BP: Wikis

  
  
  
  





























Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

BP plc
Type Public
(LSE: BP)
(NYSEBP)
Founded 1909 (as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company)
1954 (as the British Petroleum Company)
2000 (merger of BP, Amoco, and ARCO)
Headquarters City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Area served Worldwide
Key people Carl-Henric Svanberg (Chairman)
Tony Hayward (CEO)
Byron Grote (CFO)
Industry Oil and Natural Gas, Alternative fuels
Products BP petroleum and derived products
BP service stations
Air BP Aviation Fuels
Castrol motor oil
ARCO gas stations
am/pm convenience stores
Aral service stations solar pannels
Revenue US $246.1 billion (2009)[1]
Operating income US $26.43 billion (2009)[1]
Net income US $16.58 billion (2009)[1]
Total assets US $236.0 billion (2009)
Total equity US $101.6 billion (2009)
Employees 92,000 (March 2009)
Website BP.com
1922 BP advert
.BP plc (formerly The British Petroleum Company, plc then BP Amoco plc) is a British global energy company that is also the third largest global energy and the 4th largest company in the world.^ Also, BP stands for British Petroleum doesn't it?
  • BP axes 620 jobs from solar power business | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.As a multinational oil company ("oil major") BP is the UK's largest corporation, with its headquarters in St James's, City of Westminster, London.^ BP is a giant multinational oil company.

^ The idea is for the companies to shift from providing oil and gas to becoming energy service corporations, as ready to deliver solar power as gasoline.

^ Another is to characterize the BP-Berkeley deal as the farthest-reaching effort by a corporation in recent U.S. history to colonize a major university.

[2][3] .The company is among the largest private sector energy corporations in the world, and one of the six "supermajors" (vertically integrated private sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies).^ Seventy-one percent say it is important that drugs remain under close review by the FDA and drug companies after they have been placed on the market.

^ Only one of the 17 incidents listed in internal company records was reported in the official logs Murray Energy is required to maintain by law, according to the Kennedy report.

^ The idea is for the companies to shift from providing oil and gas to becoming energy service corporations, as ready to deliver solar power as gasoline.

[4] The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

Contents

History

Activity in 1909–1979

In May 1901, William Knox D'Arcy was granted a concession by the Shah of Iran to search for oil which he discovered in May 1908.[5] This was the first commercially significant find in the Middle East. On 14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was incorporated to exploit this.[5]In .1923, the company secretly gave £5,000 -- the equivalent of perhaps millions in today's money -- to future Prime Minister Winston Churchill to lobby the British government to allow them to monopolise Persian oil resources.^ The company holds more than 9,000 contracts with the federal government.

^ Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said the company should be ejected from Iraq.

[6] In 1935, it became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC).[5]
After World War II, AIOC and the Iranian government initially resisted nationalist pressure to revise AIOC's concession terms still further in Iran's favour. But in March 1951, the pro-western Prime Minister Ali Razmara was assassinated.[7] The Majlis of Iran (parliament) elected a nationalist, Mohammed Mossadeq, as prime minister. In April, the Majlis nationalized the oil industry by unanimous vote.[8] The National Iranian Oil Company was formed as a result, displacing the AIOC.[9] The AIOC withdrew its management from Iran, and organized an effective boycott of Iranian oil. .The British government - which owned the AIOC - contested the nationalization at the International Court of Justice at The Hague, but its complaint was dismissed.^ Although Thailand's actions were consistent with its obligations under national and international law, Big Pharma was able to employ the U.S. government (as well as the European Union) to pressure Thailand.

[10]
.By spring of 1953, incoming U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to organize a coup against the Mossadeq government with support from the British government.^ When polls present specific regulatory proposals for consideration, U.S. public support is typically strong and often overwhelming - even when arguments against government action are presented.

