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B-2 Spirit
A USAF B-2 Spirit in flight
Role Stealth bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Northrop Corporation
Northrop Grumman
First flight 17 July 1989
Introduction April 1997
Status Active service: 20 aircraft
Primary user United States Air Force
Number built 21[1][2]
Program cost US$44.75 billion (projected through 2004)[3]
Unit cost $737 million (1997 cost for each aircraft only)[3]
.The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (also known as the Stealth Bomber) is an American heavy bomber with "low observable" stealth technology designed to penetrate dense anti-aircraft defenses and deploy both conventional and nuclear weapons.^ The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (also known as the Stealth Bomber ) is an American heavy bomber with "low observable" stealth technology designed to penetrate dense anti-aircraft defenses and deploy both conventional and nuclear weapons.
  • b2spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.flyrfd.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The B-2 is a multi-role stealth aircraft, capable of dropping both conventional and nuclear weapons.
  • B-2 | Planes and Flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.planeace.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each stealth bomber has at least three designations.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • stealth bombers 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC fujis.iespana.es [Source type: Academic]

.Because of its considerable capital and operations costs, the project was controversial in Congress and among Pentagon brass.^ Because of its astronomical capital and operations costs, the project was controversial in Congress and among Pentagon brass during its development and placement into service.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of its considerable capital and operations costs, the project was controversial in Congress and among Pentagon brass.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A design study, capped at $2 million was commissioned (any, project costing more than this would have had to have been reported to Congress).
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Congress slashed initial plans to purchase 132 bombers to just 21.
.The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.^ The cost of each air vehicle averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.

^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the most expensive airplane ever built with an estimated cost of between 1.157 and 2.2 billion dollars, although this includes the high cost of development of the aircraft; the production cost is significantly lower.
  • B-2 | Planes and Flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.planeace.com [Source type: Reference]

[3] .Total procurement costs averaged US$929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support.^ The total program cost, which includes development, engineering and testing, averaged US$2.1 billion per aircraft (in 1997 dollars).
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Message Board - New B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC aerosmithhobby.proboards.com [Source type: General]

^ Total procurement costs averaged US$929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Message Board - New B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC aerosmithhobby.proboards.com [Source type: General]

^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The total program cost, which includes development, engineering and testing, averaged US$2.1 billion per aircraft (in 1997 dollars).^ Total program cost averaged US$2.1 billion per aircraft in 1997 dollars.The B-2 is operated exclusively by the United States Air Force with none in the Air Force Reserves.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-2 cost the US government $23 billion to develop the bomber in the 1980s.
  • Obama to Sell B-2 Bomber Blueprints to China to Pay Off Debt >> Four Winds 10 - fourwinds10.com 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.fourwinds10.com [Source type: News]
  • Please do not sell defence secrets to China - by IdeaScale 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC opengov.ideascale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cost of each air vehicle averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.

[3]
.Twenty B-2s are operated by the United States Air Force.^ Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC) has delivered to the U.S. Air Force the first operational B-2 Spirit stealth bomber to be equipped with a newly modernized radar.

^ The B-2 development program was initiated in 1981, and the Air Force was granted approval in 1987 to begin procurement of 132 operational B-2 aircraft, principally for strategic bombing missions.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-2 Spirit, Northrop Grumman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC home.iae.nl [Source type: Academic]

^ Defense Daily :: Article Archives :: Daily Air Force procurement, legislation, jobs, programs and operations news .
  • Defense Daily :: Article Archives :: Daily Air Force procurement, legislation, jobs, programs and operations news 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.defensedaily.com [Source type: News]

.Though originally designed in the 1980s for Cold War operations scenarios, B-2s were first used in combat to drop bombs on Serbia during the Kosovo War in 1999, and saw continued use during the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.^ Though originally designed in the 1980s for Cold War operations scenarios, B-2s have been used in combat to drop bombs on Serbia during the Kosovo - Serbia Conflict in the late 1990s, and see continued use during the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later it was also deployed in the War in Afghanistan and the War in Iraq.

^ During the ongoing War in Iraq, B-2s have operated from Diego Garcia and an undisclosed "forward operating location".
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] One aircraft was lost when it crashed on takeoff in 2008.[5]
.The bomber has a crew of two and can drop up to 80 x 500 lb (230 kg)-class JDAM GPS-guided bombs, or 16 x 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs in a single pass through extremely dense anti-aircraft defenses.^ It can bomb 16 targets in a single pass when equipped with 1,000 or 2,000-pound bombs, or as many as 80 when carrying 500-lb bombs.
  • b2 spirit bomer videos 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.livevideo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NUCLEAR 16 B61 16 B83 .

^ The bomber has a crew of two and can drop up to 80 500 lb (230 kg)-class JDAM GPS-guided bombs, or 16 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs in a single pass through extremely dense anti-aircraft defenses.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The B-2 is the only aircraft that can carry large air to surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration.^ The B-2 is the only aircraft that can carry large air to surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It features stealth technology capable of penetrating air-defenses and deploying nuclear weapons.
  • The 10 Best Videos of Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC 0zz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hornets taking direct hits from surface-to-air missiles, recovering successfully, being repaired quickly, and flying again the next day proved the aircraft's survivability.
  • Military Fighting Aircraft Facts: Spirit - Super Hornet - Lancer - Fighting Falcon - Tomcat - Eagle - Hornet 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.militaryconnections.com [Source type: News]

.The program has been the subject of espionage and counter-espionage activity and the B-2 has provided prominent public spectacles at air shows since the 1990s.^ The bomber has been a prominent public spectacle at air shows since the 1990s.

^ The program has been the subject of espionage and counter-espionage activity and the B-2 has been prominent public spectacles at air shows since the 1990s.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been the subject of espionage and counter-espionage activity.

Contents

Development

ATB project

.The B-2 Spirit originated from the Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB) black project that began in 1979.[6] The Cold War was well underway, and on the campaign trail in 1979 and 1980, candidate Ronald Reagan promised a restoration of American military strength.^ Meanwhile, as Ronald Reagan campaigned for the Presidency in 1979 and 1980, he promised a restoration of American military strength.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ History The B-2 originated from the Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB) black project which began in 1979.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another plane that changed the course of the Cold War was the B-2 Spirit Bomber.

.On 22 August 1980, the incumbent Carter administration publicly disclosed that the Department of Defense was working to develop stealth aircraft including the ATB.[7] In 2007, it was revealed publicly that MIT scientists helped assess the mission effectiveness of the aircraft under classified contract during the 1980s.^ The project was not kept secret to the end, as its details were gradually revealed during its development by the Department of Defense, starting from August 22, 1980.

^ Stealth Aircrafts – How system works?
  • Stealth Aircrafts – How system works? 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ On August 22, 1980, the Department of Defense first publicly disclosed that it was working to develop stealth aircraft including the ATB. The ATB competition was reduced to the Northrop/and/Rockwell teams with each receiving a study contract for further work.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.After the evaluations of the companies' proposals, the ATB competition was reduced to the Northrop/Boeing and Lockheed/Rockwell teams with each receiving a study contract for further work.^ Lockheed was partnering with Raytheon on their ATB proposal, and so Northrop approached Boeing to sign up as a partner.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Electronic Aviation - B-2 Spirit - B-2 Origins and Development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.electronicaviation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Lockheed team used a computer program to come up with their design for the XST, Cashen said later that Northrop didn't have such a luxury, and worked up their design using a combination of theoretical analysis and cut-and-try experiments.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Electronic Aviation - B-2 Spirit - B-2 Origins and Development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.electronicaviation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of the ATB (Advanced Technology Bomber) began in 1978; the programme was revealed to the public in 1981, when Northrop's design was chosen over a Lockheed/Rockwell proposal.
  • B-2 Spirit, Northrop Grumman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC home.iae.nl [Source type: Academic]

[6] .The Northrop design was larger while the Lockheed design was smaller and included a small tail.^ The Lockheed design had a tenth of the RCS of the Northrop design.
  • [1.0] F-117 Development 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of the ATB (Advanced Technology Bomber) began in 1978; the programme was revealed to the public in 1981, when Northrop's design was chosen over a Lockheed/Rockwell proposal.
  • B-2 Spirit, Northrop Grumman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC home.iae.nl [Source type: Academic]

^ Northrop's proposed Senior Ice reportedly beat Lockheed's competing Senior Peg design in almost every area.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] The black project was funded under the code name "Aurora".[9] The Northrop/Boeing team's ATB design was selected over the Lockheed/Rockwell design on 20 October 1981.[6][10]
.The Northrop design received the designation B-2 and the name "Spirit". The bomber's design was changed in the mid-1980s when the mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain-following.^ The bomber\\\'s design was changed in the mid-1980s when its mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain-following.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Though the two were not considered "stealth" aircraft, their "strategic bomber" design set the foundation for the future stealth bomber, the B-2 Spirit.
  • Hitler's Stealth Fighter | Time Line | National Geographic Channel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC channel.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, its low-observation ability provides the B-2 greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors.
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

.The redesign delayed the B-2's first flight by two years and added about US$1 billion to the program's cost.^ The first 20 B-2 bombers cost $2.2 Billion each.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So is this why the B2s cost US$1 billion each?

