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Béarnaise sauce. The basic sauce is smooth; chopped herbs were added to finish it.

Béarnaise sauce (French: Sauce béarnaise) [be.aʁ.nɛz][1] is a sauce made of clarified butter emulsified in egg yolks and flavored with herbs. It is considered to be a 'child' of the mother Hollandaise sauce, one [2] of the five sauces in the French haute cuisine mother sauce repertoire. The difference is only in their flavoring: Béarnaise typically uses shallot, chervil, peppercorn, and tarragon while Hollandaise uses lemon juice.

Béarnaise is a traditional sauce for steak.[3][4]

Contents

History

The sauce was likely first created by the chef Collinet, the inventor of puffed potatoes (pommes de terre soufflées), and served at the 1836 opening of Le Pavillon Henri IV, a restaurant at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, not far from Paris. Evidence for this is reinforced by the fact that the restaurant was named for Henry IV of France, a gourmet himself, who was born in the former province of Béarn.[5] The sauce has appeared on US restaurant menus since at least 1882.[6]

Preparation

A Béarnaise sauce is simply an egg yolk, a shallot, a little tarragon vinegar. It takes years of practice for the result to be perfect. [7]

Like Hollandaise sauce, there are several methods for the preparation of Béarnaise sauce. Please refer to the Preparation section of that article for basics. Here we highlight the differences.

The most common preparation is a bain marie method where a reduction of vinegar is used to acidify the yolks. Escoffier[8] calls for a reduction of wine, vinegar, shallots, fresh chervil, fresh tarragon and crushed peppercorns (later strained out), with fresh tarragon and chervil to finish instead of lemon juice. Others are similar.[9] Alternatively, the flavorings may be added to a finished Hollandaise (sans lemon juice).

Joy of Cooking[10] describes a blender preparation with the same ingredients. A faux Béarnaise can be produced by adding capers and tarragon to a Hollandaise.[11]

Variations of the recipe may call for red wine vinegar, complementing vinegar with a white wine, use of unclarified butter, or replacing chervil with parsley.[12] Another retains lemon juice and drops the chervil.[13]

Béarnaise can be served cold, on sandwiches.[14]

Derivatives of Béarnaise sauce

  • Sauce Choron is a variation of béarnaise without tarragon or chervil, plus added tomato purée.[15][16] It is named after Alexandre Étienne Choron.
  • Sauce Foyot (a.k.a. Valois) is béarnaise with meat glaze (Glace de Viande) added.[17][18]
    • Sauce Colbert is Sauce Foyot with the addition of reduced white wine. [19]
  • Sauce Paloise is a version of béarnaise with mint substituted for tarragon.[20]

The ingredient list for beurre blanc sauce, a closely related emulsion, differs from Béarnaise sauce only by the lack of tarragon and egg yolks.

Misspellings and misusages

Béarnaise sauce is frequently (and erroneously) referred to as Bernaise sauce (even by francophones), or Bernoise sauce, or even Bernese sauce[citation needed]. The latter three names mean pertaining to Bern, the capital city of Switzerland, in no way connected with this sauce or its origins. The sauce's origin is the Béarn region, a former province now in the département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in southwestern France.

Notes

  1. ^ Béarnaise on the French Wiktionary
  2. ^ The family is sometimes referred to as "mayonnaise sauces" as they are, like mayonnaise, based on the emulsion of an oil in egg yolk.
  3. ^ Escoffier: 89
  4. ^ Julia Childs
  5. ^ http://www.cookthink.com/reference/2617/What_is_Bearnaise_sauce
  6. ^ "Jas. II. Breslin & Bros. Hotel," Brighton Beach, NY, menu dated June 15, 1882: "Sirloin Steak, ... à la Béarnaise"; all from the New York Public Library Digital Gallery
  7. ^ Restaurateur Fernand Point (1897–1955) in Ma Gastronomie.
  8. ^ Escoffier: 89
  9. ^ Cookwise, pp.304-5
  10. ^ Joy of Cooking p.359
  11. ^ Cookwise, pp.302-3.
  12. ^ What is the proper way to make a Béarnaise Sauce?, Ochef.com
  13. ^ David, quoted at [1]
  14. ^ Cookwise, pp.301
  15. ^ Escoffier: 90
  16. ^ Joy of Cooking p.359
  17. ^ Escoffier: 91
  18. ^ Joy of Cooking p.359
  19. ^ Escoffier: 41
  20. ^ Escoffier: 141

References

  • Child, Julia; Louisette Bertholle, Simone Beck (1961). Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf. 
  • Corriher, Shirley (1997). "Ch. 4: sauce sense". Cookwise, the Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking (1st ed.). New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc.. doi:641.5'dc21. ISBN 00688102298. 
  • Escoffier, Auguste (1982) [Trans. fm 4th French (Flammarion) ed. 1921]. "Ch. 1: Sauces" (in French). La Guide Culinaire [The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery]. English translation by H.L. Cracknell and R.J. Kaufmann (First American ed.). New York: Mayflower Books. doi:641.5'944. ISBN 0831754788. 

External links

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Béarnaise sauce (French: Sauce béarnaise) IPA: [be.aʁ.nɛz] [1] is a sauce made of clarified butter and egg yolks flavored with tarragon and shallots, with chervil and tarragon simmered in vinegar to make a reduction. "A Béarnaise sauce is simply an egg yolk, a shallot, a little tarragon vinegar, and butter, but it takes years of practice for the result to be perfect," wrote the restaurateur Fernand Point (1897-1955) in Ma Gastronomie. It is a traditional sauce for steak.[2]

Contents

History

The sauce was likely first made by the chef Collinet, the inventor of puffed potatoes (pommes de terre soufflées) and served at the 1836 opening of "Le Pavillon Henri IV", a restaurant at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, not far from Paris. Evidence for this is reinforced by the fact that the restaurant was named for King Henry IV, a gourmet himself, who was born in the former province of Béarn.

The sauce has appeared on US restaurant menus since 1882,[3] if not earlier.

Preparation

Like Hollandaise sauce, Béarnaise sauce is an emulsion of butter in egg yolks. The difference is only in their flavoring: Béarnaise uses a reduction of vinegar and tarragon, while Hollandaise uses lemon juice. Such emulsions require some practice to prepare properly. The prime dangers are curdling the egg yolk mixture through excessive heat, and separation of the emulsion by rushing the addition of clarified butter. The ingredient list for beurre blanc sauce, another closely related emulsion, differs from Béarnaise sauce only by the lack of tarragon and egg yolks.

Variations of the recipe may call for using red wine vinegar, complementing vinegar with a white wine, using regular (solid, non-clarified) butter or replacing chervil with parsley [4].

Misspellings and misusages

Béarnaise sauce is frequently (and erroneously) referred to as Bernaise sauce, (even by francophones), or Bernoise sauce, or even Bernese sauce Template:Fact. The latter three names mean pertaining to Berne, the capital city of Switzerland, in no way connected with this sauce or its origins.

Sometimes erroneously pronounced "Bayonnaise"Template:Fact.

References

  1. w:wiktionary:fr:béarnais
  2. Julia Child (1961), Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Alfred A. Knopf
  3. "Jas. II. Breslin & Bro's. Hotel," Brighton Beach, NY, menu dated June 15, 1882: "Sirloin Steak, ... à la Béarnaise."
  4. What is the proper way to make a Béarnaise Sauce?

External links


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