[11] On 19 August 1953, Mossadeq was forced from office by the CIA conspiracy, involving the Shah and the Iranian military, and known by its codename, Operation Ajax.[11]
Classic shield logo, designed by Raymond Loewy, used from 1989 to 2003 and still in use in a small number of petrol stations.
Mossadeq was replaced by pro-Western general Fazlollah Zahedi,[12] and the Shah, who had left the country briefly to await the outcome of the coup, returned to Iran. He abolished the democratic Constitution and assumed autocratic powers.
After the coup, the NIOC became an international consortium, and AIOC resumed operations in Iran as a member of it.[9] The consortium agreed to share profits on a 50–50 basis with Iran, "but not to open its books to Iranian auditors or to allow Iranians onto its board of directors."[13] AIOC, as a part of the Anglo-American coup d'état deal, was not allowed to monopolize Iranian oil as before. It was limited to a 40% share in a new international consortium. For the rest, 40% went to the five major American companies and 20% went to Royal Dutch Shell and Compagnie Française des Pétroles, now Total S.A..[14]
.The AIOC became the British Petroleum Company in 1954. BP continued to operate in Iran until the Islamic Revolution in 1979. The new regime of Ayatollah Khomeini confiscated all of BP's assets in Iran without compensation, finally closing BP's 70-year presence in Iran.^ For BP, the October settlement put to rest a series of debacles that has beset the company over the last several years.

^ British Petroleum and the New Greenmail .
  • Iain Boal and Standard Schaefer: British Petroleum and the New Greenmail 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Iain Boal / Standard Schaefer British Petroleum and the New Greenmail .
  • Iain Boal and Standard Schaefer: British Petroleum and the New Greenmail 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

In 1959 the company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska[15] and in 1965 it was the first company to strike oil in the North Sea.[16]
In 1978 BP acquired a controlling interest in Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio, a breakoff of the former Standard Oil that had been broken up after anti-trust litigation.[17]

1980s and 1990s

Sir Peter Walters was BP's chairman from 1981 to 1990.[18] This was the era of the Thatcher government's privatisation strategy. The British government sold its entire holding in BP in several tranches between 1979 and 1987.[19] The sale process was marked by a bad attempt by the Kuwait Investment Office, the investment arm of the Kuwait government, to acquire control of BP.[20] This was ultimately blocked by the strong opposition of the British government. .In 1987, British Petroleum negotiated the acquisition of Britoil[21] and the remaining publicly traded shares of Standard Oil of Ohio.^ Iain Boal / Standard Schaefer British Petroleum and the New Greenmail .
  • Iain Boal and Standard Schaefer: British Petroleum and the New Greenmail 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

[17]
A British BP Shop Petrol Station.
.Walters was replaced by Robert Horton in 1989. Horton carried out a major corporate downsizing exercise removing various tiers of management within the BP Head Office.^ Another is to characterize the BP-Berkeley deal as the farthest-reaching effort by a corporation in recent U.S. history to colonize a major university.

[22]
Lord Browne of Madingley, who had been on the board as managing director since 1991, was appointed group chief executive in 1995.[23] Browne was responsible for three major acquisitions; Amoco, ARCO and Burmah-Castrol (see below).

Recent years

.British Petroleum merged with Amoco (formerly Standard Oil of Indiana) in December 1998,[24] becoming BPAmoco until 2000 when it was renamed BP and adopted the tagline "Beyond Petroleum," which remains in use today.^ Iain Boal / Standard Schaefer British Petroleum and the New Greenmail .
  • Iain Boal and Standard Schaefer: British Petroleum and the New Greenmail 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

It states that BP was never meant to be an abbreviation of its tagline. .Most Amoco gas stations in the United States have changed the look and name to the BP brand.^ United States Change .
  • Internet Explorer 8: Worldwide sites 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many states, however, BP is selling Amoco branded gasoline, as it was rated the best petroleum brand by consumers 16 years in a row (the name of the service station itself is still BP) and Amoco has one of the highest brand loyalty for gasoline in the US with only Chevron and Shell having such high rates as BP/Amoco.^ This is a one-way street benefiting only BP." .

^ Only 32 percent of adults said they trusted the best-rated industry about which Harris surveyed, supermarkets.

