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B-52 Stratofortress
A B-52H from Barksdale AFB flying over the desert
Role Strategic bomber
Manufacturer Boeing
First flight 15 April 1952
Introduction February 1955
Status Active: 76[1]
Reserve: 20[1]
Primary users United States Air Force
NASA
Produced 1952–1962
Number built 744[2]
Unit cost B-52B: US$14.43 million[3]
B-52H: $9.28 million (1962)
B-52H: $53.4 million (1998)[4]
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1955.
.Beginning with the successful contract bid on 5 June 1946, the B-52 design evolved from a straight-wing aircraft powered by six turboprop engines to the final prototype YB-52 with eight turbojet engines.^ The first prototype was given the designation "XB-52" and the second the designation "YB-52".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ YB-52 - The second prototype.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ History Beginning with the successful contract bid on 5 June 1946, the B-52 went through several design steps; from a straight wing aircraft powered by six turboprop engines to the final prototype YB-52, with eight turbojet engines.
  • B-52 Stratofortress 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

.The aircraft first flew on 15 April 1952 with "Tex" Johnston as pilot.^ It had its first flight in April 1952.
  • B-52H Stratofortress Boeing Model Airplane - War Planes, Handmade Wooden Models Including Military Aircraft, Jets, Sail Boats, & Helicopters 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.warplanes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Townsend was a pilot on the aircraft's first flight.
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress--A Story of Design Longevity | The Museum of Flight 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.museumofflight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first B-52 was assembled in late 1951 and first flew in April 1952.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War-era deterrence missions, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36.^ B-52 "mistakenly" flown with nuclear weapons.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The B-52 was set to replace the B-36 Bomber.
  • World History 1950 -1951 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.historycentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclear weapons are about deterrence.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Although a veteran of a number of wars, the Stratofortress has dropped only conventional munitions in combat.^ Although a veteran of a number of wars, the Stratofortress has dropped only conventional munitions in actual combat.
  • Chanute Air Museum 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aeromuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Stratofortress 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pix2mail.cOm | Beautiful Pictures Around the World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.pix2mail.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Strategic bomber 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.pix2mail.com [Source type: General]

^ Although built for the role of Cold War-era nuclear deterrence, its conventional capabilities now take priority.
  • B-52 Stratofortress in Color by RateMyScreensaver 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.ratemyscreensaver.com [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Stratofortress in BW Screensaver 1.0. Free screensaver of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress jet strategic bomber - Free screensaver, screensaver, aircraft, United States Air Force, USAF, screen saver 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.gold-software.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Stratofortress in BW Screensaver v1.0 » Daily Freeware Update Download 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freewaresofware.com [Source type: General]

^ It first entered combat in the skies over Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, when it was used to strike targets with conventional weapons.
  • Boeing: News Feature - B-52 50th Anniversary - Brief History 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.boeing.com [Source type: General]

.The B-52 carries up to 70,000 pounds (32,000 kg) of weapons.^ With the longest unrefueled range of any contemporary bomber, the B-52 carries up to 70,000 pounds of weapons.
  • Chanute Air Museum 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aeromuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the longest unrefueled range of any contemporary bomber, the B-52 carries up to 70,000 pounds (32,000 kg) of weapons.
  • B-52 Stratofortress 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With the longest unrefuelled range of any contemporary bomber, the B-52 carries up to 70,000 pounds of weapons.

[6]
.The USAF has possessed B-52s in active service since 1955. The bombers flew under the Strategic Air Command until SAC was disestablished in 1992 and its aircraft absorbed into the Air Combat Command (ACC).^ The USAF’s Strategic Air Command had B-52 Stratofortresses in active service from 1955 through 1991, when the aircraft were assigned to the Air Combat Command.

^ In 1963, the Strategic Air Command fielded a force of 650 B-52s.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The USAF has had B-52s in active service since 1955, initially with the Strategic Air Command (SAC), with all aircraft later absorbed into the Air Combat Command (ACC) following SAC\\\'s disestablishment in 1992.
  • B-52 Stratofortress 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

.Superior performance at high subsonic speeds and relatively low operating costs have kept the B-52 in service despite the advent of later aircraft, including the Mach-3 XB-70 Valkyrie, the supersonic B-1B Lancer, and the B-2 Spirit.^ North American XB-70 Valkyrie .
  • Jet Bombers 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC uscockpits.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B-52 High speed fly by .
  • B-52 Bomber Airplane Sounds 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.soundboard.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Superior performance at high subsonic speeds and relatively low operating costs have kept the B-52 in service despite proposals to replace it with the Mach 3 XB-70 Valkyrie, supersonic B-1B Lancer and stealthy B-2 Spirit.
  • B-52 Stratofortress 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.the123d.com [Source type: Academic]

.In January 2005, the B-52 became the second aircraft, after the English Electric Canberra, to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary operator.^ In January 2005, it was the second aircraft, after the English Electric Canberra, to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer.

^ The B-52 Stratofortress has been in service for over 40 years.
  • B-52 Stratofortress Jet Bombers, Videos, DVD Movies. 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC yellowairplane.com [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Stratofortress Jet Bombers, Videos, DVD Movies. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.yellowairplane.com [Source type: General]

^ Reviews Boeing's mighty B-52 Stratofortress has seen continuous operational service with the United States Air Force since...
  • B-52 Stratofortress Book - Shop Smarter.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.(As of 2009, the list has added the Tupolev Tu-95, the C-130 Hercules, the KC-135 Stratotanker, and the Lockheed U-2.^ KC-135 Stratotankers .
  • Military Times Air Force Times b-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC pictopia.com [Source type: General]

^ Four Lockheed C-130 Hercules zoom .
  • Wayfaring Map - Planes to be found on military air fields 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wayfaring.com [Source type: Reference]

^ KC-135 StratoTanker .
  • B-52 Strato Fortress : W.C.Pope Studio Shop 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: Academic]

[7][8][9][10])

Contents

Development

Models 462 (1946)[11] to 464-35 (1948)[11]
Models 464-49 (1949)[11] to B-52A (1952)
.On 23 November 1945, Air Materiel Command (AMC) issued desired performance characteristics for a new strategic bomber "capable of carrying out the strategic mission without dependence upon advanced and intermediate bases controlled by other countries".[12] The aircraft was to have a crew of five plus turret gunners, and a six-man relief crew.^ It was carrying a crew of six.
  • Warplanes: B-52 Down 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crew was to be five, plus gunners for an undetermined number of 20-mm cannon turrets.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52G aircraft is a heavy bomber equipped with six crew stations.

.It was required to cruise at 300 mph (240 kn, 480 km/h) at 34,000 feet (10,400 m) with a combat radius of 5,000 miles (4,300 nmi, 8,000 km).^ Performance: Combat radius 3590 miles.
  • Boeing B-52A Stratofortress 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combat radius 4825 miles with 10,000 pound bombload.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had to cruise at 300 Miles per hour (240 kn, 480 km/h) at 34,000 feet (10,400 m) with a combat radius of 5,000 statute miles (4,300 nmi, 8,000 km).
  • Modern aviation -Allpics4u 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.allpics4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The armament was to consist of an unspecified number of 20 mm cannon and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of bombs.^ Each bomb weighed 500 pounds.
  • Rolling Thunder; The B52 Bombers 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.diggerhistory.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The armament was to consist of an unspecified number of 20 mm cannon and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of bombs.
  • Modern aviation -Allpics4u 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.allpics4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the external payload remained at 24× 500 pound or 750 pound bombs, the internal capacity increased from 27 to 84× 500 pound bombs or from 27 to 42× 750 pound bombs.
  • Chanute Air Museum 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aeromuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .On 13 February 1946, the Air Force issued bid invitations for these specifications, with Boeing, Consolidated Aircraft, and Glenn L. Martin Company submitting proposals.^ On 13 February 1946, the Air Force issued bid invitations for these specifications, with Boeing, Consolidated Aircraft, and Glenn L. Martin Company submitting proposals.
  • Modern aviation -Allpics4u 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.allpics4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, Boeing was awarded a proposal in 1951, for 13 B-52A aircraft.
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Force is neither of these.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[13]
.On 5 June 1946, Boeing's Model 462, a straight-wing aircraft powered by six Wright T35 turboprops with a gross weight of 360,000 pounds (160,000 kg) and combat radius of 3,110 miles (2,700 nmi, 5,010 km), was declared the winner.^ The B-52 has a gross takeoff weight of almost 500,000 pounds.
  • How to Identify the B-52 Stratofortress | eHow.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Gross weight was estimated at 330,000 pounds.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gross weight was 360,000 pounds.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .On 28 June 1946, Boeing was issued a letter of contract for US$1.7 million (1946 dollars) to build a full-scale mock-up of the new XB-52 and do preliminary engineering and testing.^ Boeing Bags B- 52 Contract December 28, 2009 .
  • Air Force - Topics - Forbes.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC topics.forbes.com [Source type: News]

^ In mid-June, the Boeing design was assigned the designation XB-52.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letter contract issued to Boeing on June 28 (W-33-03A-ac-15065) asked for a full-scale mockup of the XB-52, plus preliminary design engineering, and the supplying of test data.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, by October 1946, the Air Force began to express concern about the sheer size of the new aircraft and its inability to meet the specified design requirements.^ US Air Force aircraft models.
  • US Air Force aircraft models. Motion Models Ready to display models 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.motionmodels.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Air Force responded with assertive action, and put into service the giant B-36 Bomber, designed to carry thermonuclear weapons.
  • Cold War Air Force Operations | USMilitary.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.usmilitary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is designed to penetrate up to 200 feet (61 metres) underground before exploding, according to an article published by the Air Force.
  • EXCLUSIVE - Pentagon delays new bunker buster bomb| World| Reuters 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC in.reuters.com [Source type: News]
  • UPDATE2-Pentagon delays new "bunker buster" bomb | Business | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • EXCLUSIVE-UPDATE2-Pentagon delays new "bunker buster" bomb By Reuters 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.forexpros.com [Source type: News]
  • Exclusive - Pentagon delays new "bunker buster" bomb - Yahoo! News UK 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uk.news.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

.In response, Boeing produced Model 464, a smaller four-engine version with a 230,000 pound (105,000 kg) gross weight, which was briefly deemed acceptable.^ The B-52 has a gross takeoff weight of almost 500,000 pounds.
  • How to Identify the B-52 Stratofortress | eHow.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The gross weight was increased by 30,000 pounds (13,605 kg) to 450,000 pounds.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gross weight was estimated at 330,000 pounds.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.Then, in November 1946, the Deputy Chief of Air Staff for Research and Development, General Curtis LeMay, expressed the desire for a cruise speed of 400 miles per hour (345 kn, 645 km/h), to which Boeing responded with a 300,000 pound (140,000 kg) aircraft.^ Speed: 650 miles per hour (Mach 0.86) .
  • B-52 / Current Aircraft of the United States Air Force - USAF.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.usaf.com [Source type: Reference]
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Strategic Nuclear Strike Bomber - Data Sheet 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.jeromegoolsby.net [Source type: Reference]
  • B-52 Stratofortress 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC usmilitary.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had to cruise at 300 Miles per hour (240 kn, 480 km/h) at 34,000 feet (10,400 m) with a combat radius of 5,000 statute miles (4,300 nmi, 8,000 km).
  • Modern aviation -Allpics4u 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.allpics4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Schwartz is the Air Force chief of staff.
  • Remains of B-52 aircrew laid to rest at Arlington 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sg.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In December 1946, Boeing was asked to change their design to a four-engine bomber with a top speed of 400 miles per hour, range of 12,000 miles (10,000 nmi, 19,000 km), and the ability to carry a nuclear weapon.^ B-52 bombers loaded with SRAMs carry 12 SRAMs and four bombs.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speed: 650 miles per hour (Mach 0.86) .
  • B-52 / Current Aircraft of the United States Air Force - USAF.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.usaf.com [Source type: Reference]
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Strategic Nuclear Strike Bomber - Data Sheet 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.jeromegoolsby.net [Source type: Reference]
  • B-52 Stratofortress 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC usmilitary.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all B-29 Boeing bombers were modified to carry nuclear weapons.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aircraft could weigh up to 480,000 pounds (220,000 kg).^ Each engine up to 17,000 pounds .
  • B-52 Stratofortress | U.S. Nuclear Forces | atomicarchive.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.atomicarchive.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 1,000 pounds of bombs were dropped for each resident, man, woman and child in Vietnam (that is by all aircraft of all US services.
  • Questions about b 52 Bomber - Ask.com 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ The supersonic, variable-wing B-1 bomber is able to carry more armament (up to 52,160 kg/115,000 lb) than any other combat aircraft.
  • B-1 Bomber:Kids Encyclopedia:B-1 Bomber pictures,Aviations Encyclopedia,B-1 Bomber Fact sheet,B-1 Bomber Images-Aviations,B-1 Bomber Scientific Names, B-1 Bomber Classifications of B-1 Bomber Wiki FactSheet, B-1 Bomber, B-1 Bomber supersonic plane, variable-wing B-1 bomber, B-1 Bomber combat aircraft, replace the B-52 as the primary nuclear bomber of the United States, supersonic flight, subsonic flight, low-altitude penetration capability, high-altitude penetration, supersonic, variable-wing B-1 bomber, combat aircraft, replace the B-52 as the primary nuclear bomber of the United States, supersonic flight, Brief Summary of B-1 Bomber, B-1 Bomber Class Notes 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.4to40.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Boeing responded with two models powered by the T-35 turboprops.^ Boeing Turboprop powered bomber concepts.
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developing the Model 462, a straight-wing bomber powered by six turboprops, Boeing was able to win the competition despite the fact that the aircraft's range fell short of the specifications.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Boeing company responded with a design with the company designation of "Model 462", which looked something like a scaled-up B-29 Superfortress with six Wright T35 Typhoon turboprop engines, providing 4,100 kW (5,500 SHP) each.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Air-Attack.com :: B-52H Stratofortress Factsheet 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.air-attack.com [Source type: General]

.The Model 464-16 was a "nuclear-only" bomber with a 10,000 pound (4,500 kg) payload, while the Model 464-17 was a general purpose bomber with a 90,000 pound (40,000 kg) payload.^ Consequently, the Model 464-17 was shelved.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the external payload remained at 24× 500 pound or 750 pound bombs, the internal capacity increased from 27 to 84× 500 pound bombs or from 27 to 42× 750 pound bombs.
  • Chanute Air Museum 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aeromuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each wing could now support a GAM-77 Hound Dog, the first Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM), which often held a nuclear warhead and weighed about 10,000 pounds (4,536 kilograms) each.

.Due to the cost associated with purchasing two specialized aircraft, the Air Force selected Model 464-17 with the understanding that it could be adapted for nuclear strikes.^ Consequently, the Model 464-17 was shelved.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Air Force aircraft models.
  • US Air Force aircraft models. Motion Models Ready to display models 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.motionmodels.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Air Force’s nuclear enterprise.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.In June 1947, the military requirements were updated and the Model 464-17 met all of them except for the range.^ Apart from the range, the Model 464-17 appeared to meet the requirements.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, the Model 464-17 was shelved.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All B-52's excepting the D model with the ‘Big Belly Conversion' carry the same internal conventional weapons load of three clips of nine weapons each.

.It was becoming obvious to the Air Force that, even with the updated performance, the XB-52 would be obsolete by the time it entered production and would offer little improvement over the Convair B-36.^ Even in that the Air Force seeks flexibility.
  • Air Force's Next-Gen Bomber Will Be More Spy Plane Than Strike Aircraft | Popular Science 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]
  • Air Force's Next-Gen Bomber Will Be More Spy Plane Than Strike Aircraft | Popular Science 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ The Air Force's last crash involving a B-52 was also to perform for spectators.
  • No survivors in B-52 bomber crash off Guam - Military- msnbc.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ On June 29, 1955, the first production-quality B-52 bomber entered service with the 93rd Heavy Bombardment Wing at Castle Air Force Base (AFB) near Atwater, California.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

.As a result, the entire project was put on hold for six months.^ While the project was put on hold, Boeing continued to refine their latest design.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although this did not hold him back from the top secret and project clearance for the U-2, it held him back for nearly six months for Senior Bowl until it was finally all cleared up.
  • D-21B & Senior Bowl 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC blackbirds.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this time, Boeing continued to perfect the design which resulted in the Model 464-29 with a top speed of 455 miles per hour (395 kn, 730 km/h) and a 5,000-mile range.^ The Model 464-49 was the result.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boeing Model 462, Boeing 464-29 and Boeing 464-35 .
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speed: 650 miles per hour (Mach 0.86) .
  • B-52 / Current Aircraft of the United States Air Force - USAF.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.usaf.com [Source type: Reference]
  • B-52 Stratofortress 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC usmilitary.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .In September 1947, the Heavy Bombardment Committee was convened to ascertain performance requirements for a nuclear bomber.^ The continuous hovering of America’s heavy bomber aircraft, B-52 – capable of carrying nuclear and conventional weapons – has caused panic among residents of Pakistan’s Tribal Areas.
  • Hovering American B-52 warplanes cause panic in Pak’s tribal areas | Top News 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.topnews.in [Source type: General]

^ The US Air Combat Command’s B-52 is a long-range, heavy bomber that can perform a variety of missions.
  • Hovering American B-52 warplanes cause panic in Pak’s tribal areas | Top News 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.topnews.in [Source type: General]

^ That September, the Heavy Bombardment Committee issued new performance requirements demanding 500 mph and an 8,000-mile range, both of which were far beyond Boeing's latest design.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Formalized on 8 December 1947, these called for a top speed of 500 miles per hour (440 kn, 800 km/h) and an 8,000 mile (7,000 nmi, 13,000 km) range, far beyond the capabilities of 464-29.[18]
.The outright cancellation of the Boeing contract on 11 December 1947 was staved off by a plea from its president William McPherson Allen,[19] and in January 1948 Boeing was instructed to thoroughly explore recent technological innovations, including aerial refueling and the flying wing.^ Lobbying hard, the president of Boeing, William McPherson Allen, was able to prevent their contract from being terminated.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 11, 1947, the Air Materiel Command had actually been directed to cancel the Boeing contract, but a protest from Boeing chairman William M. Allen persuaded Secretary of the Air Force Stuart Symington to grant a stay of execution.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After cancelling several concepts Boeing worked on, the Air Force was beginning to want better performance, and was also very interested in Northrop's flying wing bombers, which appeared to be the way of the future at the time.
  • Air-Attack.com :: B-52H Stratofortress Factsheet 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.air-attack.com [Source type: General]

.Noting stability and control problems Northrop was experiencing with their YB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bombers, Boeing insisted on a conventional aircraft, and in April 1948 presented a US$30 million (1948 dollars) proposal for design, construction, and testing of two Model 464-35 prototypes.^ Boeing B-52 bomber evolution from Boeing 464-49 to Boeing B-52A .
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ YB-49 Flying Jet Wing .
  • US Air Force aircraft models. Motion Models Ready to display models 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.motionmodels.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Boeing-727 prototype This section details the design, construction .
  • Boeing | StartPage UK - Free URL submission 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC boeing.page.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Further revisions of specifications during 1948 resulted in an aircraft with a top speed of 513 miles per hour (445 kn, 825 km/h) at 35,000 feet (10,700 m), a range of 6,909 miles (6,005 nmi, 11,125 km), and a 280,000 pounds (125,000 kg) gross weight which included 10,000 pounds (4500 kg) of bombs and 19,875 US gallons (75,225 L) of fuel.^ Gross weight was estimated at 330,000 pounds.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maximum range was 11,635 miles.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top speed was estimated at 440 mph at 35,000 feet.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Pre-production

XB-52 Prototype on flight line (X-4 in foreground)
Side view of YB-52 bomber, with bubble canopy similar to that of the B-47
.In May 1948 AMC asked Boeing to incorporate the previously discarded, but now more fuel-efficient, jet engine into the design.^ In May of 1948, the USAF asked Boeing to explore the possibility of switching to jet engines for the B-52.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More recent strategic bombers like the Rockwell International (now Boeing) B-1B Lancer bomber, Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack and the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit bomber incorporate stealth features in their design in an effort to avoid detection.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress long-range, jet strategic bomber may be over 50 years old but because of its design the aircraft still has the longest range of any bomber and carries a heavy strategic or tactical weapons load.

