that the agreement which they have now reached with the German Government, and which they regard as a permanent and definite agreement as from today between the two Governments, will facilitate the conclusion of a general agreement on the subject of naval limitation between all the naval Powers of the world."
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bulgarian government threw its support behind the Axis powers and German troops marched into Sofia.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Nedić would serve as Prime Minister, while the former Yugoslavian Regent, Prince Paul, would be recognized as its head of state.^ Nedić served as prime minister of the puppet government which recognized the former Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul, as head of state.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admiral Miklos Horthy, elected Regent with power to appoint the prime minister, veto legislation, dissolve the parliament and command the armed forces.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The U-Boats reduced shipments considerably; however, the United Kingdom refused to seek peace, with Prime Minister Winston Churchill stating that "We shall never surrender".
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.The Germans were short of police and military forces in Serbia, as a result the Germans came to rely on armed Serbian formations to maintain order[25] By October, 1941, Serbian forces under German supervision became increasingly effective against the resistance.^ On May 25, 1941, Hitler issued his Order 30, stepping up German offensive operations: "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This caused Germany to lose a significant portion of its territory, prohibited the annexation of other states, limited the size of the German armed forces and imposed massive reparations.
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan found that it was a good chance to declare war; and Being under Emperor Hirohito, the army, navy, and air force became more powerful.
  • What were the causes for World War II - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[26] .These Serbian formations were German armed and equipped.^ The Mission doctrine emphasized the Brazilian experiences in the wars its Armed Forces had fought and to establish a native doctrine based on these experiences and their own experience with the Germans.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nedić's forces included the Serbian State Guards and the Serbian Volunteer Corps, which were initially largely members of the fascist Yugoslav National Movement "Zbor" (Jugoslovenski narodni pokret "Zbor", or ZBOR) party.^ Nedić's armed forces, the Serbian State Guards and Serbian Volunteer Corps , wore the uniform of the Royal Yugoslav Army.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1922, this situation was brought to a head when Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party initiated a March on Rome, proclaiming a coup d'état.
  • World War II - a knol by Neil McFarlane 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these formations wore the uniform of the Royal Yugoslav Army as well as helmets and uniforms purchased from Italy, while others from Germany.^ This worried France and the United Kingdom, who had lost much in the previous war, as well as Italy, which saw its territorial ambitions threatened by those of Germany.
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These countries included Germany, Italy, France, and the United States of America.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany and Italy provide transport to move Franco’s army from Africa to Spain.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

[27] .These forces were involved, either directly or indirectly, in the mass killings of not only Croats, Muslims and Jews but also Serbs who sided with any anti-German resistance or were suspects of being a member of such.^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though these camps did not involve heavy labour, forced isolation and sub-standard living conditions were the norm.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guerilla forces continue resistance to German control.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28] .After the war, the Serbian involvement in many of these events and the issue of Serbian collaboration were subject to historical revisionism.^ Many of the inmates of these camps were subjected to physical and verbal abuse due to their ethnic Asian similarities.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US Army Europe's Historical Division, put these generals to work and had them write of their experiences on a whole host of subjects.

^ When the war ended, many of these communities were forcibly compelled to return to Germany proper.

[29]
.The apparatus of the German occupying forces in Serbia was supposed to maintain order and peace in this region and to exploit its industrial and other riches, necessary for the Germany war economy.^ This caused Germany to lose a significant portion of its territory, prohibited the annexation of other states, limited the size of the German armed forces and imposed massive reparations.
  • Topic: World War II (1939-1945) | CosmoLearning History 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.cosmolearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The German forces in Italy surrendered on May 2 , 1945 , at General Alexander's headquarters, and German forces in northern Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands surrendered on May 4 .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But, however well organised, it could have not realized its plans successfully if the old apparatus of state power, the organs of state administration, the gendarmes, and the Police had not been at its service.
[30]
.Several concentration camps were formed in Serbia and at the 1942 Anti-Freemason Exhibition in Belgrade the city was pronounced to be free of Jews (Judenfrei).^ Several concentration camps were formed in Serbia and at the 1942 Anti-Freemason Exhibition in Belgrade the city was pronounced Judenfrei .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jews and other "undesirables" -- Gypsies, homosexuals and anyone who disagreed with Hitler -- were moved to the concentration camps.

^ About 6 million Jews died in concentration camps during World War II. Many were shot by firing squads or killed in groups in gas chambers.
  • World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 1 April 1942, a Serbian Gestapo was formed.^ On April 15, 1942, a curious item appeared in Gestapo reports in Berlin.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More significantly, in April 1942, the US-British Combined Chiefs of Staff was formed, the highest military command for the western Allies during the war.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Serbian Gestapo was formed.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Italy (Salò regime)

.Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini formed the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian) on September 23, 1943, succeeding the Kingdom of Italy as a member of the Axis.^ Italy was forced to sign the Italian Armistice in September 1943.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian Social Republic Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini formed the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian ) on September 23, 1943 , succeeding the Kingdom of Italy as a member of the Axis.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benito Mussolini, leader of the Fascists, promised to bring order and prosperity to Italy.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mussolini had been removed from office and arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25, 1943. The King publicly reaffirmed his loyalty to Germany, but authorized secret armistice negotiations with the Allies.^ Victor Emmanuel III becomes King of Albania.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mussolini had fallen from power on July 25.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 25 the king, Victor Emmanuel III , ordered the arrest of Mussolini and entrusted Marshal Pietro Badoglio with the formation of a new government.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a spectacular raid led by German paratrooper Otto Skorzeny, Mussolini was rescued from arrest.^ In a spectacular raid led by German paratrooper Otto Skorzeny , Mussolini was rescued from arrest.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A few days later, Mussolini was rescued by German special forces and before the end of September created the Italian Social Republic , a German client state .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once safely ensconced in German occupied Salò, Mussolini declared that the King was deposed, that Italy was a republic and that he was the new president.^ Once safely escounced in German occupied Salò , Mussolini declared that the King was deposed, that Italy was a republic and that he was the new president.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the major powers of Europe distracted by Germany's occupation of Czechoslovakia, Mussolini sent an ultimatium to the Albanian King Zog on March 25, 1939 , demanding that Zog permit the country to be occupied by Italy as a protectorate.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few days later, Mussolini was rescued by German special forces and before the end of September created the Italian Social Republic , a German client state .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He functioned as a German puppet for the duration of the war.^ He functioned as a German puppet for the duration of the war.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy declares war on Germany Mussolini is rescued from prison by German troops and forms a puppet government "Repubblica Sociale Italiana" in German occupied portion of northern Italy.
  • The World at War 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of the Atlantic, a nautical campaign which lasted the duration of the war, started after the German invasion of Poland with the torpedoing of the British liner SS Athenia by a German submarine (U-boat).
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Albania (under German control)

.After Benito Mussolini was overthrown by his own Italian Grand Council, a void of power opened up in Albania.^ On April 7, 1939 the Italian army invaded Albania, and Mussolini forced its government to resign from the League.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (MC, 9/10/01) 1943 Sep 12, German paratroopers took Benito Mussolini from the hotel where he was being held by Italian resistance forces.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania was a constituent of the New Roman Empire envisioned by Italy's fascist dictator, Il Duce Benito Mussolini .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Italian occupying forces could do nothing as the National Liberation Movement (NLM) took control of the south and National Front (Balli Kombëtar) took control of the north.^ As a member of the Vichy government he could not simply turn over French forces in North Africa to the Allies.
  • HyperWar: U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: Tunisia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 15th Air Force was organized for long range assault missions and its fighters and bombers range over enemy targets in occupied and satellite nations, as well as Germany itself.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the importance of the campaigns in North Africa increased though, so did that of Malta and the disruptions of Axis supply lines that Allied forces stationed there could provide.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albanians in the Italian army scurried to join the guerrilla forces.^ April 14 --Americans lose one Elbe bridgehead; United States Fifth Army joins in Italian offensive.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Soviet offensive against Italian Eighth Army on middle Don River forces abandonment of effort to relieve Stalingrad.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Meanwhile, the U.S. Army Air Forces had arrived and joined the air campaign against Germany in 1942.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1943, the guerrillas moved to take the capital of Tirana, but before they could, German paratroopers dropped into the city.^ They were able to move out before the orders could be canceled.

^ The 'symbolic' war against the Western Allies, however, turned into a disaster for the citizens of Sofia and other major Bulgarian cities, as they were heavily bombed by the USAF and RAF in 1943 and 1944.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before any transaction could be made, such persons had to convince the Nazi embassy in Washington that they were bona fide supporters of German policy.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soon after a long fight, German High Command announced that they would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and organized an Albanian government, police, and military.^ The Germans announced that they would withdraw until they were given equality.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Uncertain of the response of French troops in the area to an Allied attack, the Germans placed a civil-military detachment in the two cities to neutralize civilians and continued efforts to win over local French commanders.
  • HyperWar: U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: Tunisia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British and American governments recognized that the Soviets were in danger of collapse and an immediate infusion of military equipment and supplies was necessary to keep the Russians in the war.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The country retained the official name the Albanian Kingdom and existed in borders set by Italy in 1941. Since King Zog I was in absentia, a High Council of Regency was created to carry out the functions of a head of state, while the government was headed mainly by Albanian conservative politicians.^ On July 25, he was removed from office by Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, and arrested with the positive consent of the Great Fascist Council.

^ PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S MESSAGE TO CONGRESS, Requesting recognition of a State of War existing between the United States and Germany and the United States and Italy, December 11, 1941 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then again, at the end of the strip he mentions that he persuaded God to let him go visit Italy, so apparently countries that cease to exist eventually pass on to...
  • Axis Powers Hetalia - Television Tropes & Idioms 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Germans did not exert heavy control over Albania's administration.^ It was a two month campaign which resulted in complete German control of Denmark and Norway, though at a heavy cost to their surface navy.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As German U-boots took a heavy toll on Allied shipping in the Atlantic, the Roosevelt administration gave U.S. Navy patrols permission to "shoot on sight" when encountering submarines.
  • Chronology 1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, they attempted to gain popular appeal by giving the Albanians want they wanted.^ 'They give ya a choice on where ya want ya shot,' the blond boy said.
  • Venereal Disease Propaganda 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albania is unique in that it is the only European country occupied by the Axis powers that ended World War II with a larger Jewish population than before the War.^ World War II began on Sept.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II had ended.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Deception and propaganda in World War II. .
  • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] Given their autonomy, the Albanian government refused to hand over their Jewish population. .Instead they provided the Jewish families with forged documents and helped them disperse in the Albanian population.^ They did try to separate Jewish POWs from the general POW population.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They advocated instead the strategic bombing of Germany, campaigns in secondary theaters to disperse German forces, and support for insurgencies in Nazi-occupied Europe.

[32][33] .However, the Axis powers did have success in cooperating with some Balli Kombëtar units in suppressing the communists.^ U.S. President Roosevelt hoped the United States could defeat the Axis powers by equipping the nations fighting them with ships, tanks, aircraft, and other war materials.
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^ Brazilian participation is almost unknown by countries away from South America, even here in United States; however, this participation was responsible for several transformations in Brazilian's nation powers.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The industrial mobilization process begun during the protective mobilization phase intensified until the United States could overwhelm the Axis powers with its material resources.

In addition, several Balli Kombëtar leaders held positions in the regime. Albania was completely liberated on November 28, 1944.

Hungary (Szálasi regime)

.After relations between Germany and the regency of Miklos Horthy collapsed in Hungary in 1944, Horthy was forced to abdicate after German armed forces held his son hostage.^ After the German occupation of Hungary, Horthy was forced to abdicate after his son was kidnapped by the Germans.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days later, Antonescu forced the king to abdicate, installed his young son Michael on the throne, and declared himself Conducător (Leader) with dictatorial powers.
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^ The German forces in Italy surrendered on May 2 , 1945 , at General Alexander's headquarters, and German forces in northern Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands surrendered on May 4 .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following Horthy's abdication, Hungary was politically reorganized into a totalitarian fascist country called the Hungarian State in December 1944 led by Ferenc Szálasi who had been Prime Minister of Hungary since October 1944 and was leader of the anti-Semitic fascist Arrow Cross Party.^ In Horthy's place Ferenc Szalasi head of the Fascist Arrow Cross was put in control of Hungary.
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^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anti-Fascist postcards were probably printed in Italy in late 1944.
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In power, his government was a Quisling regime with little authority other than to obey Germany's orders.^ By this time the Soviet steamroller had become so powerful that some historians argue that the U.S. and British landing at Normandy was more to prevent a coast-to-coast Soviet block than to fight Germany.
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^ Chen had little influence and the real power behind the regime was Zhou Fohai , the mayor of Shanghai.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bankers agreed that special attention should be focused on shopkeepers, factory workers, and others with little money but great potential for Germany.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, days after its inception, the capital of Budapest was surrounded by the Soviet Red Army.^ 'I waited for the Red Army for days and nights.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, in August, UK and Red Army troops occupied neutral Iran, securing its oil and a southern supply line to the Soviet Union.

^ Soviet autumn and winter offensives Bucharesters greet Romania's new ally, the Red Army, on 31 August 1944.

.German and fascist Hungarian forces tried in vain to hold off the Soviet advance but failed.^ Having pushed to occupy Moscow before winter, German forces were delayed into the Soviet Winter .
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^ The other player controls the forces of the United Kingdom and the United States and they must stem the tide of German armor and hold their positions until reinforcements arrive.

^ After the destruction of Army Group Center, the Soviets attacked German forces in the south in mid-July 1944, and in a month's time they cleared the Ukraine of German presence.
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In March 1945, Szálasi fled Hungary for Germany to run the state in exile until the surrender of Germany in May 1945.

Vardar Macedonia

.Ivan Mihailov, leader of the IMRO, wanted to solve the Macedonian Question by creating a pro-Bulgarian Macedonian nation.^ With some popular support from peace societies, which were founded at that time, and with a concern for international law, national leaders were able to solve many of their differences by means of arbitration.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ivan Mihailov 's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization ( IMRO ) welcomed the Bulgarian annexation of Vardar Macedonia .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans kept him on hold just in case relations with Bulgaria went awry.^ He went forward, his men helped him over the wall, and then he opened fire on the Germans and his men crossed over.

^ The front of this leaflet bears no text, just a photomontage of Hitler in full uniform holding a shovel in a graveyard surrounded by German corpses.
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standards set by the Geneva Convention were, in most cases, totally ignored by the Americans and French in relation to their treatment of German prisoners-of-war.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That problem began to take form on August 23, 1944, when Romania left the Axis and subsequently declared on Germany.^ Romania declares war on Germany.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Germany forced Romania to relinquish Transylvania to Hungary on August 30, 1940 in the second Vienna Award .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romania turned against Germany in August 1944, threatening German lines of retreat from the Ukraine.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.This opened up the way to Bulgaria for the Soviet Union.^ Hitler then turned on the Soviet Union , opening a surprise attack (Codename: Barbarossa) on June 22, 1941.

^ The Soviet Union set up a Communist government in its zone.
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^ The Soviet Union set up a Communist government in North Korea after the war.
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.Thus the Soviets declared war on Bulgaria on September 5. While these events were taking place, Mihailov came out of hiding in the Independent State of Croatia and traveled to re-occupied Skopje.^ The USSR declares war on Bulgaria.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ United States out of war.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States declares war on Japan [ United States ] .
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.The Germans gave Mihailov the green light to create his envisioned Macedonian state.^ A few days later, Mussolini was rescued by German special forces and before the end of September created the Italian Social Republic , a German client state .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and the German-created states of Croatia and Slovakia eventually joined the Axis.
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^ The Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia , created in 1939, was de facto part of Germany, although technically a Czech state under German protection.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To give the state legitimacy, negotiations were made with the Bulgarian government.^ "In compliance with the request of the Government of Great Britain, made with the approbation of the Government of the United States of Amer­ica, .
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Contacts was made with Hristo Tatarchev in Resen, who offered Mihailov the Presidency of his state.^ Thus the President asked those who supported the Treaty to vote against ratification with the reservations, and consequently the Treaty was never ratified by the United States.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite their efforts, Bulgaria switched sides on September 8, and on the 9th the Fatherland Front staged a coup and deposed the monarchy.^ As the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, on September 9 1944 , a coup brought to power a new government of the pro-Allied Fatherland Front .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria switched sides and was permitted to keep Southern Dobrudja after the war.
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^ When Italy switched sides in the war in September 1943, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans, and later announced the formation of the Italian Social Republic in Northern Italy.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mihailov then refused the leadership and fled to Italy. Spiro Kitanchev took Mihailov's place and became Premier of Macedonia. .He cooperated with the old, pro-Bulgarian authorities, the Wehrmacht, the Bulgarian Army and the Yugoslav Partisans from the remainder of September to October.^ The British 8th Army advanced towards Trieste and made contact with the Yugoslav partisans.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, on September 9 1944 , a coup brought to power a new government of the pro-Allied Fatherland Front .
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^ Pack up your troubles in your old kit bag and cooperate with the Nippon Army.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

In the middle of November, the communists won control over Vardar Macedonia.[4]

Joint German-Italian puppet states

Independent State of Croatia

.On 10 April 1941, the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, or NDH) was declared to be a member of the Axis, co-signing the Tripartite Pact.^ The Allies held conferences which resulted in peace treaties with Axis countries (Italy, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria) and Finland (a co-belgerant, but not an Axis country) signed in Paris (1947).
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^ Franklin Roosevelt, Address over the radio following the declaration of a state of war with the Japanese Empire, December 9, 1941 .
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^ On September 27, Germany, Italy, and Japan formalized the Axis coalition by signing the Tripartite Pact in Berlin.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

.The NDH remained a member of the Axis until the end of Second World War, its forces fighting for Germany even after NDH had been overrun by Yugoslav Partisans.^ World War II had ended.
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^ But RAF bombers pounded Germany until the end of the war.
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^ Independent State of Croatia Declared on April 10, 1941 , the Independent State of Croatia ( Nezavisna Država Hrvatska or NDH ) was a member of the Axis powers until the end of Second World War, its forces fighting for Germany even after Croatia had been overrun by the Soviets.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 24 April 1941, Ante Pavelić, a Croatian nationalist and one of the founders of the Croatian Uprising (Ustaše) Movement, was proclaimed Leader (Poglavnik) of the new state.^ Ante Pavelić , a Croatian nationalist and one of the founders of the Croatian Uprising ( Ustaše ) Movement, was proclaimed Leader ( Poglavnik ) of the new state on April 24, 1941 .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić also commanded the Ustaše militia.
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^ A new government was proclaimed at the Dedinye Palace with Peter II as the leader on March 28.
  • A Novel of the Balkan Guerrilla War: World War II Novels on Draza Mihailovich and the Chetniks | Serbianna Analysis 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC serbianna.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ustaše was actively supported by the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini in Italy, which gave the movement training grounds to prepare for war against Yugoslavia as well as accepting Pavelić as an exile and allowed him to reside in Rome.^ July 25 --King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy proclaims fall of Mussolini, replacing him with Marshal Pietro Badoglio.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Three events helped usher in World War Two: Japan overran Manchuria; Italy, under fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, invaded Ethiopia; and - most important -- Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany.