^ "This phenomenal growth, however, could not have happened without the world believing that ROA was fully and truly reinsured by Gen Re and the receipt of consistently high ratings from A.M. Best (A Ratings from 1983 to 2001), a national respected ratings service of insurance companies, which also believed ROA was truly backed by Gen Re."

In May 2008, however, the Amoco name was mostly phased out in favor of "BP Gasoline with Invigorate", promoting BP's new additive. The highest grade of BP gasoline available in the United States is still called Amoco Ultimate, however. In 2000, British Petroleum acquired Arco (Atlantic Richfield Co.)[25] and Burmah Castrol plc.[26]
Chief scientist, Steven Koonin (top right, with laptop), speaks about the energy scene in the boardroom in 2005.
In April 2004, BP decided to move most of its petrochemical businesses into a separate entity called Innovene within the BP Group. BP sought to sell the new company possibly via an initial public offering (IPO) in the US, and filed IPO plans for Innovene with the New York Stock Exchange on 12 September 2005. On 7 October 2005, however, BP announced that it had agreed to sell Innovene to INEOS, a privately held UK chemical company for $9 billion, thereby scrapping its plans for the IPO.[27]
.On 23 March 2005, an explosion occurred at BP's Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas.^ The $50 million fine in connection with the Texas refinery explosion was the largest ever under the Clean Air Act, a source of pride at the Justice Department.

.It is the third largest refinery in the US and one of the largest in the world, processing 433,000 barrels (68,800 m3) of crude oil per day and accounting for 3% of that nation's gasoline supply.^ Thailand's per capita income is under $3,000, according to the World Bank.

Over 100 were injured, and 15 were dead, including employees of the Fluor Corporation as well as BP. BP agreed that its mismanagement contributed to the accident. Level indicators failed, leading to overfilling of a heater, and light hydrocarbons spread throughout the area. An unidentified ignition source set off the explosion. [28]
In 2005, BP announced that it would be leaving the Colorado market.[29] Many locations were rebranded as Conoco.[30]
BP Americas headquarters in the Energy Corridor area of Houston
In 2007, according to some private BP-branded gasoline center operators in the Metro Atlanta area, BP planned to leave the Southern market in the next few years. All corporate-owned BP stations, typically known as "BP Connect" will be sold to local jobbers.[31]
.In March 2006, a leak in one of BP's pipelines on the North Slope in Alaska caused a spill of oil onto the tundra, leading BP to commit to replace over 16 miles (26 km) of federally regulated Oil Transit Lines (OTLs).^ When McNulty left for Main Justice in March 2006, he was replaced by Chuck Rosenberg.

^ "BP, which owns 46% of the Alaska pipline and is supposed to manage the system, had a habit of hunting down and destroying the careers of those who warn of pipeline problems.
  • Iain Boal and Standard Schaefer: British Petroleum and the New Greenmail 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

As of the end of 2007, one half of the pipeline had been replaced and all 16 miles (26 km) of pipeline are now tested regularly. [32]
.BP has recently looked to grow its oil exploration activities in frontier areas like the former Soviet Union for its future reserves.^ Two students were arrested for dumping molasses on the steps of a university building (it looked like oil).

[33] In Russia, BP owns 50% of TNK-BP with the other half owned by three Russian billionaires. TNK-BP accounts for a fifth of BP's global reserves, a quarter of BP's production, and nearly a tenth of its global profits.[34]
.On July 19, 2006, BP announced that it would close the last 12 out of 57 oil wells in Alaska, mostly in Prudhoe Bay, that had been leaking.^ Not only were 11 of the 12 years from 1995 to 2006 among the 12 warmest years recorded, the last 50 years in the Northern Hemisphere were probably the warmest in the last 1,300 years.

^ In July, the company announced it would register its pediatric formulation for Kaletra in Thailand.

