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BIOS:
AwardBIOS CMOS Setup Utility.png
Phoenix AwardBIOS CMOS (non-volatile memory) Setup utility on a standard PC
Stored on PROM
EPROM
Flash memory
Common manufacturers American Megatrends
Insyde Software
Phoenix Technologies
Byosoft
Others
.In IBM PC Compatible computers, the basic input/output system (BIOS)[1] , also known as the System BIOS, is a de facto standard defining a firmware interface.^ BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System but what is it exactly?
  • Make My Computer Faster - Download BIOS Updater 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC makemycomputerfaster.com [Source type: General]

^ BIOS is an acronym for basic input/output system.
  • BIOS Password and Locked Hard Disk Recovery 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pwcrack.com [Source type: General]

^ BIOS (" Basic Input/Output System " is an essential component in computers, which is used for controlling hardware.
  • BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: General]

[2]
.The BIOS is boot firmware, designed to be the first code run by a PC when powered on.^ The bios is the first program that the computer runs.
  • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

^ It also comes with a manual which lists all the POST codes from each BIOS company.This is the required troubleshooting tool for anyone who works on PC's.Card has 4 LED's showing:( +5v,-12v,+12v, CLK ) (POST stands for Power On Self Test).
  • :: BIOSCHIP.COM :: BIOS UPDATE : BIOS REPLACEMENT : MOTHERBOARD BIOS : CHIPS : UPDATES : BIOS : Acoustibuds : Minoru : 3d Webcam 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioschip.com [Source type: General]

^ BIOS is what makes the system run an initial Power-On Self-Test of the computer, initialize circuits, load the boot program from the boot disk, and then handle low-level I/O to peripheral controllers such as keyboard and display.

.The initial function of the BIOS is to identify, test, and initialize system devices such as the video display card, hard disk, floppy disk and other hardware.^ Sometimes, the BIOS is interrupted such as when a disk has been left in a floppy drive.
  • Make My Computer Faster - Download BIOS Updater 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC makemycomputerfaster.com [Source type: General]

^ The function of the BIOS is to initialize the motherboard hardware and other peripherals, and loading the operating system.

^ If it can't find an operating system there, the BIOS then searches the hard disk.
  • Smart Computing Article - BIOS Basics 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: General]

.The BIOS sets the machine hardware into a known state, so that software stored on compatible media can be loaded, executed, and given control of the PC.[3] This process is known as booting, or booting up, which is short for bootstrapping.^ BIOS is burnt into computer hardware and enables the machine to boot and run software programs and media.
  • BIOS: The Poetics of Life in Digital Media — CLC Plone 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC clc.as.wvu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That will be how to get into the BIOS on your machine.
  • How to get into your… - Cyberwalker.com 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.cyberwalker.com [Source type: General]

^ Power up the PC. 7 Clear the existing BIOS settings .
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

.BIOS programs are stored on a chip and are built to work with various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system.^ The BIOS is stored on a chip.
  • Lenovo Support & downloads - Flash BIOS update - NetVista 2289, 6824, 8181, 8182, 8301, 8303, 8304, 8305, 8306, 8307, 8308, 8309, 8310, 8311, 8312, 8313, 8314, 8315 / ThinkCentre A30 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www-307.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Back up a working bios chip to a disk file.
  • FIX BIOS REPAIR BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.arlabs.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Think of BIOS as a type of software stored on a flash memory chip (usually on the motherboard) that is used to interface the computer's operating system with its hardware components.
  • Make My Computer Faster - Download BIOS Updater 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC makemycomputerfaster.com [Source type: General]

.They provide a small library of basic input/output functions that can be called to operate and control the peripherals such as the keyboard, text display functions and so forth.^ This unheralded mini operating system is the BIOS, the "Basic Input-Output System."
  • How to get the PC's BIOS menu to show up 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC aroundcny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to providing the operating system with basic information about the components, the BIOS has other functions including the POST test (a Power On Self-Test that checks the different hardware devices to be sure that they are working properly), activating other BIOS chips such as those found on graphics cards, managing settings for different devices, and providing basic routines for managing the input and output devices when the computer boots up.
  • Make My Computer Faster - Download BIOS Updater 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC makemycomputerfaster.com [Source type: General]

^ Article Edit Discuss View History A computer's Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) is embedded software on a motherboard that will control attached hardware.
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

.In the IBM PC and AT, certain peripheral cards such as hard-drive controllers and video display adapters carried their own BIOS extension ROM, which provided additional functionality.^ Video cards have their own BIOSes, and so do SCSI controller cards.

^ The Peripheral BIOS - Each installed device has its own 'BIOS'.

^ The Bios reports the hard drive is present.

.Operating systems and executive software, designed to supersede this basic firmware functionality, will provide replacement software interfaces to applications.^ Think of BIOS as a type of software stored on a flash memory chip (usually on the motherboard) that is used to interface the computer's operating system with its hardware components.
  • Make My Computer Faster - Download BIOS Updater 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC makemycomputerfaster.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the Plug-n-Play and Power Management functions are handled by the BIOS. The BIOS has specific functions, often referred to as BIOS " I/O functions" or "calls", which the operating system and application software uses to carry out tasks or get information on system resources.

^ From 1990 to 1996, he led a number of integrated engineering teams that designed and developed complex software engineering systems in a variety of functional domains.

Contents

Terminology

.The term first appeared in the CP/M operating system, describing the part of CP/M loaded during boot time that interfaced directly with the hardware (CP/M machines usually had only a simple boot loader in their ROM).^ It then loads the operating system and passes control to it.
  • EETimes Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.eetimes.com [Source type: General]
  • ChannelWeb Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.crn.com [Source type: General]

^ Can I boot the operating system from a CD-ROM? .
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Because of the BIOS, your programs and your operating system don’t have to know exact details (like hardware addresses) about the I/O devices attached to your PC. When device details change, only the BIOS needs to be updated.
  • How to enter the system BIOS/CMOS | D-A-L Computer Help 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.d-a-l.com [Source type: General]

Most versions of DOS have a file called "IBMBIO.COM" or "IO.SYS" that is analogous to the CP/M BIOS.
.Among other classes of computers, the generic terms boot monitor, boot loader or boot ROM were commonly used.^ It is the first thing that operates when the computer is turned on, and is separate from the OS, though it interacts with the OS. The term BIOS is generally used interchangeably with the terms CMOS and Setup, though the three terms mean three generally distinct things.