.This resulted in Boeing developing yet another revision — in July 1948, Model 464-40 substituted Westinghouse J40 turbojets for the turboprops.^ The result was the Model 464-35, which first appeared in January 1948.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boeing Model 464 .

^ The Model 464-49 was the result.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Nevertheless, on 21 October 1948, Boeing was told to create an entirely new aircraft using Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojets.^ After swapping out turboprops for jets on their Model 464-40, Boeing was ordered to design a completely new aircraft utilizing the Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet on October 21, 1948.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It lacked the right inboard engine nacelle becuse it had been used as the testbed for the Pratt & Whitney JT-9D engine for the 747.
  • Goleta Air and Space Museum: B-52 Stratofortress - Retired 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.air-and-space.com [Source type: General]

^ B-52F , the aircraft was given J57-P-43W engines with a larger capacity water injection system and new alternators.
  • Boeing B-52 - wiki.flightgear.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC wiki.flightgear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 25 October, Boeing engineers produced a proposal and a hand-carved model of 464-49.[22] The new design built upon the basic layout of the B-47 Stratojet with 35° swept wings, eight engines paired in four underwing pods, and bicycle landing gear with wingtip outrigger wheels.^ The Model 464-49 was the result.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interchangeable landing gear with rotating wheels.
  • B-52H Stratofortress, USAF SAC 7th BW, 1990, US33508 Fantastic Flyers 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC www.fantasticflyers.com [Source type: General]

^ Boeing Model 462, Boeing 464-29 and Boeing 464-35 .
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A notable feature of the landing gear was the ability to pivot the main landing gear up to 20° from the aircraft centerline to increase safety during crosswind landings.^ Left main landing gear .
  • National Museum of the US Air Force 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.craigcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Night vision goggles provide greater safety during night operations by increasing the pilot's ability to visually clear terrain and avoid enemy radar.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress aircraft 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC military.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Night vision goggles provide greater safety during night operations by increasing the pilot's ability to visually clear terrain, avoid enemy radar and see other aircraft in a covert/lights-out environment.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet: B-52 STRATOFORTRESS: Special Aviation Features: Wings Over Kansas 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wingsoverkansas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] The aircraft was projected to exceed all design specifications.[24] .Although the full-size mock-up inspection in April 1949 was generally favorable, range again became a concern since the J40s and the early model J57s had excessive fuel consumption.^ During testing, concerns arose regarding the fuel consumption of the engines, however the commander of the Strategic Air Command, General Curtis LeMay insisted the program move forward.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Cold War B-52 Stratofortress Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC militaryhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although jet propulsion had already been adopted for the smaller B-45 and B-47 then under development, the high fuel consumption associated with jet engines ruled against their use in long-range aircraft.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November 1949, convinced that the inadequate range of the Model 464-49 could seriously jeopardize the future of the entire project, Boeing undertook an effort to improve the range.
  • Origin of the B-52 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite talk of another revision of specifications or even a full design competition among aircraft manufacturers, General LeMay, now in charge of Strategic Air Command, insisted that performance should not be compromised due to delays in engine development.^ Air Research and Development Command and Air Materiel Command had been insisting for months that the aircraft should be perfected before delivery.

^ He was due to be re-assigned to Washington and most likely another star; sadly, he went down on his final mission as The Task Force Commander, sitting in the jump seat, due to a mid-air collision.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first B-52As were delivered to the Strategic Air Command in 1954 where they became the primary airplane of the command.

[25] .In a final attempt to increase the range, Boeing created the larger 464-67, stating that once in production, the range could be further increased in subsequent modifications.^ English: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force .
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Wikimedia Commons 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Jump to: navigation , search English: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force .
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Wikimedia Commons 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered, strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1955.
  • Chanute Air Museum 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aeromuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boeing B-52 - wiki.flightgear.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC wiki.flightgear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pix2mail.cOm | Beautiful Pictures Around the World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.pix2mail.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Following several direct interventions by LeMay,[27] on 14 February 1951 Boeing was awarded a production contract for 13 B-52As and 17 detachable reconnaissance pods.^ Eventually, Boeing was awarded a proposal in 1951, for 13 B-52A aircraft.
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It still took over a year to get a commitment to the Boeing machine, with Boeing finally awarded a contract for 13 "B-52As" on 14 February 1951.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It still took over a year to get commitment to the Boeing machine, with Boeing finally awarded a contract for 13 "B-52As" on 14 February 1951.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .The last major design change, also at the insistence of General LeMay, was a switch from the B-47 style tandem seating to a more conventional side-by-side cockpit which increased the effectiveness of the copilot and reduced crew fatigue.^ The bubble canopy and tandem seating was replaced by a side-by-side arrangement and a 21 inch (53 cm) nose extension accommodated more avionics and a new 6th crew member.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The re-winging effort was conducted more or less in parallel with a more general program of structural reinforcements for most of the B-52 fleet under the designation "High Stress".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part two 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Air-Attack.com :: B-52H Stratofortress Factsheet 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.air-attack.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result of the investigation, numerous changes were adopted in both the ejection procedure, and in the design of the ejection seats themselves.
  • GCTZTE B-52: The Lost Bomber (Multi-cache) in Minnesota, United States created by bflentje 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Both XB-52 prototypes featured the original tandem seating arrangement with a framed bubble-type canopy.^ XB-52 - The first B-52 prototype.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bubble canopy and tandem seating was replaced by a side-by-side arrangement and a 21 inch (53 cm) nose extension accommodated more avionics and a new 6th crew member.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the most striking features of the B-52, and one that is rarely represented in models, is the wrinkles in the fuselage, both forward of the wingroot and aft of the trailing edge.
  • B-52H "Cajun Fear" by Adrian Davies (AMT 1/72) 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC hsfeatures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.The YB-52, the second XB-52 modified with more operational equipment, first flew on 15 April 1952,[31][Notes 1] a 2 hour 21 minute flight from Renton Field in Renton, Washington to Larson AFB with Boeing test pilot Alvin M. Johnston and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend.^ The YB-52 was rolled out on 15 March 1952 and actually performed the first flight, on 15 April 1952, with Boeing test pilot A.M. "Tex" Johnson and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend at the controls.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ YB-52 - The second prototype.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first B-52 was assembled in late 1951 and first flew in April 1952.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33] .The XB-52 followed on 2 October 1952. The thorough development,[34] including 670 days in the wind tunnel and 130 days of aerodynamic and aeroelastic testing, paid off with smooth flight testing.^ The XB-52 eventually flew for the first time on October 2 1952 .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Characteristics of the intensive B-52 development were 670 days of testing in the Boeing wind tunnel, supplemented by 130 days of aerodynamic and aeroelastic testing in other facilities.

^ The first B-52 lifted off April 15, 1952, for a test flight.
  • USATODAY.com - B-52 still 'BUFF' at 50 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Encouraged, the Air Force increased its order to 282 B-52s.^ The air force ordered more B-52s.

^ The Air Force has their marching orders.

^ Although the B-52 was the only U.S. Air Force aircraft actively participating in this exercise, without another unit deployed to Andersen Air Force Base, the participation of the B-52s would not have been possible.
  • Deployed Warbirds participate in Australian Aces North exercise 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.minot.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]

First production

.Only three of the 13 B-52As ordered were built.^ The two initial prototypes were followed by three B-52A evaluation aircraft, the initial order for 13 having been changed, with the other 10 to be operational "B-52Bs".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52 A Only three of first production version, the B-52A, were built, all loaned to Boeing for flight testing.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

.All were returned to Boeing, and used in their test program.^ This Stratofortress had been intended for use as the launch plane for glide flight tests of the X-20 Dyna-Soar program.
  • Goleta Air and Space Museum: B-52 Stratofortress - Sixties and Seventies 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.air-and-space.com [Source type: General]

^ All individuals working with nuclear weapons must meet very strict security standards and be tested for loyalty -- this is known as a "Personnel Reliability Program."

^ B-52 A Only three of first production version, the B-52A, were built, all loaned to Boeing for flight testing.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

[36] .On 9 June 1952 the February 1951 contract was updated to order the aircraft under new specifications.^ The aircraft were ordered under 4 separate contracts.

^ It still took over a year to get a commitment to the Boeing machine, with Boeing finally awarded a contract for 13 "B-52As" on 14 February 1951.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As early as February 1965, the Secretary of Defense indicated an interest in a new ballistic short-range attack missile as a means of reducing aircraft exposure.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final 10, the first aircraft to enter active service, were completed as B-52Bs.^ The first generation F-5A Freedom Fighter entered service in the 1960s.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Entering service in 1958 (the first operational version was manufactured in 1/58), the W-28 remained in service until 1990 (last one dismantled 9/91).

^ B-52Bs completed the first non-stop round-the-world flight by jet aircraft, lasting 45 hours and 19 minutes and requiring only three aerial refuelings.

[36] At the roll out ceremony on 18 March 1954, Air Force Chief of Staff, General Twining said:
The long rifle was the great weapon of its day. ...Today this .B-52 is the long rifle of the air age.^ English: The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force .
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Wikimedia Commons 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ B52 Mission Air Combat Command's B-52 is a long-range, heavy bomber that can perform a variety of missions.
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Air Combat Command's B-52 is a long-range, heavy bomber that can perform a variety of missions.
  • Air Power:The B-52 Bomber 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.centennialofflight.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Stratofortress Factsheet 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.gruntsmilitary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boeing B52 | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Design

Upgrades and modifications

.In November 1959, SAC initiated the Big Four modification program (also known as Modification 1000) for all operational B-52s except early B models.^ The B-52 Combat Network Communications Technology (CONECT) program is now in an initial phase at the Wichita Development and Modification Center .
  • Boeing B-52 with CONECT Upgrade Accomplishes 1st Test Flight 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52G entered service 13 February 1959 (a day earlier, the last B-36 was retired, making SAC an all-jet bomber force).
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All B-52's excepting the D model with the ‘Big Belly Conversion' carry the same internal conventional weapons load of three clips of nine weapons each.

The program was completed by 1963.[38] The four modifications were:
.
  1. Ability to perform all-weather, low-altitude (below 500 feet or 150 m) interdiction as a response to advancements in Soviet Union's missile defenses.^ To begin with, all B-52s, except for the early B-52Bs, would have to be capable of penetrating enemy defenses at an altitude of 500 feet or lower, in any kind of weather, and without impairing the bomber's inherent high speed at high altitude.

    ^ The aircraft's three major defensive systems all needed upgrades or replacement due to performance, reliability, and supportability issues.
    • Federation of American Scientists :: B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Low-altitude altimeters also had to be acquired, and each aircraft had to be equipped to carry its newly allocated missiles.

    The low-altitude flights were estimated to accelerate structural fatigue by at least a factor of eight, requiring costly repairs to extend service life.
  2. Ability to launch AGM-28 Hound Dog standoff nuclear missiles
  3. Ability to launch ADM-20 Quail decoys
  4. An advanced electronic countermeasures (ECM) suite
.The ability to carry up to 20 AGM-69 SRAM nuclear missiles was added to G and H models starting in 1971.[39] Fuel leaks due to deteriorating Marman clamps continued to plague all variants of the B-52. To this end, the aircraft were subjected to Blue Band (1957), Hard Shell (1958), and finally QuickClip (1958) programs.^ Both missiles carried nuclear warheads.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These Superfortresses were also later cleared to use 20 x AGM-69 SRAM nuclear missiles beginning in 1971.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The H model can carry up to 20 air launched cruise missiles.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • B52 Bomber (B-52 Stratofortress) 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B-52 Stratofortress Factsheet 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.gruntsmilitary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boeing B52 | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter fitted safety straps which prevented catastrophic loss of fuel in case of clamp failure.^ While nothing diminishes the loss of all involved, it is indeed a clear cut case of pilot error, and could have been prevented had the Wing leadership actually acted.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

[40]
.Ongoing problems with advanced avionics were addressed in the Jolly Well program, completed in 1964, which improved components of the AN/ASQ-38 bombing navigational computer and the terrain computer.^ In a program known as Jolly Well , major components of the AN/ASQ-38 bomb/navigation system originally fitted to the B-52E to H models were modified.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This required new navigation and bombing avionics .
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the spring of 1964, bomb wings designated as having a contingency mission began an extensive testing program to verify and improve their ability to deliver conventional munitions.
  • Counterinsurgency From 30,00 Feet-the B-52 in Vietnam 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The MADREC (Malfunction Detection and Recording) upgrade fitted to most aircraft by 1965 could detect failures in avionics and weapons computer systems, and was essential in monitoring the Hound Dog missiles.^ Each wing could now support a GAM-77 Hound Dog, the first Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM), which often held a nuclear warhead and weighed about 10,000 pounds (4,536 kilograms) each.

^ The same specialists a also are discussing the joint use of B-52 bombers as a platform for antiship weapon systems and E-3A AWACS long-range radar surveillance and control aircraft, which surpasses the B-52 by at least fivefold in the capability of detecting targets.

^ Named the Hound Dog, the AGM-28 missile could fly at altitudes from 500 to 60,000 feet at speeds above Mach 2.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The electronic countermeasures capability of the B-52 was expanded with Rivet Rambler (1971) and Rivet Ace (1973).^ The B-52's electronic countermeasures suite is capable of protecting itself against a full range of air defense threat systems by using a combination of electronic detection, jamming and infrared countermeasures.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ SAC's fourth requirement was to add an AN/ALQ-27 electronic countermeasure (ECM) system in every modified B-52.

^ The Phase VI ECM Defensive Avionics Systems (ECP2519) was an upgrade program designed to improve the electronic countermeasures capabilities of the B-52H fleet.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.To improve safe day and night operations at low altitude, the AN/ASQ-151 Electro-Optical Viewing System (EVS), consisting of a Low Light Level Television (LLLTV) and a Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) system mounted in blisters under the noses of B-52Gs and Hs between 1972 and 1976.[42] To further improve the B-52's offensive ability, it was fitted with Air Launched Cruise Missiles (ALCMs).^ Conventional air-launched cruise missile .
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most visible updates to the B-52 was the "ASQ-151 Electro-Optical Viewing System (EVS)", referred to as "Evs", which provided the Buff with sensors for low-level flight operations.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AN/AVQ-22 Low-light TV Electro-optical viewing system .
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

.After testing of both the Air Force backed Boeing AGM-86 and the Navy backed General Dynamics AGM-109 Tomahawk, the AGM-86B was selected for operation by the B-52 (and ultimately by the B-1 Lancer).^ The new unit will be the fourth operational B-52 squadron in the Air Force.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should the Air Force bomb the Navy?
  • Should the Air Force bomb the Navy? (the food-rule) 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The YB-52 was rolled out on 15 March 1952 and actually performed the first flight, on 15 April 1952, with Boeing test pilot A.M. "Tex" Johnson and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend at the controls.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A total of 194 B-52Gs and Hs were modified to carry AGM-86s, carrying 12 missiles on underwing pylons, with 82 B-52Hs further modified to carry another eight missiles on a rotary launcher fitted in the aircraft's bomb-bay.^ Eight SRAMs were carried internally on a special rotary launcher in the aft bomb bay, and 12 SRAMs were mounted on wing pylons with 6 missiles under each wing.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shorter variety of underwing pylon is only compatible with aircraft that were not modified to carry ALCMs.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bomb bay is big enough that it is fitted with rotary launchers that can carry eight cruise missiles.
  • Fresh Start 2002: Nonstop Flight | Page 3 | Fast Company 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: General]

.To conform with the requirements of the SALT II Treaty for cruise missile capable aircraft to be readily identified by reconnaissance satellites, the cruise missile armed B-52Gs were modified with a distinctive wing root fairing.^ This would give Britain the capability to send missile-​​armed planes to trouble spots far more quickly than ships could be deployed.
  • Not your father’s B-​​52 | Defense Tech 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC defensetech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, with no research projects requiring its capabilities on the horizon under NASA's restructured aeronautics research programs, the decision was made to return the aircraft to the Air Force.
  • NASA Dryden B-52 Photo Collection 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.dfrc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Air Force left them in the open so that Soviet / Russian spy satellites could see them sitting there, to show their complaince with the SALT II treaty.
  • Photos: Boeing B-52... Stratofortress Aircraft Pictures | Airliners.net 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.airliners.net [Source type: General]

.As all B-52Hs were assumed to be modified, no visual modification of these aircraft was required.^ Then you will set the flaps at maximum (the B-52 requires a full flaps down setting for take-off, when loaded as heavy as these FS aircraft are).
  • AVSIM B-52 Review 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This permitted instantaneous ignition of all eight engines and greatly reduced the amount of time required before the aircraft could get rolling.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only 50 of these missiles were actually deployed, all in modified Minuteman silos at F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming.
  • United States Arsenal 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .In 1990, the stealthy AGM-129 ACM cruise missile entered service.^ Entering service in 1958 (the first operational version was manufactured in 1/58), the W-28 remained in service until 1990 (last one dismantled 9/91).

