B: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For technical reasons, B# redirects here. For the musical note, see B♯ (musical note)
B
Basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd    
Ee Ff Gg Hh
Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn
Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt
Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
B is the second letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /ˈbiː/) is spelled bee, plural bees.[1] It is used to represent a variety of bilabial sounds (depending on language), most commonly a voiced bilabial plosive.

Contents

History

‹B›started as a pictogram of the floorplan of a house in Egyptian hieroglyphs or the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. By 1050 BC, the Phoenician alphabet's letter had a linear form that served as the beth.
Egyptian hieroglyph
cottage
Proto-Canaanite
house
Phoenician
beth
Greek
Beta
Etruscan
B
Roman
B
Egyptian hieroglyphic house Proto-semitic house Phoenician beth Greek beta Etruscan B Roman B

Typography

The modern lowercase ‹b› derives from later Roman times, when scribes began omitting the upper loop of the capital.
Blackletter B Uncial B
Blackletter B Uncial B
Modern Roman B Modern Italic B Modern Script B
Modern Roman B Modern Italic B Modern Script B
‹B› is often confused with the visually similar Germanß› which stands for ‹ss›.

Usage

In English and most other languages that use the Latin alphabet, ‹b› denotes the voiced bilabial plosive (/b/), as in bib. .In English it is sometimes silent; most instances are derived from old monosyllablic words with the b final and immediately preceded by an m, such as lamb and bomb; a few are examples of etymological spelling to make the word more like its Latin original, such as debt or doubt.^ Well, this giant wasn’t sleeping, and is MUCH more likely to use the A-Bomb as a first-resort.
  • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Estonian, Icelandic, and in Chinese, ‹b› doesn't denote a voiced consonant; instead, it represents a voiceless /p/ that contrasts with either a geminated /pp/ (in Estonian) or an aspirated /pʰ/ (in Chinese, Danish and Icelandic), represented by ‹p›. In Fijian ‹b› represents a prenasalized /mb/, whereas in Zulu and Xhosa it represents an implosive /ɓ/, in contrast to the digraph ‹bh› which represents /b/.
Finnish only uses ‹b› in loanwords.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA, ‹b› denotes the voiced bilabial plosive. Variants of ‹b› denote related bilabial consonants, like the voiced bilabial implosive and the bilabial trill. In X-SAMPA, capital ‹B› denotes the voiced bilabial fricative.
‹B› is also a musical note. Its value varies depending on the region; a ‹b› in Anglophone countries represents a note that is a semitone higher than the B note in Northern Continental Europe. (Anglophone B is represented in Northern Europe with ‹H›.) Archaic forms of ‹b›, the b quadratum (square b, ) and b rotundum (round b, ) remain in use for musical notation as the symbols for natural and flat, respectively.
In Contracted (grade 2) English braille, ‹b› stands for "but" when in isolation.

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of B
NATO phonetic Morse code
Bravo –···
ICS Bravo.svg Semaphore Bravo.svg ⠃
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille
In Unicode the capital ‹B› is codepoint U+0042 and the lower case ‹b› is U+0062.
The ASCII code for capital ‹B› is 66 and for lower case ‹b› is 98; or in binary 01000010 and 01100010, respectively.
The EBCDIC code for capital ‹B› is 194 and for lowercase ‹b› is 130.
The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "B" and "b" for upper and lower case, respectively.

See also

  • В, в : Ve (Cyrillic)
  • Б, б: Be (Cyrillic)
  • The Semitic letter Bet
  • Ɓ
  • B postcode area (United Kingdom)
  • Β, β: Beta
  • ב: Beth
  • Ъ, ъ, also known as the hard sign, back yer, yer, jer, er, or tvyordiy znak, is shaped like the letter b, but has no phonetic value on its own in modern East Slavic languages. .The ъ serves as an orthographic device that indicates that the palatal approximant (the English y or IPA [j] sound) is heard after the consonant preceding the hard sign.
  • Ь, ь, also known as the soft sign, front yer, or myagkiy znak, is also shaped like the letter b, but has no phonetic value on its own in modern East Slavic languages.^ Make no mistake, it’s self-serving in that they want to ease the load on their own network.
    • AT&T blocks 4chan « Erling Løken Andersen 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC stormen.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The ь serves as orthographic device that indicates that the consonant preceding the ь is softened or palatalized.

References

  1. ^ "B" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "bee", op. cit.
The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter B with diacritics

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

The Universal Character Set
LetterB.svg
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B
Basic Latin U+0042

Contents

Translingual

Etymology 1

From Ancient Greek letter Β (B), Beta).