^ Some manufacturers will use their own custom application to update the BIOS, others will use a third party utility to update the BIOS while booted from the legacy DOS operating system.
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Generate a POST beep code using the computer's internal speaker if it cannot access the display adaptor.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

.Some Sun and PowerPC-based computers use Open Firmware for this purpose.^ RemoteSysInfo can be used for computer inventory, auditing and diagnostic purposes.

^ Nearly all computers manufactured today have motherboards which use bios chips based on flash memory technology .
  • FIX BIOS REPAIR BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.arlabs.com [Source type: Reference]

^ OLPC now uses Open Firmware for the bootloader .
  • LinuxBIOS - OLPC 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC wiki.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are a few alternatives for Legacy BIOS in the x86 world: Extensible Firmware Interface, Open Firmware (used on the OLPC XO-1) and coreboot.^ OLPC now uses Open Firmware for the bootloader .
  • LinuxBIOS - OLPC 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC wiki.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 26, 2005 Extensible Firmware Interface, which could speed boot-up process for PCs, goes to a group that will promote and standardize it.
  • BIOS news, reviews and downloads on CNET 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.cnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However a can't manage to open it using the "Phoenix Bios Editor".
  • Award & AMI Bios mod requests. Previous requests 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC forums.mydigitallife.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

IBM PC-compatible BIOS chips

.In principle, the BIOS in ROM was customized to the particular manufacturer's hardware, allowing low-level services (such as reading a keystroke or writing a sector of data to diskette) to be provided in a standardized way to the operating system.^ Set the bank to be used for the next read/write sector operation.

^ The BIOS takes over; it reads the data from one diskette and writes it the other.
  • Smart Computing Article - BIOS Basics 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: General]

^ Custom device development for hardware manufacturers.
  • Free Dll's, Drivers and Bios Upgrades. 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: General]

.For example, an IBM PC might have had either a monochrome or a color display adapter, using different display memory addresses and hardware - but the BIOS service to print a character on the screen in text mode would be the same.^ Using the PRINT SCREEN button might be the best way.
  • Updating/Flashing BIOS | PCMech 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcmech.com [Source type: General]

^ BIOS password physical memory reading utility that displays to the screen.
  • .:[ packet storm ]:. - http://packetstormsecurity.org/ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC packetstormsecurity.nl [Source type: Reference]

^ The processor The floppy drive and hard drive Memory BIOS revision and date Display Any special drivers, such as the ones for small computer system interface ( SCSI ) adapters, are loaded from the adapter, and the BIOS displays the information.

Boot Block
DMI Block
Main Block
PhoenixBIOS D686. This BIOS chip is housed in a PLCC package, which is, in turn, plugged into a PLCC socket.
.Prior to the early 1990s, BIOSes were stored in ROM or PROM chips, which could not be altered by users.^ The BIOS is stored on a chip.
  • Lenovo Support & downloads - Flash BIOS update - NetVista 2289, 6824, 8181, 8182, 8301, 8303, 8304, 8305, 8306, 8307, 8308, 8309, 8310, 8311, 8312, 8313, 8314, 8315 / ThinkCentre A30 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www-307.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ BIOS is actually firmware, the software that is programmed into a ROM (Read-Only Memory) chip built onto the motherboard of a computer.

^ Since these chips store the laptop BIOS passwords, replacing the laptop security chip will remove the BIOS password.
  • BIOS Password and Locked Hard Disk Recovery 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pwcrack.com [Source type: General]

.As its complexity and need for updates grew, and re-programmable parts became more available, BIOS firmware was most commonly stored on EEPROM or flash memory devices.^ What is a FLASH BIOS? Originally the BIOS was stored on a ROM (read only memory).
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, the BIOS was stored on a flash memory chip.
  • DSP DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dspdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Audio DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.audiodesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • ChannelWeb Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.crn.com [Source type: General]

^ On most current motherboards, the BIOS is stored in an EEPROM, also known as a "Flash" BIOS, to allow users to upgrade the BIOS if updates are made available.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

.According to Robert Braver, the president of the BIOS manufacturer Micro Firmware, Flash BIOS chips became common around 1995 because the electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM) chips are cheaper and easier to program than standard erasable PROM (EPROM) chips.^ Phoenix flash program for Phoenix BIOS, etc.

^ IE AMI-flash program for AMI BIOS's.

^ If you have a very old motherboard (manufactured more than 10 years ago) that uses a Mask-ROM chip BIOS upgrade is only possible by replacing the chip with a new one containing the latest BIOS version.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.EPROM chips may be erased by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light, which accessed the chip via the window.^ Since the BIOS password and hard disk lock passwords are usually the same, recovering the BIOS password from the old chip may allow you to access the hard disk.
  • BIOS Password and Locked Hard Disk Recovery 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pwcrack.com [Source type: General]

.Chip manufacturers use EPROM programmers (blasters) to program EPROM chips.^ The information below can be used to access the BIOS from all the major suppliers of BIOS chips and the Computer Manufacturers that use them.

^ It resides in an eraseable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) chip on the computers motherboard.
  • How to enter the system BIOS/CMOS | D-A-L Computer Help 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.d-a-l.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to the BIOS chip, users who own different brands of computers can all use the same version of Lotus 1-2-3, DOS and almost any other program.
  • Smart Computing Article - BIOS Basics 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: General]

.Electrically erasable (EEPROM) chips come with the additional feature of allowing a BIOS reprogramming via higher-than-normal amounts of voltage.^ EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory): a computer chip that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

^ Recently, technology has improved to the point where a specific type of EEPROMS (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory) called "Flash" ROMs are typically used to hold the BIOS. These chips are larger, cheaper and take less time to program than other types of ROMs.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Our standard BIOS update replacement package includes: one BIOS chip, one set of replacement instructions, a 6 month BIOS update reprogramming offer and free shipping!
  • :: BIOSCHIP.COM :: BIOS UPDATE : BIOS REPLACEMENT : MOTHERBOARD BIOS : CHIPS : UPDATES : BIOS : Acoustibuds : Minoru : 3d Webcam 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioschip.com [Source type: General]

[4] .BIOS versions are upgraded to take advantage of newer versions of hardware and to correct bugs in previous revisions of BIOSes.^ Previous BIOS versions .
  • Lenovo Support & downloads - Flash BIOS update - NetVista 2289, 6824, 8181, 8182, 8301, 8303, 8304, 8305, 8306, 8307, 8308, 8309, 8310, 8311, 8312, 8313, 8314, 8315 / ThinkCentre A30 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www-307.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Support for larger Hard Drives Upgrading to a newer Operating System Support for CPU upgrades Installation of new hardware .