^ The B-2 payload capacity is 16 nuclear gravity bombs (B53, B61, B83), short-range attack missiles (AGM-69 SRAM, though these missiles were recently eliminated) or advanced cruise missiles (AGM-129 ACM, although only the B-52Hs are planned to carry the ACM).
  • United States Arsenal 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AS-X-19 Koala was touted as a supersonic, long-range, stealthy cruise missile.
  • United States Arsenal 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although originally intended to replace the AGM-86 its high cost and the end of the Cold War stopped production after only 450 were made.^ Once the Cold War came to an end, the nuclear deterrent duties of the B-52 became less critical and the fleet was adapted to a more conventional role.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War-era deterrence missions, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36.
  • Boeing B52 | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally intended to fly high and fast to targets in the Soviet Union, improvements in the Soviet integrated air defense system made such a flight path suicidal, except when firing long-range air-to-surface missiles .
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike the AGM-86, no conventional (that is, non-nuclear) armed version was built.^ US Strategic Air Command FB-111A aircraft carried nuclear armed AGM-69 SRAM defence suppression missiles in the internal weapon bay, which all F-111s were built with.

^ Although built for the role of Cold War -era nuclear deterrent, its conventional capabilities are nowadays more important.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eighty percent of the total inventory of nuclear armed Hound Dog (AGM-28B) air-to-surface missiles are force loadings.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
B-52H (61-023), configured at the time as a testbed to investigate structural failures, still flying after its vertical stabilizer sheared off in severe turbulence on 10 January 1964. The aircraft eventually landed safely and remained in service until 2008
.Structural fatigue, exacerbated by the change to low-altitude missions, was first dealt with in the early 1960s by the three-phase High Stress program which enrolled aircraft at 2,000 flying hours.^ The Phase I High Stress fixes were scheduled when the aircraft approached 2,000 flying hours; (Phase I counted 9 fixes.

^ Structural fatigue, exacerbated by the change to low-altitude missions, was first dealt with in the early 1960s by the three-phase High Stress program which enrolled aircraft at 2,000 flying hours.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Page 2 - Desert-Conflict.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC desert-conflict.org [Source type: General]

^ The re-winging effort was conducted more or less in parallel with a more general program of structural reinforcements for most of the B-52 fleet under the designation "High Stress".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Air-Attack.com :: B-52H Stratofortress Factsheet 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.air-attack.com [Source type: General]

[45] .This was followed by a 2,000-hour service life extension to select airframes in 1966-1968, and the extensive Pacer Plank reskinning completed in 1977.[46][47] The wet wing introduced on G and H models was even more susceptible to fatigue due to experiencing 60% more stress during flight than the old wing.^ This was followed by a 2,000-hour service life extension to select airframes in 1966-1968, and the extensive Pacer Plank reskinning completed in 1977.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Page 2 - Desert-Conflict.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC desert-conflict.org [Source type: General]

^ The wet wing introduced on G and H models was even more susceptible to fatigue due to experiencing 60% more stress during flight than the old wing.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Page 2 - Desert-Conflict.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC desert-conflict.org [Source type: General]

^ Structural fatigue, exacerbated by the change to low-altitude missions, was first dealt with in the early 1960s by the three-phase High Stress program which enrolled aircraft at 2,000 flying hours.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Page 2 - Desert-Conflict.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC desert-conflict.org [Source type: General]

.The wings were modified by 1964 under ECP 1050.^ The wings were modified by 1964 under ECP 1050 at a cost of US$219 million.
  • B-52 Stratofortress - Page 2 - Desert-Conflict.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC desert-conflict.org [Source type: General]

^ The B-52C and all subsequent models were modified to carry two AGM-28 missiles, one under each wing on large hard points.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] This was followed by a fuselage skin and longeron replacement (ECP 1185) in 1966, and B-52 Stability Augmentation and Flight Control program (ECP 1195) in 1967.[48]
.Boeing has suggested re-engining the B-52H fleet with the Rolls-Royce RB211 534E-4.^ Boeing has suggested re-engining of the B-52H fleet with the Rolls-Royce RB211 534E-4 .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Boeing's analysis demonstrated that the more fuel-efficient and reliable RB.211s would save billions of dollars over the expected further lifetime of the B-52H fleet.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proposals to re-engine the B-52H fleet have been under consideration since 1975.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This would involve replacing the eight Pratt & Whitney TF33s (total thrust 8 × 17,000 lb) with four RB211s (total thrust 4 × 37,400 lb).^ This would involve replacing the eight Pratt & Whitney TF33 s (total thrust 8 x 17,000 lb or 30.574 kN) with four RB211s (total thrust 4 x 37,400 lb or 33.191 kN).
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Four X-51A's have been built as part of a joint effort by the Air Force, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Boeing.
  • Mach 6 aircraft gets B-52 test ride | NetworkWorld.com Community 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.networkworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust.
  • Boeing B52 | Aircraft | New visitors.. 3 FREE downloadable cardmodels models when you open an account 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fiddlersgreen.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The RR engines will increase the range and payload of the fleet and reduce fuel consumption.^ The RR engines will increase the range/payload of the fleet and reduce fuel consumption.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although jet propulsion had already been adopted for the smaller B-45 and B-47 then under development, the high fuel consumption associated with jet engines ruled against their use in long-range aircraft.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original B-52 concept was to be powered by turboprops owing to their much lower fuel consumption when compared to early turbojet engines.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the cost of the project would be significant.^ However the cost of the project would be significant.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.Procurement would cost approximately US$2.56 billion (US$36 million × 71 aircraft).^ Procurement would cost approximately $2.56 billion ($36 million × 71 aircraft).
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The programs, however, cost taxpayers millions of dollars annually and have been responsible for numerous fatalities as well as the destruction of expensive aircraft.
  • HistoryLink.org- the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historylink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An astounded member of the US delegation said the bomber was not for sale but that it would cost at least $US500 million ($610.54 million) if it were to be sold on the spot.

.A Government Accountability Office study of the proposal concluded that Boeing's estimated savings of US$4.7 billion would not be realized and found that it would cost US$1.3 billion over keeping the existing engines.^ A General Accounting Office study of the proposal concluded that Boeing's estimated savings of $4.7 billion would not be realized.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They found that it would cost the Air Force $1.3 billion over keeping the existing engines.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As approved by the Office of the Secretary of Defense on 30 November 1972, the modification, identified as engineering change proposal (ECP) 1581, promised to be extensive.

[49] The higher cost was blamed on significant up-front procurement expenditure, necessary re-tooling, and the RB211's higher maintenance cost. .The GAO report was subsequently disputed in a Defense Sciences Board report in 2003[50] and revised in 2004 that identified numerous errors in the prior evaluation of the Boeing proposal, and urged the Air Force to re-engine the aircraft without delay.^ I'm doing a report on this aircraft, and I can't understand what the engine is.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, the Air Force rejected 31 of the first 78 B-52s that Boeing built, grounding its entire Stratofortress fleet on several occasions.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ For years, B-52 crews have conducted reconnaissance flights identifying various Soviet merchant ships in an Air Force reconnaissance mission called Busy Observer.

Further, the DSB report stated the program would save substantial funds, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and increase aircraft range and endurance, duplicating the results of a Congressionally funded US$3M program office study conducted in 2003.[51] However, the re-engining has not been approved as of 2009.
Lower deck of the B-52 dubbed the battle station
.In 2007 the LITENING targeting pod was fitted and commissioned increasing the combat effectiveness of the aircraft during day, night and under-the-weather conditions in the attack of ground targets with a variety of standoff weapons under the guidance of lasers and the help of high resolution forward-looking infrared sensor (FLIR) for visual display in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and charged coupled device (CCD-TV) camera used to obtain target imagery in the visible portion, this technology could also be used in real-time transmission to ground communications networks and government agencies to gather battlefield intelligence, assess battlefield damage, assess terrorist activities and counter drug activity, further advancing the B-52H's capabilities and uses.^ The aircraft was used for ground attack within South Vietnam.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking forward from under right wing .
  • National Museum of the US Air Force 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.craigcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern B-52's (B-52H models) operate an electro-optical, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor paired with high-resolution, low-light-level television in targeting and battle assessing for low- and high-level operations.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

Fuel research platform

.In September 2006, the B-52 became one of the first US military aircraft to fly using 'alternative' fuel.^ B-52 flies unlike other aircraft.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternate fuel-powered B-52 to fly in September .

^ With the retirement of the EF-111 Raven in 1998 and the F-14 Tomcat in 2006, the B-1B is the last swing wing aircraft remaining in the US inventory.
  • B-1 Bomber:Kids Encyclopedia:B-1 Bomber pictures,Aviations Encyclopedia,B-1 Bomber Fact sheet,B-1 Bomber Images-Aviations,B-1 Bomber Scientific Names, B-1 Bomber Classifications of B-1 Bomber Wiki FactSheet, B-1 Bomber, B-1 Bomber supersonic plane, variable-wing B-1 bomber, B-1 Bomber combat aircraft, replace the B-52 as the primary nuclear bomber of the United States, supersonic flight, subsonic flight, low-altitude penetration capability, high-altitude penetration, supersonic, variable-wing B-1 bomber, combat aircraft, replace the B-52 as the primary nuclear bomber of the United States, supersonic flight, Brief Summary of B-1 Bomber, B-1 Bomber Class Notes 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.4to40.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Syntroleum Corporation, a leader in Fischer-Tropsch process (FT) technology, announced that its Ultra-Clean jet fuel was successfully tested in a B-52. It took off from Edwards Air Force Base with a 50/50 blend of FT and traditional JP-8 jet fuel which was burned in two of the eight engines on the aircraft.^ Minot Air Force Base to activate new B-52 squadron .

^ It was a B-52 bomber that crashed after taking off from Mather Air Force Base.
  • B-52 Stratofortress Jet Bombers, Videos, DVD Movies. 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC yellowairplane.com [Source type: General]

^ The tests began in September, first using a 50-50 mixture of regular jet fuel and synthetic fuel in just two of the aircraft's eight engines.

.This marked the first time that FT jet fuel was tested in a military flight demo, and is the first of several planned test flights.^ The incident was first reported by Military Times newspaper group.
  • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

^ The tests began in September, first using a 50-50 mixture of regular jet fuel and synthetic fuel in just two of the aircraft's eight engines.

^ The flight is the latest in a series to validate that synthetic fuels can be used safely in military aircraft.

[53]
.On 15 December 2006, tail number 61-0034, Checkmate took off from Edwards with the synthetic fuel blend powering all eight engines, the first time an Air Force aircraft was completely powered by the mixture.^ Its engines are as powerful as eight locomotives.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Air Force using B-52s to test synthetic aviation fuel .

^ In June 1955 the Air Force took delivery of the first B-52.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The test flight was captained by Major General Curtis Bedke, commander of the Edwards Flight Test Center, the first time in 36 years that the installation's commander performed a first flight in a flight test program.^ The YB-52 was rolled out on 15 March 1952 and actually performed the first flight, on 15 April 1952, with Boeing test pilot A.M. "Tex" Johnson and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend at the controls.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Called before Congress, SAC commander General Curtis LeMay testified that a "serious component failure" with an alternator flywheel had caused the crash.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ (Credit: USAF) The X-51A WaveRider is one step closer to its inaugural test flight later this year, now that airmen at Edwards Air Force Base have successfully "mated" the scramjet-propelled vehicle to a B-52 Stratofortress.
  • Legacy B-52 to launch futuristic WaveRider | Military Tech - CNET News 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flight lasted seven hours, reached an altitude of 48,000 feet, and was considered a success.^ Then, on November 27, 1956, a series of B-52 bombers landed in Baltimore after completing eight non-stop polar flights, the longest of which lasted 32.5 hours and covered 17,000 miles non-stop.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ In a follow-up piece, the Journal reported that the ScanEagle “can stay aloft for 24 hours and carries electro-optical and infrared cameras up to an altitude of 16,000 feet.” .
  • Hackable Drones, Crumbling Empire « The Global Realm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC theglobalrealm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dissident Voice : Hackable Drones, Crumbling Empire 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By June 1990 the Sharpshooters had graduated over 150 Hornet aircrew, amassed over 28,000 F/A-18 A, B, C and D flight hours.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.On 8 August 2007, Air Force Secretary Michael Wynne certified the B-52H as fully approved to use the FT blend, marking the formal conclusion of the test program.^ Air Force using B-52s to test synthetic aviation fuel .

^ B-52H NASA obtained a B-52H bomber from the U.S. Air Force in 2001, intending to use the aircraft as an air-launch and testbed aircraft to support NASA, Air Force and industry flight research and advanced technology demonstration efforts at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, Calif.
  • NASA Dryden B-52 Photo Collection 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.dfrc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Air Force asked and received permission from Congress to reprogram the $4.5M FY 96 Congressional plus-up for AGM-130 integration on the B-52, into the B-61 Mod 11 Flight Test program.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

[54]
.This program is part of the Department of Defense Assured Fuel Initiative, an effort to develop secure domestic sources for the military energy needs.^ The six men were deployed to Guam with the 20th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron as part of the U.S. Department of Defenses continuous bomber presence mission in the Pacific.
  • Wilson County News - Top Stories - East Central graduate dies in B-52 crash 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wilsoncountynews.com [Source type: News]

^ The Times reports the B-52 was loaded with Advanced Cruise Missiles, part of a Defense Department effort to decommission 400 of the ACMs.

^ The B-52 was loaded with Advanced Cruise Missiles, part of a Defense Department effort to decommission 400 of the ACMs.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 accidentally loaded with nukes | Corrente 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.The Pentagon hopes to reduce its use of crude oil from foreign producers and obtain about half of its aviation fuel from alternative sources by 2016.[53] With the B-52 now approved to use the FT blend, the USAF will use the test protocols developed during the program to certify the C-17 Globemaster III and then the B-1B to use the fuel (the first B-1 test flight took place in March, 2008).^ Air Force using B-52s to test synthetic aviation fuel .

^ Pegasus mated to B-52 - First flight .
  • NASA Dryden B-52 Photo Collection 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.dfrc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ B-52 fleet certified to use synthetic fuel blend .

The Air Force intends to test and certify every airframe in its inventory to use the fuel by 2011.[54]

Costs

The costs are in approximate 1955 United States dollars and have not been adjusted for inflation.[55]
X/YB-52 B-52A B-52B B-52C B-52D B-52E B-52F B-52G B-52H
Unit R&D cost 100 million
Airframe 26,433,518 11,328,398 5,359,017 4,654,494 3,700,750 3,772,247 5,351,819 6,076,157
Engines 2,848,120 2,547,472 1,513,220 1,291,415 1,256,516 1,787,191 1,427,611 1,640,373
Electronics 50,761 61,198 71,397 68,613 54,933 60,111 66,374 61,020
Armament 47,874 482,284 293,346 548,353 931,665 862,839 840,000 1,501,422
Ordnance 9,193 11,520 10,983 17,928 4,626 3,016 6,809 6,804
Flyaway cost 28,380,000 14,430,000 7,240,000 6,580,000 5,940,000 6,480,000 7,690,000 9,290,000
Maintenance cost per flying hour 925 1,025 1,025 1,182

Operational history

Three B-52Bs of the 93rd Bomb Wing prepare to depart Castle AFB, California, for their record-setting round-the-world flight in 1957
.Although the B-52A was the first production variant, these aircraft were used only in testing.^ B-52A - The first production model.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the original batch of 13 aircraft, which would normally have carried a test prefix but were so costly and vital that they were regarded as likely to go straight into the active inventory, the first three were completed as B-52A's and the rest as B-52B's.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tests began in September, first using a 50-50 mixture of regular jet fuel and synthetic fuel in just two of the aircraft's eight engines.

.The first operational version was the B-52B which was developed in parallel with the prototypes since 1951. First flying in December 1954, B-52B, AF Serial Number 52-8711, entered operational service with 93rd Heavy Bombardment Wing at Castle Air Force Base, California, on 29 June 1955. The wing became operational on 12 March 1956. The training for B-52 crews consisted of five weeks of ground school and four weeks of flying, accumulating 35–50 hours in the air.^ On June 29, 1955, the first production-quality B-52 bomber entered service with the 93rd Heavy Bombardment Wing at Castle Air Force Base (AFB) near Atwater, California.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ The XB-52 became the first prototype constructed and this was followed by the YB-52.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An RB-52B was the first B-52 to go into formal operational service at Castle AFB, California, on 29 June 1955.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new B-52Bs replaced operational B-36s on a one-to-one basis.^ SAC had planned from the start that the B-52s would be integrated into B-36 units on a 1-for-1 replacement basis-with retired B-36s being salvaged.

[56][57]
.Early operations were complicated by lack of spares and ground facilities while ramps and taxiways deteriorated under the weight of the aircraft.^ Operations were complicated by a lack of spare parts and inadequate ground facilities, however.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ Ramps and runways groaned under the weight of the mammoth aircraft while leaks and icing plagued the fuel system.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, the failure of B-52 ramps and taxiways together with runway deterioration interfered with operations.

.The fuel system was prone to leaks and icing, and bombing and fire control computers were unreliable.^ Ramps and runways groaned under the weight of the mammoth aircraft while leaks and icing plagued the fuel system.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ I worked on the Fire Control System at Barksdale from 76 to 83.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were hampered by fuel leaks, icing of the fuel system, and malfunctions of the water injection pumps.

.The two-story cockpit presented a unique climate control problem – the pilots' cockpit was heated by sunlight while the observer and the navigator on the bottom deck sat on the ice cold floor.^ The ejection seat s for the lower-deck crewmembers, the Navigator and Radar Navigator, eject downwards from the bottom of the plane.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversely, if enough heat was turned on to keep the observer and navigator warm, the pilots became overheated.

^ The pilot and copilot sat side-by-side on the upper flight deck, with the pilot on the left.
  • Boeing B-52H Stratofortress 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, comfortable temperature setting for the pilots caused the other crew members to freeze, while comfortable temperature for the bottom crew caused the pilots to overheat.^ The crew was from Columbus AFB, MS. Other crew members were: Pilot, Maj.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had always assumed this person was the extra crew member, not the actual co-pilot, as mentioned in your article here.
  • Broken Arrow -- The B-52 Accident.................. - Thuleforum � 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.thuleforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It became known as Camp Hunziker; it protected crew from the other more immediate risk, that of freezing to death or wandering off in a white-out.
  • Broken Arrow -- The B-52 Accident.................. - Thuleforum � 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.thuleforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The J57 engines were still new and unreliable.^ Among other refinements, these Stratofortresses featured new Pratt & Whitney J57-P-43W series turbojet engines.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems included unfriendly flight characteristics when the machine was nearing a stall; inadequate brakes; and, in particular, poor reliability of the new J57 engines.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternator failure caused the first fatal B-52 crash in February 1956,[58][59] which resulted in a brief grounding of the fleet.^ In reply to # 10 Re: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber .
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ The Air Force surmised that the first fatal B-52 accident in February 1956 was caused by a faulty alternator.