The wells were leaking insulating agent called Arctic pack, consisting of crude oil and diesel fuel, between the wells and ice.[35]
.On 12 January 2007, it was announced that Lord Browne would retire at the end of July 2007.[36] The new Chief Executive will be the current head of exploration and production, Tony Hayward.^ In July, the company announced it would register its pediatric formulation for Kaletra in Thailand.

It had been expected that Lord Browne would retire in February 2008 when he reached the age of 60, the standard retirement age at BP. Browne resigned abruptly from BP on 1 May 2007, following the lifting of a legal injunction preventing Associated Newspapers from publishing details about his private life. Hayward succeeded Browne with immediate effect.[37]

Governance

The Board Members are:[38]

Financial data

Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil" sorted by latest published revenue
Financial data in millions of US$
Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Sales 180,186 236,045 294,849 249,465 265,906
EBITDA 22,941 28,200 37,825 41,453 44,835
Net Results 6,845 10,267 15,961 22,341 22,000
Net Debt 20,273 20,193 21,607 16,202 16,202
Source :'OpesC'

Controversy

August 2006 Prudhoe Bay Shutdown

.In August, 2006, BP shut down oil operations in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, due to corrosion in pipelines leading up to the Alaska Pipeline.^ Murray Energy took over Crandall Canyon mine from a previous operator, Andalex, in August 2006.

BP had spilled over one million litres of oil in Alaska's North Slope.[39] This corrosion is caused by sediment collecting in the bottom of the pipe, protecting corrosive bacteria from chemicals sent through the pipeline to fight this bacteria. There are estimates that about 5,000 barrels (790 m3) of oil were released from the pipeline. To date 1,513 barrels (240.5 m3) of liquids, about 5,200 cubic yards (4,000 m3) of soiled snow and 328 cubic yards (251 m3) of soiled gravel have been recovered. After approval from the DOT, only the eastern portion of the field was shut down, resulting in a reduction of 200,000 barrels per day (32,000 m3/d) until work began to bring the eastern field to full production on October 2, 2006.[40] In May 2007, the company announced another partial field shutdown owing to leaks of water at a separation plant. Their action was interpreted as another example of fallout from a decision to cut maintenance of the pipeline and associated facilities. [41]

October 2007 Prudhoe Bay spill

On 16 October 2007 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation officials reported a toxic spill of methanol (methyl alcohol) at the Prudhoe Bay oil field managed by BP PLC. Nearly 2,000 gallons of mostly methanol, mixed with some crude oil and water, spilled onto a frozen tundra pond as well as a gravel pad from a pipeline. Methanol, which is poisonous to plants and animals, is used to clear ice from the insides of the Arctic-based pipelines.[42]

Canadian oil sands

BP are one of numerous firms who are extracting oil from Canadian oil sands, a process that produces four times as much CO2 as conventional drilling, as well as having a devastating effect on the local environment and communities[43]. The Cree aboriginal group describe BP as being complicit in 'the biggest environmental crime on the planet' [44].

Texas City Refinery disaster

.One of BP's largest refineries in the USA exploded in 2005 causing 15 deaths.^ It was one of 25 top-selling drugs from 2000 to 2005 - it was the 11th largest selling prescription drug in 2003.

The fall-out from the accident continues to cloud BP's corporate image because of the mismanagement at the plant. There have been several investigations of the disaster, the most recent being that from the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. It was preceded by the Baker report and BP's own internal investigation.[45]
A large column filled with hydrocarbon overflowed to form a vapor cloud, which ignited. The explosion caused all the casualties and substantial damage to the rest of the plant. .The incident came as the culmination of a series of less serious accidents at the refinery, and the engineering problems were not addressed by the management.^ Gober is concerned also because the case "has exposed a serious problem in the reinsurance industry which is going to have to be addressed and corrected," he wrote to Judge Spencer.

Maintenance and safety at the plant had been cut as a cost-saving measure, the responsibility ultimately resting with executives in London.[45]
.On October 30, 2009 the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) imposed an $87 million fine on the company for failing to correct safety hazards revealed in the 2005 explosion.^ The $50 million fine in connection with the Texas refinery explosion was the largest ever under the Clean Air Act, a source of pride at the Justice Department.