^ Sometimes, especially when upgrading your PC, you may need to perform a BIOS upgrade in order to update your system to accept a new hardware part or to fix a bug.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
The first flash chips were attached to the ISA bus. .Starting in 1997, the BIOS flash moved to the LPC bus, a functional replacement for ISA, following a new standard implementation known as "firmware hub" (FWH).^ Your computer uses flash BIOS, which can be updated through a program on a flash diskette so that you do not have to replace the BIOS chip to update the BIOS. Note: Make note of any settings you have changed in the BIOS Configuration Utility.
  • Lenovo Support & downloads - Flash BIOS update - NetVista 2289, 6824, 8181, 8182, 8301, 8303, 8304, 8305, 8306, 8307, 8308, 8309, 8310, 8311, 8312, 8313, 8314, 8315 / ThinkCentre A30 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www-307.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If the BIOS flash doesn't complete correctly, you will be replacing a motherboard.
  • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

^ The second method of updating the BIOS is by using a "Flash BIOS Update" available from the manufacturer of the BIOS. This is simply a software program that the BIOS manufacturer sends out periodically to make sure that your BIOS conforms to new equipment and standards.
  • Your PC's Bios Explained 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.rlrouse.com [Source type: General]

.Beginning with the IBM AT, PCs supported a hardware clock settable through BIOS. It had a century bit which allowed for manually changing the century when the year 2000 happened.^ Does my PC BIOS support hardware virtualization, and is it turned on?
  • Windows Virtual PC: Configure BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Your PC's BIOS needs to be flexible enough to be able to change to support new hardware.
  • Your PC's Bios Explained 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.rlrouse.com [Source type: General]

^ How do I find out if my BIOS supports the Year 2000?
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.Most BIOS revisions created in 1995 and nearly all BIOS revisions in 1997 supported the year 2000 by setting the century bit automatically when the clock rolled past midnight, December 31, 1999.[6] In 2006, the first systems supporting a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) appeared, and the BIOS flash moved again.^ MOVED: Flash Bios without monitor .
  • BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC forum-en.msi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do I find out if my BIOS supports the Year 2000?
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ All Rebels Haven BIOS Pages Check out Neweggs wide selection of Computers and Computer Accessories Flash these BIOS's at your own risk.
  • MSI K8N Neo2 Platinum Motherboard BIOS's 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.lejabeach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The size of the BIOS, and the capacities of the ROM, EEPROM and other media it may be stored on, has increased over time as new features have been added to the code; BIOS versions now exist with sizes up to 16 megabytes.^ The A04 BIOS version includes a couple of new features and fixes.

^ If you have a very old motherboard (manufactured more than 10 years ago) that uses a Mask-ROM chip BIOS upgrade is only possible by replacing the chip with a new one containing the latest BIOS version.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bios can save the part of the RAM dedicated for the BIOS (which has security implications in some BIOSes as encryption algorithms and/or password may actually reside here in some badly coded BIOSes).
  • .:[ packet storm ]:. - http://packetstormsecurity.org/ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC packetstormsecurity.nl [Source type: Reference]

.Some modern motherboards are including even bigger NAND Flash ROM ICs on board which are capable of storing whole compact operating system distribution like some Linux distributions.^ Can I boot the operating system from a CD-ROM? .
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ The boot sector in turn loads a boot manager program of some kind, which starts up the primary operating system for the machine, such as Windows or Linux.
  • BIOS from A to Z : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ It was almost dead project, but it LIVES AGAIN NOW! UniFlash supports a wide range of chipsets and Flash ROMs (read uniflash.doc for a list, it's also included in the ZIP package).
  • BiosCentral - Utility Downloads 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioscentral.com [Source type: General]

.For example, some recent ASUS motherboards included SplashTop Linux embedded into their NAND Flash ROM ICs.^ BIOS is actually firmware, the software that is programmed into a ROM (Read-Only Memory) chip built onto the motherboard of a computer.

^ It was almost dead project, but it LIVES AGAIN NOW! UniFlash supports a wide range of chipsets and Flash ROMs (read uniflash.doc for a list, it's also included in the ZIP package).
  • BiosCentral - Utility Downloads 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioscentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Each motherboard and/or computer manufacturer utilizes a different BIOS, so we'll cover the steps involved in optimizing the BIOS on an example board, the Asus A7N8X-E Deluxe.
  • BIOS for Beginners : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

Flashing the BIOS

.Where the BIOS is stored in rewritable memory, flashing the BIOS is overwriting the BIOS contents with a BIOS image.^ What is a FLASH BIOS? Originally the BIOS was stored on a ROM (read only memory).
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, the BIOS was stored on a flash memory chip.
  • Wireless Net DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wirelessnetdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • EETimes Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.eetimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Bios can also save and restore the IBM standard CMOS/NVRAM memory where almost all common Bioses store the BIOS setup settings.
  • .:[ packet storm ]:. - http://packetstormsecurity.org/ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC packetstormsecurity.nl [Source type: Reference]

.This is done to update the BIOS to a newer version either to fix specific bugs, support newer hardware, or fix a damaged BIOS. However, care must be taken when doing this because if it is not done correctly, the system will usually become inoperable.^ If the system's existing BIOS version is older, perform the update.
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Flash BIOS update (Flash from operating system version) .
  • Lenovo Support & downloads - Flash BIOS update - NetVista 2289, 6824, 8181, 8182, 8301, 8303, 8304, 8305, 8306, 8307, 8308, 8309, 8310, 8311, 8312, 8313, 8314, 8315 / ThinkCentre A30 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www-307.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Care must be taken when applying a BIOS update.

BIOS chip vulnerabilities

An American Megatrends BIOS registering the “Intel CPU uCode Error” while doing POST, most likely a problem with the POST.
.EEPROM chips are advantageous because they can be easily updated by the user; hardware manufacturers frequently issue BIOS updates to upgrade their products, improve compatibility and remove bugs.^ They do not identify the BIOS nor the computer manufacturer.