^ Mussolini first conquered the African nation of Abyssinia and then seized Albania , with both Italy and Germany actively supporting Francisco Franco's fascist Falange party in the Spanish Civil War against the Second Spanish Republic (which was supported by the Soviet Union).
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.Italy intended to use the movement to destroy Yugoslavia, which would allow Italy to expand its power through the Adriatic Sea.^ Hence a forge was born, using the power of fire and air while allowing the minerals and elements of the Earth to be bended by the hand of mankind.
  • Gravity and Time. The ancient truth revealed. - A must read novel... in UFOs in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new government, led by Pietro Badoglio , took power and declared that Italy would stay in the war.
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^ They would also be tremendously useful in running down and destroying enemy commerce raiders on the high seas, as well as interdicting enemy commerce.
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.In Germany, Hitler did not want to engage in a war in the Balkans until the Soviet Union was defeated.^ Hitler's cooperation with the Soviet Union had been rewarding.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany did not go to a full war footing until late in the War.
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.But the Italian occupation of Greece was performing badly, Mussolini wanted Germany to invade Yugoslavia to save the Italian forces in Greece.^ APR 41: Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany invades Greece and Yugoslavia.
  • The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC worldatwar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, an Italian invasion of Greece then drew part of the United Kingdom's force from Africa and ended the advance.
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.Hitler reluctantly submitted and Yugoslavia was invaded, and the Independent State of Croatia was created.^ (Econ, 11/20/04, p.87) 1941 Germany invaded Yugoslavia and Ante Pavelic led a pro-Nazi dictatorship that controlled newly-independent Croatia.
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^ The interior of the obverse pommel face has the raised letters, "NHD", which stood for the Independent State of Croatia.
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^ Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and the German-created states of Croatia and Slovakia eventually joined the Axis.
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.Relations between Germany and Croatia would improve as the Ustaše proved effective at violently repressing Serb Chetniks and the communist Yugoslav Partisans of Josip Broz Tito.^ The tensions between the communists of Germany and the Nazi's.
  • What were the causes for World War II - Q&A 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Friction had been building up between the two before the end of the war and after the collapse of Nazi Germany, relations spiralled downward.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perpignano was captured by a gang of Italian Communist partisans under the orders of the 1X Yugoslav Corps.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pavelić led a Croatian delegation to Rome and offered the crown of Croatia to an Italian prince of the House of Savoy, who was crowned Tomislav II, King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Knin, Prince of Cisterna and of Belriguardo, Marquess of Voghera, and Count of Ponderano.^ Pavelic led a Croatian delegation to Rome and offered the crown of Croatia to an Italian prince of the House of Savoy, who was crowned Tomislav II , King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Temun, Prince of Cisterna and of Belriguardo, Marquess of Voghera , and Count of Ponderano .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard ( Hrvatsko domobranstvo ) as the official military force of Croatia.
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^ Applied to the obverse grip is the cipher of King Carol II, who ruled Rumania from 1930 - 1940.
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.The next day, Pavelić signed the Contracts of Rome with Mussolini, ceding Dalmatia to Italy and fixing the permanent borders between Croatia and Italy.^ The next day, Pavelic signed the Contracts of Rome with Mussolini, ceding Dalmatia to Italy and fixing the permanent borders between Croatia and Italy.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Italian regions of Istria, Fiume and Dalmazia on the north-eastern borders of Italy (modern day Slovenia and Croatia) thousands of civilian Italian men, women, children and some soldiers were massacred between September, 1943 and late June, 1945.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mussolini stirred the Italians with dreams of restoring Italy to the glory of ancient Rome.
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.Furthermore, Italian armed forces were allowed to control all of Croatia's coastline, effectively giving Italy total control of the Adriatic Sea coastline.^ For four years, Britain's Royal Navy and Italy's Regia Marina waged a ferocious battle for control of the Mediterranean Sea.

^ In August, Italy invaded British Somaliland , located in the Horn of Africa , expelling British Commonwealth forces and enlarging the Italian Empire in Italian East Africa .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One player controls Germany, whose massive build up of forces have gone undetected by the Allies and are poised to unleash all their fury on the Allies.

.Its ruling ultra-nationalist Ustaše movement utilized the motive that Croatians had been oppressed by the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and that Croatians deserved to have an independent nation after years of domination by foreign empires, to draw support to their radical agenda.^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various organizations were also formed to establish foreign resistance cells or support existing resistance movements, like the British SOE and the American OSS (the forerunner of the CIA ).
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatian nationalists declared the independence of Croatia on April 10, 1941 as the " Independent State of Croatia " and enthusiastically joined the Axis.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ustaše perceived Serbs to be racially inferior to Croats and saw them as infiltrators who were occupying Croatian lands, and saw the extermination of Serbs as necessary to racially purify Croatia.^ During the time of its existence, the Ustaše government applied racial laws on Serbs , Jews and Romas , and after June 1941 deported them to the concentration camp at Jasenovac (or to camps in Poland).
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While in Yugoslavia, many Croatian nationalists violently opposed the Serb-dominated Yugoslav monarchy and assassinated Yugoslavia's King Alexander together with Macedonian VMRO organization.^ During the 1930's, they enthusiastically supported a violently nationalistic organization called the Nazi Party.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Result of assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia, see Oct.
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

The regime enjoyed support amongst radical Croatian nationalists. .Ustashe forces fought against Serbian Chetnik and communist Yugoslav Partisan guerrillas throughout the war.^ Drljević's Montenegrin Federalists fought a confusing civil war alongside Axis forces against Yugoslav Partisans and Chetniks.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nedić's forces fought with the Germans against the Yugoslav Partisans.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War I he fought as an officer in a Polish guerilla regiment against the Bolsheviks and eventually located in Paris in 1921.
  • The Vilification of Enemy Leadership in WWII 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon coming to power, Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard (Hrvatsko domobranstvo) as the official military force of Croatia.^ In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić also commanded the Ustaše militia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard ( Hrvatsko domobranstvo ) as the official military force of Croatia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign air attaches in Berlin were informed that German air force had come into existence officially as of March 1.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Originally authorized at 16,000 men, it grew to a peak fighting force of 130,000. The Croatian Home Guard included a an air force and navy, although its navy was restricted in size by the Contracts of Rome.^ Originally authorized at 16,000 men, it grew to a peak fighting force of 130,000.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Croatian Home Guard included a small air force and navy, although its navy was restricted in size by the Contracts of Rome.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breaking the Versailles Treaty - 1934-1937   Hitler ordered the army to be trebled in size, from the 100,000 man Versailles Treaty limit, to 300,000 men by October of 1934.
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić also commanded the Ustaše militia.^ In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić also commanded the Ustaše militia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard ( Hrvatsko domobranstvo ) as the official military force of Croatia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Croatian Home Guard included a small air force and navy, although its navy was restricted in size by the Contracts of Rome.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Croats also volunteered for the German Waffen SS.^ A number of Croats also volunteered for the German Waffen SS .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also recruited Moslem volunteers in the Balkans for the Waffen SS .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From December 29 , 1944 to February 13 , 1945 , Soviet forces laid siege to Budapest, which was defended by German Waffen-SS and Hungarian forces.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ustaše government declared war on the Soviet Union, signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 and sent troops to Germany's Eastern Front, while Ustaše militia garrisoned the Balkans, battling the Chetniks and communist Partisans.^ Germany has (again) declared war on Poland.

^ Britain declares war on Germany.

^ Eastern Front 1941-45 .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the time of its existence, the Ustaše government applied racial laws on Serbs, Jews and Romas, and after June 1941 deported them to the Jasenovac concentration camp (or to camps in Poland).^ The racial laws were enforced by the Ustaše militia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the time of its existence, the Ustaše government applied racial laws on Serbs , Jews and Romas , and after June 1941 deported them to the concentration camp at Jasenovac (or to camps in Poland).
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jews and other "undesirables" -- Gypsies, homosexuals and anyone who disagreed with Hitler -- were moved to the concentration camps.

.The exact number of victims of the Ustaše regime is uncertain due to the destruction of documents and varying numbers given by various historians vying for political clout.^ The number of victims of the Ustaše regime is a mystery due to numbers given by various historians vying for political clout.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The estimates of the total number of victims in Jasenovac is from between 56,000 and 97,000 [34] to 700,000 or more.^ The Jewish community was estimated to number 70,000 at the start of the war.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transported by 700 ships, 55,000 men made the initial assault, and 115,000 more followed up.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1947 the Army numbered a mere 700,000--sixth in size among the armies of the world.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The racial laws were enforced by the Ustaše militia.^ The racial laws were enforced by the Ustaše militia.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the time of its existence, the Ustaše government applied racial laws on Serbs , Jews and Romas , and after June 1941 deported them to the concentration camp at Jasenovac (or to camps in Poland).
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Ustaše had huge support in most parts of Croatia, their wide popular support waded as the war was approaching an end.^ Documentaries The World at War (1974) is a 36-part BBC series that covers most aspects of World War II from many points of view.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the close of the war, six numbered American armies operated in western Europe, although the Fifteenth Army was not organized until the end of the war.