^ Eventually, the Air Force rejected 31 of the first 78 B-52s that Boeing built, grounding its entire Stratofortress fleet on several occasions.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

.In July, fuel and hydraulic system problems again grounded the B-52s.^ The B-52Bs were again temporarily grounded in July, this time because of fuel system and hydraulic pack deficiencies.

.To avoid maintenance problems, the Air Force set up Sky Speed teams of 50 maintenance contractors at each B-52 base.^ Minot Air Force Base to activate new B-52 squadron .

^ And, before long, Sky Speed set up 1 contractor maintenance team of 50 people at every B-52 base.

^ To minimize maintenance problems, the USAF staffed Castle AFB with a Sky Speed team of 50 maintenance contractors.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to maintenance, the teams performed routine checkups which took one week per aircraft.^ Nevertheless, routine checks took as long as one week per aircraft.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

^ Having built several dioramas of aircraft undergoing maintenance, I decided to go one step further and provide a mirrored base and a larger subject.

^ B-29, B-36 and B-50 bombers continue to carry one bomb per aircraft.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.On 21 May 1956, a B-52B (52-0013) dropped its first live hydrogen bomb (a Mk-15) over the Bikini Atoll.^ It was the first time the B-52 dropped a live nuclear bomb.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52B was tested with atomic weapons on May 21st, 1956 - dropping a four megaton Mark 15 "Zombie" hydrogen bomb on the Bikini Atoll.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although a second B-52 crashed in the spring of 1956, the Stratofortress that dropped an H-bomb over Bikini Atoll on May 21, 1956 proved the aircraft's prowess.
  • CR4 - Blog Entry: February 16, 1956 – The First Fatal Crash of a B-52 Bomber 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC cr4.globalspec.com [Source type: General]

[61][57] .On 24–25 November 1956, four B-52Bs of the 93rd BW and four B-52Cs of the 42nd BW flew nonstop around the perimeter of North America in Operation Quick Kick, covering 15,530 miles (13,500 nm, 25,000 km) in 31 hours 30 minutes.^ On 24 and 25 November 1956, in a spectacular operation called Quick Kick, 4 B-52Bs of the 93d Wing joined 4 B-52Cs of the 42d Bomb Wing for a nonstop flight around the perimeter of North America.

^ T he ingenious ice and snow decontamination operation involved the use of disconnected, abandoned 25,000-gallon POL (petrol/oil/lubricants) tanks.
  • Broken Arrow -- The B-52 Accident.................. - Thuleforum � 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.thuleforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four have crashed, the most recent of which was on 30 November 1992 and one is considered a ground trainer, not part of Strategic Command's operational inventory.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.SAC noted that the flight time could have been reduced by 5–6 hours if the four inflight refuellings were done by fast jet-powered tanker aircraft rather than propeller-driven KC-97 Stratotankers.^ SAC promptly pointed out that the flight would have been impossible without 4 flight refuelings by KC-97 tankers.

^ KC-97 Stratotanker Model .

^ KC-135 Stratotanker in-Flight Refueling .

In a demonstration of the B-52s global reach, on 16–18 January 1957, three B-52Bs made a nonstop flight around the world during Operation .Power Flite, covering 24,325 miles (21,145 nm, 39,165 km) in 45 hours 19 minutes (536.8 smph) with several in-flight refuelings by KC-97s.^ KC-10 Extender in-Flight Refueling .

^ In 1957, a flight of three B-52Bs, with air refueling , circumnavigated the planet in 45 hours and 19 minutes.
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KC-135 Stratotanker in-Flight Refueling .

.The 93rd Bomb Wing received the Mackay Trophy for their accomplishment.^ A B-52H from the 2nd Bomb Wing backs out after receiving fuel from a KC-135 Stratotanker .
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part two 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Aeronautic Association subsequently recognized Operation Power Flite as the outstanding flight of 1957 and named the 93d Wing as recipient of the Mackay Trophy.

[62][58]
.The B-52 set many records over the next few years.^ That year, the B-52's reformed to record Bouncing Off the Satellites.
  • The B-52s < Video Playlist | Embedr 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC embedr.com [Source type: General]

^ The XB-52 set the basic pattern for all that followed, though there would be many detail variations in later machines.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 26 September 1958, a B-52D set a world speed record of 560.705 miles per hour (487 kn, 902 km/h) over a 10,000 kilometers (5,400 nm, 6,210 mi) closed circuit without a payload.^ A world air speed record was set on September 26th, 1958, in a B-52D reaching 560.705 miles per hour on a closed circuit covering 6,210 miles.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facility is located on a 16,000 acre (65 km²) site 17 miles (27 km) northeast of Amarillo, in Carson County, Texas.
  • B-52 accidentally loaded with nukes | Corrente 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: General]

^ As called for in 1945, the B-52 was to have an operating radius of 4,340 nautical miles, a speed of 260 knots at altitude of 43,000 feet, and a bombload capacity of 10,000 pounds.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same day, another B-52D established a world speed record of 597.675 miles per hour (519 kn, 962 km/h) over a 5,000 kilometer (2,700 nmi, 3,105 mi) closed circuit without a payload.^ The same day netted another air speed record of 597.675 miles per hour over a 3,105 mile course.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A world air speed record was set on September 26th, 1958, in a B-52D reaching 560.705 miles per hour on a closed circuit covering 6,210 miles.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One B-52D flew at 560.705 miles per hour for 10,000 kilometers in a closed circuit without payloads; the other, at 597.675 miles per hour for 5,000 kilometers, also in a closed circuit without payloads.

[46][63] .On 14 December 1960, a B-52G set a world record by flying unrefueled for 10,078.84 miles (8,762 nm, 16,227 km).^ On December 14th, 1960, a B-52G set a world air distance record by traveling 10,078.84 miles without refueling.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A world air speed record was set on September 26th, 1958, in a B-52D reaching 560.705 miles per hour on a closed circuit covering 6,210 miles.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dec 7, Boeing's Spectrolab Sets World Record in Solar Efficiency (Green Wombat ...

.The flight lasted 19 hours 44 minutes (510.75 mph).^ The flight lasted a little under three hours, with takeoff from Boeing Field in Seattle and landing at Moses Lake, in central Washington.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flight lasted a little under three hours, with takeoff from Boeing Field in Seattle and landing at Moses Lake, east over the mountains in central Washington state.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They performed a flight that lasted 35 hours and took them almost halfway around the world to launch 35 CALCMs and then go back home.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .On 10–11 January 1962, a B-52H set a world record by flying unrefuelled from Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan, to Torrejon Air Base, Spain, covering 12,532.28 miles (10,895 nmi, 20,177 km).^ This record was bested several years later on January 10th/11th, 1962, when a B-52H achieved 12,532.28 miles of unrefueled flight time in a journey from Japan to Spain.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The TF33s were also much more fuel-efficient, which meant the B-52H had about 20% greater range than the B-52G. The Air Force demonstrated the increased range of the B-52H when, on 10:11 January 1962, one of them flew from Kadena AFB on Okinawa to Torrejon AFB in Spain nonstop, unrefueled, a distance of 20,177 kilometers (12,532 miles).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part two 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Wed Sep 12 11:20:28 2007) .
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

[65]
.During this time, at the Strategic Air Command's peak strength in 1963, 650 B-52s were in operation in 42 squadrons at 38 air bases.^ During its peak involvement with Strategic Air Command, no fewer than 650 B-52 bombers made up 42 SAC bomber squadrons at 38 bases.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has been in the USAF historical program for twelve years, first with the Air Rescue Service of Air Force Logistics Command and for the last ten years at Hq SAC. During 1963 he worked on Project Forecast.
  • Counterinsurgency From 30,00 Feet-the B-52 in Vietnam 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he bomber had been flying the Arctic Circle route as part of the Strategic Air Command's continuous airborne alert operation; code-name "Chrome Dome."
  • Broken Arrow -- The B-52 Accident.................. - Thuleforum � 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.thuleforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
.In informal circumstances, the official name Stratofortress is rarely used; personnel involved with the aircraft most commonly referred to it as BUFF (Big Ugly Fat Fucker).^ The Stratofortress is commonly known by the unflattering nickname of "BUFF", standing for "Big Ugly Fat F%%ker".
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among its crew, the B-52 is affectionately known as the "BUFF", an acronym for "Big Ugly Fat Fucker" * The B-52 carries a total fuel load of about 300,000 pounds (roughly 50,000 US gallons).
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-52H BUFF [Big Ugly Fat Fellow] is the primary nuclear roled bomber in the USAF inventory.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-52 Stratofortress 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

[67][Notes 2][68]
.On 19 February 1965, General Curtis E. LeMay testified to Congress that the lack of a follow on bomber project raised a serious danger that "the B-52 is going to fall apart on us before we can get a replacement for it."^ After floundering through a series of changing requirements and revised studies, the B-52 project became active in 1948.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even before the end of World War II, the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) were looking forward to a next-generation strategic bomber to follow the huge Convair B-36, then in development.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raise your glass to the west in a toast to the pilots & crew that have gone before us...tailwinds forever!
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

[69]

Vietnam War

.With the escalating situation in Southeast Asia, in June 1964 28 B-52Fs were fitted with external racks for 24× 750 pound (340 kg) bombs under project South Bay.^ The initial "South Bay" conventional bombing upgrade program was completed in 1964, with 28 B-52Fs refitted.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They continued the tests in May and early June, using a B-52F modified by affixing two sets of multiple-ejector external bomb racks to the wing pylons.
  • Counterinsurgency From 30,00 Feet-the B-52 in Vietnam 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Vietnam, many D model and some G model B-52s were modified (know as "Big Belly) to carry 84 each 500 pounds bombs internally, with 24 500s or 750s on external wing-mounted pylons, for a total of 108 bombs.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An additional 46 aircraft received similar modifications under project Sun Bath.^ Addition of the special pylons, telemetry gear, communications systems, and associated wiring and instrumentation completed the modification of the aircraft.
  • D-21B & Senior Bowl 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC blackbirds.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52Fs were transferred to Anderson in June 1965, with these aircraft upgraded by the Sun Bath program in great haste.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The YB-52 received this evaluation due to the funding coming from the Air Force's Logistics Command, a department not truly allowed to fund experimental aircraft projects such as this.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .In March 1965, the United States commenced Operation Rolling Thunder, and the first combat mission of Operation Arc Light was flown by B-52Fs on 18 June 1965, when 30 bombers of the 9th and 441st Bombardment Squadrons struck a communist stronghold near Ben Cat in South Vietnam.^ Combat missions were flown during Operation Allied Force in Kosovo.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First combat missions occurred via B-52F'ss on June 18th, 1965.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first B-52 combat mission in Southeast Asia, codenamed "Arc Light", took place on 18 June 1965.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first wave of bombers arrived too early at a designated rendezvous point, and while maneuvering to maintain station, two B-52s collided, resulting in the loss of both bombers and eight crewmen.^ The resulting design combined elements of their Model 464-35 design with a four-engine, jet-powered medium bomber concept that had been brought along.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two B-52Fs collided in midair, killing eight of the twelve crewmen, and technical problems forced one Buff to return to base.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The X-31 was designed to break the "stall barrier", allowing it to fly at angles of attack which would typically cause an aircraft to stall resulting in loss of control.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remaining bombers, minus one more which turned back due to mechanical problems, continued on towards the target, which was bombed successfully.^ The six men were deployed to Guam with the 20th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron as part of the U.S. Department of Defenses continuous bomber presence mission in the Pacific.
  • Wilson County News - Top Stories - East Central graduate dies in B-52 crash 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wilsoncountynews.com [Source type: News]

^ The purpose of the leaflet is to create fear of bombing and to convince civilians that to end the war is more patriotic than to continue hopeless resistance.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During WWII he was concerned about the B-29 bomber, which was plagued with mechanical problems.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
B-52F releasing its payload of bombs over Vietnam
.In December 1965, a number of B-52Ds underwent Big Belly modifications to increase bomb capacity for carpet bombings.^ Modified B-52Ds, referred to as Big Belly, dropped aerial mines in the North Vietnamese harbors and river inlets in May 1972.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For duty in Vietnam, the B-52D received the "Big Belly" modification which squeezed 84 500-pound conventional bombs or 42 750-pound bombs into the bomb bay, as well as 24 750-pound bombs on each of the underwing pylons.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Beginning in late 1965, all B-52Ds had been given the "high density bombing (HDB)" or "Big Belly" upgrade, which modified the bombbay to carry 84 225 kilogram (500 pound) or 42 340 kilogram (750 pound) bombs in the bombbay.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the external payload remained at 24× 500 pound (227 kg) or 750 pound (340 kg) bombs, the internal capacity increased from 27 to 84× 500 pound bombs or from 27 to 42× 750 pound bombs.^ Initially, raids were conducted by B-52F's carrying 51 750-pound general purpose bombs, but rapid plans were made to increase the conventional capability of the B-52D force for a sustained SAC operational presence.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Vietnam, many D model and some G model B-52s were modified (know as "Big Belly) to carry 84 each 500 pounds bombs internally, with 24 500s or 750s on external wing-mounted pylons, for a total of 108 bombs.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For duty in Vietnam, the B-52D received the "Big Belly" modification which squeezed 84 500-pound conventional bombs or 42 750-pound bombs into the bomb bay, as well as 24 750-pound bombs on each of the underwing pylons.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

[72] .The Big Belly modification now created enough capacity for a total of 60,000 pounds (27,215 kg) in 108 bombs.^ During Vietnam, many D model and some G model B-52s were modified (know as "Big Belly) to carry 84 each 500 pounds bombs internally, with 24 500s or 750s on external wing-mounted pylons, for a total of 108 bombs.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting in 1989, on-going modifications incorporates the Global Positioning System , heavy stores adapter beams for carrying 2,000 pound (900 kg) munitions, and a full array of advanced weapons currently under development.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For duty in Vietnam, the B-52D received the "Big Belly" modification which squeezed 84 500-pound conventional bombs or 42 750-pound bombs into the bomb bay, as well as 24 750-pound bombs on each of the underwing pylons.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus modified, B-52Ds could carry 22,000 pounds (9,980 kg) more than B-52Fs.^ Starting in 1989, on-going modifications incorporates the Global Positioning System , heavy stores adapter beams for carrying 2,000 pound (900 kg) munitions, and a full array of advanced weapons currently under development.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 500,000 copies of these leaflets were dropped on 30 July by specially assigned B-29 aircraft.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The upgraded B-52Ds could also carry 24 340 kilogram bombs on the pylons, for a total maximum warload of an astounding 27,200 kilograms (60,000 pounds) of conventional bombs.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .Replacing B-52Fs, modified B-52Ds entered combat in April 1966 flying from Andersen Air Force Base, Guam.^ Its capability to penetrate air defenses and threaten effective retaliation provide an effective deterrent and combat force well into the 21st century.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: B-2 Spirit 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inspection team is led by a senior officer representative from the Air Combat Command Inspector General's office with oversight provided by representatives from the Air Force Inspection Agency and the office of the Secretary of the Air Force.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AF Secretary Visits MAFB 14 Sep 2007 The top civilian in the Air Force spent the afternoon at Minot Air Force Base today.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each bombing mission lasted ten to 12 hours with an aerial refueling by KC-135 Stratotankers.^ Used to refuel these from my KC-135.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ The use of aerial refueling from KC-135 or KC-10 tankers gives the B-52 a range limited only by crew endurance, or in the extreme, required maintenance.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He had been following the KC-135 for .5 hour in the pattern when he finally got in front of it.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

[31] .In spring 1967, the aircraft began flying from U Tapao Airfield in Thailand giving the aircraft the advantage of not requiring in-flight refueling.^ An altitude card was required to fly in the B-52's for non-aircrew members ) I recall when the aircraft took off it turned to the right.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He planned to fly this tight turn around the tower on this improper go around, pushing the aircraft well outside its flight envelope and crashed.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ The use of aerial refueling from KC-135 or KC-10 tankers gives the B-52 a range limited only by crew endurance, or in the extreme, required maintenance.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

[72] .These missions lasted only 2 to 3 hours.^ The only way you can fly a good mission in combat is if you fly a LOT of hours in a non-combat scenario.
  • B-52 Crashes Off Guam | Danger Room | Wired.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Because timing was everything, if only an hour, or many times less time, went by and the bomber was not in the air, the mission would be aborted and rescheduled.
  • D-21B & Senior Bowl 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC blackbirds.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 15 April 1968, a Replacement Training Unit was established at Castle AFB which converted B-52E through B-52H crews to B-52Ds so they could participate in combat in Southeast Asia.^ Derek Detjen , hockeynut2(@)bellsouth.net , 09.02.2010 I was the EWO on the first B-52D crew to complete 100 msns in Southeast Asia in Nov.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-100Ds arrived in Southeast Asia in 1962 but did not begin flying combat missions over Vietnam until 1965.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 4017th Combat Crew Training Squadron was established at Castle AFB on 8 January 1955, as an integral part of the 93d Wing.