^ If you have a very old motherboard (manufactured more than 10 years ago) that uses a Mask-ROM chip BIOS upgrade is only possible by replacing the chip with a new one containing the latest BIOS version.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, there are many PCs and Laptops without any Floppy drive, but many users need to update their Hardware too.
  • BIOS Update per bootable CD 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.biosflash.com [Source type: General]

.However, this advantage had the risk that an improperly executed or aborted BIOS update could render the computer or device unusable.^ However, care should be taken when attempting recovery in this way since this method may also clear any BIOS customizations and render PC components inoperable.
  • BIOS Password and Locked Hard Disk Recovery 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pwcrack.com [Source type: General]

^ The BIOS setup utility displays summary information on your computer, its devices, processor and memory.

^ Order a new already programmed BIOS update chip from us and avoid the risk.
  • :: BIOSCHIP.COM :: BIOS UPDATE : BIOS REPLACEMENT : MOTHERBOARD BIOS : CHIPS : UPDATES : BIOS : Acoustibuds : Minoru : 3d Webcam 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioschip.com [Source type: General]

.To avoid these situations, more recent BIOSes use a "boot block"; a portion of the BIOS which runs first and must be updated separately.^ The bios is the first program that the computer runs.
  • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

^ The BIOS is boot firmware, designed to be the first code run by a PC when powered on.
  • BIOS Drivers - Free BIOS Drivers 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.downloadatoz.com [Source type: General]

^ If you can not see any BIOS file below, please use the tools listed at the bottom of the page for updating your BIOS. When using these tools to update your BIOS, please stop all other work in progress to avoid update interruption.
  • MSI Global – Computer, Laptop, Notebook, Desktop, Mainboard, Graphics and more 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.msi.com [Source type: General]

.This code verifies if the rest of the BIOS is intact (using hash checksums or other methods) before transferring control to it.^ If the code fails to pass the checksum test, the BIOS reverts to using its built-in default settings.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, error messages that the BIOS throws up typically use the term CMOS instead of BIOS. Here is an example - "CMOS checksum error - defaults loaded."
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most BIOS manufacturers provide information on identifying the meaning of the error codes along with other helpful information and utilities on their websites: .
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

.If the boot block detects any corruption in the main BIOS, it will typically warn the user that a recovery process must be initiated by booting from removable media (floppy, CD or USB memory) so the user can try flashing the BIOS again.^ If the floppy is still bootable, I would certainly try flashing the BIOS .

^ BIOS flashing / BIOS RECOVERY .
  • BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC forum-en.msi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boot with the BIOS floppy disk in the A:\ drive.
  • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

.Some motherboards have a backup BIOS (sometimes referred to as DualBIOS boards) to recover from BIOS corruptions.^ It is sometimes call the ROM BIOS because it is stored in a Read-Only Memory (ROM) chip on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyone attempting to 'flash' an non-flash motherboard will corrupt the Bios leaving the motherboard completely unuseable...

^ Motherboard Jumpers: Some, but not all, motherboard manufacturers provide a set of three jumpers on their motherboards that provide you with the ability to clear the Bios/CMOS settings, thereby allowing them to be reset.
  • Clearing the Bios or CMOS Password 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Overclocking

.Some BIOS chips allow overclocking, an action in which the CPU is adjusted to a higher clock rate than its factory preset.^ The BIOS provides a setup program (commonly called the CMOS Setup) which allows the user to adjust a variety of settings related to the BIOS operation and hardware setup such as CPU Clock speed, memory timing, time and date functions, disk configuration, etc.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

^ Motherboard jumpers specify the clock rate that is fed into the CPU. CPU Socket: not all CPUs use the same size and shape socket.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ These chips will allow you to bypass the laptop BIOS password.
  • BIOS Password and Locked Hard Disk Recovery 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pwcrack.com [Source type: General]

.Overclocking may, however, seriously compromise safety in insufficiently cooled computers and generally shorten component lifespan.^ However, care should be taken when attempting recovery in this way since this method may also clear any BIOS customizations and render PC components inoperable.
  • BIOS Password and Locked Hard Disk Recovery 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pwcrack.com [Source type: General]

Virus attacks

There was at least three BIOS attacks widely known. .The first one, very primitive, was a virus which was able to erase Flash ROM BIOS content, rendering computer systems unusable.^ Can I move a BIOS from one computer to another?
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ When a computer is first powered on, the BIOS is the first thing executed by the system.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

^ Flashing your computer bios can be a very intimidating chore.

.CIH, also known as "Chernobyl Virus", appeared the first time in mid-1998 and became active in April 1999. It affected systems BIOS and often they could not be fixed on their own since they were no longer able to boot at all.^ This is Award BIOS first time release.
  • MSI K8N Neo2 Platinum Motherboard BIOS's 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.lejabeach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No BIOS, no boot.

^ Possibly CIH? So far in my research I have found no solution to a boot virus other than a new bios chip (or sending it back to be reprogrammed).

.To repair this, Flash ROM IC had to be ejected from the motherboard to be reprogrammed somewhere else.^ The term "Flash BIOS" will only apply if the designer of the motherboard included the code to re-program the Flash ROM on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ If the motherboard requires removing the BIOS ROM in order to re-program or replace the BIOS, it is not a Flash BIOS, even if there is a Flash ROM on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that the chipset is not the CPU, memory, keyboard controller, or the BIOS ROM. The chipset is one or more of the large, square, surface-mounted IC's on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.Damage from CIH was possible since the Virus was specifically targeted at the then widespread Intel i430TX motherboard chipset, and the most common operating systems of the time were based on the Windows 9x family allowing direct hardware access to all programs.^ A DLL file can be part of a program or of the Windows operating system.
  • Free Dll's, Drivers and Bios Upgrades. 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: General]

^ The boot sector in turn loads a boot manager program of some kind, which starts up the primary operating system for the machine, such as Windows or Linux.
  • BIOS from A to Z : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ Every time your computer is switched on the BIOS loads configuration data into main memory, performs a routine diagnostic test on your hardware, then loads the operating system.
  • :: BIOSCHIP.COM :: BIOS UPDATE : BIOS REPLACEMENT : MOTHERBOARD BIOS : CHIPS : UPDATES : BIOS : Acoustibuds : Minoru : 3d Webcam 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioschip.com [Source type: General]