^ Each B-2 bomber costs about $1.2 billion to build.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]
  • B-2 stealth bomber plunges to ground in aircraft's first crash | KATU.com - Portland, Oregon | National & World News 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.katu.com [Source type: News]
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes on Guam 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[7] .An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 by 1989.[11] At the program's peak, approximately 13,000 people were employed at a dedicated plant in Pico Rivera, California for the aircraft's engineering and portions of its manufacturing.^ At the program\\\'s peak, 13,000 people were employed at a dedicated plant in Pico Rivera, California for the plane\\\'s engineering and portions of its manufacturing.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-2 cost the US government $23 billion to develop the bomber in the 1980s.
  • Obama: Sell B-2 Bomber blueprints to China for debt relief! 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC investment-blog.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Please do not sell defence secrets to China - by IdeaScale 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC opengov.ideascale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 by 1989.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.The B-2 was first publicly displayed on 22 November 1988, at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it was assembled.^ The first B-2 was publicly displayed on November 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California.

^ The first B-2 was publicly displayed on November 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it was built.
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The first B-2, 82-1066, was rolled out at Palmdale, California, on November 16th 1988.
  • Target Lock: B-2 : Origins 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.targetlock.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its first public flight was on 17 July 1989 from Palmdale.^ Its first flight was July 17, 1989.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Global Aircraft -- B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.globalaircraft.org [Source type: Reference]
  • combatindex.com: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.combatindex.com [Source type: Reference]
  • B-2 Spirit, Northrop Grumman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boeing B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aircraftguru.com [Source type: Reference]
  • The B-2 Spirit is a multi-role b 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC robocat.users.btopenworld.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC home.iae.nl [Source type: Academic]
  • GAC Editor -- Edit existing file 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC editor.globalaircraft.org [Source type: Reference]
  • The USAF/Northrop Grumman B-2 Stealth Bomber, page 1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: General]

^ First flight was set for July 1980.
  • [1.0] F-117 Development 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It made its first flight on 17 July 1989, and the first production B-2 was delivered to the USAF in 1993.
  • B-2 Spirit, Northrop Grumman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC home.iae.nl [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Procurement

.A procurement of 132 aircraft was planned in the mid-1980s, but was later reduced to 75.[14] By the early 1990s, the Soviet Union had disintegrated, which effectively rendered void the Spirit's primary Cold War mission.^ The original procurement of 135 aircraft was later reduced to 75 in the late 1980s.
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-2 radar modernisation programme replaces the aircraft's original radar system with one that incorporates technology improvements that have occurred since the B-2 was originally designed in the early 1980s.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - Air Force Technology 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.airforce-technology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plane was considered stealthy because of its ability to fly at extremely high altitudes, but the Soviet Union's defense radar was still able to detect the aircraft.
  • Hitler's Stealth Fighter | Time Line | National Geographic Channel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC channel.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In light of budgetary pressures and congressional opposition, in his 1992 State of the Union Address, President George H.W. Bush announced B-2 production would be limited to a total of 20 aircraft.^ In his 1992 State of the Union address, President George H. W. Bush announced total B-2 production would be limited to 20 aircraft (later increased to 21 by refurbishing a test aircraft).
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

^ But by 1992 even President Bush (the current incumbent's father) was calling for cancellation of the B-2 and promising to cut military spending by 30% in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. It was no secret -- Bush did that in his 1992  State of the Union address. But Miller left out that little detail.
  • FactCheck.org: Zell Miller's Attack on Kerry: A Little Out Of Date 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.factcheck.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would seem to place an upper limit of 50 on the number of aircraft that can eventually be expected to be produced, though one imagines that additional states can be admitted to the Union if the need arises.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .In 1996, however, the Clinton administration, though originally committed to ending production of the bombers once the 20th aircraft was completed, authorized the conversion of a 21st bomber, a prototype test model, to Block 30 full operational status at a cost of nearly $500 million.^ Also, the aircraft costs far far less than "millions" to operate.
  • Stealth bomber visits valley - Crime Scene 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.insidesocal.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the two were not considered "stealth" aircraft, their "strategic bomber" design set the foundation for the future stealth bomber, the B-2 Spirit.
  • Hitler's Stealth Fighter | Time Line | National Geographic Channel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC channel.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A newly released report from the General Accounting Office B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues GAO/NSIAD-97-181, August 14, ...
  • stealth bombers 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC fujis.iespana.es [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.The bomber's high costs reflected the innovation of a paperless computer aided design (CAD) system, and a computerized manufacturing control system.^ The quadraplex system controls the B-2’s 11 Primary flight control surfaces and is comprised of Flight Control Computers, Actuator Control Electronics, Servoactuators, Sensors, System Software and Redundancy Management .
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 - Flight Control Actuation System Integrator for the B-2 Spirit | Moog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.moog.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A combination of distinct capabilities that range from the design and manufacture of critical motion control components , to the ability to build and integrate entire systems .
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 - Flight Control Actuation System Integrator for the B-2 Spirit | Moog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.moog.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The aircraft is aerodynamically unstable, kept in the air with a quadruple-redundant fly-by-wire (FBW) system, under the control of a General Electric Flight Control Computer (FCC).
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The costs also reflect the inefficiencies of separating design teams into different parts of the country for both design intelligence compartmentalization as a counter-espionage measure, and by parceling out the supply chain with the requisite lucrative contracts to congressional districts as a political reward.^ Grossly oversimplified, airspeed is determined by measuring the difference between ram air pressure coming into the Pitot tube and static air pressure at altitude.
  • How 18th Century Technology Could Down an Airliner | Autopia | Wired.com 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC feeds.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ When the doors are open, twin grilles pop out into the airstream at the front of each weapons bay to ensure proper stores separation.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed to cut into the 747 market share, the Lockheed L-1011 did so in the 70's and early part of the 80's.
  • fs2004 - Landclass Hardware 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.fsdownload.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1995 Northrop made a proposal to the USAF to build 20 additional aircraft with a flyaway cost of $566M each.^ In 1995, Northrop proposed building 20 additional aircraft at a unit cost of $566 million, a significant price reduction made possible by production improvements.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A 1994 offer by Northrop to build 20 more B-2s at a guaranteed unit price of $566 million was turned down by President Bill Clinton's administration, with USAF support.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back in 1995, the B-2's manufacturer, Northrop Grumman, had offered to build a further 20 B-2s at a 'flyaway price' of $566 million each.
  • Britain's new bomber command: The $2bn aircraft aiming for world peace | Mail Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: News]

[17]

Espionage

.In 1984 a Northrop employee, Thomas Cavanaugh, was arrested for trying to sell classified information to the Soviet Union, which apparently was smuggled out of the Pico Rivera, California factory.^ In October 2005, Noshir Gowadia, an Indian-born American design engineer, who worked on the stealth bomber project, was arrested for allegedly selling classified information about the plane to China.
  • US military grounds stealth bomber fleet - Telegraph 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He was arrested and charged Tuesday with passing classified information about the system to foreign countries.
  • StarBulletin.com | News | /2005/10/28/ 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC starbulletin.com [Source type: News]

^ It is manufactured at the Northrop Grumman facilities in Pico Rivera and Palmdale in California.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - Air Force Technology 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.airforce-technology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] Cavanaugh was eventually sentenced to life in prison and released under parole in 2001.
.Noshir Gowadia, a design engineer who worked on the B-2's propulsion system, was arrested in October 2005 for selling B-2 related classified information to foreign countries.^ In October 2005, Noshir Gowadia, an Indian-born American design engineer, who worked on the stealth bomber project, was arrested for allegedly selling classified information about the plane to China.
  • US military grounds stealth bomber fleet - Telegraph 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ He was arrested and charged Tuesday with passing classified information about the system to foreign countries.
  • StarBulletin.com | News | /2005/10/28/ 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC starbulletin.com [Source type: News]

