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Azacitidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1,3,5-triazin-2(1 H)-one
Identifiers
CAS number 320-67-2
ATC code L01BC07 [1]
PubChem 9444
DrugBank APRD00809
Chemical data
Formula C 8H12N4O5  
Mol. mass 244.205 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms 5-azacytidine
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status
Routes  ?
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Azacitidine (INN) or 5-azacytidine, sold under the trade name Vidaza, is a chemical analogue of cytidine, a nucleoside present in DNA and RNA. Azacitidine and its deoxy derivative, decitabine (also known as 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine), are used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. Both drugs were first synthesized in Czechoslovakia as potential chemotherapeutic agents for cancer.[2]

Contents

Uses

Azacitidine is mainly used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), for which it received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on May 19, 2004; it is marketed as Vidaza.[3] In a randomized controlled trial comparing azacitidine to supportive treatment of MDS, around 16% of people receiving the drug had a complete or partial response—blood cell counts and bone marrow morphology returning to normal—and 2/3 patients who required blood transfusions before the study no longer needed them after receiving azacitidine.[4]

It can also be used in vitro to remove methyl groups from DNA. This may weaken the effects of gene silencing mechanisms that occurred prior to the methylation. Methylation events are therefore believed to secure the DNA in a silenced state. Demethylation may reduce the stability of silencing signals and thus confer relative gene activation.[5]

Mechanism of action

Cells in the presence of azacitidine incorporate it into DNA during replication and RNA during transcription. The incorporation of azacitidine into DNA or RNA inhibits methyltransferase thereby causing demethylation in that sequence, affecting the way that cell regulation proteins are able to bind to the DNA/RNA substrate. Inhibition of DNA methylation occurs through the formation of stable complexes between the molecule and with DNA methyltransferases, thereby saturating the cells methylation machinery.

See also

  • DNA methylation, the phenomenon that azacitidine is known to interfere with

References

  1. ^ WHO International Working Group for Drug Statistics Methodology (August 27, 2008). "ATC/DDD Classification (FINAL): New ATC 5th level codes". WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. http://www.whocc.no/atcddd/new_atc_ddd.html#ATCDDD_FINAL. Retrieved 2008-09-05.  
  2. ^ Cihák A (1974). "Biological effects of 5-azacytidine in eukaryotes". Oncology 30 (5): 405–22. PMID 4142650.  
  3. ^ Vidaza web site.
  4. ^ Kaminskas E, Farrell AT, Wang Y-C, Sridhara R, Pazdur R (2005). "FDA Drug Approval Summary: Azacitidine (5-azacytidine, Vidaza) for Injectable Suspension". The Oncologist 10 (3): 176–82. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.10-3-176. PMID 15793220.  
  5. ^ Whitelaw E and Garrick D (2005), The Epigenome, Chapter 7, In: Mammalian Genomics, Ed: Ruvinsky A & Marshall Graves JA, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, ISBN 0851999107.

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