.Modern systems are not vulnerable to CIH because of a variety of chipsets being used which are incompatible with the Intel i430TX chipset, and also other Flash ROM IC types.^ It was almost dead project, but it LIVES AGAIN NOW! UniFlash supports a wide range of chipsets and Flash ROMs (read uniflash.doc for a list, it's also included in the ZIP package).
  • BiosCentral - Utility Downloads 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioscentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Recently, technology has improved to the point where a specific type of EEPROMS (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory) called "Flash" ROMs are typically used to hold the BIOS. These chips are larger, cheaper and take less time to program than other types of ROMs.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ There are at least four different types of mouse support available in PC-type computer systems: Bus mouse: the mouse connects to an add-on card, which either has a BIOS ROM extension on the add-on card, or uses a driver which is dependent on the operating system.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.There is also extra protection from accidental BIOS rewrites in the form of boot blocks which are protected from accidental overwrite or dual and quad BIOS equipped systems which may, in the event of a crash, use a backup BIOS. Also, all modern operating systems like Linux, Mac OS X, Windows NT-based Windows OS like Windows 2000, Windows XP and newer, do not allow user mode programs to have direct hardware access.^ When everything is running, the BIOS program initiates and loads the operating system.

^ This program runs on all Windows systems.

^ If it can't find an operating system there, the BIOS then searches the hard disk.
  • Smart Computing Article - BIOS Basics 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: General]

.However, many Windows users run all programs in administrative mode, which does allow direct hardware access.^ This program runs on all Windows systems.

^ Many types of hardware access in a PC really involve the operating system accessing the BIOS, which then accesses the hardware on the operating system's behalf.
  • BIOS from A to Z : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ When a PC dawdles through the boot process, the system runs slowly, Windows crashes, or the hardware fails, a badly configured BIOS may be at fault.
  • BIOS from A to Z : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

.Nonetheless, as of year 2008, CIH has become almost harmless and usually just bothers users by infecting executable files without being able to cause any real harm, only triggering numerous virus alerts from antivirus software.^ This will execute the update software and specify the A06_123.bin file to flash the BIOS. Compare the two versions.
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ The flash utility that you use to reflash a BIOS can usually save the old BIOS file so that it can be restored if reflashing the BIOS causes a problem.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other BIOS viruses remain possible, however.[1]
.The second one was a technique presented by John Heasman, principal security consultant for UK based Next-Generation Security Software at the Black Hat Security Conference (2006), where he showed how to elevate privileges and read physical memory, using malicious procedures that replaced normal ACPI functions stored in flash memory.^ What is a FLASH BIOS? Originally the BIOS was stored on a ROM (read only memory).
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ BIOS is actually firmware, the software that is programmed into a ROM (Read-Only Memory) chip built onto the motherboard of a computer.

^ It is sometimes call the ROM BIOS because it is stored in a Read-Only Memory (ROM) chip on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.The third one, known as "Persistent BIOS infection", was a method presented in CanSecWest Security Conference (Vancouver, 2009) and SyScan Security Conference (Singapore, 2009) where researchers Anibal Sacco [7] and Alfredo Ortega, from Core Security Technologies, have demonstrated the possibility to install a little snippet of executable code within the unsigned BIOS memory chip, knocking out of the game whatever security software and securing the full control of the PC at every start-up, even before the first sector of hard disk is initialized.^ Writes disk sectors from memory.
  • Digital Mars - Runtime Library - bios.h 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.digitalmars.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Bios reports the hard drive is present.

^ The BIOS is boot firmware, designed to be the first code run by a PC when powered on.
  • BIOS Drivers - Free BIOS Drivers 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.downloadatoz.com [Source type: General]

.The proof-of-concept, while astounding because it apparently does not exploit any obscure flaw but only the normal working of the PC, requires physical access to the machine or the “root” access rights on the operating system (whatever it is).^ The boot sector in turn loads a boot manager program of some kind, which starts up the primary operating system for the machine, such as Windows or Linux.
  • BIOS from A to Z : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ Many types of hardware access in a PC really involve the operating system accessing the BIOS, which then accesses the hardware on the operating system's behalf.
  • BIOS from A to Z : Introduction - Review Tom's Hardware 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ Provides access to some of the computer's components and features, such as the keyboard even when the operating system is up and running.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite this, however, researchers underline the profound implications of their discovery: “We can patch a driver to drop a fully working rootkit. We even have a little code that can remove or disable antivirus” Sacco and Ortega say[8]

Firmware on adapter cards

.A computer system can contain several BIOS firmware chips.^ BIOS is actually firmware, the software that is programmed into a ROM (Read-Only Memory) chip built onto the motherboard of a computer.

^ It looks as if you have to replace the BIOS battery that powers the CMOS chip that contains the clock's settings.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The POST makes sure all the chips on the computer's system board are working.
  • Smart Computing Article - BIOS Basics 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: General]

.The motherboard BIOS typically contains code to access fundamental hardware components such as the keyboard, floppy drives, ATA (IDE) hard disk controllers, USB human interface devices, and storage devices.^ It may be a bad IDE controller on the motherboard.

^ Boot with the BIOS floppy disk in the A:\ drive.
  • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

^ Recognizes and configures new hardware such as hard drives and floppy drives.

.In addition, plug-in adapter cards such as SCSI, RAID, Network interface cards, and video boards often include their own BIOS (e.g.^ It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse, and printer.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

^ The initial function of the BIOS is to identify, test, and initialize system devices such as the video display card, hard disk, floppy disk and other hardware.
  • BIOS Drivers - Free BIOS Drivers 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.downloadatoz.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows 95/98/Me/XP all bypass both the video card's own BIOS and the motherboard's BIOS .
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Video BIOS), complementing or replacing the system BIOS code for the given component.^ BIOS System beep codes .

^ The initial function of the BIOS is to identify, test, and initialize system devices such as the video display card, hard disk, floppy disk and other hardware.
  • BIOS Drivers - Free BIOS Drivers 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.downloadatoz.com [Source type: General]

^ Updates for the BIOS file can be made available for both the motherboard's system BIOS and the video card's BIOS from the motherboard manufacturer's and the video card manufacturer's sites respectively.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some devices that can be used by add-in adapters and actually directly integrated on the motherboard, the add-in ROM may also be stored as separate code on the main BIOS flash chip.^ Some motherboards provide a secondary plug-in BIOS chip .
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or is it the actual bios chip maker?