^ In a review conducted after the disaster, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health found Agapito's work to be deeply flawed.

^ From 2004 through the end of 2007, a Multinational Monitor analysis found, the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) cited companies controlled by Murray for safety violations more than 7,500 times.

The fine was the largest in OSHA's history.[46]

Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline

BP's image has been tarnished somewhat by its involvement with the controversial Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, criticized for human rights abuses, environmental and safety concerns.[47]

Colombian pipeline

.In July 2006, a group of Colombian farmers won a multi million pound settlement from BP after the British oil and gas company was accused of benefiting from a regime of terror carried out by Colombian government paramilitaries to protect a 450-mile (720 km) pipeline.^ BP is a giant multinational oil company.

^ The idea is for the companies to shift from providing oil and gas to becoming energy service corporations, as ready to deliver solar power as gasoline.

^ As part of the settlement, the company will pay over $600 million in fines, restitution and a civil settlement.

[48]

Mist mountain project

There have been some calls for BP to halt its "Mist Mountain" Coalbed Methane Project in the Southern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia. The proposed 500 km² project is directly adjacent to the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park.[49]

Environmental record

Solar panel made by BP Solar
In 2005 BP was considering testing carbon sequestration in one of its North Sea oil fields, by pumping carbon dioxide into them (and thereby also increasing yields).[50] In 2004, BP began marketing low-sulfur diesel fuel for industrial use. BP intends to create a network of hydrogen fueling stations in the state of California. BP Solar is a leading producer of solar panels since its purchase of Lucas Energy Systems in 1980 and Solarex (as part of its acquisition of Amoco) in 2000. BP Solar had a 20% world market share in photovoltaic panels in 2004 when it had a capacity to produce 90 MW/year of panels. .It has over 30 years experience operating in over 160 countries with manufacturing facilities in the U.S., Spain, India and Australia and has more than 2000 employees worldwide.^ The most recent paper that has a moderately detailed coverage on the knapsack cryptosystems was [12], published more than ten years ago.
  • Knapsack Cryptosystems: The Past and the Future 9 October 2009 8:51 UTC www.ics.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The BP Alternative Energy division has made major investments in solar, wind and hydrogen power.^ The deal also likely gives BP power to direct the research agenda at the Energy Biosciences Institute.

^ The idea is for the companies to shift from providing oil and gas to becoming energy service corporations, as ready to deliver solar power as gasoline.

^ The deal will enable BP to expropriate a major public investment.

Through a series of acquisitions in the solar power industry BP Solar became the third largest producer of solar panels in the world. .It was recently announced that BP has obtained a contract for a pilot project to provide on-site solar power to Wal-mart stores.^ The idea is for the companies to shift from providing oil and gas to becoming energy service corporations, as ready to deliver solar power as gasoline.

In the 2006 annual report Lord Browne noted that BP now has a total wind generation capacity of nearly 15,000 megawatts. .Based on calculations of consumption rates by the average American household, 15,000 megawatts would be sufficient to provide power to 2.5 billion households.^ The white paper estimated the government would be able to shift 8,000 people onto lopinavir/ritonavir based on the immediate cost savings from buying generic.

Note that households relative to industry is a small measure of electric consumption and therefore 15,000 megawatts is only a small portion of the world’s electricity needs. .However, this does represent a real commitment to wind power generation and actually makes BP one of the largest generators of wind power in the world.^ However, Diffie and Hellman were unable to conceive an actual trapdoor one-way function even though they knew of its existence.
  • Knapsack Cryptosystems: The Past and the Future 9 October 2009 8:51 UTC www.ics.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

BP was named by Mother Jones Magazine as one of the "ten worst corporations" in both 2001 and 2005 based on its environmental and human rights records.[51][52] In 1991 BP was cited as the most polluting company in the US based on EPA toxic release data. .BP has been charged with burning polluted gases at its Ohio refinery (for which it was fined $1.7 million), and in July 2000 BP paid a $10 million fine to the EPA for its management of its US refineries.^ The $50 million fine in connection with the Texas refinery explosion was the largest ever under the Clean Air Act, a source of pride at the Justice Department.