^ Focusing on the role of Five American armies and their tactical air support, with some account of the role of Allied forces, this book brings to an end the war in Europe.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Reference]

Greece

.Following the German invasion of Greece and the flight of the Greek government to Crete and then Egypt, the Hellenic State was formed in May 1941 as a puppet state of both Italy and Germany.^ German Invasion of Greece On April 6 1941 Germany invaded Greece after the failure of the Italian invasion of Greece in 1940.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German puppet states .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This alliance, which became known as the Rome-Berlin Axis had been formed following the German and Italian support of fellow fascist, General Franco, in the Spanish Civil War.
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Initially, Italy had wished to annex Greece, but pressure from Germany to avoid civil unrest such as occurred in Bulgarian-annexed areas, resulted in Italy accepting to create a puppet regime with the support of Germany.^ Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan created a number of puppet states in the areas occupied by its military, beginning with the creation of Manchukuo in 1932.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1936, Germany and Italy agreed to support one another's foreign policy.
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Italy had been assured by Hitler of "prepoderanza" in Greece and most of the country was held by Italian forces, but strategic locations (Central Macedonia, the islands of the northeastern Aegean, most of Crete and parts of Attica) were held by the Germans, who in addition seized most of the country's economic assets, and effectively controlled the collaborationist government.^ Then the Fascists seized control of Italy and subsequently German Fascists seized control of that country (1933).
  • war and social upheaval: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German and Italian forces then clashed with the British in Greece and northern Africa.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greece and the Greek islands were secured by Hitler.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The puppet regime never commanded much real authority, neither did it gain the allegiance of the people, although it was somewhat successful in preventing secessionist movements like the "Principality of Pindus" (see below) from establishing themselves.^ This is somewhat like the same principals used to make a simple car battery, but on a much larger scale.
  • Gravity and Time. The ancient truth revealed. - A must read novel... in UFOs in History Channel 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I did not really understand all of this somewhat cryptic information, but I was curious as to why the crystal skulls had been made in the first place.
  • POLAR AXIS SPIN - The Current Location Of The Spin Axis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various organizations were also formed to establish foreign resistance cells or support existing resistance movements, like the British SOE and the American OSS (the forerunner of the CIA ).
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By mid-1943, the Greek Resistance had liberated large parts of the mountainous interior ("Free Greece"), setting up a separate administration there.^ After the collapse of Yugoslavia in April, 1941, General Draja Mihajlovic, Minister of War in the loyalist government, escaped and set up a resistance organization....
  • Chapter 3: The Legacy of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.statecraft.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was hoped that the local forces of Vichy France would put up no resistance and submit to the authority of Free French General Henri Giraud .
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A chain of mountains separates coastal Tunisia from the arid interior.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Italian armistice, the Italian occupation zone was taken over by the German armed forces, who remained in charge of the country until their withdrawal in autumn 1944. In some Aegean islands however, German garrisons were left behind, and surrendered only after the end of the war.^ German forces withdraw from Rostov .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last Polish armed forces surrender to the Germans .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One year later the German Army (Wehrmacht) marched into the german not militarized zone left of the river Rhine.
  • 1.) who were the six primary axis countries in world war... - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Pindus and Macedonia

.The Principality of Pindus and the Voivodship of Macedonia were Italian-sponsored attempts at forming client states in the regions of northern Greece (parts of Epirus, Thessaly and West Macedonia) inhabited by ethnic Aromanians and Slavic Macedonians.^ However, an Italian invasion of Greece then drew part of the United Kingdom's force from Africa and ended the advance.
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^ A few days later, Mussolini was rescued by German special forces and before the end of September created the Italian Social Republic , a German client state .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, an Italian invasion of Greece then drew part of Britain's force from Africa and ended the advance.

[35]

Axis collaborator states

France (Vichy regime)

.France and its colonial empire, under the so-called Vichy regime of Marshal Pétain, collaborated with the Axis from 1940 until 1944 when the regime was dissolved.^ The Vichy Regime: 1940-1944 .
  • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 10, 1940, Pétain was given emergency powers by a vote of the French National Assembly, effectively creating the Vichy regime , for the resort town of Vichy where Petain chose to maintain his seat of government.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 6/9/07) 1940 Jun 11, The German invasion of France was under way and the British had been forced to abandon their defense of northwestern France and Belgium at Dunkirk.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pétain became the last Prime Minister of the French Third Republic on June 16, 1940 as the battle of France following the German invasion army entering Paris on June 14. Pétain sued for peace with Germany and six days later, on June 22, 1940, his government concluded an armistice with Hitler.^ German troops entered Paris on June 14, 1940.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adolf Hitler in Paris, June 23, 1940.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French State Pétain became the last Prime Minister of the French Third Republic on June 16, 1940 as French resistance to the German invasion of the country was collapsing.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the terms of the agreement, Germany occupied approximately two thirds of metropolitan France, including Paris.^ Under the terms of the armistice, Germany occupied the northern two-thirds of France and a strip of western France along the Atlantic Ocean.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the terms of the agreement, Germany occupied approximately two thirds of France, including Paris .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4) 1939 Sep 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pétain was permitted to keep an "armistice army" of 100,000 men within the unoccupied southern zone.^ The German Navy was to be dismantled, and its Army was to be reduced to 100,000 men.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pétain was permitted to keep an army of 100,000 men to defend the unoccupied zone.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breaking the Versailles Treaty - 1934-1937   Hitler ordered the army to be trebled in size, from the 100,000 man Versailles Treaty limit, to 300,000 men by October of 1934.
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.This number included neither the army based in French colonial empire nor the French fleet.^ This number includes neither the army based in French colonial empire nor the French fleet.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clark mumbles that Darlan is worthless, as he can neither bring over the French fleet nor apply the armistice just signed.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The UK permitted French General Charles de Gaulle to headquarter his Free French movement in London in a largely unsuccessful effort to win over the French colonial empire.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In French North Africa and French Equatorial Africa, the Vichy were permitted to maintain 127,000 men under arms after the colony of Gabon defected to the Free French.^ We have 150,000 American and British troops in French North Africa.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In French North-Africa, a strength of 127,000 men was allowed after the rallying of Gabon to the Free French [4] .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mid-1943, former Vichy authorities in North Africa came to an agreement with the Free French and setup a temporary French government in Algiers, known as the Comité Français de Libération Nationale , De Gaulle eventually emerging as the leader.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .The French also maintained substantial garrisons at the French mandated territory of Syria and Lebanon, the French colony of Madagascar and in the French Somaliland.^ In 1942, Allied forces also attacked the Vichy French colony of Madagascar .
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JUL 41: British and Free French forces occupy Syria and Lebanon.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After the armistice, relations between the vichy French and the British quickly deteriorated.^ Relations between France and the United Kingdom quickly deteriorated.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Finland were severed on August 1, 1941 , after the British bombed German forces in the Finnish city of Petsamo.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans and Italians utilized Vichy French bases in Syria, precipitating fighting between British and French forces in Syria.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fearful that the powerful French fleet might fall into German hands, the British launched several naval attacks, most notable of which was against the Algerian harbour of Mers el-Kebir on July 3, 1940. Though Churchill defended his controversial decisions to attack the French Fleet, the French people themselves were less accepting of these actions.^ Though Churchill would defend his controversial decisions to attack the French Fleet and, later, invade French Syria, the French people themselves were less accepting of these decisions.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the French surrender, the British attacked the French Navy anchored in North Africa in July 1940, out of fear that it might fall into German hands; this contributed to a souring of British-French relations for the next few years.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fearful that the powerful French fleet might fall into German hands, the United Kingdom launched several naval attacks, the major one against the Algerian harbour of Mers el-Kebir on July 3, 1940.
  • Axis Powers - WarWiki 20 September 2009 1:41 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German propaganda was able to trumpet these actions as an absolute betrayal of the French people by their former allies.^ In short, the Brazilian people believed in Carnival and in Soccer Championship rather than in an Expeditionary Force to fight together with the Allies against the Germans.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While the Allies raced to build up supplies and reserves, American and British fighter aircraft and guerrillas of the French resistance blocked movement of German reinforcements.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the French resistance interfered with German efforts to turn back the Allied invasion of Normandy in 1944.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.France broke relations with the United Kingdom after the attack and considered declaring war.^ Italy declares war on Britain and France .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Kingdom and France declared war.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As France neared collapse, Italy declared war on France and the United Kingdom on June 10.
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On July 10, 1940, Petain was given emergency "full powers" by a majority vote of the French National Assembly.^ Declaration of Reciprocal Assistance anal Cooperation for the Defense Of the Nations of the Americas, Habana, July 30, 1940 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain over Koo's objections also got the issue given to the nations of the Nine Power Treaty of 1922 that had limited Japanese armaments.
  • Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Credits : Acquired from Vast Video] In 1933 Adolf Hitler’s National Socialists were voted into power, and the campaign of terror began.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following day approval of the new constitution by the Assembly effectively created the French State (l'État Français) replacing the French Republic with the unofficial Vichy France; for the resort town of Vichy where Petain chose to maintain his seat of government.^ Vichy French forces initially resisted the Americans, but within two days they had joined the Allied cause.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Saarland (in the French zone) is shown with stripes because it was removed from Germany by France in 1947 as a protectorate , and was not incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany until 1957.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Appeasement and pre-war alliances The British and French governments followed a policy of appeasement in order to avoid a new European war.