^ Bios can save the part of the RAM dedicated for the BIOS (which has security implications in some BIOSes as encryption algorithms and/or password may actually reside here in some badly coded BIOSes).
  • .:[ packet storm ]:. - http://packetstormsecurity.org/ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC packetstormsecurity.nl [Source type: Reference]

.It may then be possible to upgrade this "add-in" BIOS (sometimes called an option ROM) separately from the main BIOS code.^ If you have a very old motherboard (manufactured more than 10 years ago) that uses a Mask-ROM chip BIOS upgrade is only possible by replacing the chip with a new one containing the latest BIOS version.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, especially when upgrading your PC, you may need to perform a BIOS upgrade in order to update your system to accept a new hardware part or to fix a bug.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xbox with modified bios, that it's sometimes possible to accidentally connect to XBL while the mod is enabled - which in turn bans their account from the Xbox Live Service.
  • Xbox-Scene.com - Xbox Modchips Xecuter2.2 X-B.I.T Xodus Chameleon - Gamesave Dashboard exploit - Evolution-X Avalaunch MXM Dashboard - X2 & EvoX bios - Copy Xbox Hacks & Cracks tutorials - OpenXbox PC-BioXX Enigmah Cheapmod 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC xbox-scene.com [Source type: Academic]

Add-in cards usually only require such an add-in BIOS if they:
.
  • Need to be used prior to the time that the operating system loads (e.g.^ WindowsBBS is an online community dedicated to easily accessible technical support for those using Microsoft operating systems and other Windows software.

    ^ Power-On Self Test (POST) - to test and initialize the hardware Loads the operating system Manage Setup for enhancing computer behavior Helps operating systems and application programs to manage PC hardware via BIOS Run-Time Service routines .
    • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The configuration role was essential to the operation of a computer, but it is decreasing all the time as the operating system continues to take over more and more of this role.
    • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    they may be used as part of the process which loads (bootstraps) the operating system), and:
  • Are not sufficiently simple, or generic in operation to be handled by the main BIOS directly
.PC operating systems such as DOS, including all DOS-based versions of MS Windows, as well as bootloaders, may continue to use the BIOS for input and output.^ The BIOS also supports software , such as a particular operating system.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, even with the existing PC BIOS, the operating system (Windows, Linux , etc.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BIOS means Basic Input Output System.

.However, other operating systems will use device drivers to directly access the hardware.^ However, since the PC's native operating system is not available to #1-TuffTEST-Lite, it cannot use the operating system's functions or interact with the various devices that, due to their proprietary design, are not supported by the PC's BIOS. Examples include pointing devices, CD-ROM drives, sound cards, network cards, etc.
  • BiosCentral - Utility Downloads 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bioscentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows 2000 , Windows XP , and Windows Vista only make a small number of such calls to the BIOS , but the Linux operating system makes no such calls while it is running, because it deals directly with the standard hardware it is likely to encounter, and it uses device-driver software to deal with any non-standard or special hardware it encounters.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are at least four different types of mouse support available in PC-type computer systems: Bus mouse: the mouse connects to an add-on card, which either has a BIOS ROM extension on the add-on card, or uses a driver which is dependent on the operating system.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.Occasionally these add-in BIOSs are still called by these operating systems, in order to carry out specific tasks such as preliminary device initialization.^ It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse, and printer.
  • Bios Beep Codes | StudyNotes.net 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.studynotes.net [Source type: General]

^ Windows 2000 , Windows XP , and Windows Vista only make a small number of such calls to the BIOS , but the Linux operating system makes no such calls while it is running, because it deals directly with the standard hardware it is likely to encounter, and it uses device-driver software to deal with any non-standard or special hardware it encounters.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The BIOS also supports software , such as a particular operating system.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To find these memory mapped expansion ROMs during the boot process, PC BIOS implementations scan real memory from 0xC0000 to 0xF0000 on 2 kilobyte boundaries looking for the ROM signature bytes of 55h followed by AAh (0xAA55).^ Use the AMIBIOS Checkpoint and beep Codes to aid in problems that occur during the pre-boot process.
  • AMI | American Megatrends Inc. : AMIBIOS Support 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.ami.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BIOS is actually firmware, the software that is programmed into a ROM (Read-Only Memory) chip built onto the motherboard of a computer.

^ It is sometimes call the ROM BIOS because it is stored in a Read-Only Memory (ROM) chip on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.For a valid expansion ROM, its signature is immediately followed by a single byte indicating the number of 512-byte blocks it occupies in real memory.^ So “BIOS upgrade” really means an upgrade on the programs stored on the motherboard ROM memory.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, assume that that the motherboard indicates the following number onscreen while counting memory: 06/06/2002-VT8366-8233/5-JL6LVC0CC-00.
  • Deciphering the BIOS Serial Number | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ Return Value Returns the maximum number of contiguous 1K memory blocks which are present, as an integer.
  • Digital Mars - Runtime Library - bios.h 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.digitalmars.com [Source type: Reference]

.The BIOS then jumps to the offset located immediately after this size byte; at which point the expansion ROM code takes over, using the BIOS services to register interrupt vectors for use by post-boot applications and provide a user configuration interface, or display diagnostic information.^ The ICU (Intel ISA Configuration Utility) is used to provide the BIOS with this information.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ The BIOS itself is typically an EEPROM, or Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, that is programmed with "firmware" and has the ability to save small amounts of information specific to user configurations.
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Recently, technology has improved to the point where a specific type of EEPROMS (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory) called "Flash" ROMs are typically used to hold the BIOS. These chips are larger, cheaper and take less time to program than other types of ROMs.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.There are many methods and utilities for examining the contents of various motherboard BIOS and expansion ROMs, such as Microsoft DEBUG or the UNIX dd.^ It is sometimes call the ROM BIOS because it is stored in a Read-Only Memory (ROM) chip on the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ These parts are easier to program than the older ROM parts and many computer manufacturers use them for easier installation of the BIOS. The ability to write a new BIOS into the part without removing it from the motherboard must be supported in the design of the motherboard.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that if you see the logo of the motherboard's manufacturer or the developer of the BIOS instead of such a startup screen, you should be able to disable the logo in the BIOS itself.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

BIOS boot specification

.If the expansion ROM wishes to change the way the system boots (such as from a network device or a SCSI adapter for which the BIOS has no driver code), it can use the BIOS Boot Specification (BBS) API to register its ability to do so.^ Boot up the system for which you wish to flash the BIOS. 4.
  • Super Micro Computer, Inc. | Support 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.supermicro.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A: No BIOS changes are needed.
  • Bay Wolf's Inspiron & Latitude BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.bay-wolf.com [Source type: General]

^ BIOS System beep codes .