^ Its four General Electric engines are concealed within the body and have specially designed exhaust systems to reduce their infrared signature.
  • HowStuffWorks "Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit" 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His trial was initially scheduled for 12 February 2008, but he received a continuance.^ February 3, 2008 12:21 PM Regaurdless of what people say.
  • 1-18-08 Project Cloverfield - Warning! Spoilers: The Cloverfield Ending : Did Something Fall From The Sky? 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC 1-18-08.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add a Comment 1 2 3 4 5 next See all 44 Comments by dimmu19 February 24, 2008 12:34 PM EST Lets see...
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Anonymous says: February 2, 2008 12:35 PM i dnt get how u can be so close minded!
  • 1-18-08 Project Cloverfield - Warning! Spoilers: The Cloverfield Ending : Did Something Fall From The Sky? 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC 1-18-08.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19][20]

Program costs

In a 1994 live fire exercise near Point Mugu, California, a B-2 drops forty-seven 500 lb (230 kg) class Mark 82 bombs, which is more than half of a B-2's total ordnance payload
.The program was the subject of public controversy for its costs to American taxpayers.^ The program has been the subject of espionage and counter-espionage activity and the B-2 has been prominent public spectacles at air shows since the 1990s.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the B-2 was a highly advanced aircraft, leading to program glitches, cost escalations, schedule stretchouts, furious political controversies, and repeated cuts in production numbers.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hidden from public scrutiny and congressional oversight, the cost of the B-2 program has risen dramatically over the years.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1996 the General Accounting Office disclosed that the USAF's B-2 bombers "will be, by far, the most costly bombers to operate on a per aircraft basis", costing over three times as much as the B-1B (US$9.6 million annually) and over four times as much as the B-52H ($US6.8 million annually).^ At the time other aircraft operated at Groom.
  • F-117A: Senior Trend 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.f-117a.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the aircraft costs far far less than "millions" to operate.
  • Stealth bomber visits valley - Crime Scene 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.insidesocal.com [Source type: General]

^ The Congressional Budget Office found, however, that "although bombers can fly missions directly from the United States, it is difficult to sustain such operations for a long period."
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1997, each hour of B-2 flight necessitated 119 hours of maintenance in turn.^ The new coating scheme not only reduces RCS, but reduces maintenance time per flight hour from 20.8 hours to 9.2 hours.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maintenance Man-Hours per Flight Hour (MMH/FH) for non-LO systems improved during FOT&E and Force Development Evaluation.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintenance Man-Hours per Flight Hour (MMH/FH) (all systems) .
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

.Comparable maintenance needs for the B-52 and the B-1B are 53 and 60 hours respectively for each hour of flight.^ The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.

^ The B-2 has a crew of two; a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintenance Man-Hours per Flight Hour (MMH/FH) for non-LO systems improved during FOT&E and Force Development Evaluation.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

.A key reason for this cost is the provision of air-conditioned hangars large enough for the bomber's 172 ft (52.4 m) wingspan, which are needed to maintain the aircraft's stealthy properties, especially its "low-observable" stealthy skins.^ Low Observable reliability and maintainability.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All 21 stealth bombers are based at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri but the Air Force has been rotating several of them through Guam since 2004, along with B-1 and B-52 bombers.

^ The B-2's low observability provides greater freedom of maneuver whle high altitiude flight increases its range and provides a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors.
  • Air-Attack.com :: B-2 Spirit Image Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.air-attack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][22]
.The total "military construction" cost related to the program was projected to be US$553.6 million in 1997 dollars.^ The cost of each air vehicle averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.

^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This 43 per cent cut in aircraft numbers saved 19 per cent in total program costs.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cost to procure each B-2 was US$737 million in 1997 dollars, based only on a fleet cost of US$15.48 billion.^ The cost of each air vehicle averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.

^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total program cost, which includes development, engineering and testing, averaged US$2.1 billion per aircraft (in 1997 dollars).
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Message Board - New B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC aerosmithhobby.proboards.com [Source type: General]

[3] .The procurement cost per aircraft as detailed in General Accounting Office (GAO) reports, which include spare parts and software support, was $929 million per aircraft in 1997 dollars.^ Total procurement costs averaged US$929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Message Board - New B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC aerosmithhobby.proboards.com [Source type: General]

^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This 43 per cent cut in aircraft numbers saved 19 per cent in total program costs.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.The total program cost projected through 2004 was US$44.75 billion in 1997 dollars.^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FY96 Total program costs est.
  • Aircraft Prices. [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: General]

^ The projected cost through 2020 is a mere $1.3 Billion (FY 96 dollars).
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This includes development, procurement, facilities, construction, and spare parts.^ Total procurement costs averaged US$929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PACWS includes procurement of spares and military construction whereas the Defense Appropriations figures, based on the Procurement-1 (P-1) and RDT&E-1 (R-1) documents also distributed by the Pentagon, do not.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one were to add up all the categories (procurement of items and spares, RDT&E, modifications, and military construction), total appropriations for FY 1996 for the B-2 total $1,004.7 million.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total program cost averaged US$2.13 billion per aircraft.^ The cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million in 1997 dollars.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FY96 Total program costs est.
  • Aircraft Prices. [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: General]

^ The total program cost, which includes development, engineering and testing, averaged US$2.1 billion per aircraft (in 1997 dollars).
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Opposition

.In its consideration of the fiscal year 1990 defense budget, the House Armed Services Committee trimmed $800 million from the B-2 research and development budget, while at the same time staving off a motion to kill the bomber.^ Because money spent on research and development are sunk costs, additional bombers would cost a mere $690 million each, according to the manufacturer.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So how did they get radar profiles and data to develop the technology when the F-117 was only based in the US? I think the shoot down was caused more by using the same base and take-off times.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further off, the SDB II, developed for the B-2 under the "moving target kill" effort, is expected to form part of the bomber's store mix from around 2013.
  • Stealth Bomber Upgrades Detailed 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Opposition in committee and in Congress more largely was broad and bipartisan, with Congressman Ron Dellums (D-CA), John Kasich (R-OH), and John G. Rowland (R-CT) authorizing the motion to kill the bomber and others in the Senate such as Jim Exon (D-NE) and John McCain (R-AZ) also opposing the project.^ We need to pray for Sylvia Browne, John Edwards, and other mediums.
  • Ghost and spirit pictures, reported to be real. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bibleprobe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A design study, capped at $2 million was commissioned (any, project costing more than this would have had to have been reported to Congress).
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More » 08/10/09 109,724 48 By John Herrman # motorcycles Stealth Bomber: Cool As a Plane, Really, Really, Really Stupid as a Motorcycle .
  • b-2 bomber - Gizmodo 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.The growing cost of the B-2 program, and evidence of flaws in the aircraft's ability to elude detection by radar,[23] were among factors which drove opposition.^ This 43 per cent cut in aircraft numbers saved 19 per cent in total program costs.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total program cost, which includes development, engineering and testing, averaged US$2.1 billion per aircraft (in 1997 dollars).
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Message Board - New B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC aerosmithhobby.proboards.com [Source type: General]

^ Most Soviet SAM radar systems could not detect the aircraft until it was too late.
  • [1.0] F-117 Development 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the peak production period specified in 1989, the schedule called for spending US$7 billion to $8 billion per year in 1989 dollars, something Committee Chair Les Aspin (D-WI) said "won't fly financially."[24]
.In 1990, the US Department of Defense accused Northrop of using faulty components in the flight control system.^ In fact, I’ve included below a website to the Department of State’s, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls that manages any and all arms exports to any country.
  • Obama: Sell B-2 Bomber blueprints to China for debt relief! 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC investment-blog.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft is aerodynamically unstable, kept in the air with a quadruple-redundant fly-by-wire (FBW) system, under the control of a General Electric Flight Control Computer (FCC).
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numbers taken from FY 1996-7 Program Acquisition Costs by Weapon System, Department of Defense, March 1995.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Efforts have also been made to reduce the probability of bird ingestion, which could damage engine fan blades.^ This engine placement thereby buries the highly radar reflective fan and turbine blades within the bomber's interior.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "We made some decisions to do with inlet temperature and dew point, and reduced the amount of time we run the engines on the ground," Wheeler adds.
  • Stealth Bomber Upgrades Detailed 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The H-8 will have 4 turbo-fan engines, the core of which is based on the WS-10A. Weapons will include 12 “red birds” (??
  • China's Stealth Bomber H-8 - Pakistan Defence Forum 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.defence.pk [Source type: General]

[25]
.In time, a number of prominent members of Congress began to oppose the program's expansion, to include former Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry who cast votes against the B-2 Stealth Bomber in 1989, 1991 and 1992 while a United States Senator representing Massachusetts.^ The bomber was a milestone in the bomber modernization program of the United States.
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