^ BP 727 E St Germain St & US-10 .
  • BP Gas Prices - Find the Lowest Gas Prices at BP Gas Stations in Minnesota, Minnesota 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.minnesotagasprices.com [Source type: General]

[53] According to PIRG research, between January 1997 and March 1998, BP was responsible for 104 oil spills.[54] BP patented the Dracone Barge to aid in oil spill clean-ups across the world. [55]
A Gulf gasoline station in Louisville, KY using the previous BP prototype. BP purchased all Gulf stations in the southeastern United States in the 1980's after Chevron, Inc. was forced to divest the stations by the United States Justice Department.
.BP/Amoco was a member of the Global Climate Coalition an industry organization established to promote global warming skepticism but withdrew in 1997, saying "the time to consider the policy dimensions of climate change is not when the link between greenhouse gases and climate change is conclusively proven, but when the possibility cannot be discounted and is taken seriously by the society of which we are part.^ It is no longer possible for even ExxonMobil to deny the reality of climate change.

^ Many people concerned about global warming are seeking ways to pressure or incentivize ExxonMobil and the rest of Big Oil to change their business model.

^ Climate change will devastate agricultural production and rural societies in Africa.

We in BP have reached that point.".[56]
In March 2002 Lord Browne of Madingley declared in a speech that global warming was real and that urgent action was needed, saying that "Companies composed of highly skilled and trained people can't live in denial of mounting evidence gathered by hundreds of the most reputable scientists in the world."[57]
British Petroleum changed its name to BP in 2000, and introduced a new corporate slogan: “Beyond Petroleum.” It replaced its “Green Shield” logo with the helios symbol, a green and yellow sunflower pattern similar to the emblem of the Green Party of Canada. These changes were intended to highlight the company’s interest in alternative and environmentally friendly fuels. .When, in July 2006, BP admitted, only after journalists became aware of the spill, that it was facing criminal charges for allowing 270,000 gallons of crude oil to spread into the Alaskan tundra, critics pointed to the relative lack of press coverage about the spill as evidence that BP had successfully greenwashed its image while maintaining environmentally unsound practices.^ A review of literature reveals that few of past writings gives a relatively comprehensive coverage of these knapsack cryptosystems, and most of them discuss only a couple knapsack cryptosystems at a time.
  • Knapsack Cryptosystems: The Past and the Future 9 October 2009 8:51 UTC www.ics.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

[58][59]
BP was one nominee for the 2009 Greenwash Awards, on companies trying to look green and failing.[60]
.As of 11 February 2007 BP announced that they would spend $8 billion over ten years to research alternative methods of fuel, including natural gas, hydrogen, solar, and wind.^ Funded with $500 million over 10 years, the agreement would double the amount of corporate funding for research on campus, and change the direction of biofuels research at UC Berkeley for years to come.

^ "In 2007, Countrywide announced a $1.2 billion loss in the third quarter and an additional loss of $422 million in the fourth quarter."

^ After hearing arguments for and against, 75 percent favor legislation that would significantly increase energy efficiency, including auto fuel efficiency standards, and the use of renewable energy.

A $500 million grant to the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, to create an Energy Biosciences Institute[61] has recently come under attack, over concerns about the global impacts of the research and privatization of public universities.[62]
BP "Helios" fueling station in Los Angeles
In March 2007, BP unveiled its Helios fuel station on Olympic Boulevard in Los Angeles.[63] The station has radical architecture for a fuel station, and is a "living lab" for green technologies.[64] However, although there are solar panels on the roof, as of July 2007 they are not yet operational.[65]

Contributions to political campaigns

.According to the Center for Responsive Politics, BP is the United States' hundredth largest donor to political campaigns, having contributed more than US$5 million since 1990, 72% and 28% of which went to Republican and Democratic recipients, respectively.^ According to Countrywide's own data, more than 80 percent of its exotic adjustable-rate loans were made to borrowers that do not meet current banking standards.