.Once the expansion ROMs have registered using the BBS APIs, the user can select among the available boot options from within the BIOSes user interface.^ Before Eclipse, Dejan was widely known as 'the JFace guy', being responsible for the creation of the widely used JFace user interface framework that was later incorporated into the Eclipse platform.

^ You should change the boot-order option back to the boot hard disk drive to resume normal use of the computer.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enabled some selections within options that were also hidden.
  • MSI K8N Neo2 Platinum Motherboard BIOS's 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.lejabeach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is why most BBS compliant PC BIOS implementations will not allow the user to enter the BIOS's user interface until the expansion ROMs have finished executing and registering themselves with the BBS API.[citation needed]

Changing role of the BIOS

.Some operating systems, for example MS-DOS, rely on the BIOS to carry out most input/output tasks within the PC.[9] A variety of technical reasons makes it inefficient for some recent operating systems written for 32-bit CPUs such as Linux and Microsoft Windows to invoke the BIOS directly.^ The BIOS also supports software , such as a particular operating system.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, even with the existing PC BIOS, the operating system (Windows, Linux , etc.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BIOS means Basic Input Output System.

.Larger, more powerful, servers and workstations using PowerPC or SPARC CPUs by several manufacturers developed a platform-independent Open Firmware (IEEE-1275), based on the Forth programming language.^ The larger, more popular manufacturers and builders include companies such as Dell/Alienware, HP/Compaq, IBM, Lenovo, Sun, Gateway,Acer, etc.
  • How to Update Your Computer's BIOS - wikiHow 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Make sure any disk-cache program you use is still being loaded (watch all the messages printed after a power up).
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ He has many years of in-depth experience in the design and implementation of languages, frameworks, and application development environments, including several patents on the subject.

.It is included with Sun's SPARC computers, IBM's RS/6000 line, and other PowerPC CHRP motherboards.^ The computer has an Asus A8V Deluxe motherboard , so I downloaded the latest BIOS file for the make and model of motherboard from the Asus site , and followed the instructions that were included in the Zip file.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PS/2 mouse support is almost always included in the BIOS for such a motherboard, but it is an option the computer manufacturer may elect to leave out.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.Later x86-based personal computer operating systems, like Windows NT, use their own, native drivers which also makes it much easier to extend support to new hardware, while the BIOS still relies on a legacy 16-bit runtime interface.^ BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 .
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The BIOS also supports software , such as a particular operating system.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phoenix does not make computer systems.

.There was a similar transition for the Apple Macintosh, where the system software originally relied heavily on the ToolBox—a set of drivers and other useful routines stored in ROM based on Motorola's 680x0 CPUs.^ There are at least four different types of mouse support available in PC-type computer systems: Bus mouse: the mouse connects to an add-on card, which either has a BIOS ROM extension on the add-on card, or uses a driver which is dependent on the operating system.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no reliable way for Phoenix to determine the original manufacturer.

^ To update the BIOS now involves running the downloaded software that obtains the update and sets the system to install it the next time the system is started.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These Apple ROMs were replaced by Open Firmware in the PowerPC Macintosh, then EFI in Intel Macintosh computers.
.Later BIOS took on more complex functions, by way of interfaces such as ACPI; these functions include power management, hot swapping and thermal management.^ Disabling power management usually results in a more stable system.
  • MSI K8N Neo2 Platinum Motherboard BIOS's 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.lejabeach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I get way to many emails from people that say "I saw this later version BIOS on website xyz and I downloaded it and now I can't use my computer.

^ A set of routines called Run-Time Services, which is also a function of the BIOS, help operating systems and application programs to manage the hardware.

.However BIOS limitations (16-bit processor mode, only 1 MiB addressable space, PC AT hardware dependencies, etc.^ Does my PC BIOS support hardware virtualization, and is it turned on?
  • Windows Virtual PC: Configure BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ If you receive the message “This computer is configured with hardware-assisted virtualization,” download and install Windows Virtual PC and Windows XP Mode .
  • Windows Virtual PC: Configure BIOS 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ In any case, even with the existing PC BIOS, the operating system (Windows, Linux , etc.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) were seen as clearly unacceptable for the newer computer platforms. .Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is a specification which replaces the runtime interface of the legacy BIOS. Initially written for the Itanium architecture, EFI is now available for x86 and x86-64 platforms; the specification development is driven by The Unified EFI Forum, an industry Special Interest Group.^ Grady Booch One of the original developers of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Grady Booch is recognized internationally for his innovative work on software architecture, modeling, and software engineering processes.

^ However, there are manufacturers who develop a proprietary BIOS specifically for the company's line of computers.

^ He went to high school at AY Jackson, where he first developed an interest in theatre, specifically the technical aspects.

Linux has supported EFI via the elilo boot loader. .The Open Source community increased their effort to develop a replacement for proprietary BIOSes and their future incarnations with an open sourced counterpart through the coreboot and OpenBIOS/Open Firmware projects.^ In particular, CollabNet is developing a new, open source version control system called Subversion.

^ His core expertise is in server-side Java/database applications where he spent 10 years consulting for large businesses, startups, and open source projects.
  • Internet Archive: Bios 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experimental "Untitled" has been developed in close association with the Los Angeles chapter of the Community HIV/AIDS Mobilization Project (CHAMP).

AMD provided product specifications for some chipsets, and Google is sponsoring the project. .Motherboard manufacturer Tyan offers coreboot next to the standard BIOS with their Opteron line of motherboards.^ Updates for the BIOS file can be made available for both the motherboard's system BIOS and the video card's BIOS from the motherboard manufacturer's and the video card manufacturer's sites respectively.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there are manufacturers who develop a proprietary BIOS specifically for the company's line of computers.

^ Note that if you see the logo of the motherboard's manufacturer or the developer of the BIOS instead of such a startup screen, you should be able to disable the logo in the BIOS itself.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

MSI and Gigabyte Technology have followed suit with the MSI K9ND MS-9282 and MSI K9SD MS-9185 resp. the M57SLI-S4 models.
.Some BIOSes contain a "tattoo", a digital signature placed inside the BIOS by the manufacturer, for example Dell.^ The BIOS usually beeps once at the end of POST to prove the speaker is working correctly (some manufacturers may modify or disable this feature).
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Now that you know what to do, the next section contains a list of computer manufacturer, motherboard manufacturer, and BIOS manufacturer sites.