[74]
.On 22 November 1972, a B-52D (55-0110) from U-Tapao was hit by a SAM while on a raid over Vinh.^ D 55-0052 11-22-72 Landed at U-Tapao.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That finally happened on 22 November 1972, when a B-52D was damaged by an SA-2 SAM in a raid on Vinh, an important rail center in the southern part of North Vietnam.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D 55-0067 12-22-72 Landed at U-Tapao.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The crew was forced to abandon the damaged aircraft over Thailand.^ If the missile maintenance crew loaded the wrong type of weapons on that aircraft, they have the worst possible problems imaginable in the Air Force since I left.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.This was the first B-52 to be destroyed by hostile fire in Vietnam.^ The B-52 first went to war in Vietnam, where its awesome firepower intimidated the enemy.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.The zenith of B-52 attacks in Vietnam was Operation Linebacker II (sometimes referred to as the Christmas Bombing) which consisted of waves of B-52s (mostly D models, but some Gs without jamming equipment and with a smaller bomb load).^ The zenith of B-52 attacks in Vietnam was Operation Linebacker II , which consisted of waves of B-52s (mostly D models, but some G's with less jamming equipment and a smaller bomb load) bombing Hanoi.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During Vietnam, many D model and some G model B-52s were modified (know as "Big Belly) to carry 84 each 500 pounds bombs internally, with 24 500s or 750s on external wing-mounted pylons, for a total of 108 bombs.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - bomber 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D- and H-models both participated in Operation Linebacker II - a non-stop, nearly two-week long bombing campaign against Vietcong targets with ten Stratofortresses lost in the ensuing action.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 12 days B-52s flew 729 sorties,[75] dropping 15,237 tons of bombs on Hanoi, Haiphong, and other targets.^ In 11 days of concentrated bombing, B-52s had performed 729 sorties and dropped 13,640 tonnes (15,000 tons) of bombs.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the battle, 2,548 B-52 sorties had dropped 59,542 tons of bombs, turning the area around the base into something resembling the cratered surface of the Moon.
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Superfortress (bomber) - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 26 December, a total of 120 Buffs performed raids, with 113 reaching their targets, all dropping their bombs within a space of 15 minutes, overwhelming the defenses.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .In total, 30 B-52s were lost during the war, including ten B-52s being shot down over North Vietnam with five others being damaged and crashing in Laos or Thailand.^ Sixteen other B52s went down outside of North Vietnam.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52s were used extensively in the Vietnam War .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A total of 10 B-52s went down inside the borders of North Vietnam.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77]

Air-to-air victories

.During the Vietnam War, B-52D tail gunners were credited with shooting down two MiG-21 "Fishbeds".^ In the B-52D the Gunner is in the tail of the aircraft.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the night of December 27 , 1972 , North Vietnam ese pilot and future cosmonaut Pham Tuan became the first person ever to shoot down a US B-52 bomber, during the Vietnam War .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it should noted that at least 2 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 "Fishbed" aircraft were destroyed in the Vietnam War by the tail gunner, with these aircraft kills credited to SSgt Samuel O. Turner and A1C Albert E. Moore - both kills achieved just days apart in December of 1972 from B-52D's.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 18 December 1972, tail gunner SSgt Samuel O. Turner's B-52 had just completed a bomb run for Operation Linebacker II and was turning away when a North Vietnamese Air Force MiG-21 approached.^ The raids began on 18 December 1972.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new unit will be the fourth operational B-52 squadron in the Air Force.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ive since separated from the Air Force and I now own and run my own manufacturing production plant in my familys hometown of Chester, West Virginia.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

[78] The MiG and the B-52 locked onto one another. .When the fighter drew within range, Turner fired his quad .50 caliber machine guns.^ The bombs I drop and the machine gun bullets I fire are speeding the day of liberation.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two 20 mm Cannons replaced by four .50 calibre machine guns in the tail.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-52As featured a new side-by-side cockpit scheme, eliminating the fighter-style canopy, and a tail turret fitted with four 12.7 millimeter (0.50 caliber) Browning M3 machine guns with 600 rounds per gun.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .The MiG exploded aft of the bomber,[78] a victory confirmed by MSG Lewis E. Le Blance, the tail gunner in a nearby Stratofortress.^ I saw the tail-gunner jump out moments before the plane exploded, word was he was the only survivor onboard.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Turner received a Silver Star for his actions.[80] .His B-52, tail number 55-0676, is preserved on display at Fairchild AFB in Spokane, Washington.^ BTW Steve E. The B-52 that lost its vertical fin during a low level test in the rockies was a H model Tail number 1023 .
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ I am the historian for the 5th Bomb Wing at Minot AFB, ND. I was browsing your website for some B-52 information, noticed you were looking for the tail numbers and call signs of the B-52s with MiG kills.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, the test flights were shifted to Moses Lake, in the sagebrush where rainy weather was generally not a problem, and then to Fairchild AFB, in Spokane, farther east in the state.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
.On 24 December 1972, during the same bombing campaign, the B-52 Diamond Lil was headed to bomb the Thai Nguyen railroad yards when tail gunner A1C Albert E. Moore spotted a fast-approaching MiG-21.[81] Moore opened fire with his quad fifties at 4,000 yards, and kept shooting until the fighter disappeared from his scope.^ The date of the confirmed MiG 21 kill is recorded as December 24, 1972.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the night of December 27 , 1972 , North Vietnam ese pilot and future cosmonaut Pham Tuan became the first person ever to shoot down a US B-52 bomber, during the Vietnam War .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it should noted that at least 2 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 "Fishbed" aircraft were destroyed in the Vietnam War by the tail gunner, with these aircraft kills credited to SSgt Samuel O. Turner and A1C Albert E. Moore - both kills achieved just days apart in December of 1972 from B-52D's.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.TSG Clarence W. Chute, a tail gunner aboard another Stratofortress, watched the MiG catch fire and fall away.^ The tail gunner sat in the turret and could direct the guns with an "A-3A" fire control system (FCS).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entire crew was together with the exception of the tail gunner who had ran back the other direction from the plane and was rescued by the fire crews who had been tactically pulled back for their own protection.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tail gunner sat in the turret and could direct the guns with an A-3A fire control system (FCS).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Diamond Lil is preserved on display at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.^ Once the Coalition had air superiority, Iraqi aircraft fled to Iran in an attempt to preserve their air force.
  • Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary force objectives outlined at the time were (1) to deter war, (2) resolve conflicts on terms favorable to the United States, and (3) maintain a high state of readiness at a reasonable cost.
  • B-52 Stratofortress History- United States Nuclear Forces 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This is a great day for the United States Air Force," Wynne said, "And another milestone for the Flight Test Center."

[81]
.Moore was the last bomber gunner to shoot down an enemy aircraft with machine guns in aerial combat.^ The tail gunner jettisoned the entire turret (guns and all) on the ground and climbed down his escape rope, then ran back to the runway and the waiting emergency vehicles.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SAC, in contrast, wanted to build the machine to operate both as a bomber and as a reconnaissance aircraft, with a reconnaissance pod plugged into the bombbay for such missions.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diamond Lil, is now on display at the USAFA. The plaque at the aircraft states that that aircraft was one of two B52s to shoot down an enemy MIG during the Vietnam conflict.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .The last Arc Light mission took place on 15 August 1973 and all B-52s left Southeast Asia shortly thereafter.^ The first B-52 combat mission in Southeast Asia, codenamed "Arc Light", took place on 18 June 1965.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-100Ds arrived in Southeast Asia in 1962 but did not begin flying combat missions over Vietnam until 1965.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Buff's war was not quite over, with Arc Light strikes on Laos continuing into April and on Cambodia into August.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.These victories make the B-52 the largest aircraft to be credited with air-to-air kills.^ These bombs are capable of destroying any military facilities and or factory making military goods, unfortunately killing people who live near these places.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A B-52 bomber on a training mission from Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana was forced to make an emergency landing at the Minot International Airport early this morning.

^ The YB-52 received this evaluation due to the funding coming from the Air Force's Logistics Command, a department not truly allowed to fund experimental aircraft projects such as this.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]

Cold War

Southerly route of the "Operation Chrome Dome" airborne nuclear alert
.During the Cold War, B-52s performed airborne alert duty under code names such as Head Start, Chrome Dome, Hard Head, Round Robin, and Giant Lance.^ B-52s also performed airborne alert duty under the code-name "Chrome Dome" where bombers would loiter near points outside of the Soviet Union.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over 800 were produced through 1972 for U.S. allies during the Cold War.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the most capable among a variety of air-launched nuclear weapons built during the Cold War that remain in...

.Bombers loitered near points outside the Soviet Union to provide rapid first strike or retaliation capability in case of nuclear war.^ When bombers were on alert at each SAC base those in the northern parts of the U.S. had the least distance to fly over the north pole and would have been the first to reach the Soviet Union.
  • NRDC: Nuclear Data - Table of US Strategic Bomber Forces, 1945-2012 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the most capable among a variety of air-launched nuclear weapons built during the Cold War that remain in...

^ The B-52 performed a valuable deterrent role during the Cold War years, stationed for a time in "quick response" air patterns to provide for a rapid response to any Soviet nuclear attack.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83][84]
.B-52Bs reached the end of their structural service life by the mid-1960s and all were retired by June 1966, followed by the last of the B-52Cs on 29 September 1971; except for NASA's B-52B "008" which was eventually retired in 2004 at Edwards AFB, California.^ DFRC director Kevin Petersen speaks to an audience of NASA and Air Force visitors, employees and special guests at the retirement ceremony for NASA's B-52B. .
  • NASA Dryden B-52 Photo Collection 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.dfrc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An RB-52B was the first B-52 to go into formal operational service at Castle AFB, California, on 29 June 1955.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part one 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some sources claim that all variants ahd seven above each, but others claim that the XB-52 had three above each wing, while the YB-52 had six, this number being retained in all following B-52 versions except the last two, which had the magic seven.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85] .Another of the remaining B Models, "005" is on display at the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum in Denver, Colorado.^ Smithsonian Air and Space Museum  .

^ Museum quality A-10 Warthog Thunderbolt display model plane, perfect gift for pilots and collectors....

^ Museum quality C-17 Globemaster III mahogany display model, perfect gift for pilots and...

[86]
A few time-expired E models were retired in 1967 and 1968, but the bulk (82) were retired between May 1969 and March 1970. Most F models were also retired between 1967 and 1973, but 23 survived as trainers until late 1978.[87]
The fleet of D models served much longer. .Eighty D models were updated under the Pacer Plank program (ECP 1581) at Boeing's Wichita plant.^ In some hydroponic gardening situations, your plants are not genetically matched to the light cycles or nutritional program youve got them under.
  • Hydroponics B Vitamins | B-52 | B Vitamins For Plants 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.advancednutrients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B-52Fs were built by Boeing-Seattle, the last B-52s to be delivered from that plant, and 45 were built by Boeing-Wichita.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52Ds were built at Boeing-Seattle, while 69 more were made at Boeing-Wichita, the first B-52 model to be built at that plant.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Skinning on the lower wing and fuselage was replaced, and various structural components were renewed.^ The water-injection tank in the rear fuselage was also removed, replaced by a water-injection tank in each wing root.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - the complete story - part two 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC www.wingweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Work was completed in 1977. The fleet of D models stayed largely intact until late 1978, when 37 un-upgraded Ds were retired.[88] The remainder were retired between 1982 and 1983.[89]
B-52H modified to carry two D-21 drones
.The remaining G and H models were used for nuclear standby ("alert") duty as part of the United States' nuclear triad.^ The remaining G and H models were used for nuclear standby ("alert") duty (see above) as part of the United States' nuclear triad .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many B-52G's would be sacrificed as part of the nuclear proliferation agreements between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in 1992 while the surviving models were relegated to museum work.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States used Saddam Hussein to wage a war with Iran.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.This triad was the combination of nuclear-armed land-based missiles, submarine-based missiles and manned bombers.^ This triad was the combination of nuclear-armed land-based missiles, submarine-based missiles, and manned bombers.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Guam is the core of military might in the Asian theater with nuclear submarines, Stealth bombers, and B52’s located at Andersen Air force Base and the US Naval Base.
  • B-52 Crashes Off Guam | Danger Room | Wired.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ A B-52 bomber mistakenly loaded with five nuclear warheads flew from Minot Air Force Base, N.D, to Barksdale Air Force Base, La., on Aug.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 accidentally loaded with nukes | Corrente 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.The B-1B Lancer which was intended to supplant the B-52, replaced only the older models and the supersonic FB-111.^ It was originally intended to be the principal weapon of the B-1B Lancer, but will likely be carried by the B-2 stealth bomber under START II. .
  • United States Arsenal 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 30 , 2001 , Dryden received a B-52H that is expected to fully replace the older B-model aircraft by the end of 2004.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the years, the B-52 faced threats of replacement from the likes of the ill-fated North American Valkyrie, the supersonic Rockwell B-1 Lancer and the Northrop B-2 Spirit stealth bomber.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90]
.After the fall of the Soviet Union, the B-52Gs were destroyed per the terms of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).^ After the fall of the Soviet Union, the B-52Gs were destroyed as per the terms of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As part of the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty between the United States and Russia, 365 B-52Gs were flown to the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Arizona.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The threat of B-52 attacks partially motivated the Soviet Union to back down from its threat to deploy nuclear-armed missiles to Cuba in the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

The AMARC was tasked with eliminating 365 B-52 bombers. The progress of this task was to be verified by Russia via satellite and first-person inspection at the AMARC facility. .Initially, the B-52s were chopped into pieces with a 13,000 pound guillotine.^ The bombers were stripped of all usable parts, then chopped into five pieces by a 13,000-pound steel blade dropped from a crane.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 11 days of concentrated bombing, B-52s had performed 729 sorties and dropped 13,640 tonnes (15,000 tons) of bombs.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91]
.In 1991, B-52s ceased continuous 24-hour SAC alert duty.^ During the years of the 'cold' war, 50% of SAC's bombers were "cocked" on full alert, loaded with atomic bombs 24-7.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ B-52s also performed airborne alert duty under the code-name "Chrome Dome" where bombers would loiter near points outside of the Soviet Union.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From the late 1950s thru the 1980s, SAC flew airborne alert aircraft, approx 14 a day, 24-7.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[92]

Gulf War and later

Retired B-52s are stored at the 309th AMARG (formerly AMARC), a desert storage facility often called the "Boneyard" at Davis-Monthan AFB near Tucson, Arizona[93]
.B-52 strikes were an important part of Operation Desert Storm.^ In addition, it can carry the conventional cruise missile that was launched in several contingencies during the 1990s, starting with Operation Desert Storm and culminating with Operation Allied Force.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of Operation Allied Force , B-52H Stratofortresses take off from RAF Fairford , United Kingdom , to strike targets in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Buff returned to combat during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 as part of the air campaign during OPERATION DESERT STORM, the effort to evict Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein's forces from Kuwait.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flying about 1,620 sorties, B-52s delivered 40% of the weapons dropped by coalition forces, while suffering only one non-combat aircraft loss, with several receiving minor damage from enemy action.^ During Desert Storm, B-52s delivered 40 percent of all the weapons dropped by coalition forces.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Operation Desert Storm , B-52s delivered 40% of all the weapons dropped by coalition forces.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The only way you can fly a good mission in combat is if you fly a LOT of hours in a non-combat scenario.
  • B-52 Crashes Off Guam | Danger Room | Wired.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.On 16 February 1991, a flight of B-52Gs flew from Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, refueled in the air en route, struck targets in Iraq, and returned home — a journey of 35 hours and 14,000 miles round trip.^ The Gulf War involved the longest strike mission in the history of aerial warfare when B-52s took off from Barksdale Air Force Base, La., launched conventional air launched cruise missiles and returned to Barksdale -- a 35-hour, non-stop combat mission.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The B-52 bomber based at Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana was en route to conduct a flyover in a parade when it crashed around about 30 miles north-west of Apra Harbour, the Air Force said," the AP reports.
  • B-52 Crashes Off Guam | Danger Room | Wired.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Former Air Force Secretary Michael Wynne was fired in 2008 when it was revealed that a B-52 Stratofortress bomber flew some 1,500 miles from Minot Air Force base in North Dakota to Barksdale Air Force base in Louisiana with nuclear-tipped cruise missiles fixed to its wings.
  • Dissident Voice : Hackable Drones, Crumbling Empire 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It set a record for longest-distance combat mission.^ The crews were perfectly willing to fly combat missions, but they were not happy about military bureaucracy that was setting them up like ducks in a shooting gallery.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 14th, 1960, a B-52G set a world air distance record by traveling 10,078.84 miles without refueling.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94][95] .Over the next months, B-52Gs operating from bases at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; RAF Fairford in the United Kingdom; Moron AB, Spain; and the island of Diego Garcia flew low-altitude bombing missions.^ About 80 B-52Gs operated against the Iraqis from bases in the US and overseas, including Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Moron, Spain; RAF Fairford in the UK; the remote Diego Garcia island base in the Indian Ocean; and a few other installations.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wonder how many other nuke-armed B52's went unnoticed and are now staged at Diego Garcia, Guam or similar forward bases?
  • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

^ Buffs operating out of Diego Garcia performed precision strikes with new JDAM GPS-guided bombs, first taking out planned targets, and then operating in a reactive close-support role.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the first three nights, the B-52s moved to high-altitude missions, while coalition forces took air superiority and suppressed anti-aircraft weapons that might have struck high-flying aircraft.^ "The Air Force takes its mission to safeguard weapons seriously," he said.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ US Strategic Air Command FB-111A aircraft carried nuclear armed AGM-69 SRAM defence suppression missiles in the internal weapon bay, which all F-111s were built with.

^ The Gulf War involved the longest strike mission in the history of aerial warfare when B-52s took off from Barksdale Air Force Base, La., launched conventional air launched cruise missiles and returned to Barksdale -- a 35-hour, non-stop combat mission.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conventional strikes were carried out by three bombers dropping up to 153 750-pound bombs, covering an area 1.5 miles long by 1 mile wide.^ F: B-52 bomber drops bombs.
  • Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For duty in Vietnam, the B-52D received the "Big Belly" modification which squeezed 84 500-pound conventional bombs or 42 750-pound bombs into the bomb bay, as well as 24 750-pound bombs on each of the underwing pylons.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All B-52's excepting the D model with the ‘Big Belly Conversion' carry the same internal conventional weapons load of three clips of nine weapons each.