^ As Waxman noted, the October hearing showed that relying on Blackwater is incredibly expensive - more than $400,000 per contractor per year - and has undermined the U.S. military objective, by fostering animosity toward the United States.

^ In the United States, the millions following the rescue typically watch the disasters play out according to a familiar script.

BP has lobbied to gain exemptions from U.S. corporate law reforms.[66] .Additionally, BP paid the Podesta Group, a Washington, D.C.-based lobbying firm, $160,000 in the first half of 2007 to manage its congressional and government relations.^ Blackwater obtained more than $1 billion in contracts from the U.S. government from 2001 to 2006, rising from $736,000 in 2001 to more than half a billion dollars in 2006.

[67]
In February 2002 BP's chief executive, Lord Browne of Madingley, renounced the practice of corporate campaign contributions, noting: "That's why we've decided, as a global policy, that from now on we will make no political contributions from corporate funds anywhere in the world."[68]

BP retail brands

BP gasoline station in Zanesville, Ohio using previous BP prototype.

BP

BP is one of the world's shortest and most valuable brands. The Helios Logo (Helios was the name of the Greek sun god), represents energy in its many forms. The value of the brand is enhanced by the fact that the company owns the two letter internet domain bp.com. The company management was ahead of the internet age registering the domain in 1989 (Nov 10 1989), years before internet became popular. Only very few large corporations are in the VB.com Internet Hall of Fame and own their acronym as two letter domain name.[69]

ampm

ampm is a convenience store chain with branches located in several U.S. states including Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, recently in Illinois, Indiana, Georgia and Florida, and in several countries worldwide such as Japan. .In the western US, the stores are usually attached to an ARCO gas station; elsewhere, the stores are attached to BP gas stations.^ BP Gas Prices - Find the Lowest Gas Prices at BP Gas Stations in Maryland, Maryland Not Logged In Log In    Sign Up    Points Leaders Follow Us     Facebook Twitter 10:22 PM Join for free.
  • BP Gas Prices - Find the Lowest Gas Prices at BP Gas Stations in Maryland, Maryland 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.marylandgasprices.com [Source type: General]

^ BP Gas Prices - Find the Lowest Gas Prices at BP Gas Stations in Minnesota, Minnesota Not Logged In Log In    Sign Up    Points Leaders Follow Us     Facebook Twitter 9:22 PM Join for free.
  • BP Gas Prices - Find the Lowest Gas Prices at BP Gas Stations in Minnesota, Minnesota 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.minnesotagasprices.com [Source type: General]

BP Connect stations in the US are transitioning to the ampm brand.

ARCO

ARCO is BP's retail brand on the US West Coast in the seven Western States of California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Idaho, Arizona, and Utah. BP acquired ARCO (formerly the AtlanticRichfieldCompany) in 2000. ARCO is a popular "cash only" retailer, selling products refined from Alaska North Slope crude at plants at Cherry Point (WA), Los Angeles (CA) and at other contract locations on the West Coast.

BP Travel Centre

BP Travel Centers are large scale destination sites located in Australia which on top of offering the same features of a BP Connect site with fuel and a Wild Bean Cafe, also feature major food-retail tenants such as McDonalds, KFC, Nando's and recently Krispy Kreme, with a large seating capacity foodcourt. There are also facilities for long-haul truck drivers including lounge, showers and washing machines all in the same building. There are 4 travel centers located in South East Queensland, Australia. Two on the Pacific Highway (Coomera and Stapylton) and two on the Bruce Highway (Caboolture). A fifth travel center was opened in 2007 at Chinderah in northern New South Wales.

BP Connect

.BP Connect is BP's flagship retail brand name with BP Connect Service stations being operated around the UK, Europe, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other parts of the world.^ The more than 200 other affiliated Purdue Pharma companies scattered around the world and listed in Appendix A of the non-prosecution agreement get off.