^ If you also placed a password on Setup itself, there is no "back door" password unless the computer manufacturer modified the BIOS to have one.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.Computer manufacturers that distribute OEM versions of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft application software can use the tattoo to authenticate licensing to the OEM Windows Installation disk and/or system recovery disc containing Windows software.^ If you have a very old motherboard (manufactured more than 10 years ago) that uses a Mask-ROM chip BIOS upgrade is only possible by replacing the chip with a new one containing the latest BIOS version.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our OEM partners embed the Computrace® Agent into the firmware of computers and netbooks during the manufacturing process.
  • Absolute Software - BIOS Compatibility 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.absolute.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If your system does not contain the correct driver for a device, the device will not function at all, incorrectly or your computer might crash.
  • Free Dll's, Drivers and Bios Upgrades. 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: General]

.Dell systems having tattoos do not require entry of the Product Key (the Product Key on the label in fact being invalid[citation needed]), and they bypass Windows Product Activation (a convenience to the user and to Microsoft).^ It also serves as a guide on how best to optimize your BIOS. Every system is different and every user has different requirements.
  • " + Title + " 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.techarp.com [Source type: General]

^ He engages with key WebSphere Studio tools partners, providing technical guidance and support as they integrate into the WebSphere Studio set of products.

^ And below is the BIOS settings' menu that comes to the screen if the Del key is pressed before Windows, or an alternative operating system such as Linux, starts up.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The BIOS business

.The vast majority of PC motherboard suppliers license a BIOS "core" and toolkit from a commercial third-party, known as an "independent BIOS vendor" or IBV. The motherboard manufacturer then customizes this BIOS to suit its own hardware.^ The major motherboard manufacturers update the BIOS for their motherboards regularly.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BIOS vendor to PC manufacturers.

^ Custom device development for hardware manufacturers.
  • Free Dll's, Drivers and Bios Upgrades. 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: General]

.For this reason, updated BIOSes are normally obtained directly from the motherboard manufacturer.^ The BIOS update will have been obtained from the motherboard's website.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Updates for the BIOS file can be made available for both the motherboard's system BIOS and the video card's BIOS from the motherboard manufacturer's and the video card manufacturer's sites respectively.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major motherboard manufacturers update the BIOS for their motherboards regularly.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major BIOS vendors include American Megatrends (AMI), Insyde Software, Phoenix Technologies and Byosoft.^ The major BIOS suppliers are listed below and can be used to search for special BIOS updates not supplied by the Computer vendor.

^ The startup screen for a system running an American Megatrends (AMI) BIOS and an AMD Athlon 64 3200+ processor is shown below.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phoenix Technologies, which has merged with Award Software, develops custom BIOS's for computer manufacturers.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

.Former vendors include Award Software which was acquired by Phoenix Technologies in 1998 and has now phased out the Award Brand name.^ There are three major BIOS software manufacturers, AMI, Award and Phoenix (Phoenix has recently bought Award).
  • Deciphering the BIOS Serial Number | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ Phoenix Technologies, which has merged with Award Software, develops custom BIOS's for computer manufacturers.
  • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Mike Norman is CEO of Scapa Technologies, a vendor of specialist load and stress testing tools for enterprise software systems, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

.General Software, which was also acquired by Phoenix at 2007, sold BIOS for Intel processor based embedded systems.^ BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) teaches the system processor on how to deal with basic things, like how to access the hard disk drive and how to write text on screen.
  • How To Perform a BIOS Upgrade | Hardware Secrets 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PC BIOS - General Guidelines Phoenix Technologies has merged with Award Software and here you will find answers to the most frequently asked BIOS questions they receive.
  • Trish's Motherboard and BIOS Hardware Help Resource 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC hardwarehell.com [Source type: General]

^ The startup screen for a system running an American Megatrends (AMI) BIOS and an AMD Athlon 64 3200+ processor is shown below.
  • BIOS - the setup program used in personal computers - Page 1 of 2 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.pcbuyerbeware.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

Further reading

.
  • IBM Personal Computer Technical Reference manual (First Edition, ed.^ For information on running Setup, see your computer manual for directions, contact the maker of your computer, and/or review the BIOS reference documents available on this site.
    • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ See your computer manual for directions, contact the maker of your computer, and/or review the BIOS reference documents available on this site.
    • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For an explanation of beep codes used in other versions of the BIOS, contact the computer manufacturer or refer to your owner's manual.
    • Award and Phoenix BIOS FAQ 10 February 2010 11:50 UTC www.dewassoc.com [Source type: General]

    ). IBM Corporation. Revised March 1983. 
  • How BIOS Works - howStuffWorks

External links

.

Specifications


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

  • (RP) IPA: /ˈbaɪəʊs/, /ˈbaɪɒs/
  • (US) IPA: /ˈbaɪoʊs/, /ˈbaɪɑs/

Acronym

BIOS
  1. (computing): Basic Input/Output System

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of bios
  • obis

Simple English

BIOS, in computing, stands for Basic Input/Output System. The BIOS is a computer program embedded on a chip on a computer's motherboard that recognizes and controls various devices that make up the computer. The purpose of the BIOS is to make sure all the things plugged into the computer can work properly.

Booting Up

"Booting up" is the process that a computer completes to get it ready to use when it is first turned on. When the computer turns on, the BIOS starts up and performs a Power-On Self Test (POST). During the POST, the BIOS will check various devices in the computer like the computer processor, memory, the video card and others to make sure they are present and functioning. Once the POST has completed successfully, the BIOS looks for an operating system to load, which is usually located on the computer's hard drive. When it finds one, it starts to load it. At this point, the operating system takes over control of the system and finishes starting up.

Overclocking

Some people try to configure their computer to run faster than it was designed to do. This is called "overclocking". Since the BIOS controls the computer processor, entering the BIOS setup screen while it is booting up gives people access to advanced computer settings. For most computers, pressing the delete or F12 buttons while the computer is booting up will bring up the BIOS setup screen. There are many ways a computer can be overclocked to run faster, but most involve simply turning up the speed of the computer processor. Doing this will usually make your computer run much hotter, though, and can sometimes break your computer, which is why overclocking will usually void your computer's warranty. Only people who are computer hardware experts should attempt to overclock their computers.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on BIOS, which are similar to those in the above article.








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