The bombings demoralized the defending Iraqi troops, many of whom surrendered in the wake of the strikes.[96]
.Various Russian sources have claimed Iraqi air-to-air successes, including a story of Iraqi pilot Khudai Hijab firing a Vympel R-27R missile from his MIG-29 and damaged a B-52G on the opening night of the Gulf War.^ On the night of December 27 , 1972 , North Vietnam ese pilot and future cosmonaut Pham Tuan became the first person ever to shoot down a US B-52 bomber, during the Vietnam War .
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B-52G models were a fixture of the Persian Gulf War in 1991.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accidents have led to the loss of 85 B-52s, with causes ranging from structural failures in flight and fires to an inadvertently fired air-to-air missile from an Air National Guard fighter and pilot error.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97] However, the United States Air Force disputes this claim, stating the bomber was actually hit by friendly fire, a AGM-88 High-speed, Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) that homed on the fire-control radar of the B-52's tail gun; the jet was subsequently renamed "In HARM's Way".[98]
.On 2–3 September 1996, two B-52H struck Baghdad power stations and communications facilities with 13 AGM-86C air-launched cruise missiles (ALCM) as part of Operation Desert Strike, a 34-hour, 16,000-mile round trip mission from Andersen AFB, Guam—the longest distance ever flown for a combat mission.^ The H model can carry up to 20 air launched cruise missiles.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, the B-70 would run into problems and only two would be built, to be operated strictly as experimental machines; and the USAF was also interested in obtaining the "GAM-87 Skybolt" air-launched ballistic missile, and so Boeing was given a contract to build the final B-52 variant, the "B-52H", as a Skybolt launch platform.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Air Force B-52H models 60-042 and 60-047 (two aircraft) based out of Barksdale AFB for FSX. Most of the dynamics meet real world specifications.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99] .Only two days prior, the crews completed 17-hour flights from Louisiana to Guam.^ The Ohio class submarines have maintained a 2/3 at-sea rate by having two crews (designated Blue and Gold), which alternate on 70 day patrols, interrupted only by a 25 day refit period, with an overhaul every 9 years.
  • United States Arsenal 24 September 2009 17:34 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was a B-52 crew chief at Minot and got about 700 hours in the H-model before I cross trained to a Flight Engineer about 14 years ago.
  • B-52 MITO departure. 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 17 January 1991, seven B-52Gs, known as the "Doom Flight", took off from Barksdale AFB in Louisiana to help kick off the air campaign.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A B-52H Stratofortress of the 2d Bomb Wing lands at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam
Boeing B-52.ogv
Stratofortress video in-action
Since the mid-1990s, the B-52H has been the only variant remaining in military service;[100] it is currently stationed at:
.
.The B-52 also contributed to Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001 (Afghanistan/Southwest Asia), providing the ability to loiter high above the battlefield and provide Close Air Support (CAS) through the use of precision guided munitions, a mission which previously would have been restricted to fighter and ground attack aircraft.^ The aircraft was used for ground attack within South Vietnam.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Night vision goggles provide greater safety during night operations by increasing the pilot's ability to visually clear terrain, avoid enemy radar and see other aircraft in a covert/lights-out environment.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first the Air Force was hesitant, but daily attacks on Iraqi radar and anti-aircraft sites and American electronic jamming aircraft had made the high-flying bombers reasonably safe from attack.
  • Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102]
.B-52s also played a role in Operation Iraqi Freedom, which commenced on 20 March 2003 (Iraq/Southwest Asia).^ The F-16 or the Viper has played vital roles in most of America’s wars with the most recent being in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  • Monessa Catuncan: A Filipina takes flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC asianjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Years later, during the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, dozens of aircraft were found buried in the Iraqi desert.
  • Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More recently, the B-52 has seen combat actions in the 2001 assault on Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and the 2003 Invasion of Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom).
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the night of 21 March 2003, B-52Hs launched at least one hundred AGM-86C CALCMs.^ B-52Hs flying out of Guam launched 13 CALCMs, in cooperation with strikes by other aircraft and US Navy Tomahawk cruise missiles.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
.In August 2007, a B-52H ferrying AGM-129 ACM cruise missiles from Minot Air Force Base to Barksdale Air Force Base for dismantling was mistakenly loaded with six missiles from which the nuclear warhead was not removed.^ A B-52 bomber mistakenly loaded with five nuclear warheads flew...
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Both missiles carried nuclear warheads.
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gee, why would we want cruise missile nukes at Barksdale Air Force Base.
  • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

The weapons did not leave USAF custody and were secured at Barksdale.[104][105]
.As of April 2008, 94 of the original 744 B-52 aircraft were still operational within the U.S. Air Force.^ The new unit will be the fourth operational B-52 squadron in the Air Force.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The YB-52 was rolled out on 15 March 1952 and actually performed the first flight, on 15 April 1952, with Boeing test pilot A.M. "Tex" Johnson and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend at the controls.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Air Force intends to keep the B-52 in service until around 2050, an unprecedented length of service for a combat aircraft model (the venerable DC-3 , now 70 years old, is still in regular revenue service in civilian hands).
  • B-52 Stratofortress at AllExperts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

Four of 18 B-52Hs from Barksdale AFB that are currently being retired are in the "boneyard" of 309th AMARG at Davis-Monthan AFB as of 8 September 2008.[106]

Future of the B-52

.Even while the Air Force works on new bombers scheduled for 2037 it intends to keep the B-52H in service until at least 2040, nearly 80 years after production ended.^ The Air Force intends to support the B-52H to 2040 or even beyond, and spares should not be as severe a problem.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ive since separated from the Air Force and I now own and run my own manufacturing production plant in my familys hometown of Chester, West Virginia.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ Tuesday it received a $5.4 million initial contract to begin work on developing technologies required to integrate the new EHF satellite communication system on the U.S. Air Force B-52 fleet.

This will be an unprecedented length of service for a military aircraft.[4][107] .B-52s are periodically refurbished at the USAF maintenance depots such as Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma.^ After the crisis the airborne alert force was reduced to a much more modest level, with about a dozen B-52s kept in the air with a load of nuclear weapons.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AF Secretary Visits MAFB 14 Sep 2007 The top civilian in the Air Force spent the afternoon at Minot Air Force Base today.
  • Citizens For Legitimate Government 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.legitgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monessa finished her course at Luke Air Force Base with flying colors and was part of the “Lucky number 13” graduate from class 2007.
  • Monessa Catuncan: A Filipina takes flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC asianjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108]
.The USAF continues to rely on the B-52 because it remains an effective and economical heavy bomber, particularly in the type of missions that have been conducted since the end of the Cold War against nations that have limited air defense capabilities.^ Despite its early Cold War upbringing, the Stratofortress continues as the USAF heavy bomber of choice.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the B-1 and B-2 bombers entered production in some quantity, their real strength remained in their ability to deliver precision payloads while utilizing speed or stealth practices to avoid enemy air defenses.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The easy answer to the 9/11 question is there were only a handful of air defense interceptors on ground alert nation wide at the time due, largely, to budget cutbacks driven by the desire to get a “peace dividend” following the end of the Cold War.
  • B-52 Crashes Off Guam | Danger Room | Wired.com 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.The B-52's capacity to "loiter" for extended periods over (or even well outside) the battlefield, while delivering precision standoff and direct fire munitions, has been a valuable asset in conflicts such as Operation Iraqi Freedom.^ The F-16 or the Viper has played vital roles in most of America’s wars with the most recent being in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  • Monessa Catuncan: A Filipina takes flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC asianjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This includes gravity bombs, cluster bombs, precision guided missiles and joint direct attack munitions.
  • BOEING B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber history pictures and facts 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More recently, the B-52 has seen combat actions in the 2001 assault on Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and the 2003 Invasion of Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom).
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[109]
.The speed of the B-1 Lancer and the stealth of the B-2 Spirit have only been useful until enemy air defenses were destroyed, a task that has been swiftly achieved in recent conflicts.^ It was also the first Wild Weasel SEAD aircraft whose specially trained crews were tasked with locating and destroying enemy air defenses.
  • FSX Military Aircraft - Fly Away Simulation, Flight Simulator #1 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC flyawaysimulation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the B-1 and B-2 bombers entered production in some quantity, their real strength remained in their ability to deliver precision payloads while utilizing speed or stealth practices to avoid enemy air defenses.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Air Force knew that 100 bombers destroying a division or a city changed the way that the enemy thought.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The B-52 boasts the highest mission capable rate of the three types of heavy bombers operated by the USAF. Whereas the B-1 averages a 53% ready rate, and the B-2 achieved a 26%, the B-52 averages 80% as of 2001.[93]
.Additionally, a proposed variant of the B-52H was the EB-52. This version would have modified and augmented 16 B-52H airframes with additional electronic jamming capabilities.^ The EB-52H was a proposed electronic warfare variant of the base B-52H model.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lost capability is now being reconstituted using even older B-52H airframes, equipped with external jamming pods, unlike the compact internal variant of the ALQ-99 carried by the Ravens.

^ However, advocates for the capability would like to modify all operational B-52s to carry the Litening II and buy up to 40 pods.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110] .This new aircraft would have given the USAF an airborne jamming capability that it has lacked since retiring the EF-111 Raven.^ In October 1951, USAF HQ handed down an order that the new machines would be built as "RB-52" reconnaissance machines.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the USAF, it is expected that the B-52 can remain in service well up to 2040, which is an astonishing thought given that the aircraft was a design first flown in the 1950's.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grumman EF-111 Raven http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f111_3.html .

.The program was cancelled in 2005 following removal of funding for the stand-off jammer.^ However, there is Congressional opposition to this idea, and there is also a proposal to use the B-52H as a "stand-off jammer" designated the "EB-52H" to compensate for a current shortfall in ECM capabilities.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The program was revived in 2007 but funding was again canceled in early 2009.[111]

Variants

Production numbers[2]
Variant Produced Entered Service
XB-52 2 (1 redesignated YB-52) prototypes
B-52A 3
NB-52A 1 Modified B-52A
B-52B 50 29 June 1955
RB-52B 27 Modified B-52Bs
NB-52B 1 Modified B-52B
B-52C 35 June 1956
B-52D 170 December 1956
B-52E 100 December 1957
B-52F 89 June 1958
B-52G 193 13 February 1959
B-52H 102 9 May 1961
Grand total 744 production
.The B-52 went through several design changes and variants over its 10 years of production.^ Production of all B-52's lasted from 1952 through 1962 and handled at the Boeing Seattle, Washington and Wichita, Kansas plants, marking some 47 years since the last Stratofortress rolled off of the assembly lines.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite its far-reaching history, the B-52 was actually produced in less than a dozen variants beginning with the aforementioned developmental limited production B-52A model.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Vietnam, the B-52 went back to peacetime alert for almost 20 years.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
XB-52
Two prototype aircraft with limited operational eqiupment, used for aerodynamic and handling tests
YB-52
One XB-52 modified woth some operational equiopment and re-designated
B-52A
.Only three of the first production version, the B-52A, were built, all loaned to Boeing for flight testing.^ The YB-52 was rolled out on 15 March 1952 and actually performed the first flight, on 15 April 1952, with Boeing test pilot A.M. "Tex" Johnson and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend at the controls.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initial flight was on 9 March 1956, with delivery in June, and all B-52C production was completed in that year.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52Cs were delivered from Boeing-Seattle, making it the rarest of all production B-52s.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The first production B-52A differed from prototypes in having a redesigned forward fuselage.^ The first of the NASA B-52s was one of the three B-52As, which in the late 1950s was passed on to NASA control and redesignated the "NB-52A".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two initial prototypes were followed by three B-52A evaluation aircraft, the initial order for 13 having been changed, with the other 10 to be operational "B-52Bs".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 16 September 2009 21:41 UTC vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bubble canopy and tandem seating was replaced by a side-by-side arrangement and a 21 inch (53 cm) nose extension accommodated more avionics and a new 6th crew member.^ The two prototypes lacked the side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement and the in-flight refueling arrangement of the A-models and seating for the third upper deck crewmember (Electronic Warfare Officer - EWO).
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The roof hatch blows away and the seat rocket blows the crew member clear of the vertical stab.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECM enhancements led to the extension of the tail behind the tailplanes by a little more than a meter (40 inches).
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112][Notes .3][113] In the rear fuselage a tail turret with four 0.50 inch (12.7 mm) machine guns with a fire-control system, and a water injection system to augment engine power with a 360 US gallon (1,363 L) water tank was added.^ The tail gunner sat in the turret and could direct the guns with an "A-3A" fire control system (FCS).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water-injection tank in the rear fuselage was also eliminated, with a water-injection tank now placed in each wing root.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52As featured a new side-by-side cockpit scheme, eliminating the fighter-style canopy, and a tail turret fitted with four 12.7 millimeter (0.50 caliber) Browning M3 machine guns with 600 rounds per gun.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aircraft also carried a 1,000 US gallon (3,785 L) external fuel tank under each wing.^ The wings were torn loose releasing fuel from the wing tanks.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B-52C's arrived with increased range thanks to improved fuel capacity made possible through larger external tanks.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plane was carrying a pod of nukes under the other wing as well but those missiles were not armed for detonation.
  • U.S. Nuke Secrets for Sale? And What Was the Deal With that B-52 Stratofortress Again? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tanks acted as dampeners to reduce wing flex and also kept wingtips close to the ground for ease of maintenance.^ A small, stalky outrigger landing gear was fitted in the outboard section of each wing to prevent the wingtips from dragging the ground.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112][113]
NB-52A carrying an X-15
NB-52A
. The last B-52A (serial 52-0003) was modified and redesignated NB-52A in 1959 to carry the North American X-15.^ How to launch 15 B-52's in less than 9 minutes (from first takeoff roll to last.
  • B-52 MITO departure. 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was also a worry that the loss of a B-52 from North Vienamese air defenses would be a serious embarrassment for the United States.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WASHINGTON (CNN) -- Six nuclear warheads on cruise missiles were mistakenly carried on a flight from North Dakota to Louisiana last week...
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.A pylon was fitted under the right wing between the fuselage and the inboard engines with a 6 feet x 8 feet (1.8 m x 2.4 m) section removed from the right wing flap to fit the X-15 tail.^ Looking forward from under right wing .
  • National Museum of the US Air Force 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.craigcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52G was fitted with a pylon under each wing to carry a "GAM-77 (later AGM-28) Hound Dog" nuclear-armed turbojet-powered cruise missile.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Late production B-52Hs featured a second stores pylon on each wing, positioned between the two engine pods.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Liquid oxygen and hydrogen peroxide tanks were installed in the bomb bays to fuel the X-15 before launch.^ Despite the fact that there was a very long runway at Kadena, the bombers were unable to take off with a full bomb load and full fuel tanks.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The B-52B was tested with atomic weapons on May 21st, 1956 - dropping a four megaton Mark 15 "Zombie" hydrogen bomb on the Bikini Atoll.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First flight with X-15 was on 19 March 1959, with the first launch on 8 June 1959. The NB-52A, named "The High and Mighty One" carried the X-15 on 93 of the program's 199 flights.^ NB-52A - aka "The High and Mighty One" - was developed from the third B-52A flight test model.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The YB-52 was rolled out on 15 March 1952 and actually performed the first flight, on 15 April 1952, with Boeing test pilot A.M. "Tex" Johnson and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Guy M. Townsend at the controls.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to launch 15 B-52's in less than 9 minutes (from first takeoff roll to last.
  • B-52 MITO departure. 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114]
Balls 5, a RB-52B converted to a B-52B, at the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum
NASA's NB-52B Balls 8 (lower) and its replacement B-52H on the flight line at Edwards Air Force Base
B-52G on static display at Langley Air Force Base in Hampton, Virginia
B-52B/RB-52B
.The B-52B was the first version to enter service with the USAF on 29 June 1955, with the 93rd Bombardment Wing at Castle AFB in California.^ An RB-52B was the first B-52 to go into formal operational service at Castle AFB, California, on 29 June 1955.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-models were the first model in the series to achieve operational service on June 29th in 1955, this occurring with the 93rd Bombardment Wing (themselves achieving operational status on March 12th, 1956) of the United States Air Force and coming in the form of an RB-52B reconnaissance model.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the USAF, it is expected that the B-52 can remain in service well up to 2040, which is an astonishing thought given that the aircraft was a design first flown in the 1950's.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113] .This version included minor changes to engines and avionics in the attempt to fix minor problems.^ Problems included unfriendly flight characteristics when the machine was nearing a stall; inadequate brakes; and, in particular, poor reliability of the new J57 engines.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Temporary grounding of the aircraft after a crash in February 1956 and again the following July caused training delays, and at mid-year there were still no combat-ready B-52 crews.^ The B-52 is said, convincingly, to have had the longest first-line service career of any combat aircraft in history, and there still may be life in the old Buff yet.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crew Egress: The co-pilots escape hatch was opened and the co-pilot, crew chief, and aircraft commander climbed out and jumped 10 feet to the ground.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are more non-combatant aircraft on the Airshow site map .

[58][59]
Of the 50 B-52Bs built, 27 were capable of carrying a reconnaissance pod as RB-52Bs (the crew was increased to eight in these aircraft)..[31] The 300 pound (136 kg) pod contained radio receivers, a combination of K-36, K-38, and T-11 cameras, and two operators on downward-firing ejection seats.^ B-52 D The B-52D has upward ejection seats for the Pilot, Copilot, and Electronic Warfare Officer and downward ejection seats for the Navigator and Radar Navigator.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had accommodations for two systems operators, who sat on downward-firing ejection seats, and could be configured with different suites of reconnaissance gear.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52 G The B-52G has upward ejection seats for the Pilot, Copilot, Electronic Warfare Officer and Gunner, and downward ejection seats for the Navigator and Radar Navigator.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pod required only four hours to install.[58][59]
Seven B-52Bs were brought to B-52C standard under Project Sunflower.[115]
NB-52B
.The NB-52B was B-52B number 52-0008 converted to an X-15 launch platform.^ How to launch 15 B-52's in less than 9 minutes (from first takeoff roll to last.
  • B-52 MITO departure. 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This aircraft (s/n 52-0003) was modified to act as the mothership in the launching of the experimental North American X-15 hot rod aircraft.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It subsequently flew as the "Balls 8" in support of NASA research until 17 December 2004, making it the oldest flying B-52B. It was replaced by a modified B-52H.[116]
B-52C
.In the B-52C the fuel capacity (and range) was increased to 41,700 US gallons by adding larger 3000 US gallon underwing fuel tanks.^ B-52C's arrived with increased range thanks to improved fuel capacity made possible through larger external tanks.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ G-models featured the all-important "wet wing" arrangement in which the internal spaces of the wing were utilized for the storage of fuel cells for increased overall fuel capacity and thus operational range.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integral fuel increased to 176,507 liters (46,572 US gallons) and the wingtip tanks were reduced to 2,650 liters (700 US gallons), for a total fuel capacity of 181,808 liters (47,970 gallons).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gross weight was increased by 30,000 pounds (13,605 kg) to 450,000 pounds.^ This was our major strategic bomber carrying up to 54,000 pounds of ordinance at an altitude of 30,000 feet.
  • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The belly of the aircraft was painted with antiflash white paint, which was intended to reflect thermal radiation away after a nuclear detonation.^ As this was the Cold War and the use of B-52's in an all-out nuclear strike seemed all but imminent, the underside fuselage of B-52C models were painted over in an all-white scheme in an effort to reflect the thermal radiation inherent in a nuclear-induced explosion while their "tops" remained a natural metal finish.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52C was delivered in natural metal finish, with a coat of white paint on the underside to reflect the flash of a nuclear explosion, which would also be retroactively applied to the B-52Bs.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117][118]
RB-52C
.The RB-52C was the designation initially given to B-52Cs fitted for reconnaissance duties in a similar manner to RB-52Bs.^ Although most of the B-52Cs were fitted with the "improved" A-3A FCS used on late-production B-52Bs, it turned out to be not much of an improvement, and so the very last B-52C was fitted with the "MD-9" FCS, which was finally a workable and effective piece of gear.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were all compatible with the bombbay reconnaissance capsule, though none of them formally received an "RB-52C" designation.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second B-52E used for various test duties was also designated "NB-52E", and a B-52D used in a similar fashion was designated "NB-52D".
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As all 35 B-52Cs could be fitted with the reconnaissance pod, the RB-52C designation was little used and was quickly abandoned.^ These aircraft sported a crew of eight personnel and were fitted to accept specialized reconnaissance equipment in the form of a 300lb pod in their bomb bays.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Model 464-35 was another Boeing design team proposal fitting 4 x turboprop engines with contra-rotating propellers.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52C's were also reconnaissance capable though the RB-52C designation was never truly adopted for the type.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117][118]
B-52D
.The B-52D was a dedicated long-range bomber without a reconnaissance option.^ D-models entered service in December of 1956 as dedicated long-range bombers and, unlike previous Stratofortress offerings, these aircraft would not feature the ability to carry the reconnaissance pod so there were no RB-52D designations handed out.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USAF Headquarters decided that the service didn't have a need for a long-range bomber like the B-52 and wanted them all built as reconnaissance aircraft.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This new specification called for a next generation long-range, intercontinental, high-altitude strategic bomber to replace the already-in-development Convair B-36 Peacemakers.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Big Belly modifications allowed the B-52D to carry heavy loads of conventional bombs for carpet bombing over Vietnam, while the Rivet Rambler modification added the Phase V ECM systems, which was better than the systems used on most later B-52s.^ A "Phase VI+" ECM update would be installed beginning in 1988, with the main change being the replacement of the AN/ALQ-117 with the improved AN/ALQ-172(V)2 countermeasures system.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in late 1965, all B-52Ds had been given the "high density bombing (HDB)" or "Big Belly" upgrade, which modified the bombbay to carry 84 225 kilogram (500 pound) or 42 340 kilogram (750 pound) bombs in the bombbay.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bomber could carry a total of 10,900 kilograms (24,000 pounds) of conventional bombs.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aircraft assigned to Vietnam were painted in a camouflage colour scheme with black bellies to defeat searchlights.^ Vietnam-based B-52D models were distinguished by their overall forest camouflage schemes and black-colored, anti-searchlight fuselage undersides.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52Ds also sported a new paint scheme, with the black underside as used on the B-52F, and the top surfaces painted in a jungle camouflage scheme with tan and two shades of green.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the post-Vietnam timeframe, their normal colors were Vietnam-style camouflage on top but white, not black, on the bottom.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119][120]
B-52E
.In the B-52E the aircraft received an updated avionics and bombing navigational system, which was eventually debugged and included on following models.^ Additions included a revised bombing and navigation suite (AN/ASQ-38 - Raytheon AN/ASB-4 navigation and bombing radar) that would become standard on future Stratofortress production models.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52E - Fitted with improved weapon systems and navigation systems.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following Crash Description is from Captain Gary Sible Navigator of 55-0103, USAF 346 Bomb Squadron, 99 Bomb Wing.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

[121]
One E aircraft (AF Serial No. 56-0631) modified as a testbed for various B-52 systems. .Redesignated NB-52E, the aircraft was fitted with canards and a Load Alleviation and Mode Stabilization system (LAMS) which reduced airframe fatigue from wind gusts during low level flight.^ One of the most visible updates to the B-52 was the "ASQ-151 Electro-Optical Viewing System (EVS)", referred to as "Evs", which provided the Buff with sensors for low-level flight operations.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BTW Steve E. The B-52 that lost its vertical fin during a low level test in the rockies was a H model Tail number 1023 .
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ BISMARCK, N.D. - A B-52 bomber was mistakenly loaded with five nuclear warheads during a flight from North Dakota to Louisiana, a newspaper reported Wednesday.