^ B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) program myself.
  • How 18th Century Technology Could Down an Airliner | Autopia | Wired.com 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC feeds.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The Congressional Budget Office found, however, that "although bombers can fly missions directly from the United States, it is difficult to sustain such operations for a long period."
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1992, Republican President George H.W. Bush called for the cancellation of the B-2 and promised to cut military spending by 30% in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union.^ With the collapse of the Soviet Union the prices increased and the value of the planes decreased.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worse was to follow, with President George Bush seeking funds for only five extra B-2s (bringing the total to 21) in 1992.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 4:30 Wake-Up Call .
  • The Strangely True Story Contest @ Kajama.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kajama.com [Source type: General]
  • Winged Messengers by Dr. Bernie S. Siegel | brought to you by Kajama. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kajama.com [Source type: General]

[26]
.In May 1995, on the basis of its 1995 Heavy Bomber Force Study, the DOD determined that additional B-2 procurements would exacerbate efforts to develop and implement long term recapitalization plans for the USAF bomber force.^ In May of 1995, in a study commissioned by Congress, the Institute For Defense Analysis concluded that after the demise of the Soviet Union, there was no need for more B-2s.
  • Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) - Aircraft-Info.net, Aircraft Information #1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC portal.aircraft-info.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Air Force originally planned to acquire 133 stealth bombers but have since cut that number to a mere 21 active duty aircraft.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-2 is a low-observable, strategic, long-range, heavy bomber capable of penetrating sophisticated and dense air-defence shields.
  • B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - Air Force Technology 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.airforce-technology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In October 1995, former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, General Mike Ryan, and Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General John Shalikashvili, strongly recommended against Congressional action to fund the purchase of any additional B-2s, arguing that to do so would require unacceptable cuts in existing conventional and nuclear-capable aircraft to pay for the new bombers,[27] and because the military had much higher priorities on which to spend its limited procurement dollars.^ Why spend so much on an aircraft?
  • War Is Boring 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC warisboring.com [Source type: General]

^ The Congressional Budget Office found, however, that "although bombers can fly missions directly from the United States, it is difficult to sustain such operations for a long period."
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These special maintenance requirements meant that prior to Operation Iraqi Freedom the B-2 fleet operated exclusively out of Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri.
  • B-2 Bomber – FREE B-2 Bomber information | Encyclopedia.com: Find B-2 Bomber research 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Some B-2 advocates argued that procuring twenty additional B-2s would save money because B-2s would be able to deeply penetrate anti-aircraft defenses and use low-cost, short-range attack weapons rather than expensive standoff weapons.^ Its low-observability provides it greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors.

^ Its low-observable, or "stealth," characteristics give it the ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and threaten its most valued, and heavily defended, targets.

^ The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (also known as the Stealth Bomber) is an American heavy bomber with "low observable" stealth technology designed to penetrate dense anti-aircraft defenses and deploy both conventional and nuclear weapons.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in 1995, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and its Director of National Security Analysis, found that additional B-2s would reduce the cost of weapons expended by the bomber force by less than US$2 billion in 1995 dollars during the first two weeks of a conflict, which is when the Air Force envisions bombers would make their greatest contribution.^ U.S. Air Force B-2 bomber weapons systems trainers.
  • AVT lands $2.5M contract for B-2 bomber trainers - Orlando Business Journal: 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

^ The first 20 B-2 bombers cost $2.2 Billion each.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-2 cost the US government $23 billion to develop the bomber in the 1980s.
  • Obama: Sell B-2 Bomber blueprints to China for debt relief! 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC investment-blog.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a small fraction of the US$26.8 billion (in 1995 dollars) life cycle cost that the CBO projected an additional 20 B-2s would cost.^ An additional 20 B-2s would cost a total of at least $30 Billion over a projected 20 year lifespan.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first 20 B-2 bombers cost $2.2 Billion each.
  • The B-2 Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Costing the US about $22 billion.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.In 1997, as Ranking Member of the House Armed Services Committee and National Security Committee, Congressman Ron Dellums, a long-time opponent of the bomber, cited five independent studies and offered an amendment to that year's defense authorization bill to cap production of the bombers with the existing 21 aircraft.^ The Air Force originally planned to acquire 133 stealth bombers but have since cut that number to a mere 21 active duty aircraft.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AIRCRAFT PROGRAM DELLUMS AMENDMENT - NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 1998 (House of Representatives - June 23, 1997) B-2 bombers deploying to Guam Released: Mar 17, 1998 LONG RANGE AIR POWER REVIEW PANEL CONCLUDES REVIEW March 20, 1998 Air Force dedicates B-2 to Arizona Released: Feb 12, 1998 B-2 successfully drops improved bunker buster bomb Released: Mar 26, 1998 -- A B-2 Spirit bomber dropped two B61-11 bomb shells to test their improved ground penetration capability March 17 at the Stuart Creek Impact Area, 35 miles southeast of Fairbanks.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There is a national-security issue around composites," McCormick said, specifically citing China.
  • The Seattle Times: Boeing/aerospace: Separation anxiety: The wall between military and commercial technology 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

The amendment was narrowly defeated.[30] .Nonetheless, Congress has never approved funding for the purchase of any additional B-2 bombers to date.^ During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Congress slashed initial plans to purchase 132 bombers to just 21.
  • Northrop B-2 Spirit | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Upgrades

.In 2008, the US Congress funded upgrades to the B-2s weapon control systems for hitting moving targets.^ The GPS receiver system was integrated into a "GPS Aided Targeting System (GATS)" to support the GAM GPS-guided bomb, and later the JDAM and other GPS-guided weapons.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-2s during Operation Allied Force flew 49 sorties, 45 of which entered the combat area and released weapons over their targets.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the 1990s avionics upgrades had included time-over-target control, or four-dimensional navigation.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.On 29 December 2008, Air Force officials awarded a production contract to Northrop Grumman to modernize the B-2 fleet's radar.^ Production RMPs for the remaining 14 B-2s are coming under a $468-million contract awarded to Northrop Grumman in December 2008.
  • Stealth Bomber Upgrades Detailed 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late April, the Air Force, Northrop Grumman and Boeing completed a fit check of the MOP at Whiteman using the B-2 weapons load trainer and a MOP mock-up.
  • Stealth Bomber Upgrades Detailed 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a separate upgrade, the bomber will also get 64 laser-guided Small Diameter Bombs for use against moving targets, Northrop Grumman officials said.
  • B-2 Bomber Fleet to Get Digital Makeover By 2013 | Defense Daily | Find Articles at BNET 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

The contract provides advanced state-of-the-art radar components, with the aim of sustained operational viability of the B-2 fleet into the future. .The contract has a target value of approximately US$468 million.^ Production RMPs for the remaining 14 B-2s are coming under a $468-million contract awarded to Northrop Grumman in December 2008.
  • Stealth Bomber Upgrades Detailed 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] The award follows successful flight testing with the upgraded equipment. .A modification to the radar was needed since the U.S. Department of Commerce required the B-2 to use a different radar frequency.^ Technology with both commercial and military applications — so-called dual-use items — is generally exportable with a Department of Commerce license.
  • The Seattle Times: Boeing/aerospace: Separation anxiety: The wall between military and commercial technology 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ For example, using object-oriented programming when run-time resolution between different object types is required and generic programming when static type safety and run-time performance is at a premium.

^ Since Paul uses the plural (healings), it seems that he conceives of each healing is a distinct gift of healing; each instance requires its own gift of healing.
  • Pauline Pneumatology 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.abu.nb.ca [Source type: Original source]

[33] .It was reported on 22 July 2009 that the B-2 had passed the second of the two USAF audit milestones associated with this upgraded AESA radar capability.^ D July 22, 2009 Actually he has never submitted his birth certificate for review.
  • Obama: Sell B-2 Bomber blueprints to China for debt relief! 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC investment-blog.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mid-June the company passed the second of two Air Force program audits.
  • Stealth Bomber Upgrades Detailed 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women's Division 2 Cashmere 2 Coastal Spirit 3 CSSL Division 1 Coastal Spirit A 20 Zim United 0 Report CSSL Division 1 Dux de Lux 0 Coastal Spirit B 2 CSSL Division 5 Coastal Spirit C 3 Ligers 0 Saturday 18 July 2009 .