.The new government continued to be recognised as the lawful government of France by the United States until 1942. Racial laws were introduced in France and its colonies and many French Jews were deported to Germany.^ The United States joined the air war against Germany in 1942.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Loans from the United States helped Germany's government restore order.
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ (HN, 2/27/98) 1942 Feb 27, The 1st transport of French Jews left to Nazi Germany.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albert Lebrun, last President of the Republic, did not leave the presidential office when he moved to Vizille in July 10, 1940. By April 25, 1945, during Petain's trial, Lebrun argued he thought he would be able to return to power after the fall of Germany since he had not resigned.^ Albert Lebrun elected president of France .

^ On July 25, he was removed from office by Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, and arrested with the positive consent of the Great Fascist Council.

^ (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A13) 1940-1945 Turkey supplied Germany and the Allies with chromite ore, an essential metal for stainless steel.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
.In September 1940, Vichy France allowed Japan to occupy French Indochina, a federation of the French colonial possessions and protectorates roughly encompassing the territory of modern day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.^ In 1940, Japanese troops occupied northern Indochina (today part of Laos and Vietnam).
  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese forces invaded French Indochina on September 22 , 1940.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asia: In 1940 , Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam) upon agreement with the Vichy Government , despite local Free French, and joined Axis powers Germany and Italy.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Vichy regime continued to administer the colony under Japanese military occupation.^ (Under threat of Japanese military occupation.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan's military leaders began to speak about bringing all of eastern Asia under Japanese control.
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^ Wainwright continued to resist on the small fortified island of Corregidor in Manila Bay until 6 May under constant Japanese artillery and air bombardment.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French Indochina was the base for the Japanese invasions of Thailand, Malaya and Borneo.^ Japanese forces invaded French Indochina on September 22 , 1940.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Thailand, Japanese forces soon advanced into the British-ruled regions of Malaya (now part of Malaysia) and Burma.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South African, British, and East African troops are seeking to take the Vichy French island, so that it does not become a Japanese base.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1945, under Japanese sponsorship, the Empire of Vietnam and the Kingdom of Cambodia were proclaimed as Japanese puppet states.^ Franklin Roosevelt, Address over the radio following the declaration of a state of war with the Japanese Empire, December 9, 1941 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese Embassy to the Department of State, 8 October 1940 Franklin Roosevelt, Address to the registrants under the selective-service law October 16, 1940 .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAR 40: The Japanese establish a puppet Chinese government at Nanking, under the leadership of Wang Ching-wei.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The British permitted French General Charles de Gaulle to headquarter his Free French movement in London in a largely unsuccessful effort to win over the French colonial empire.^ One of the French generals, Charles de Gaulle, had escaped to Britain after France fell.

^ Grolier Online, Charles de Gaulle .
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On September 26, 1940, de Gaulle led an attack by Allied forces on the Vichy port of Dakar in French West Africa.^ Japanese forces invaded French Indochina on September 22 , 1940.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reaction to the Dakar attack, Vichy forces bomb Gibraltar .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vichy forces in Syria surrender to the Allies .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Forces loyal to Pétain fired on de Gaulle and repulsed the attack after two days of heavy fighting.^ Vichy French forces initially resisted the Americans, but within two days they had joined the Allied cause.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The air force prepares the ground for an attack against Si-An, which succeeds and cuts the Chinese front in two.

^ The United States is forced to Fight on two fronts: in the PaciFic, wearing away at Japan; and in Europe, trying to get a foothold on the continent to attack Germany.
  • Rules: Axis and Allies (revised) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gametableonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Public opinion in vichy France was further outraged, and Vichy France drew closer to Germany.^ Germany releases 100,000 French POWs in return for greater collaboration with Vichy France .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These attacks against unarmed Brazilian merchant ships were the turning point in the Brazilian public's opinion about Germany and its behavior.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Laval continues to talk about the warm relationship between Germany and France, including Nazi generosity to Vichy in letting the French keep their empire.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vichy France assisted Iraq in the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, allowing Germany and Italy to utilize air bases in the French mandate of Syria to support the Iraqi revolt against the British.^ Italy starts out bold by declaring war on Germany and France.

^ The United States joined the air war against Germany in 1942.
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^ Air war against Germany .
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Allied forces responded by attacking Syria and Lebanon in 1941.^ Vichy forces in Syria surrender to the Allies .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1941, Allied forces invaded Syria and Lebanon and captured Damascus on June 17 .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Allied breakout ( Operation Cobra ) was effected at St.-Lô , and German forces were almost completely destroyed in the Falaise pocket when they mounted a counter-attack.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1942, Allied forces attacked the French colony of Madagascar.^ Vichy French forces initially resisted the Americans, but within two days they had joined the Allied cause.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied forces, including Free French, liberated Paris on August 25.
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^ In Algiers, 400 members of the French resistance captured much of the city, though it was retaken before Allied forces could arrive.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vichy France was staunchly anti-Communist and enthusiastically sided with Germany in its war with the Soviet Union, and also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941. Almost 7,000 volunteers joined the anti-communist Légion des Volontaires Français (LVF) from 1941 to 1944 and some 7,500 formed the Division Charlemagne, a Waffen-SS unit, from 1944 to 1945. Both the LVF and the Division Charlemagne fought on the eastern front.^ Eastern Front 1941-45 .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact in which they agreed not to go to war against each other.
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^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hitler never accepted that France could become a full military partner,[38] and constantly prevented the buildup of Vichy's military strength.^ While Laval smokes his cigarette outside of Hitler's anti-smoking presence, the Fuhrer continues to give his orders to invade Vichy France.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chamberlain and Daladier hoped that the agreement would satisfy Hitler and prevent war -- or that it would at least prolong the peace until Britain and France were ready for war.

^ The purpose of retaining diplomatic relations with Vichy was that the U.S. government could determine what was going on in Occupied France.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other than political, Vichy's collaboration with Germany essentially was industrial, with French factories providing many vehicles to the German armed forces.^ The German forces in Italy surrendered on May 2 , 1945 , at General Alexander's headquarters, and German forces in northern Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands surrendered on May 4 .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other player controls the forces of the United Kingdom and the United States and they must stem the tide of German armor and hold their positions until reinforcements arrive.

^ The Mission doctrine emphasized the Brazilian experiences in the wars its Armed Forces had fought and to establish a native doctrine based on these experiences and their own experience with the Germans.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.In November 1942, Vichy French troops briefly but fiercely resisted the landing of Allied troops in French North Africa, but were unable to prevail.^ North Africa, November 1942.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have 150,000 American and British troops in French North Africa.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Describes the assault on North Africa in 1942.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Admiral François Darlan negotiated a local ceasefire with the Allies.^ The Vichy commander, Admiral Darlan, negotiated an end to hostilities, against orders from the Vichy government.
  • World War II - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response to the landings, and Vichy's inability to defend itself, German troops occupied southern France and Tunisia, a French protectorate that formed part of French North Africa.^ We have 150,000 American and British troops in French North Africa.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern France remained in French control.
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^ LSTs land at North Africa port.
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.The rump French army in mainland France was disbanded by the Germans.^ JUN 40: France and Germany sign an armistice, providing that French forces be disarmed and that 3/5 of France be surrendered to German control.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the response of the France would have been a military response then the small German army would have retreated within a few hours.
  • 1.) who were the six primary axis countries in world war... - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The French Navy was removed as an Allied force, and additional ports in France on the Atlantic Ocean became available to the German Navy ( Kriegsmarine ), allowing them to increase the range of their vessels.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bey of Tunis formed a government friendly to the Germans.^ At that time he already was "prime minister" of a pan-Arab government formed in the German capital.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

.In mid-1943, former Vichy authorities in North Africa came to an agreement with the Free French and setup a temporary French government in Algiers, known as the French Committee of National Liberation (Comité Français de Libération Nationale), with De Gaulle eventually emerging as the leader.^ He is known as the National leader, and he is famous by his name.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The troops who rallied around de Gaulle became known as the Free French.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General de Gaulle, the French leader, was enraged.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CFLN raised new troops, and re-organized, re-trained and re-equipped the French military under Allied supervision.^ The leaflet is coded 163-944 which indicates that it was disseminated in 1944 over Allied troops fighting in Italy by the Propaganda-Einsatz Fuehrer organization.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Discusses troop and supply movements within the zone of interior to overseas commands, the organization and training of personnel, and the development, procurement, and distribution of corps materiel.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Under the American General Joseph Stilwell , Chinese forces in India were retrained and re-equipped, while preparations were made to drive the Ledo Road from India to replace the Burma Road.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While deprived of any armed forces, the Vichy government continued to function in mainland France until summer 1944, but had lost most of its territorial sovereignty and military assets, with the exception of the forces stationed in French Indochina.^ The Nazi government increased the strength of the German armed forces and sought to overturn the Versailles Treaty, to recover German territory lost at the peace settlement, and to return to the so-called Fatherland German-speaking minorities within the borders of surrounding countries.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Laval smokes his cigarette outside of Hitler's anti-smoking presence, the Fuhrer continues to give his orders to invade Vichy France.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vichy French forces initially resisted the Americans, but within two days they had joined the Allied cause.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1943, it founded the French Militia, a paramilitary forces which gradually assisted the Germans in rounding up opponents and Jews, as well as fighting the French Resistance.^ Jews were rounded up and killed.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 9/19/01) 1941 Sep 19, The Nazi's forced all German Jews from the age of 6 to wear the Star of David.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guerilla forces continue resistance to German control.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

Controversial cases

.States listed in this section were not officially members of Axis, but had controversial relations with one or more Axis members at some point during the war.^ Axis during world war 2 .
  • 1.) who were the six primary axis countries in world war... - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Sicily was the first piece of the Axis homeland to fall to the Allies during World War 2.
  • U.S. Government Bookstore: Browse by Subject: World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC bookstore.gpo.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Axis Powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during World War II. .....
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Denmark

.On May 31, 1939, Denmark and Germany signed a treaty of non-aggression, which did not contain any military obligations for either party.^ Japan did not oblige because she had signed a non aggression treaty with the USSR. .
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^ Japan did not oblige because it had signed a non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union.