.In one test, the aircraft flew 10 knots (11.5 mph, 18.5 km/h) faster than the never exceed speed without damage because the canards eliminated 30% of vertical and 50% of horizontal vibrations caused by wind gusts.^ The aeroplane responded to more than one gust variation at a time and hence was never in synch.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Friday, November 13th 2009 - 10:11:18 AM .
  • B-52 Stratofortress Association's Dreambook 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC books.dreambook.com [Source type: General]

^ The tests began in September, first using a 50-50 mixture of regular jet fuel and synthetic fuel in just two of the aircraft's eight engines.

[121][122]
B-52F
.In the B-52F, the aircraft was given J57-P-43W engines with a larger capacity water injection system and new alternators.^ The "B-52F" was very similar to the B-52E, but featured new J57-43W engines, with 49.8 kN (5,080 kgp / 11,200 lbf) "dry" thrust and 61.2 kN (6,235 kgp / 13,750 lbf) "wet" thrust, in a revised pod configuration.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although calling water injection "absurd" is a bit of an exaggeration, since it was used in many different kinds of aircraft for decades and the J57 was a landmark of jet-engine design, water injection is now basically stone-axe technology, and nobody was unhappy to see it go.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major reason for obsoleting the B-52G was the old water-injected J57 engines.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123] .This model had problems with fuel leaks, but were eventually solved by several service modifications: Blue Band, Hard Shell, and QuickClip.^ Most of the early B-52 variants also suffered from nagging fuel line leaks that would take several years and a number of update programs to get under control.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
B-52G
.The B-52G was proposed to extend the B-52's service life during delays in the B-58 Hustler program.^ The B-52 is said, convincingly, to have had the longest first-line service career of any combat aircraft in history, and there still may be life in the old Buff yet.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phaseout of the B-52G began in 1989, with the variant getting a temporary lease on life due to its sterling service in the Gulf War, but the last B-52G was withdrawn from service in 1994.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At first, a radical redesign was envisioned with a completely new wing and Pratt & Whitney J75 engines.^ The B-52F was similar to the preceding B-52E but sported Pratt & Whitney J57-43W series engines of 11,200lbf.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern B-52H's sport 8 x Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-3/103 series turbofans positioned in pairs with four to a wing.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among other refinements, these Stratofortresses featured new Pratt & Whitney J57-P-43W series turbojet engines.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was rejected to avoid slowdowns in production, although changes were implemented. .The most significant of these was the brand new "wet" wing with integral fuel tanks which considerably increased the fuel capacity — gross aircraft weight went up by 38,000 pounds (17,235 kg) compared with prior variants.^ G-models featured the all-important "wet wing" arrangement in which the internal spaces of the wing were utilized for the storage of fuel cells for increased overall fuel capacity and thus operational range.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also fitted with the P&W TF33-3 turbofan, a derivative of the J57, with 75.6 kN (7,710 kg / 17,000 lbf) thrust.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unfortunate consequence of that explosion was that it ruptured the fuel tanks in the wing above and threw flaming JP4 everywhere.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, a pair of 700 US gallon (2,650 L) external fuel tanks was fitted under the wings.^ The unfortunate consequence of that explosion was that it ruptured the fuel tanks in the wing above and threw flaming JP4 everywhere.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The group of engineers worked from their hotel room in Dayton to scale up the medium bomber proposal to twice size, with eight JT3 engines mounted in pairs on pylons, fitted under a 35 degree swept wing.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B-52C's arrived with increased range thanks to improved fuel capacity made possible through larger external tanks.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this model, the traditional ailerons were eliminated, instead utilizing spoilers for roll control.^ The vertical tail fin was shortened while the nose radome was lengthened and ailerons completely eliminated in favor of seven spoilers to provide for roll control.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have to roll out of it using ailerons or roll spoilers and you have to have 15,000 feet.
  • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

^ Roll control was now provided strictly by the spoilers.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tail fin was shortened by 8 feet (2.4 m), water injection system capacity was increased to 1,200 US gallons (4,540 L), and the nose radome was enlarged.^ The vertical tail fin was shortened while the nose radome was lengthened and ailerons completely eliminated in favor of seven spoilers to provide for roll control.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integral fuel increased to 176,507 liters (46,572 US gallons) and the wingtip tanks were reduced to 2,650 liters (700 US gallons), for a total fuel capacity of 181,808 liters (47,970 gallons).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engine pods on each wing were revised to include their own water injection systems.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tail gunner was provided with an ejection seat and moved to the main cockpit.^ The brake chute was moved from under the tail to the top, where the gunner's position had been in earlier versions.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dubbed the "Battle Station" concept, the offensive crew (pilot and copilot on the upper deck and the two bombing navigation system operators on the lower deck) faced forward, while the defensive crew (tail gunner and ECM operator) on the upper deck faced aft.^ The pilot, copilot, and electronic warfare officer (EWO or "e-dub") sat in the upper flight deck, with upward-firing ejection seats, while the navigator and "radar navigator" (bombardier, more or less) sat in the lower flight deck, sometimes called the "black hole" or "hell hole", on downward-firing ejection seats.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tail gunner sat in the turret and could direct the guns with an "A-3A" fire control system (FCS).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entire crew was together with the exception of the tail gunner who had ran back the other direction from the plane and was rescued by the fire crews who had been tactically pulled back for their own protection.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

.The B-52G entered service 13 February 1959 (a day earlier, the last B-36 was retired, making SAC an all-jet bomber force).^ All within the last 7 days in 'accidents' .
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The Air Force was expecting to field the North American B-70 Valkyrie supersonic bomber after the B-52, and so the B-52G was supposed to have been the final production model.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the spring of 1959, SAC leadership had proposed an extension of the ground alert system, the "airborne alert" system, in which a number of bombers were kept armed and in the air at all times.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nearly all B-52Gs were destroyed in compliance with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of 1992. A few examples remain in museums and as static displays at various air force bases.^ Five 150-kiloton warheads were attached to cruise missiles that were flown from Minot Air Force Base, N.D., to Barksdale Air Force Base, La., to be dismantled, but the warheads should have been removed.

^ Ed Thomas said the transfer was safely conducted and the weapons were in Air Force custody and control at all times.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ I do not find compelling the speculation, suggested by Larry Johnson and others, that the nuclear-armed Advanced Cruise Missiles that mistakenly ended up at Barksdale Air Force Base were being staged for an attack on Iran.
  • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

[124]
B-52H
.The B-52H had the same crew and structural changes as the B-52G. The most significant upgrade was the switch to TF33-P-3 turbofan engines which, despite the initial reliability problems (corrected by 1964 under the Hot Fan program), offered considerably better performance and fuel economy than the J57 turbojets.^ It was also fitted with the P&W TF33-3 turbofan, a derivative of the J57, with 75.6 kN (7,710 kg / 17,000 lbf) thrust.
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52D, the Air Force's workhorse in Vietnam, was finally withdrawn from service in 1983, but the B-52G and B-52H stayed on the flight lines, with the Air Force performing another level of upgrades in that decade through the two billion USD "AN/ASQ-176 Offensive Avionics System (OAS)" program.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, killing off the B-52G because of its antique engines emphasized the uncomfortable fact that the TF33 turbofans used on the B-52H are almost as old and archaic as the J57.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ECM and avionics were updated, a new fire control system was fitted, and the rear defensive armament was changed from machine guns to a 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannon (later removed in 1991-94).^ A "Phase VI+" ECM update would be installed beginning in 1988, with the main change being the replacement of the AN/ALQ-117 with the improved AN/ALQ-172(V)2 countermeasures system.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tail gunner sat in the turret and could direct the guns with an "A-3A" fire control system (FCS).
  • [1.0] B-52 Evolution 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tail turrets of all surviving B-52s were removed in 1991:1994, as the guns were no longer considered to be a particularly effective defense and were a maintenance headache.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A provision was made for four AGM-48 Skybolt ballistic missiles. .First flight 10 July 1960, entered service 9 May 1961. This is the only variant still operational.^ Larry P Houston, Texas July 2, 2005 mbcf29@wanadoo.fr well for me Mesopotamia is the ONLY good lp they made AFTER the first one.
  • Prindle Record Reviews - The B-52's 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.markprindle.com [Source type: General]

^ The B-52 is said, convincingly, to have had the longest first-line service career of any combat aircraft in history, and there still may be life in the old Buff yet.
  • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-52H model was first flown on March 6th, 1961 and introduced into service on May 9th, 1961.
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125] A total of 744 B-52s were built. The last production aircraft, B-52H AF Serial No. 61-0040, left the factory on 26 October 1962.[126][127]

Operators

 United States

Notable accidents

.
  • On 11 February 1958, a B-52D crashed in South Dakota due to ice blocking the fuel system and leading to an uncommanded reduction in power to all eight engines.^ And what were those events that lead to the B-52 incident?
    • U.S. Nuke Secrets for Sale? And What Was the Deal With that B-52 Stratofortress Again? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Boeing Italia- [ Translate this page ]Titolo Boeing (BA): 90.70 [+0.77] alle 4:11 PM ET del 15 di dicembre ...

    ^ Boeing is involved in a demonstration project aimed at exploring the use of fuel cell ...

    Three crew were killed.[128]
  • .
  • On 24 January 1961, a B-52G broke up in midair and crashed after suffering a severe fuel loss, near Goldsboro, North Carolina, dropping two nuclear bombs in the process without detonation.^ As Hymel's B-52 dropped its bombs and turned off target, the rear gunner called two SAMs coming up.
    • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also keep in mind that after the Kadena AFB crash and fireball, the bomb load then detonated and blew the entire wreckage and burning fuel all over the place...
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At bombs away, it looked like we were right in the middle of a fireworks factory that was in the process of blowing up.
    • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [129]
  • .
  • On 14 March 1961, a B-52F from the 70th Bombardment Wing was carrying two nuclear weapons and experienced an uncontrolled decompression that required it to descend to 10,000 feet in order to lower the cabin altitude.^ In a follow-up piece, the Journal reported that the ScanEagle “can stay aloft for 24 hours and carries electro-optical and infrared cameras up to an altitude of 16,000 feet.” .
    • Dissident Voice : Hackable Drones, Crumbling Empire 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This was our major strategic bomber carrying up to 54,000 pounds of ordinance at an altitude of 30,000 feet.
    • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The nuclear munition types carried by the B-52 in the 1960s were more or less phased out in the 1980s, but the Buff could carry newer weapons, including the "B61" and "B83".
    • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Increased fuel consumption at lower altitude, together with its inability to rendezvous with a tanker in time, caused the aircraft to run out of fuel.^ Once the B-52s reached altitude they joined up with a tanker to take on fuel to make the run to Nam .
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Time has run out on me and I still have a young family.
    • Monessa Catuncan: A Filipina takes flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC asianjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The aircrew ejected safely, while the unmanned aircraft crashed 15 miles (24 km) West of Yuba City, California.^ The crash of 5-8-69 (aircraft 56-0593) I remember vividly because the aircrew was from my home base, Fairchild AFB Washington.
    • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [130]
.
B-52H 61-0026 Czar 52 before crash; note the escape hatch detaching during the co-pilot's ejection sequence is visible near the tip of the leading edge of the tail.
  • On 24 January 1963, a B-52C on a training mission out of Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts experienced trouble and crashed into the side of Elephant Mountain near Greenville, Maine.^ Not the ejection seat butthe escape hatch.
    • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The crew escaped out the co-pilot's hatch above his ejection seat which had to be opened manually.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Co-pilot started ejection sequence.
    • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

    Of the nine men aboard, only two survived the crash.[131]
  • .
  • On 13 January 1964, a B-52D carrying two nuclear bombs suffered a structural failure in flight that caused the tail section to shear off.^ I am concerned about nuclear weapons also, to date we have exploded two small yield atomic bombs with the intent to kill people.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ As Hymel's B-52 dropped its bombs and turned off target, the rear gunner called two SAMs coming up.
    • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ WASHINGTON (CNN) -- Six nuclear warheads on cruise missiles were mistakenly carried on a flight from North Dakota to Louisiana last week...
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    .Four crew ejected successfully before the aircraft crashed near Cumberland, Maryland.^ The bomber's pilot, Captain N.J. Ostrozny, managed to get the burning machine back to Thailand before the crew bailed out, leaving the Buff to crash.
    • [2.0] B-52 At War 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The base or wing commander, or any of the aircraft flight crew couldn't get near the aircarft alone.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    [132] .Two crew subsequently perished on the ground because of hypothermia, while another who was unable to eject died in the aircraft; both weapons were recovered.
  • On 17 January 1966, a fatal collision occurred between a B-52G and a KC-135 Stratotanker over Palomares, Spain.^ Stratotanker KC-135 Model .

    ^ KC-135 Stratotanker in-Flight Refueling .

    ^ Crew Egress: The co-pilots escape hatch was opened and the co-pilot, crew chief, and aircraft commander climbed out and jumped 10 feet to the ground.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The two unexploded B-28 FI 1.45-megaton-range nuclear bombs on the B-52 were eventually recovered; the conventional explosives of two more bombs detonated on impact, with serious dispersion of both plutonium and uranium, but without triggering a nuclear explosion.^ How many nuclear weapons were "accidentally" ferried around the US a week ago and, more importantly, how many were eventually recovered?
    • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

    ^ ACMs with nuclear warheads also weigh significantly more than missiles without them.
    • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

    ^ I was told that the B-52's had to take off without full fuel loads because with the bomb load the B-52's were too heavy to get off the ground.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    .After the crash, 1,400 metric tons (3,100,000 lb) of contaminated soil was sent to the United States.^ In Greenland, the Danes made us clean up that mess and transfer tons of snow, dirt and ice to the United States to be 'safely' stored.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ I mmediately as word of the crash reached SAC headquarters and the Pentagon, contingency plans went into operation all over the United States.
    • Broken Arrow -- The B-52 Accident.................. - Thuleforum � 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.thuleforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We've used thousands of tons in the Mid-East and here in the United States on firing ranges.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    [133] In 2006, an agreement was made between the U.S. and Spain to investigate and clean the pollution still remaining as a result of the accident.[134]
  • .
  • On 21 January 1968, a B-52G, with four nuclear bombs aboard as part of Operation Chrome Dome, crashed on the ice of the North Star Bay while attempting an emergency landing at Thule Air Base, Greenland.^ The systematic bombing of Japan’s war industries started six months ago from bases in China will be carried on with greater power to soften up the heart of Japan in preparation of joint landing operations by the Allied land, sea and air forces .
    • B52 Psychological Operations Leaflets 10 February 2010 10:24 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The last one was when a 52 crashed short of the runway during an emergency landing at Thule AFB in Greenland and some plutonium was spilled.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Eventually all the parts were hauled to a remote area of the air base and put in a pile and forgotten.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    [135] The resulting fire caused extensive radioactive contamination, the cleanup of which lasted until September of that year.[133] .Following closely on the Palomares incident, the clean-up costs and political consequences proved too high to risk again, so SAC ended the airborne alert program the following day.^ Early on the morning of November 19, 1968 one of the B-52's taking off couldn't get up enough speed to get airborn and ended up crashing at the end of the runway.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From the late 1950s thru the 1980s, SAC flew airborne alert aircraft, approx 14 a day, 24-7.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    [136][137][138]
  • On 31 March 1972, a B-52D, AF Serial No. .56-0625, departed McCoy Air Force Base, Florida on a routine training mission.^ A panel of Air Force and independent investigators told the Senate Armed Services Committee that the increased importance of conventional combat missions since the 1991 Gulf War has undermined nuclear-related training and experience.
    • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Monessa went through with her training to hone her skill at maneuvering fighter jets at Luke Air Force Base in Phoenix, Arizona where she learned how to control and apply tactics of the F-16 Fighter Falcon, or Viper.
    • Monessa Catuncan: A Filipina takes flight 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC asianjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One tradition at all Air Force bases is that Retreat is sounded every afternoon at 5 pm while the flag is lowered.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Assigned to the 306th Bombardment Wing, the unarmed aircraft sustained multiple engine failures and engine fires on engines #7 and #8 shortly after takeoff.^ Starboard wing failed and aircraft caught fire during landing roll; 4170 th Strategic Wing.
    • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The aircraft immediately attempted to return to the base, but crashed just short of Runway 18R in a residential area of Orlando, Florida, approximately 1 mile north of McCoy AFB, destroying or damaging eight homes.^ It crashed a few miles north of the Sawyer runway.
    • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I thought about 2-3 miles north of the base I heard a rumor nuclear arms were on-board.
    • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fairchild AFB, Wash., attempted a steep banking turn at only a few hundred feet altitude, stalled, crashed and fireballed.
    • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The flight crew of 7 airmen and 1 civilian on the ground were killed.[139]
  • .
  • On October 16, 1984, a B-52 clipped its wing on Hunts Mesa, an outcropping in Monument Valley, Arizona, and crashed, sending a fireball high into the air.^ September 6, that "An Air Force B-52 bomber flew over the heartland last week with six nuclear-armed cruise missiles attached to its wings.
    • The B-52 Nukes Incident | The Agonist 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC agonist.org [Source type: General]

    Two of the seven crew perished in the crash.[140]
  • .
  • On June 24, 1994, a USAF B-52H crashed at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington, during an airshow practice flight.^ The stand-down of ALL Air Force bases and aircraft is unusual, in that what possible necessity could there be?
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A B-52 bomber mistakenly loaded with five nuclear warheads flew from Minot Air Force Base, N.D, to Barksdale Air Force Base, La., on Aug.
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Fairchild was my home base during Viet Nam...we spent most of our time flying out of Guam.
    • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

    .All four crew members died in the accident.^ Condolences to all family members of all the crew who died.
    • Pix :: B52 Crash :: B52CRSH2 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC w1.rob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The crew all got out, but some were injured, I heard later that 2 had died.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Accident and Flying Evaluation Boards and Crew Status: All of the crew members were tested for substances and questioned in detail.
    • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

    [141]
  • On 21 July 2008, a B-52H, AF Serial No. .60-0053, deployed from Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana to Andersen Air Force Base, Guam crashed approximately 25 miles (40 km) off the coast of Guam.^ Barksdale calls Guam crash a 'mishap' .