[34]
.On 28 April 2009, an Air Force/contractor team verified that the 30,000 pound Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) would fit in the B-2's bomb bay.^ A dummy 30,000lb 'bunker-buster' Massive Ordinance Penetrator bomb in the bomb bay .
  • Britain's new bomber command: The $2bn aircraft aiming for world peace | Mail Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Deuteronomy 32:30 demonstrates the power of 1 which disperses 1000 opposing forces whereas the exponential power within 2 disperses 10,000.
  • Marvelous Wonders: Prophetic Voice Newsletter 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.thepropheticvoice.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is performed by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker AFB, Okla.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]

Design

.
The B-2's engines are buried within its wing to conceal the induction fans and minimize their exhaust signature.
^ Such "platypus nozzles" reduced the "infrared signature" of the exhaust, which was also concealed by twin inward-canted fins.
  • [1.0] F-117 Development 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F118s are buried in the wings, with two engines clustered together inboard on each wing.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It featured a fuselage resembling a stretched upside-down bathtub with a wedge-shaped flat panel under the nose; an engine intake buried in the back; wedge-shaped wings; and a vee tail shielding the exhaust.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The crew of two sit side-by-side in the cockpit
.The B-2's low-observable, or "stealth", characteristics give it the ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated anti-aircraft defenses to attack its most heavily defended targets.^ Its low-observable, or "stealth," characteristics give it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and threaten its most valued, and heavily defended, targets.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The revolutionary blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 important advantages over existing bombers.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its low-observability provides it greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bomber's stealth comes from a combination of reduced acoustic, infrared, visual and radar signatures, making it difficult for opposition defenses to detect, track and engage the aircraft.^ These signatures make it difficult for the sophisticated defensive systems to detect, track and engage the B-2.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its small size makes it difficult for air defenses to detect and intercept.
  • United States Arsenal 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-2's low observability is derived from a combination of reduced infrared, acoustic, electromagnetic, visual and radar signatures.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many specific aspects of the low-observability process remain classified.^ Many details about this new system remain classified.
  • United States Arsenal 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Automatic route planning for threat avoidance employing the Common Low Observable Autorouter (CLOAR) remains unsatisfactory.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

.The B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying wing design, which reduces the number of leading edges, contribute to its stealth characteristics.^ The leading edges of the B-2 wings angle aft at approximately 33 degrees and trailing edge has a characteristic double "W" form.
  • B-2 Bomber – FREE B-2 Bomber information | Encyclopedia.com: Find B-2 Bomber research 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-2 design made great strides over previous attempts at stealth aircraft, such as the B-1B and F-117 , thanks to a more refined understanding of radar wave reflection and its aerodynamic flying wing shape.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many aspects of the low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying-wing design all contribute to its "stealthiness."
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Each B-2 requires a climate-controlled hangar large enough for its 172-foot (52 m) wingspan to protect the operational integrity of its sophisticated radar absorbent material and coatings.^ Certains types de matériaux permettent d’absorber des ondes radars, on les désigne généralement sous le nom de RAM (Radar Absorbent Materials).
  • Techno-Science.net • Voir le sujet - [Dossier] La furtivité du B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.techno-science.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The F-117 controlled these with a coating of absorbent material, but if the coating had even the smallest gap or crack, it could betray the aircraft.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the radar-absorbent material was stripped off, and new access panels were cut in the skin.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .The engines are buried within the wing to conceal the induction fans and hide their exhaust.^ The engines exhaust through V-shaped outlets set back and above the trailing edges to hide these heat sources from detection on the ground.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It featured a fuselage resembling a stretched upside-down bathtub with a wedge-shaped flat panel under the nose; an engine intake buried in the back; wedge-shaped wings; and a vee tail shielding the exhaust.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We take-off and land at slower speeds and put the engine exhaust above the wing to act as a sound wall.
  • Green Car Congress: Researchers Unveil Quieter, More Fuel-Efficient Aircraft Concept 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: General]

[38]
.The blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 significant advantages over previous bombers.^ The revolutionary blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 important advantages over pre-existing bombers.

^ The revolutionary blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 important advantages over existing bombers.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distinctive B-2 is described as a "multi-role bomber" that blends stealth technology with a highly efficient aerodynamic design.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

.The U.S. Air Force reports its range as approximately 6,000 nautical miles (6,900 mi; 11,000 km).^ Its unrefueled range is approximately 6,000 nautical miles (9,600 kilometers).

^ On one of my previous visits to the base, in the autumn of 2004, I’d spent time with B-52 pilots from Barksdale Air Force Base, near Shreveport, Louisiana.
  • The Plane That Would Bomb Iran - The Atlantic(September 2007) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Plane That Would Bomb Iran - The Atlantic(September 2007) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its performance in OAF was admirable considering sorties were flown against targets 5,000 nautical miles from the Main Operating Base.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

[4][39] .Also, its low-observation ability provides the B-2 greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and providing a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors.^ Its low-observability provides it greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors.

^ The increased wing area provided better lift for the heavier FSD while keeping with the shape of the hopeless diamond.
  • F-117A: Senior Trend 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.f-117a.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ku band suffers from greater atmospheric attenuation than lower frequency bands, but it also provides very high resolution for navigation and targeting.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It combines GPS Aided Targeting System (GATS) with GPS-aided bombs such as Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM).^ The bombs, these JDAMs, or Joint Direct Attack Munitions, are an incredible munition from two respects.
  • http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/06/1999-06-11-press-briefing-at-whiteman-afb-on-the-b-2-bomber.html 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC clinton6.nara.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A Global Positioning System (GPS) guided bomb, the "GPS Aided Munition (GAM)", was developed on a fast-track basis for the B-2, but GAM was strictly an interim solution until the real solution, the "Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)", was introduced in the late 1990s.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principal conventional weapon is the near precision, 2,000-pound, Global Positioning System (GPS)-guided GBU-31 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) with MK-84 general-purpose warhead or BLU-109 penetrator warhead.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

.This uses its passive electronically scanned array APQ-181 radar to correct GPS errors of targets and gain much better than laser-guided weapon accuracy when "dumb" gravity bombs are equipped with a GPS-aided "smart" guidance tail kit.^ The B-2's unique GPS-Aided Targeting System (GATS) provides a capability to target guided weapons using the aircraft's radar.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The accuracy, when combined with the B-2's targeting system, is far better than we ever anticipated.
  • http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/06/1999-06-11-press-briefing-at-whiteman-afb-on-the-b-2-bomber.html 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC clinton6.nara.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hughes AN/APQ-181 attack radar has conformal phased array transmitters buried in the fuselage, doing away with the need for a dish aerial and its associated bulbous dome.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can bomb 16 targets in a single pass when equipped with 1,000 or 2,000-pound (450 kg or 900 kg) bombs, or as many as 80 when carrying 500 lb (230 kg) bombs.^ With a price tag of approximately $1.2 billion each, the bombers can hold up to 40,000 pounds of artillery and can strike 16 targets in a single pass using 16 different weapons.
  • FOXNews.com - B-2 Bombers Lead 'Shock and Awe' - U.S. & World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Each of the two weapons bays can be fitted with a Boeing Advanced Rotary Launcher (ARL), capable of carrying eight 1,000 kilogram (2,200 pound) class munitions, or a Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA) for carriage of smaller munitions.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of the two weapons bays can be fitted with a Boeing Advanced Rotary Launcher (ARL), each capable of carrying eight 1,000 kilogram (2,200 pound) class munitions, or a Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA) for carriage of smaller munitions.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The B-2 has a crew of two: a pilot in the left seat, and mission commander in the right.^ The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.

^ The "mission commander", who handles navigation and weapons delivery, sits on the left, while the pilot sits on the right.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-2 Spirit bomber is a "flying wing" aircraft with a two-pilot crew.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The B-2 has provisions for a third crew member if needed.^ The B-2 has an advanced two-man cockpit with provisions for a third crew member/observer.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was provision for a third seat in case the crew workload proved too high, but a third crewperson proved unnecessary.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .For comparison, the B-1B has a crew of four and the B-52 has a crew of five.^ The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-2 Spirit B2 Heavy Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

[4] B-2 crews have been used to pioneer sleep cycle research to improve crew performance on long sorties. .The B-2 is highly automated, and, unlike two-seat fighters, one crew member can sleep, use a toilet or prepare a hot meal while the other monitors the aircraft.^ The B-2 is highly automated and only requires two crew.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-2 Spirit B2 Heavy Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "There are only two kinds of languages: the ones people complain about and the ones nobody uses" .

[41]
A B-2 during aerial refueling which extends its range past 6,000 miles to support intercontinental sorties.
.As with the B-52 Stratofortress and B-1 Lancer, the B-2 provides the versatility inherent in manned bombers.^ Tagged: Aircraft profiles • Bombers • Military aviation • Resources • 8-engine aircraft • B-52 Stratofortress • Boeing • Jets • US Air Force Mission .
  • Bombers | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like other bombers, its assigned targets can be canceled or changed while in flight, the particular weapon assigned to a target can be changed, and the timing of attack, or the route to the target can be changed while in flight.^ Two B2 bombers flying out of Whiteman AFB flew to Serbia to attack so far undisclosed targets and then safely returned to their home base.
  • B2 Spirit Stealth Bomber Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bugimus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft was taking off with three others on their last flight out of Guam after a four-month deployment, part of a continuous U.S. bomber presence in the western Pacific.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ But the B-2 has a stealth aspect like no other aircraft and can strike targets other planes simply cannot.
  • FOXNews.com - B-2 Bombers Lead 'Shock and Awe' - U.S. & World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

.The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design, integration and support, is Northrop Grumman.^ The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design and integration, is Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems Sector.

^ Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is held by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma.

^ The GPS receiver system was integrated into a "GPS Aided Targeting System (GATS)" to support the GAM GPS-guided bomb, and later the JDAM and other GPS-guided weapons.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Boeing, Raytheon (formerly Hughes Aircraft), G.E. and Vought Aircraft Industries, are subcontractors.^ General Electric a fourni les réacteurs, Boeing et Vought Aircraft Industries sont intervenus dans la réalisation de base de l’aile et les radars ont été fournis par Hughes.
  • Techno-Science.net • Voir le sujet - [Dossier] La furtivité du B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.techno-science.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Boeing Military Airplanes Co., General Electric Aircraft Engine Group Hughes Training Inc., Link Division .
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boeing Military Airplanes Co., Hughes Radar Systems Group, General Electric Aircraft Engine Group and Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc., are key members of the aircraft contractor team.

.The original B-2 design had tanks for a contrail-inhibiting chemical, but this was replaced in the final design with a contrail sensor from Ophir that alerts the pilot when he should change altitude[42] and mission planning also considers altitudes where the probability of contrail formation is minimized.^ Limitations on the Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance system would mainly affect Single Integrated Operational Plan missions and are not considered to have critical impact on the B-2's conventional operational capability.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This scheme wasn't actually used in practice, with a "lidar" (laser radar) system instead eventually developed to detect the formation of a contrail and alert the pilot to descend to lower altitude.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft has a bay outboard of each of the main landing gear that was originally supposed to store contrail-suppression chemicals but was never used.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Operational history

.The first operational aircraft, christened Spirit of Missouri, was delivered to Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, where the fleet is based, on 17 December 1993.[43] The B-2 reached initial operational capability (IOC) on 1 January 1997.[44] Depot maintenance for the B-2 is accomplished by U.S. Air Force contractor support and managed at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base.^ The first aircraft, named Spirit of Missouri, was delivered on December 17, 1993.

^ The first bomber was delivered to Whiteman in 1993.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is held by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma.

[4] .Originally designed to deliver nuclear weapons, modern usage has shifted towards a flexible role with conventional and nuclear capability.^ Conventional or nuclear weapons .

^ The B-2 Spirit is a multi-role bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear munitions.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bombers | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can carry nuclear or precision guided conventional ordnance with worldwide precision navigation capability.
  • Bombers | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Into combat

An Air Force maintenance crew services a B-2 at Andersen AFB, Guam, 2004
.The B-2 has seen service in three campaigns.^ However, the aircraft has seen service in three separate campaigns.

.Its combat debut was during the Kosovo War in 1999. It was responsible for destroying 33% of selected Serbian bombing targets in the first eight weeks of U.S. involvement in the War.^ Its first combat was during the Kosovo War in 1999.

^ The 509 th Bomb Wing's post-war analysis indicated the B-2 damaged or destroyed over 80 percent of its assigned targets on the first pass.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Napalm: First used in WWII, it was a key part of air power during the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
  • Military History Podcast 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC geo47.libsyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .During this war, B-2s flew non-stop to Kosovo from their home base in Missouri and back.^ B-2s during Operation Allied Force flew 49 sorties, 45 of which entered the combat area and released weapons over their targets.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Its first combat was during the Kosovo War in 1999.

[4] .The B-2 was the first aircraft to deploy GPS satellite guided JDAM "smart bombs" in combat use in Kosovo.^ The aircraft performed well, and it introduced the satellite guided JDAM bomb to the world as well.

^ It was the first combat deployment in B-2 history.
  • FOXNews.com - B-2 Bombers Lead 'Shock and Awe' - U.S. & World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ A Global Positioning System (GPS) guided bomb, the "GPS Aided Munition (GAM)", was developed on a fast-track basis for the B-2, but GAM was strictly an interim solution until the real solution, the "Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)", was introduced in the late 1990s.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
B-2 Spirit.ogv
B-2 Spirit United States Air Force video
.The B-2 has been used to drop bombs on Afghanistan in support of the ongoing War in Afghanistan.^ The ones dropped on Japan, for example, were plutonium and uranium atomic bombs which used nuclear fission (breaking a larger nucleus into two smaller fragments).
  • Military History Podcast 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC geo47.libsyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the support of aerial refueling, the B-2 flew one of its longest missions to date from Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri to Afghanistan and back.^ They would fly from bases in Missouri with mid-air refuelling.

^ All 21 stealth bombers are based at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri but the Air Force has been rotating several of them through Guam since 2004, along with B-1 and B-52 bombers.

^ The bombers on Guam were scheduled to return to Missouri now that six B-52s from the 96th Bomb Wing at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, have arrived to replace them.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.During the ongoing War in Iraq, B-2s have operated from Diego Garcia and an undisclosed "forward operating location". Other sorties in Iraq have launched from Whiteman AFB.[4] This resulted in missions lasting over 30 hours and one mission of over 50 hours.^ One mission lasted 44 hours, the longest combat sortie in the history of air warfare, with B-2s flying out of Whiteman to Afghanistan, dropping their loads, and then landing on Diego Garcia island in the Indian ocean to refuel, rearm, and take on new crews while the engines remained on idle.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri was the B-2's only operational base until early 2003, when facilities for the B-2 were constructed the joint U.S/U.K military base on the British island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean.

^ Q The 30-hour mission that the two-man crew -- can someone give us an idea of -- one someone is sleeping while someone is flying -- GENERAL BARNIDGE: Let's talk to the guys who have done this.
  • http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/06/1999-06-11-press-briefing-at-whiteman-afb-on-the-b-2-bomber.html 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC clinton6.nara.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The designated "forward operating locations" have been previously designated as Guam and RAF Fairford, where new climate controlled hangars have been constructed.^ He sees the export laws as outdated, reflecting a control system designed for the Cold War rather than the new reality of economic globalization.
  • The Seattle Times: Boeing/aerospace: Separation anxiety: The wall between military and commercial technology 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ Et cela jusqu’à la création d’hangars démontables et la construction des bases de Guam dans l’Océan Pacifique, de Diego Garcia dans l’Océan Indien et de la RAF de Fairford en Angleterre.
  • Techno-Science.net • Voir le sujet - [Dossier] La furtivité du B-2 Spirit 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.techno-science.net [Source type: Academic]

^ If the computers were having trouble with faulty sensor data or some computers were having operational problems the software is designed to degrade gradually returning more and more control to the pilots.
  • How 18th Century Technology Could Down an Airliner | Autopia | Wired.com 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC feeds.wired.com [Source type: General]

B-2s have conducted 27 sorties from Whiteman AFB and 22 sorties from a forward operating location, releasing more than 1.5 million pounds of munitions,[4] including 583 JDAM "smart bombs" in 2003.[46]
.The B-2's combat use preceded a U.S. Air Force declaration of "full operational capability" in December 2003.[4] The Pentagon's Operational Test and Evaluation 2003 Annual Report noted that the B-2's serviceability for Fiscal Year 2003 was still inadequate, mainly due to the maintainability of the B-2's low observable coatings.^ It should be noted that the USAF's "Boomerang" (aka: B2 "Spirit") also operate out of purpose-built Air Force bases in the UK as well as Diego Garcia AFB in the Indian Ocean; and more importantly, they are fully capable of delivering nuclear munitions.

^ Many aspects of the low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying-wing design all contribute to its "stealthiness."

^ Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri was the B-2's only operational base until early 2003, when facilities for the B-2 were constructed the joint U.S/U.K military base on the British island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean.

The evaluation also noted that the Defensive Avionics suite also had shortcomings with pop-up threats.[4]
All B-2s, nuclear-capable B-52s, and nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles have shifted to the new nuclear-focused Air Force Global Strike Command scheduled to be set up by September 2009.[47][48]

Operators

The "Spirit of Indiana" sits on the ramp at Andersen AFB in Guam on 23 June 2006
.B-2s are operated exclusively by the United States Air Force active units.^ The United States Air Force (USAF) said both pilots had ejected safely before the plane came down at Andersen Air Force Base, shortly after take-off.
  • Ouch!US stealth bomber crashes on Guam - Cable Forum 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.cableforum.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States Air Force B-2 Spirit The B-2 Spirit is an American multi-role stealth bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear weapons.