^ "As Germany is not a party to the treaty [Nine Power] .
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

[39] .On April 9, 1940, citing intended British mining of Norwegian and Danish waters as a pretext, Germany invaded both countries.^ Also on April 6 , Germany invaded Greece after the failure of the Italian invasion of Greece in 1940.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roosevelt quickly freezes Norwegian and Danish assets in the United States so that they will not become available to Germany.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ German invasion of Denmark and Norway Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, in Operation Weserübung , in part to counter the threat of an impending Allied invasion of Norway.

.King Christian X and the Danish government, worried about German bombings if they resisted occupation, accepted "protection by the Reich" in exchange for nominal independence under German military occupation.^ They were armored to resist the German 11in gun that armed the pocket battleships (and later the Scharnhorst class battleships).
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^ Under Dollfus the Poissy plant began making airplane engines in 1940, supplying them to the German government.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chetnik role under the occupation, however, was hardly that of the classic "resistance" organization.
  • Chapter 3: The Legacy of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.statecraft.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three successive Prime Ministers, Thorvald Stauning, Vilhelm Buhl and Erik Scavenius, maintained this samarbejdspolitik ("cooperation policy") of collaborating with Germany.^ Foreign Minister Emil Krofta said Czechoslovakia was con­vinced "no fundamentally anti‑Czechoslovak policy can be attributed to Germany.
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cooperation if not outright collaboration with the Nazis was the rule for many transnational corporations with a stake in Germany and has been the subject of extensive research.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I counted on a lot of success for the adaptation of American methods in Germany's industries, but that could be done only in friendly cooperation.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Denmark coordinated its foreign policy with Germany, extending diplomatic recognition to Axis collaborator and puppet regimes and breaking diplomatic relations with the "governments-in-exile" formed by countries occupied by Germany.^ American military government in occupied Germany.
    • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Axis countries: Germany and Italy .
    • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in the Axis Countries 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While a similar Allied policy may have been pursued with the Chetniks, their situation of overt collaboration with the occupation forces ultimately led to a break with the Allies, and near disintegration as an organized movement.
    • Chapter 3: The Legacy of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.statecraft.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Denmark broke diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941.[40]
  • In 1941, a Danish military corps, Frikorps Danmark was created at the initiative of the SS and the Danish Nazi Party, to fight alongside the Wehrmacht on Germany's Eastern Front.^ Eastern Front 1941-45 .
    • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
    • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.laughtergenealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    • World War II, and the Nuclear Age 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC franklaughter.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Germany and the USSR sign nonaggression pact.
    • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

    The government's following statement was widely interpreted as a sanctioning of the corps.[41] .Frikorps Danmark was open to members of the Danish Royal Army and those who had completed their service within the last ten years.^ Slavko N. Bjelajac, who would achieve high office within the U.S. military establishment, had already had an illustrious military career in the Royal Yugoslav Army before the German invasion of April 1941; he served four years as a General Staff Officer, taught at the military academy, and authored military textbooks.
    • Chapter 3: The Legacy of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.statecraft.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Standard Oil, Chase Bank and members of the State Department were among those who shared in the spoils.
    • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jean Bart will not be completed until 1949, the last battleship to enter service in any Navy in the world.
    • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

    [42] .Between 4,000 and 10,000 Danish citizens joined the Frikorps Danmark, including 77 officers of the Royal Danish Army.^ The strength of the Brazilian Army before entering the war was estimated at between 66,000 to 95,000 troops, distributed in regimental-size units, most of them under strength.
    • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On 16 June 1944, the Treaty of Vis was signed between the Partisans and the Royal Government, officially making the Partisans the regular army of Yugoslavia.
    • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AXIS #19280 ROYAL YUGOSLAVIAN ARMY OFFICER .
    • AXIS & INTERNATIONAL SECTION 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wwiidaggers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .An estimated 3,900 of these soldiers died fighting for Germany during the Second World War.
  • Denmark transferred six torpedo boats to Germany in 1941, although the bulk of its navy remained under Danish command until the declaration of martial law in 1943.
  • Denmark supplied agricultural and industrial products to Germany as well as loans for armaments and fortifications.^ SOLD Germany and the Second World War - vol.
    • Special Selection of World War II titles available from Guidon Books 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Axis during world war 2 .
    • 1.) who were the six primary axis countries in world war... - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

    ^ During the war, medics are generally supplied with prophylactic kits in bulk.
    • Venereal Disease Propaganda 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The German presence in Denmark, including the construction of the Danish part of the Atlantic Wall fortifications, was paid from an account in Denmark's central bank, Nationalbanken.^ German invasion of Denmark and Norway Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, in Operation Weserübung , in part to counter the threat of an impending Allied invasion of Norway.

    ^ Germany, meanwhile, fortified its position by constructing the Atlantic Wall .
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    ^ The post-war Americanized image stands in complete contrast to the pre-war situation, a factor which helps account for the inability of Germans to recall Coke's presence prior to the war.
    • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Danish government had been promised that these expenses would be repaid later, but this never happened.^ The Ethiopian Government did not expect that these conditions would be drawn up without its participation.
    • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The bank paid all the expenses of the Provisional Government and the INA, and even repaid some loans given by the Japanese government.
    • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would add that the question of Ethiopia was never discussed between the delegates of the three Governments at Stresa.
    • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    The construction of the Atlantic Wall fortifications in Jutland cost 5 billion Danish kroner.
.The Danish protectorate government lasted until August 29, 1943, when the cabinet resigned following a declaration of martial law by occupying German military officials.^ American military government in occupied Germany.
  • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 10/1/01) 1943 Oct 4, German occupiers forbade the flying of kites.
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^ A special board of trustees was set up by the German government to cooperate with Behn and his thirty thousand staff in Occupied Europe.
  • How the Allied multinationals supplied Nazi Germany throughout World War II | libcom.org 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC libcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Danish navy managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships to prevent their use by Germany.^ The aging Kongos had proven to be the most useful capital ships in the history of the Imperial Navy.
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^ Germany's surface fleet could not seriously challenge the United Kingdom's Royal Navy, but individual German warships attacked merchant vessels (commercial ships).
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^ Britain tried to help Norway, but Germany's airpower prevented many British ships and troops from reaching the country.

.Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels and later to raise and refit 15 of the sunken vessels.^ In upper left is the sunken USS California (BB-44), with smaller vessels clustered around her.
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.During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels were ordered to attempt an escape to Swedish waters, and 13 vessels succeeded in this attempt, four of which were larger ships.^ In 1915, when the British numerical superiority over the German High Seas Fleet was at its minimum, the British Government asked the Japanese Government to loan them the four ships of the Kongo class.
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^ (Restrictions on the export of arms and munitions to Ethiopia had been imposed during the early summer by a number of Governments, including the Bel­gian, Czechoslovakian, Danish, and French.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fleet of “little ships” included destroyers, yachts, ferries, fishing vessels, and motorboats.
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[43][44] .By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile[45] In 1943, Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train themselves as "police troops". By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognized the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile.^ Japan captured about 60,000 soldiers, making the fall of Singapore the United Kingdom's worst military defeat ever.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. Provided for training, over a 1-year period, of 1,200,000 troops and 800,000 reservists.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Three times the Germans drove them back, until finally on 18 May 1944 a troop of Polish Lancers raised their red-and-white pennant over the ruins.

[46] .Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureaucracy functioning under German command.^ John Harding, leading the 7th's attack, confers with his commanders under German fire, and then drives off, personally wheeling his jeep.
  • World War 2 Plus 55 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC usswashington.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bomber Command continued its nighttime raids on German cities—35 on Berlin alone—to the end of the war.
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^ The German High Command under Generaloberst Alfred Jodl surrendered unconditionally all remaining German forces on May 7 in Rheims , France.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Active resistance to the German occupation among the populace, virtually nonexistent before 1943, increased after the declaration of martial law.^ (MC, 4/17/02) 1943 Apr 19, Willy Graf, Kurt Huber and Alexander Schmorell, German resistance fighters, were beheaded.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 9/10/01) 1943 Sep 12, German paratroopers took Benito Mussolini from the hotel where he was being held by Italian resistance forces.
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^ Martial law declared in Bulgaria; Agrarians, Socialists, Communists, and others arrested.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.The intelligence operations of the Danish resistance was described as "second to none" by Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery after the liberation of Denmark.^ To the north, British forces led by Field Marshal Montgomery swept into Belgium and captured Antwerp on September 4.
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^ Rokossovskiy’s forces crossed the Oder from the North and linked up with British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery's forces in northern Germany while the forces of Zhukov and Konev captured Berlin.
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^ A third group, National and Social Liberation (EKKA), operated m central Greece and was described as "socialist in nature and associated loosely with ELAS." .
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[47]

Soviet Union

.Relations between the Soviet Union and the major Axis powers were generally hostile before 1938. In the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union gave military aid to the Second Spanish Republic, against Spanish Nationalist forces, which were assisted by Germany and Italy.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States, the United Kingdom, China, and the Soviet Union were the major powers fighting the Axis.
  • World War 2 - Class Room 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the Nationalist forces were victorious.
.In 1938 Hitler wanted to seize Czechoslovakia, a Democratic country in Eastern Europe that had an alliance with France, the USSR, and other states in Eastern Europe.^ England and France met with Hitler (the Munich Pact) and compelled Czechoslovakia to cede its frontier districts to Germany in order to secure "peace in our time."
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain, France, Russia, and certain other countries agreed to suppress "piracy" in the Mediterranean.
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In France, Italy, Eastern Europe and the Pacific, Allied armies fought momentous battles which decided the war and the future of the world itself.
  • Special Selection of World War II titles available from Guidon Books 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.guidon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stalin's policy was to fight: "if the Czechs will fight, we shall fight alongside them".[48]. .Eastern Europe applauded the Soviet resolve and Romania even offered the Red Army free passage and supplies through their country, as long as no Red Army soldiers stayed behind.^ Later, in August, UK and Red Army troops occupied neutral Iran, securing its oil and a southern supply line to the Soviet Union.