    ^ Other valuable sources of information come from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base/Air Force Museum timeline of B-52 operations and Mr. Buck Rigg at 8 th Air Force Museum at Barksdale Air Force Base.
    • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Minot Air Force Base to activate new B-52 squadron .

    Personnel in all five crewmember positions and a flight surgeon were killed.[142]

Survivors

.There are many B-52s still in use and others on static display at USAF bases and museums around the world.^ This error left so many other safeguards in place that there was no chance of anything happening.
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Ninety-four B-52s are still actively flying with the USAF. All are B-52Hs built in 1960-62.
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although none of the 1950s-era bombers were built at Plant 42, some have been modified there, and some B-52s assigned to Edwards Air Force Base have used Plant 42 for refueling as well as practice takeoffs and landings....

Specifications (B-52H)

Boeing B-52 STRATOFORTRESS.png
B-52H profile
Boeing B-52H static display with weapons, Barksdale AFB 2006

Data from Knaak,[143] USAF fact sheet,[6] Quest for Performance[144]

General characteristics
Performance
.
Armament
  • Guns:20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan cannon in a remote controlled tail turret, removed from all current operational aircraft
  • Bombs: Approximately 70,000 pounds (31,500 kg) mixed ordnance -- bombs, mines, missiles, in various configurations[6]
Avionics
Electro-optical viewing system that uses platinum silicide forward-looking infrared and high resolution low-light-level television sensors[145][146] Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod[147]

Popular culture

The B-52 has been featured in a number of major films, most notably: Bombers B-52 (1957), A Gathering of Eagles (1963), Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), and By Dawn's Early Light (1990). .It has also been featured in numerous novels, such as most of the early Patrick McLanahan novels by Dale Brown feature one or more heavily-modified B-52 bombers, nicknamed the "EB-52 Megafortress". A 1960s hairstyle, the beehive, is also called a B-52 for its resemblance to the aircraft's distinct nose.^ There were a few victims with more serious injuries such as fractured arms or legs, but no one else appeared with life-threatening injuries.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If it had been anywhere else in the sequence, there is reason to believe that one or more of the aircraft following would not have been able to avoid being involved.
  • U.S.   Army Hawk Missile in Okinawa 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.madracki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Date: 18 Dec 72, Aircraft: B-52D, Tail No.: 56-0676, Call Sign: Brown III .
  • Mac�s Facts no 1 February 2010 7:07 UTC www.nampows.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The popular band The B-52's was subsequently named after this hairstyle.

See also

Related development
Comparable aircraft
Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ Ground tests and checkouts carried out on 29 November 1951 resulted in the XB-52's pneumatic system's failure during a full-pressure test with the resulting explosion severely damaging the wing trailing edge. The prototype was returned to the production hall for repairs.
  2. ^ "Fellow" is substituted for "Fucker" in bowlderized/sanitized versions of the acronym.
  3. ^ The electronic warfare officer sat behind the pilot facing to the rear.
Citations
  1. ^ a b "Status." airforcetimes.com, 18 January 2009. Retrieved: 24 February 2009.
  2. ^ a b Knaack 1988, p. 291.
  3. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 241.
  4. ^ a b c "B-52 Stratofortress." af.mil. Retrieved: 2 October 2007.
  5. ^ "The Boeing Logbook: 1952–1956 15 April 1952." boeing.com, Boeing. Retrieved: 13 August 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Fact Sheet B-52 Superfortress". Minot Air Force Base, United States Air Force, October 2005. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  7. ^ "Возвращение летающего медведя [Return of the Flying Bear" (in Russian). lenta.ru. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  8. ^ "C-130 Reaches Major Milestone." Service News: Lockheed Martin, Volume 29, No. 2, 2004. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  9. ^ Lombardi, Michael. "The first KC-135 tanker aircraft rolled out 50 years ago this month." boeing.com. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  10. ^ Karl, Jonathan. "So high, so fast." abcnews.go.com, 17 August 2007. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  11. ^ a b c Greenwood 1995, p. 201.
  12. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 206–207.
  13. ^ a b Knaack 1988, p. 207.
  14. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 207–208.
  15. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 208.
  16. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 209.
  17. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 210.
  18. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 210–211.
  19. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 212.
  20. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 213.
  21. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 214–215.
  22. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 215.
  23. ^ "B-52D." globalsecurity.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  24. ^ Knaack 1998, pp. 215–216.
  25. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 217–218.
  26. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 218.
  27. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 217–219.
  28. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 219.
  29. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 221.
  30. ^ Cooke 1956, pp. 24–28.
  31. ^ a b c d Donald 1997, pp. 161–162.
  32. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 222.
  33. ^ "B-52 Evolution." vectorsite.net. Retrieved: 6 October 2007.
  34. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 227. "Designing the B-29 had required 153,000 engineering hours; the B-52, 3,000,000."
  35. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 229.
  36. ^ a b Knaack 1988, p. 230.
  37. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 229–230.
  38. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 252–254.
  39. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 277–278.
  40. ^ a b Knaack 1988, pp. 266–267.
  41. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 279–280.
  42. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, pp. 41–43.
  43. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, pp. 44–45.
  44. ^ Dorr and Rogers 1996, pp. 65–66.
  45. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 254–255.
  46. ^ a b Knaack 1988, p. 259.
  47. ^ Lake International Air Power Review Summer 2003, p. 201.
  48. ^ a b Knaack 1988, pp. 276–277.
  49. ^ "B-52 Stratofortress Upgrades." globalsecurity.org. Retrieved: 16 October 2007.
  50. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "Air Force Widens Review Of B-52 Re-Engining Options." Aviation Week, 7 July 2003.
  51. ^ "Defense Science Board Task Force on B-52H Re-Engining." Retrieved: 1 August 2007.
  52. ^ http://wstiac.alionscience.com/pdf/eNews_WSMR_041808.pdf
  53. ^ a b c Zamorano, Marti, "B-52 synthetic fuel testing: Center commander pilots first Air Force B-52 flight using solely synthetic fuel blend in all eight engines." Aerotech News and Review, 22 December 2006.
  54. ^ a b Hernandez, Jason, "SECAF certifies synthetic fuel blends for B-52H." Aerotech News and Review, 10 August 2007.
  55. ^ a b Knaack 1998.
  56. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 234–237.
  57. ^ a b "B-52B." Global Security. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
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  59. ^ a b c Lake International Air Power Review Spring 2003, p. 119.
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  61. ^ Knaack 1988, p.243.
  62. ^ Knaack 1988, p.243.
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  64. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 282.
  65. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 289.
  66. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Origin of the B-52". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  67. ^ "BUF." Wordorigins.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  68. ^ Flynn 1997, p. 138.
  69. ^ Astronautics and aeronautics
  70. ^ Lake International Air Power Review Summer 2003, p.103.
  71. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Service of Boeing B-52F Stratofortress." Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  72. ^ a b Dick and Patterson 2006, p. 161.
  73. ^ Knaack 1988, p. 256.
  74. ^ "B-52 D." globalsecurity.org. Retrieved: 16 October 2007.
  75. ^ Dick and Patterson 2006, p. 187.
  76. ^ Budiansky 2004, p. 394.
  77. ^ Hobson 2001.
  78. ^ a b c McCarthy 2009, p. 139.
  79. ^ a b McCarthy 2009, p. 19.
  80. ^ Futrell 1976.
  81. ^ a b McCarthy 2009, p. 141.
  82. ^ The following military aircraft are the only aircraft larger than the B-52 in some manner (parameter listed in parenthesis may not be the only figure that exceeds the corresponding parameter of the B-52) and possess an air-to-air capability; none has a combat kill: B-36 Peacemaker (wingspan), Convair YB-60 (wingspan), Ilyushin Il-76D (payload).
  83. ^ "SAC Airborne Alert." National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 2 October 2007.
  84. ^ US Nuclear Weapons Deployments Disclosed, Nautilus Institute "History of the Custody and Deployment of Nuclear Weapons: July 1945 to September 1977." nautilus.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  85. ^ "NASA's B-52B Retires." NASA. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  86. ^ "B-52B Stratofortress: Online Exhibit of Aircraft." Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  87. ^ "B-52F." globalsecurity.org. Retrieved: 7 February 2010.
  88. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, p. 39.
  89. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, p. 41.
  90. ^ Anderton, David. "B-1B: Out of the Shadows." Popular Mechanics, Volume 162, Issue 11, November 1985, pp. 98–99, 174. New York: The Hearst Corporation. Retrieved: 13 November 2009.
  91. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, pp. 51—52.
  92. ^ http://www.afhra.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=12123&page=1
  93. ^ a b Arana-Barradas, Louis A. "'BUFF' and Tough: the B-52 bomber has been a valuable and effective member of the Air Force since 1955." Airman, June 2001. Retrieved: 16 October 2007.
  94. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, p. 50.
  95. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Service of Boeing B-52G Stratofortress." Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  96. ^ Dick and Patterson 2006, p. 225.
  97. ^ "Iraqi air-air victories during the Gulf War 1991." safarikovi.org.com, 2004. Retrieved: 7 December 2009.
  98. ^ Lake, Jon "B-52 Stratofortress Units in Operation Desert Storm." London: Osprey Publishing, 2004. Retrieved: 7 February 2010.
  99. ^ Dick and Patterson 2006, p. 222.
  100. ^ A B-52B, Balls 8, was in use by NASA, a civilian US government entity, until 17 December 2004
  101. ^ "B-52H." nasa.gov. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  102. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast November/December 2005, pp. 56—57.
  103. ^ Dick and Patterson 2006, p. 242.
  104. ^ Warrick, Joby and Walter Pincus. "Missteps in the Bunker". Washington Post, 23 September 2007. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  105. ^ Hoffman, Michael. ""Wing decertified, COs sacked for nuke mistake". Air Force Times, 21 October 2007. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  106. ^ Hopper, David. "Upgraded B-52 still on cutting edge". Air Combat Command Public Affairs, 31 March 2008. Retrieved: 21 July 2008.
  107. ^ Hebert, Adam J. "Strategic Force." Air Force Magazine for the Air Force Association, Volume 90, Issue 2, February 2007, pp. 38–43. Retrieved: 13 November 2009.
  108. ^ "Air Force Depot Maintenance: Information on the Cost-Effectiveness of B-1 and B-52 Support Options (Briefing Report, 09/12/97, GAO/NSIAD-97-210BR)."fas.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  109. ^ Cortes, Lorenzo. "B-52 Crew Credits Arsenal, Loiter Capability During Operation Iraqi Freedom." Defense Daily, 9 May 2003. Retrieved: 13 November 2009.
  110. ^ "Jamming with the B-52s." proxify.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  111. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "US Air Force cancels SAM-jamming EB-52 for second time". Flight International, 3 March 2009.
  112. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52A Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  113. ^ a b c Dorr 1990, p. 26.
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  115. ^ Willis Air Enthusiast September/October 2005, p. 59.
  116. ^ NASA "Balls 8"."B-52B 'Mothership' Launch Aircraft." nasa.gov. Retrieved: 2 October 2007.
  117. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52C Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
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  119. ^ Lake International Air Power Review Summer 2003, pp. 100–101.
  120. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52D Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  121. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52E Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  122. ^ Hewitt Phillips, W. "Chapter 13: Gust Alleviation" Journey in Aeronautical Research: A Career at NASA Langley Research Center, Monographs in Aerospace History, Number 12. Washington, D.C: NASA Historical Office, November 1998, p. 132.
  123. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52F Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  124. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52G Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  125. ^ a b Baugher, Joe. "Boeing B-52H Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  126. ^ Dorr 1990, p. 27.
  127. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Service of Boeing B-52H Stratofortress". Boeing B-52 Stratfortress. Retrieved: 25 February 2010.
  128. ^ "Report on the accident to Boeing 777-236ER, G-YMMM, at London Heathrow Airport on 17 January 2008". AAIB. 9 February 2010. p. 123. http://www.aaib.gov.uk/cms_resources.cfm?file=/1-2010%20G-YMMM.pdf. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  129. ^ Nelson, Cliffe et al. "Broken Arrow: Goldsboro, North Carolina: The Truth behind North Carolina's brush with nuclear disaster." ibiblio.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  130. ^ "B-52 Stratofortress Draft Listing." ejection-history.org.uk. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  131. ^ Press Herald Maine Today: Crash site tells of Cold War tragedy by Bill Nemitz Retrieved: 7 December 2009.
  132. ^ "Narrative Summaries of Accidents Involving U.S. Nuclear Weapons." United States Department of Defence. Retrieved: 7 February 2010.
  133. ^ a b Knaack 1988, p. 279.
  134. ^ "Spain, U.S. Agree to Radioactivity Cleanup 40 Years After Atomic Accident." FOXNews.com, 8 October 2006. Retrieved: 23 September 2007.
  135. ^ "Butterknife V Thule Route." nukestrat.com. Retrieved: 13 November 2009.
  136. ^ Lake and Styling 2004, p. 19.
  137. ^ "B-52 Crash." National Military Command Center, Pentagon via Nautilus.org, 24 January 1968. Retrieved: 6 July 2009.
  138. ^ "The Marshal's Baton." Danish Institute for International Studies, Svend Aage Christensen, DIIS Report 2009:18. Retrieved: 9 March 2010.
  139. ^ "Orlando Plane Crash NBC News broadcast." Vanderbilt Television News Archive. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  140. ^ "Monument Valley: Return to Hunts Mesa." azcentral.com. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  141. ^ "B-52 Crash." historylink.org. Retrieved: 3 November 2009.
  142. ^ Song, Jaymes. "B-52 bomber carrying 6 crashes off Guam." Associated Press, 21 July 2008. Retrieved: 21 July 2008.
  143. ^ Knaack 1988, pp. 292–294.
  144. ^ Loftin, L.K. Jr. NASA SP-468, Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA, 1985. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
  145. ^ to augment targeting, battle assessment, and flight safety. This improves its combat ability and low-level flight capability
  146. ^ "B-52 Maintenance Training." Southwest Research Institute. Retrieved: 13 November 2009.
  147. ^ "Lockheed Martin’s Sniper ATP Continues Successful B-52 Integration Test Program." lockheedmartin.com. Retrieved: 7 February 2010.
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    ^ United States Air Force Academy says, from June 1965 to August 1973, B52s operating from Kadina Air Base, Okinawa; Anderson AFB, Guam; and Utapao Royal Thai Navy Air Field, Thailand flew over 126,000 combat missions in Southeast Asia.
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    ^ Aircraft now on display at the North Entrance to the United States Air Force Academy, Colorado.
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    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

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    ^ Login or register to post comments report this comment Ken Hausle September 6th, 2007 1:00 pm Here is some more "air force" BS: .
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A B-52 bomber mistakenly loaded with five nuclear warheads flew from Minot Air Force Base, N.D, to Barksdale Air Force Base, La., on Aug.
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    ^ Login or register to post comments report this comment Ken Hausle September 6th, 2007 1:00 pm Here is some more "air force" BS: .
    • B-52 Mistakenly Flies with Nukes Aboard | CommonDreams.org 20 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Congratulations Monessa!!, I'm also a proud mother, My son is also U.S. Air Force Pilot , he flies F15E Stryke Eagle, station in Lakenheath AFB, United Kingdom.
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    ^ When the Air Force showed no interest, Boeing invested $16 million of its ...

    ^ I'm pretty sure there are no 20-year-old B-52 pilots in the U.S. Air Force.
    • U.S. Nuke Secrets for Sale? And What Was the Deal With that B-52 Stratofortress Again? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

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External links


Simple English

The B-52 Stratofortress is a bomber that with in-air refueling, can fly long distances to reach targets anywhere in the world. The B-52 can carry up to 70000 lbs of bombs and weapons in its large bomb bays, and on wing hard points.

This airplane is one of the most significant in modern aviation history on several levels. It was created in 1948 as a strategic nuclear bomber, and first flew in the early 1950's, becoming able to be used towards the end of the Korean war. The B-52 fought its first war, under the code name of "Arc Light" in Vietnam from 1965 through 1973. The B-52 is a direct ancestor of many of the airliners which have made Boeing Aircraft , the most successful privately owned aerospace company in the world. The B-52 will stay in military service until around 2040. It is not clear what will replace it as the United States Air Force's main strategic bomber.



United States Air Force Strategic Bombers
B-17 Flying Fortress | B-24 Liberator | B-25 Mitchell | B-26 Marauder | B-29 Flying Superfortress | B-35 | B-36 Peacemaker | B-47 Stratojet | B-50 Flying Superfortress | B-52 Stratofortress | B-58 Husler | B-1 Lancer | B-2 Spirit




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Up to date as of December 14, 2010

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