^ Not until 1992—after its success in Operation Desert Storm —did the Air Force move the fighters to Holloman.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Accident

.On 23 February 2008, a B-2 crashed on the runway shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam.^ Smoke billows from the runway at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam Saturday Feb.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ All 21 stealth bombers are based at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri but the Air Force has been rotating several of them through Guam since 2004, along with B-1 and B-52 bombers.

^ The bombers on Guam were scheduled to return to Missouri now that six B-52s from the 96th Bomb Wing at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, have arrived to replace them.
  • B-2 Stealth Bomber Crashes In Guam - CBS News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

[50] .The Spirit of Kansas, 89-0127 had been operated by the 393rd Bomb Squadron, 509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, and had logged 5,176 flight hours.^ Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is held by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma.

^ It should be noted that the USAF's "Boomerang" (aka: B2 "Spirit") also operate out of purpose-built Air Force bases in the UK as well as Diego Garcia AFB in the Indian Ocean; and more importantly, they are fully capable of delivering nuclear munitions.

^ The combat effectiveness of the B-2 was proved in Operation Allied Force, where it was responsible for destroying 33 percent of all Serbian targets in the first eight weeks, by flying nonstop to Kosovo from its home base in Missouri and back.
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was the first crash of a B-2. The two person crew ejected from the aircraft and survived the crash.^ The two crew were able to eject safely.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without proper altitude readings, the crew of the aircraft, another Boeing 757, could not determine altitude and crashed into the Pacific Ocean while attempting an emergency landing.
  • How 18th Century Technology Could Down an Airliner | Autopia | Wired.com 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC feeds.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Critically low on fuel, Lockheed test pilot Bill Park decided to eject and let the aircraft crash into the desert.
  • [1.0] F-117 Development 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The aircraft was completely destroyed, a hull loss valued at US$1.4 billion.[51][52] After the accident, the Air Force took the B-2 fleet off operational status until clearing the fleet for flight status 53 days later on 15 April 2008.[53]

Aircraft on display

Mockup of a B-2 Spirit on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force
.Because of its unparalleled cost, strategic bombing role, and the still-classified aspects of its low observable coatings, no production B-2 has ever been placed on permanent display.^ Many aspects of the low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying-wing design all contribute to its "stealthiness."
  • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And he thought within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no place to bestow my crops?
  • Be Filled with the Spirit--Part 4  -  John MacArthur 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One still-classified aspect of the F-117 is whether it carries any kind of radar warning receiver.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, B-2s have made periodic appearances on ground display at various air shows.
.In 2004, one of the test articles (s/n AT-1000) built without engines or instruments for static testing was placed on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio.^ The first B-2 was publicly displayed on November 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California.

^ All 21 stealth bombers are based at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri but the Air Force has been rotating several of them through Guam since 2004, along with B-1 and B-52 bombers.

^ The Air Force was to prepare a vulnerability assessment based on past tests with modeling and simulation.
  • B-2 SPIRIT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY BOMBER - FY99 Activity 15 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Academic]

[54] The test article passed all structural testing.[55] The Museum's restoration team spent over a year reassembling the fractured airframe.
.From 1989 to 2004, the South Dakota Air and Space Museum located on the grounds of Ellsworth Air Force Base displayed the 10-short-ton (9-metric-ton) "Honda Stealth", a 60% scale mockup of a stealthy bomber which had been built by North American Honda in 1988 for an advertising campaign.^ A stealth bomber from the U.S. Air Force will do a flyover tomorrow.
  • Not So Stealthy! - Gothamist 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first B-2 was publicly displayed on November 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California.

^ There were tales that radar had trouble picking up the uncluttered lines of a flying wing, and as the US Air Force turned towards "stealthy" aircraft in the 1970s and 1980s, the flying wing bomber was revived in the form of the Northrop Grumman "B-2 Spirit", the first flying wing to enter full operational service, the biggest stealth aircraft built to date, and one of the most expensive aircraft ever made.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .Although not an actual replica of a B-2, the mock-up was close enough to the B-2's design to arouse suspicion that Honda had intercepted classified, top secret information, as the B-2 project was still officially classified in 1988. Honda donated the model to the museum in 1989, on condition that the model be destroyed if it was ever replaced with a different aircraft.^ Because the project is top-secret, little is known about the aircraft.
  • China's Stealth Bomber H-8 - Pakistan Defence Forum 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.defence.pk [Source type: General]

^ However, although it was slated to be replaced by the B83, its retirement was curtailed in 1987, probably to retain a high yield weapon to destroy very hardened underground targets.
  • United States Arsenal 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designing the CRP assemblies, tooling up for their production, and fitting them in place in aircraft manufacture was a major engineering challenge.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2005, when the museum received a B-1 Lancer for display (Ellsworth being a B-1 base), the museum destroyed the mock-up.^ The incremental display of documents being received from the network gives rise to certain problems with respect to forms.
  • Performance, Implementation, and Design Notes 11 September 2009 5:16 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It was finally announced to the public in 1996, and is now on display in the USAF Museum at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio.
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57][58]

Specifications (B-2A Block 30)

Orthographically projected diagram of the B-2 Spirit

Data from USAF Fact Sheet,[4] Pace,[59] Spick,[39] Globalsecurity[60]

General characteristics
  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 69 ft (21.0 m)
  • Wingspan: 172 ft (52.4 m)
  • Height: 17 ft (5.18 m)
  • Wing area: 5,140 ft² (478 m²)
  • Empty weight: 158,000 lb (71,700 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 336,500 lb (152,200 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 376,000 lb (170,600 kg)
  • Powerplant:General Electric F118-GE-100 non-afterburning turbofans, 17,300 lbf (77 kN) each
Performance
Armament
.
  • 2 internal bays for 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of ordnance.^ The bomber is fitted with two side-by-side weapons bays that can accommodate a total of 22,680 kilograms (50,000 pounds) of stores.
    • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [39]
  • 80× 500 lb class bombs (Mk-82) mounted on Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA)
  • 36× 750 lb CBU class bombs on BRA
  • 16× 2000 lb class weapons (Mk-84, JDAM-84, JDAM-102) mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA)
  • 16× B61 or B83 nuclear weapons on RLA
Later avionics and equipment improvements allow B-2A to carry JSOW, GBU-28, and GBU-57A/Bs as well. .The Spirit is also designated as a delivery aircraft for the AGM-158 JASSM when the missile enters service.^ But missiles such as the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM), which entered service in 2003, can do the same thing, comparing the image from an infrared camera to digital images of the target area.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the jet that became the hero of the first Gulf War was not quite the same as the aircraft that had entered service.
  • Unconventional Weapon | Military Aviation | Air & Space Magazine 19 September 2009 9:33 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-2 can also carry the new AGM-154 Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW) glide bomb, and the AGM-158 Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM).
  • The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - the fascinating full story of the development 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

List of B-2 bombers

Side view of a B-2 Spirit
B-2 in flight over the Mississippi River (St. Louis, Missouri) with the Gateway Arch and Busch Stadium in the background
B-2 from below
Air Vehicle No. Block No.[61] USAF s/n Formal name Status
AV-1 Test/30 82-1066 Spirit of America 14 July 2000 — Active[62]
AV-2 Test/30 82-1067 Spirit of Arizona 4 December 1997 — Active
AV-3 Test/30 82-1068 Spirit of New York 10 October 1997 — Active, Flight Test
AV-4 Test/30 82-1069 Spirit of Indiana 22 May 1999 — Active
AV-5 Test/20 82-1070 Spirit of Ohio 18 July 1997 — Active
AV-6 Test/30 82-1071 Spirit of Mississippi 23 May 1997 — Active
AV-7 10 88-0328 Spirit of Texas 21 August 1994 — Active
AV-8 10 88-0329 Spirit of Missouri 31 March 1994 — Active
AV-9 10 88-0330 Spirit of California 17 August 1994 — Active
AV-10 10 88-0331 Spirit of South Carolina 30 December 1994 — Active
AV-11 10 88-0332 Spirit of Washington 29 October 1994 — Active
AV-12 10 89-0127 Spirit of Kansas 17 February 1995 — 23 February 2008, Crashed[50]
AV-13 10 89-0128 Spirit of Nebraska 28 June 1995 — Active
AV-14 10 89-0129 Spirit of Georgia 14 November 1995 — Active
AV-15 10 90-0040 Spirit of Alaska 24 January 1996 — Active
AV-16 10 90-0041 Spirit of Hawaii 10 January 1996 — Active
AV-17 20 92-0700 Spirit of Florida 3 July 1996 — Active
AV-18 20 93-1085 Spirit of Oklahoma 15 May 1996 — Active
AV-19 20 93-1086 Spirit of Kitty Hawk 30 August 1996 — Active
AV-20 30 93-1087 Spirit of Pennsylvania 5 August 1997 — Active
AV-21 30 93-1088 Spirit of Louisiana 10 November 1997 — Active
AV-22 through AV-165 canceled
Sources: FAS.org,[63] B-2 Spirit (Pace)[64]