Letter

B upper case (lower case b)
  1. The second letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
Usage notes
The letter B (usually its lower case form b) is used in several romanization systems of non-Latin scripts to represent the bilabial plosive or stop, usually voiced (IPA: /b/).
See also

Etymology 2

  • (blood type): from antigen B
  • (symbol for boron): abbreviation of boron
  • (hexadecimal 11): The eleventh item from the sequence {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F}

Symbol

B
  1. A blood type that has a specific antigen that aggravates the immune response in people with type A antigen in their blood. They can receive blood from type B or type O, but cannot receive blood from AB or A.
  2. (chemistry) The symbol for boron.
  3. (computing) Hexadecimal symbol for 11.
  4. (biochemistry) IUPAC 1-letter abbreviation for either glutamine or glutamic acid

See also

Other representations of B:

English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

The b-rune ᛒ, an older version of Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᛒ, the Old English letter replaced by Latin ‘B’
.Old English letter B, from 7th century replacement by Latin B of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter  (B), beorc).^ Dere Mable Love Letters of a Rookie (English) (as Illustrator) "Same old Bill, eh Mable!"
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]


Letter

B (upper case, lower case b, plural Bs)
  1. The letter Bee, the second letter of the English alphabet.

Usage notes

In Modern English, the letter B is sometimes silent, e.g. in climb, and debt.
Apostrophes are sometimes used to form plurals of single upper case letters, especially at the start of a sentence:
A’s are difficult to achieve in this class.
Usually, though, the apostrophe is avoided when there is no risk of confusion:
She gets straight As in school.

See also

  • Previous letter: A
  • Next letter: C

Etymology 2

  • (cricket, balls): abbreviation of balls
  • (billion): abbreviation of billion
  • (black): abbreviation of black

Abbreviation

B
  1. (cricket) the number of balls faced by a batsman
  2. The quantity one billion (1,000,000,000), usually used to signify a sum of money
    $2.8 B — “two point eight billion dollars” (i.e., $2,800,000,000)
  3. (British) The grade of pencil that makes darker marks than grade HB but lighter marks than grade 2B; a pencil with soft lead.

Etymology 3

  • (personality type): from contrast with the letter ‘A’ and its corresponding personality type
  • (academic grade): from the position of the letter ‘B’ in the English alphabet

Noun

Singular
B
Plural
Bs
B (plural Bs)
  1. A personality type of someone who is relaxed and easygoing and able to engage in leisure activities without worrying about work.
  2. An academic grade, better than a C and worse than an A
  3. Signifies a second-tier or second class of a given commodity, group, or category, as in B-movie, B-list, etc.
    The television studio revived some of it's B characters for the spinoff.
  4. (music) The seventh note in the C major scale.
Translations

Usage notes

Apostrophes are sometimes used to form plurals of single upper case letters, especially at the start of a sentence:
A’s are difficult to achieve in this class.
Usually, though, the apostrophe is avoided when there is no risk of confusion:
She gets straight As in school.

American Sign Language

Alternative forms

  • (thumb unopposed and flat against the radial edge of the palm, used in rapid fingerspelling of words like B-A-B-Y) FlatB

Etymology

French Sign Language letter b
From French Sign Language sign for the letter B.

Production

This one-handed ASL sign is produced as follows:

Letter

B (Stokoe B)
  1. The letter B

See also


Czech

Pronunciation

Letter

B
  1. B (the 2nd letter in the Czech alphabet)
  2. (music): B flat

Dutch

Pronunciation

Letter

B (capital, lowercase b)
  1. The second letter of the Dutch alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: A
  • Next letter: C

Esperanto

Pronunciation

  • (letter name): IPA: /bo/
  • (phoneme): IPA: /b/

Letter

B (upper case, lower case b)
  1. The second letter of the Esperanto alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: A
  • Next letter: C

Finnish

Noun

B
  1. lubenter approbatur

Italian

Pronunciation

Noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
B
Wikipedia it
B m. and f. inv.
  1. The second letter of the Italian, and of the Latin alphabets

Romanian

Pronunciation

  • (phoneme) IPA: /b/
  • (letter name) IPA: /be/

Letter

B (upper case, lower case b)
  1. The letter Be, the fourth letter of the Romanian alphabet.

See also

  • Previous letter: Â
  • Next letter: C

Slovene

Wikipedia-logo.png
Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
B
Wikipedia sl

Pronunciation

Letter

B (capital, lowercase b)
  1. The second letter of the Slovene alphabet. Preceded by A and followed by C.

Spanish

Letter

B (upper case, lower case b)
  1. The second letter of the Spanish alphabet.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

B is the second (number 2) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for B



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Robot, which are similar to those in the above article.








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