^ In early May, the Red Army's 3rd Ukrainian Front engaged German Seventeenth Army of Army Group South which had been left behind after the German retreat from the Ukraine.
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^ The German army released about one million Soviet POWs as auxiliaries of the German army and the SS. About half a million Soviet POWs had escaped German custody or had been liberated by the Soviet army as it advanced westward through eastern Europe into Germany.
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Czechs turned to France, hoping for the same resolve. .To persuade France not to fight, Hitler began negotiations with Chamberlain, the Prime Minister of Britain.^ Chamberlain and Daladier hoped that the agreement would satisfy Hitler and prevent war--or that it would at least prolong the peace until Britain and France were ready for war.
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^ Chamberlain and Daladier hoped that the agreement would satisfy Hitler and prevent war—or that it would at least prolong the peace until the United Kingdom and France were ready for war.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the pact Stalin bought time to build up his strength at the expense of Britain and France, and Hitler gained a free hand to deal with Poland.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Together they pressured France to pressure the Czechs not to fight, and Hitler offered to compromise, saying that he will only take the Sudetenland.^ Right now this country is only doing enough to say they are doing something and it isn’t working.
  • Iraq war spending vs. spending on renewable energy 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.solarpowerrocks.com [Source type: General]

^ Hitler then after trying to befriend the homos by doing them 'favours' rebelled back saying that they were bad in the sack...
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Great Britain and France were unwilling to risk another war so soon after World War I. The two powers knew they would bear the burden of any fighting.

.In reality Hitler used the weakened resolve to annex Czechoslovakia.^ When Hitler annexed parts of Czechoslovakia and Poland, he was welcomed enthusiastically by these ethnic Germans.

.To the Soviets this looked like Western betrayal, and when Hitler offered Molotov, what was the become to the Nazi-Soviet/Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Stalin ordered Molotov to sign it, fearing diplomatic isolation.^ Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in Moscow .

^ On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.

^ Closely related is the failure of the British and French policy of appeasement , which sought to avoid war but actually encouraged Hitler to become bolder and gave Germany time to re-arm, and the USSR's signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact which freed Germany of fear of reprisal from the Soviet Union when Germany invaded Poland.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, In 1938 and 1939, the USSR fought and defeated Japan in two separate border wars, at Lake Khasan and Khalkhin Gol, the latter being a Major Soviet Victory.^ Brazil's role in both wars was minor compared to the major powers, like the United States of America, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (MC, 1/31/02) 1943 Feb 2, The remainder of Nazi forces from the Battle of Stalingrad surrendered in a major World War II victory for the Soviets.
  • Timeline Germany 1939-1944 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the last two major campaigns of the Pacific war--Luzon and Okinawa--took on some of the character of the war in Europe.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1939, the Soviet Union continued negotiations with both a Britain-France contingent and Germany regarding alliances.^ Women were drafted in the Soviet Union and Britain.

^ France and the Soviet Union had pledged their support.
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^ The original divide of Germany was between America, Soviet Union and Britain.
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[49][50] .On August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union and Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which included a secret protocol whereby the independent countries of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania were divided into spheres of interest of the parties.^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in Moscow .

^ The USSR's signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freed Germany of fear of reprisal from the Soviet Union when Germany invaded Poland.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.On September 1, barely a week after the pact had been signed, the partition of Poland commenced with the German invasion.^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office on the partition of Poland, Telegram, STRICTLY SECRET, Moscow, September 20, 1939-2:23 a.
  • Documents Related to World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet nonaggression pact; Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him.
  • Pictures Index of World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.picturesfree.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The invasion of Poland was one step in an overall campaign of re-militarization, and preparation of the German people for renewed warfare.

.The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on September 17 and on September 28 signed secret treaty with Nazi Germany on joint coordination in fight against any potential Polish resistance.^ On September 17 , the Soviet Union, pursuant to its prior agreement with Germany, invaded Poland from the east .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
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[51]
.Soon after that, the Soviet Union occupied Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania,[7][52] in addition, it annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.^ In the summer of 1940, the Soviet Union seized the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania along the Baltic Sea.
  • World War II | Article | World Book Student 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, it annexed the Baltic countries Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania .

^ In June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Latvia , Lithuania , and Estonia , and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, which started the Winter War.^ The Soviet Union demanded territory exchange but Finland rejected these demands, The Soviet Union attacked on November 30 , 1939 , which started the Winter War .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union attacks Finland-League of Nations drops Soviet Union .

^ Soviet-Finnish War and occupation of Baltic Republics In a secret Soviet-German agreement, Finland was designated a Soviet buffer zone, and the Soviets attacked on November 30, 1939, which started the Winter War.

[14] .Finnish defence prevented an all-out invasion, resulting in an interim peace, but Finland was forced to cede a strategically important border areas near Leningrad.^ Finally, however, the Soviets won and annexed strategically important border areas near Leningrad.
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, however, the Soviets prevailed and the peace treaty saw Finland cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad.

^ Despite outnumbering Finnish troops by over 2.5:1, the war proved embarrassingly difficult for the Red Army, although it concluded with the Soviet annexation of strategically important border areas, particularly those to the immediate north of Leningrad.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviet Union supported Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through the 1939 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement and 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement with exports of raw materials (phosphates, chromium and iron ore, mineral oil, grain, cotton, rubber).^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blitzkrieg: War in Europe 1939-1945 .

^ His 1939 nonaggression pact with Stalin served merely to keep the Soviet Union out of the war while Germany overran western Europe.
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.These and other export goods were being transported through Soviet and occupied Polish territories and allowed Germany to circumvent the British naval blockade.^ Further more, the beer in question appear to have been delivered by German merchants distributing the goods through ports in Denmark, possibly to circumvent trade restrictions and customs.

^ The Soviet Union demanded territory exchange but Finland rejected these demands, The Soviet Union attacked on November 30 , 1939 , which started the Winter War .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, there were adverse economic consequences caused by the establishment of a British naval blockade that virtually terminated Brazil's formerly profitable trade with Germany.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.In October and November 1940, the Soviet Union approached Germany about the potential of joining the Axis, with extensive discussions talking place in Berlin.^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan joined the Axis in 1940, and it became the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.
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^ But the Soviet Union forbade its zone to join.
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[53][54] .Joseph Stalin later personally countered with a separate proposal in a letter later in November that contained several secret protocols, including that "the area south of Batum and Baku in the general direction of the Persian Gulf is recognized as the center of aspirations of the Soviet Union", referring to an area approximating present day Iraq and Iran, and a Soviet claim to Bulgaria.^ Later that year, in June the Soviet Union occupied Latvia , Lithuania , and Estonia , and annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from Romania.
  • World War II - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union demanded territory exchange but Finland rejected these demands, The Soviet Union attacked on November 30 , 1939 , which started the Winter War .
  • World War II at AllExperts 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The surrender in Italy was preceded by the controversial secret Operation Sunrise in March 1945, during which the Great Britain and the United States were accused by the Soviet Union of trying to reach a separate peace.

[54][55] Hitler never returned Stalin's letter.[56][57] .Shortly thereafter, Hitler issued a secret directive on the eventual attempts to invade the Soviet Union.^ Further directives will be issued shortly.
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^ Hitler then turned on the Soviet Union , opening a surprise attack (Codename: Barbarossa) on June 22, 1941.

^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office on the partition of Poland, Telegram, STRICTLY SECRET, Moscow, September 20, 1939-2:23 a.
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[55][58]
.Germany ended the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact by invading the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941.[5] That resulted in the Soviet Union becoming one of the main members of Allies.^ Hitler then turned on the Soviet Union , opening a surprise attack (Codename: Barbarossa) on June 22, 1941.

^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in Moscow .

.Germany then revived its Anti-Comintern Pact, enlisting many European and Asian countries in opposition to the Soviet Union.^ NOV 36: ANTI-COMINTERN PACT .
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany had spies in many countries.
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^ Germany and Japan sign Anti-Comintern Pact.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Soviet Union and Japan remained neutral towards each other for most of the war by the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact.^ Japan and Soviet Union sign neutrality agreement .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each will remain neutral, if the other is attacked by a .
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ APR 41: RUSSO-JAPANESE NON-AGGRESSION PACT -- Russia and Japan pledge to remain neutral if the other should become involved in war.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union ended the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact by invading Manchukuo on August 8, 1945, due to agreements reached at the Yalta Conference with Roosevelt and Churchill.^ Roosevelt died in April 1945, two months after the Yalta Conference.
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^ Molotov-Ribbentrop-pact (Soviet Union neutral/Poland divided) .

^ In accordance with the Yalta Conference agreements, the Soviet Union occupied and subsequently annexed Sakhalin.