See also

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Northrop B-2A Spirit fact sheet." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  2. ^ Mehuron, Tamar A., Assoc. Editor. "2009 USAF Almanac, Fact and Figures." Air Force Magazine, May 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "B-2 Bomber: Cost and Operational Issues (Letter Report, 08/14/97, GAO/NSIAD-97-181." United States General Accounting Office (GAO). Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "B-2 Spirit Fact Sheet." U.S. Air Force, April 2008. Retrieved: 6 July 2008.
  5. ^ Rolfsen, Bruce. "Moisture confused sensors in B-2 crash." airforcetimes.com, 9 June 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  6. ^ a b c Pace 1999, pp. 20–27.
  7. ^ a b Goodall 1992
  8. ^ Griffin, John M. and James E. Kinnu. "B-2 System Engineering Case Study". Air Force Center for Systems Engineering, 31 May 2007. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  9. ^ a b Rich, Ben, Leo Janos. Skunk Works. Little, Brown & Company, 1994. ISBN 0-316-74300-3.
  10. ^ Spick 2000, p. 339.
  11. ^ Van Voorst, Bruce. "The Stealth Takes Wing." Time, 31 July 1989. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  12. ^ "Pico Rivera." GlobalSecurity.org, 26 April 2005. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  13. ^ Pace 1999, pp. 29–36.
  14. ^ Pace 1999, pp. 75–76.
  15. ^ "President George H. Bush's State of the Union Address." c-span.org, 28 January 1992. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  16. ^ Graham, Bradley. "US to add one B-2 plane to 20 plane fleet." Washington Post, 22 March 1996, p. A20.
  17. ^ Eden 2004, pp. 350–353.
  18. ^ AP. "Stealth bomber classified documents missing." New York Times, 24 June 1987. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  19. ^ FBI Honolulu Press Release
  20. ^ "Gowadia case." cicentre.com. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  21. ^ Capaccio, Tony. "The B-2's Stealthy Skins Need Tender, Lengthy Care." Defense Week, 27 May 1997, p. 1.
  22. ^ "Air Force, Options to Retire of Restructure the Force would Reduce Planned Spending, NSIAD-96-192." US General Accounting Office, September 1996, pp. 53, 56. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  23. ^ a b Schmitt, Eric. "Key Senate Backer of Stealth Bomber Sees It in Jeopardy." nytimes.com, New York Times, 14 September 1991. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
  24. ^ Sorenson 1995, p. 168.
  25. ^ "Moisture in sensors led to stealth bomber crash, Air Force report says." Kansas City Star, 5 June 2008.
  26. ^ "Zell Miller's Attack on Kerry: A Little Out Of Date." FactCheck.org, 4 October 2004. Retrieved: 26 October 2004.
  27. ^ Bender,Brian and John Robinson. "More Stealth Bombers Mean Less Combat Power". Defense Daily, 5 August 1997, p. 206.
  28. ^ "Air Force, Options to Retire of Restructure the Force would Reduce Planned Spending, NSIAD-96-192". US General Accounting Office, September 1996, p. 70. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  29. ^ "Air Force, Options to Retire of Restructure the Force would Reduce Planned Spending, NSIAD-96-192". US General Accounting Office, September 1996, p. 72. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  30. ^ "Debate on Dellums Amendment to 1998 Defense Authorization Act", 23 June 1997.
  31. ^ McKinney, Brooks. "Northrop Grumman Adding Mobile Targets to B-2 Bomber Capabilities." Northrop Grumman, 7 February 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  32. ^ "B-2 radar modernization program contract awarded." US Air Force, 30 December 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  33. ^ Warwick, Graham. "USAF Awards B-2 Radar Upgrade Production." Aviation Week, 30 December 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  34. ^ Jennings, Gareth. "B-2 passes modernisation milestones." janes.com, 24 July 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  35. ^ Mayer, Daryl. Northrop Grumman and USAF Verify Proper Fit of 30,000lb Penetrator Weapon on B-2 Bomber defpro.com, 22 July 2009. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  36. ^ "B-2." Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  37. ^ Fulghum, D.A. "First F-22 large-scale, air combat exercise wins praise and triggers surprise" (online title), "Away Game". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 January 2007. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  38. ^ "B-2." Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  39. ^ a b c d Spick 2000, pp. 340–341.
  40. ^ "B-2 Spirit page." Northrop Grumman. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  41. ^ Tirpak, John A. "With the First B-2 Squadron." Air Force Magazine: Journal of the Air Force Association, Vol. 79, No. 4, April 1996.
  42. ^ Gosnell, Mariana. : "Why contrails hang around." Air & Space magazine, 1 July 2007. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  43. ^ Pace 1999, p. 66.
  44. ^ Pace 1999, p. 73.
  45. ^ "JDAM continues to be warfighter's weapon of choice." US Air Force, 17 March 2006. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  46. ^ "Air Force programs: B-2.". Project On Government Oversight (POGO), 16 April 2004. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  47. ^ "US plans separate nuclear command." BBC News, 25 October 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  48. ^ Chavanne, Bettina H. "USAF Creates Global Strike Command." Aviation Week, 24 October 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  49. ^ "131st Bomb Wing." 131bw.ang.af.mil. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  50. ^ a b "B-2 Crashes on Takeoff From Guam." Aviation Week, 23 February 2008. Retrieved: 13 September 2009.
  51. ^ "Air Force: Sensor moisture caused 1st B-2 crash." USA Today, 5 June 2008. Retrieved: 16 February 2009.
  52. ^ "B-2 crash video." Youtube.com. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
  53. ^ [1]. US Air Force
  54. ^ The display airframe and nose wheel door was marked to resemble The Spirit of Ohio, to include its Fire and Ice insignias.
  55. ^ "National Museum of the USAF B-2 fact page."
  56. ^ "Honda Stealth"
  57. ^ Museum slices stealth display
  58. ^ B-1 to go on display in museum
  59. ^ Pace 1999, Appendix A.
  60. ^ "B-2 specifications". GlobalSecurity.org.
  61. ^ All 21 copies brought to Block 30 standard.
  62. ^ Air Force names final B-2 bomber "Spirit of America"
  63. ^ B-2 page on fas.org
  64. ^ Pace 1999, Appendix.
Bibliography
  • Donald, David, ed. .Black Jets: The Development and Operation of America's Most Secret Warplanes.^ Now operated by the US Air Force as a detachment of the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base, the Groom Lake facility continues to secretly test America âs most secret aviation technology.
    • Military History Podcast 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC geo47.libsyn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing Inc., 2003. ISBN 1-880588-67-6.
  • Eden, Paul. ."Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft.^ I think Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk and Northrop-Grumman B-2 Spirit are the best but the prices of these aircrafts are very soo let the countries decide which aircrafts they need and how much they reserves posess .
    • Aircraft Prices. [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 18 September 2009 4:26 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: General]

    New York: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-90468-784-9.
  • Goodall, James C. "The Northrop B-2A Stealth Bomber." .America's Stealth Fighters and Bombers: B-2, F-117, YF-22, and YF-23.^ It has hosted the first flights of some of America âs most ground-breaking aircraft, including the F-117 stealth fighter.
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    St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-609-6.
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  • Richardson, Doug. Northrop B-2 Spirit (Classic Warplanes). New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc., 1991. ISBN 0-8317-1404-2.
  • Sorenson, David, S. The Politics of Strategic Aircraft Modernization. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995 ISBN 978-0275952587.
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    ^ THE BELOW LINKS CONTAIN AVIATION, MILITARY, AIRCRAFT VIDEOS, PICTURES, FACTS, INFORMATION, AUDIO, HISTORY, MOVIES & PHOTOS .
    • USAF B-2 (B2) Spirit Stealth Bomber History Pictures and Facts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-640-5.
  • The World's Great Stealth and Reconnaissance Aircraft. New York: Smithmark, 1991. ISBN 0-8317-9558-1.

External links


Simple English

File:B-2 Spirit
A B-2 Spirit

The B-2 Spirit is a stealth bomber used by the United States Air Force. It is known for its very unusual flat triangle shape, and does not have a tail. This shape helps to make it harder to see on radar, acting as a sort of camouflage. It uses computers to remain stable in the air. It is capable of dropping large amounts of bombs and flying long distances.

The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right.

The first B-2 was publicly displayed on Nov. 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, Calif. Its first flight was July 17, 1989.

Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, is the only base that has the B-2. The first aircraft, named "Spirit of Missouri", was delivered there on December 17th, 1993.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on B-2 Spirit, which are similar to those in the above article.








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