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Coordinates: 55°29′N 135°0′E / 55.483°N 135°E / 55.483; 135

Coat of arms of Ayano-Maysky District

Ayano-Maysky District (Russian: Ая́но-Ма́йский райо́н) is a district (raion) in Khabarovsk Krai in Russia. Its administrative center is the village (selo) of Ayan. District's population: 3,271 (2002 Census);[1] 4,802 (1989 Census).[2]

The major settlements of the district include the villages of Ayan, Aim, Dzhigda, and Nelkan. Ayan, the administrative center, is located 1,447 km (899 mi) from Khabarovsk and 631 km (392 mi) by sea from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur.

Geography

The district has two climatic zones: a sharply continental and a maritime continental. Aim, Dzhigda, and Nelkan are located in the former, and Ayan belongs to the latter. Areas along the coast receive much precipitation; have a frequent share of cloudy days, storm winds, and blizzards. Average winter temperatures range from −16°C to −20°C; average summer temperatures—from +18°C to +20°C.

The impact of the Sea of Okhotsk on the coastal region is constant and as it moves west inland toward the Dzhugdzhur mountain range and becomes weaker the impact creates a climatic subzone, transforming the maritime climate into a sharply continental one. The ridge of the Dzhugdzhur Mountains demarcates the border between two climates.

A unique orographic feature of the region is the circular, crater-like Kondyor Ridge (Хребет Кондёр) at (57°35′0″N 134°39′30″E / 57.583333°N 134.65833°E / 57.583333; 134.65833).[3]

In the sharply continental zone, which gets very little precipitation and is humidity free, average winter and summer temperatures vary from −40°C to −45°C and from +26°C to +30°C respectively.

History

The port of Ayan in the early 20th century

In the 17th century, shortly after the establishment of Yakutsk, the exploration of what is now the Ayano-Maysky District pursued two goals. Yakutsk officials through eastward expansion sought to come up with new sources of tribute for the Tsar's treasury while at the same time trying to find a shorter, more convenient passage to the Okhotsk Sea, in order to continue to care for the needs of rich Russian colonies in the Far East and North America.

In 1639, a group of Russian explorers under the leadership of Ivan Moskvitin reached the Sea of Okhotsk for the first time through the territory of the modern Ayano-Maysky District.

In the first half of the 19th century, the Russian-American Company became the first trading company in the region, with its merchant office located in the port of Okhotsk. In 1842, the Company decided to find a better, more advantageous spot for a seaport. Consequently, in 1845 the Russian American Company's merchant office was moved to Ayan.

Ayan's prosperity was not to last, however. After the Alaska purchase, life was virtually brought to a standstill. By 1867 the Russian-American Company was no longer in business. Many local businessmen and professionals joined the exodus of merchants who had discontinued their operations in the area. A recently (1850s) built and much more conveniently located Nikolayevsk-na-Amure became Russia's new main port in the Sea of Okhotsk region.

In the Russian Civil War, the Ayano-Maysky District was the scene of the anti-Soviet Yakut Revolt. It was the last enclave of the White Forces, where General Anatoly Pepelyayev did not capitulate until June 17, 1923.

By decree of the Soviet government, Ayano-Maysky District was officially formed on December 10, 1930 by combining the areas of Ayan and Nelkan. Ayan was assigned the role of being the administrative center. In the 1930s, the Soviet government began forming state and collective farms, opened local schools and hospitals, amateur musical clubs, and otherwise encouraged the Evenks to switch from their nomadic lifestyle to a settled way of life.

In 1936, the first local farmers' market was opened with hopes of bringing locals together. State farm workers and private small farm owners sold their meat, wild game, fish, berries, mushrooms, etc.

People who made the decision to make this region their temporary home received added governmental bonuses to their pay and an earlier retirement age: for men when they reached 55 and women at 50.

With the collapse of the Soviet system, however, some state farms and enterprises were disbanded and government subsidies discontinued, forcing many residents to move out of the settlements to bigger cities or other regions of Russia.

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  2. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
  3. ^ Kondyor Massif, Russian Far East - NASA photos
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