Spain

.Generalísimo Francisco Franco's Spanish State gave moral, economic, and military assistance to the Axis powers, while nominally maintaining neutrality.^ During WWII, both the Allied and Axis powers tried to influence neutral countries through propaganda leaflets, radio, mail and posters.
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^ Tojo and Japan's other military leaders realized that only the United States Navy had the power to block Japan's expansion in Asia.
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^ Brazil would become so economically and militarily dependent on United States that Brazil would never achieve its own goals such as developing the country and being a regional power.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.Franco described Spain as a "nonbelligerent" member of the Axis and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 with Hitler and Mussolini.^ (Result of joining Anti­-Comintern Pact.
  • EVENTS 1937 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany and Japan sign Anti-Comintern Pact.
  • GI -- World War II Commemoration 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC gi.grolier.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (MC, 3/24/02) 1941 Mar 27, Hitler signed Directive 27 for an assault on Yugoslavia.
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.Franco had won the Spanish Civil War with the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, which were both eager to establish another fascist state in Europe.^ DEC 41: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish Civil War ends, Madrid falls to Francisco Franco .

^ In June 1940, Fascist Italy joined the war on Germany's side.
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.Spain owed Germany over $212 million for supplies of matériel during the Spanish Civil War, and Italian combat troops had actually fought in Spain on the side of Franco's Nationalists.^ Civil War ends in Spain .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combat troops had outrun their supplies.
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^ MAR 39: End of the Spanish Civil War.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Franco immediately offered to form a unit of military volunteers to join the invasion.^ Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941 - The war in the Pacific, 1938–41 .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Allied landings in Europe and the defeat of the Axis powers -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
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^ United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers.

.This was accepted by Hitler and, within two weeks, there were more than enough volunteers to form a division - the Blue Division (División Azul in Spanish) under General Agustín Muñoz Grandes.^ Two more Italian divisions mobilized.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This alliance, which became known as the Rome-Berlin Axis had been formed following the German and Italian support of fellow fascist, General Franco, in the Spanish Civil War.
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Command like a real General, under real time pressures to achieve real objectives on a real map all within the fog of war.

.Additionally, over 100,000 Spanish civilian workers were sent to Germany to help maintain industrial production to free able-bodied German men for military service.^ Breaking the Versailles Treaty - 1934-1937   Hitler ordered the army to be trebled in size, from the 100,000 man Versailles Treaty limit, to 300,000 men by October of 1934.
  • world war 2 when did it begin and end - Q&A 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ MAY 40: Roosevelt asks Congress for an additional $1,182,000,000 and calls for American industry to gear up for airplane production at the rate of 50,000 airplanes per year.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Around 2 million men were killed or wounded on both sides, including civilians, with Axis casualties estimated to be approximately 850,000.

Sweden

.The official policy of Sweden before, during, and after World War II was neutralism.^ World War II began on Sept.
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^ World War II had ended.
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^ Deception and propaganda in World War II. .
  • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has held this policy for two centuries, since the end of the Napoleonic Wars.^ By the end of the war the U.S. held about 20,000 Japanese POWs.
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^ The problem they had was how to keep in touch, since their two countries were at war.
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^ It occupied most of eastern China by the end of 1938, though the two countries had not officially declared war.

.However, the Swedish neutrality during World War II has been much debated and challenged.^ World War II began on Sept.
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^ World War II had ended.
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^ Deception and propaganda in World War II. .
  • On Power: The Independent Institute | U. S. History | World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.onpower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast to many other neutral countries, Sweden was not directly attacked during the war.^ Each will remain neutral, if the other is attacked by a .
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Shina" is a Japanese word for "Chinese" that is roughly comparable to the word "Negro" in the US; a formerly neutral word made charged by its derogatory use during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • Axis Powers Hetalia - Television Tropes & Idioms 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During WWII, both the Allied and Axis powers tried to influence neutral countries through propaganda leaflets, radio, mail and posters.
  • Axis Propaganda Against Indian Troops 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was however subject to British and Nazi German Naval blockades, which led to problems for the supply of food and fuels.^ [British‑German naval agreement.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1933 Adolf Hitler led to power the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party, a mass movement that was virulently nationalistic, antidemocratic, and anti-Semitic.
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^ While the Allies raced to build up supplies and reserves, American and British fighter aircraft and guerrillas of the French resistance blocked movement of German reinforcements.
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.From spring 1940 to summer 1941 Sweden and Finland were surrounded by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.^ Germany and the Soviet Union partition Poland .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
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^ Finland lost territory to the Soviet Union.

.This led to difficulties in maintaining the rights and duties of neutral states in the Hague Convention.^ Isolationist strength in Congress led to the passage of the Neutrality Act of 1937, making it unlawful for the United States to trade with belligerents.
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^ It was becoming increasingly difficult for the United States to maintain a position of neutrality.

Sweden violated this as German troops were allowed to travel through Swedish Territory between July 1940 to August 1943.
.In spite of the fact that it was allowed by the Hague Convention, Sweden has been criticized for exportation of iron ore to Nazi Germany war industry via the Norwegian port of Narvik.^ Valuable shipments of iron ore from Sweden reached Germany by way of Norway's port of Narvik.
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^ (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4) 1939 Sep 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland.
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^ The conquest of Norway secured Germany's shipments of iron ore.
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.Nazi German war industry dependence on Swedish iron ore shipments was the primary reason for Great Britain and their allies to launch Operation Wilfred and the Norwegian Campaign in early April 1940. By early June 1940 the Norwegian Campaign stood as a failure for the allies, and by securing access to Norwegian ports by force Nazi Germany could obtain the Swedish iron ore supply it needed for war production despite the British naval blockade.^ In early April 1940, both German and Allied forces launched nearly simultaneous operations around Norway over access to Swedish iron ore .
  • What is World War Ii? 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [British‑German naval agreement.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquest of Norway secured Germany's shipments of iron ore.
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German, Japanese and Italian World War II cooperation

German-Japanese Axis-cooperation

Germany's and Italy's declaration of war against the United States

Hitler declaring war on the United States on 11 December 1941
.On December 7, Japan attacked the naval bases in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.^ Japan attacked United States military bases at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on Dec.
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^ Roosevelt responds to Pearl Harbor attack .
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^ But in the long run, the attack on Pearl Harbor proved disastrous for Japan.
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.According to the stipulation of the Tripartite Pact, Nazi-Germany was required to come to the defense of her allies only if they were attacked.^ On June 6, 1944, a great Allied offensive began to free Europe from the domination of Nazi Germany.

^ Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact in which they agreed not to go to war against each other.
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^ Aided by bad weather, a variety of deceptive measures, and the failure of Allied intelligence correctly to interpret the signs of an impending attack, they achieved complete surprise.
  • HyperWar: A Brief History of the U.S. Army in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since Japan had made the first move and attacked, Germany and Italy were not obliged to aid her until the United States counterattacked on December 11[citation needed] , after having declared war on Japan on the 8th and attacking several Japanese outposts along the Pacific.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
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^ Britain declares war on Germany.

^ Vargas had negotiations opened with United States and Germany since 1938.
  • HyperWar: The Brazilian Participation in World War II 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hitler ordered the Reichstag to formally declare war on the United States along with Italy.^ Italy protested United States statements on Italo-­Ethiopian War.
  • EVENTS 1935 18 September 2009 23:35 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy declares war on Britain and France .
  • eHistory.com: World War II: Timeline 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DEC 41: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
  • http://www.uscsumter.edu/~tpowers/hist112/uscomww2.html 10 February 2010 11:48 UTC www.uscsumter.edu [Source type: Original source]

Hitler made a speech in the Reichstag on December 11, 1941 three days after the United States declaration of war on the Empire of Japan saying that
.The fact that the Japanese Government, which has been negotiating for years with this man, has at last become tired of being mocked by him in such an unworthy way, fills us all, the German people, and all other decent people in the world, with deep satisfaction...Germany and Italy have been finally compelled, in view of this, and in loyalty to the Tri-Partite Pact, to carry on the struggle against the U.S.A. and England jointly and side by side with Japan for the defense and thus for the maintenance of the liberty and independence of their nations and empires...As a consequence of the further extension of President Roosevelt's policy, which is aimed at unrestricted world domination and dictatorship, the U.S.A. together with England have not hesitated from using any means to dispute the rights of the German, Italian and Japanese nations to the basis of their natural existence...Not only because we are the ally of Japan, but also because Germany and Italy have enough insight and strength to comprehend that, in these historic times, the existence or non-existence of the nations, is being decided perhaps forever.^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
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^ This kept him out of England for the last 34 years of his life.
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^ The Allies finally broke through German defenses in Italy in May 1944.
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[59]
.This declaration of war against the United States is believed to be one of the most disastrous mistakes made by the Axis powers[60] as it allowed the United States to join the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union in war against Germany without any limitation.^ The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the world's leading powers.
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^ Axis powers : Germany Japan Italy ...
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^ Britain declares war on Germany.

.Consequently, Americans participated in both the strategic bombardment of Germany and the invasion of the continent, effectively ending German domination in Western Europe.^ Allied invasion of Western Europe .
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^ On June 6, 1944, a great Allied offensive began to free Europe from the domination of Nazi Germany.

^ German invasion of Denmark and Norway Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, in Operation Weserübung , in part to counter the threat of an impending Allied invasion of Norway.

.However, Hitler was aware of such plans and skeptical of American Neutrality even before the war began.^ The Low Countries--Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands--hoped to remain neutral after World War II began.
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