BP Connect sites feature the Wild Bean Cafe which offers cafe style coffee made by the staff and a selection of hot food as well as freshly baked muffins and sandwiches. The food offered in Wild Bean Cafe varies from each site. BP Connect sites usually offer table and chair seating and often an Internet kiosk. In the US, the BP Connect concept is gradually being transitioned to the ampm brand and concept. Some BP Connect sites around the UK ran in partnership with Marks & Spencer with the on-site shop being an M&S Simply Food instead of a BP Shop.

BP Express

BP Express was the flagship BP brand prior to the introduction of BP Connect in 2000. There are still some BP Express sites operating around the world but most have been either upgraded to Connect or changed to an alternative brand. BP Express offers a bakery service but doesn't have the selection of food offered in the Wild Bean Cafe and usually coffee is only available through a self service machine.
To Confuse matters: In the Netherlands BP is opening unmanned stations with no shops or employees. these stations are called BP Express. [1]. Some of these stations used to be 'ordinary' BP stations, some are new to the BP network. Apart from these stations BP Express shopping does also exist in the Netherlands.

BP Shop

A BP Petrol prices sign outside a BP Shop garage in the United Kingdom (prices in UK pence per litre).
BP Shop is commonly used on smaller sites mainly independently owned sites. Products vary in each BP Shop but usually a selection of convenience store style food and automotive products.
BP 2go branded petrol station in Australia

BP 2go

.BP 2go is a franchise brand used for independently operated sites in New Zealand and is currently being rolled out throughout Australia (Although not all BP 2go stores are franchises in Australia).^ All indications so far are that this operator intends to use whatever means available to try to leverage enforcement at their mines."

BP 2go sites mainly operate in towns and outer suburbs in New Zealand. BP 2go offers similar bakery food to BP Connect but in a pre-packaged form. .Some BP Express sites around New Zealand and Australia that were considered too small to be upgraded to BP Connect were given the option to change to BP 2go others were downgraded to BP Shop.^ By 2050, ongoing coastal development and population growth in some areas of Australia and New Zealand are projected to exacerbate risks from sea level rise and increases in the severity and frequency of storms and coastal flooding.

.Staff at some BP 2go sites wear a different style of uniform to the rest of the BP branded sites, however in company owned and operated 2go sites in Australia the same uniform is worn across all sites.^ For BP, the October settlement put to rest a series of debacles that has beset the company over the last several years.

Castrol

Castrol is a brand of motor oil and other lubricants which is entirely a BP brand but tends to retain its separate identity.

Air BP and BP Shipping

Air BP is the aviation fuel arm, BP Marine the marine fuels and lubricants arm and BP Shipping is the Shipping arm within the BP group
.
BP Shipping provides the logistics to move BP’s oil and gas cargoes to market as well as marine assurance on everything that floats in the BP group It manages a large fleet of vessels most of which are held on long term operating leases.
^ The idea is for the companies to shift from providing oil and gas to becoming energy service corporations, as ready to deliver solar power as gasoline.

BP Shipping’s Chartering Teams based in London, Singapore and Chicago also charter third party vessels on both time charter and voyage charter basis. .BP-managed fleet consists of Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs), one North Sea shuttle tanker, medium size crude and product carriers, liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) carriers and coasters.^ Read Reviews Available Sizes: One Size ON SALE: $135.00 ( 10% off ) The North Face Primero 65 Backpack - Women's - 3650-3950cu in .
  • Backpacks from Backcountry.com 11 September 2009 5:28 UTC www.backcountry.com [Source type: General]

^ Read Reviews Available Sizes: One Size ON SALE: $55.97 ( 30% off ) The North Face Primero 70 Backpack - 3950-4600cu in .
  • Backpacks from Backcountry.com 11 September 2009 5:28 UTC www.backcountry.com [Source type: General]

^ Read Reviews Available Sizes: One Size ON SALE: $71.96 ( 10% off ) The North Face Ruckus Laptop Bag - 2150cu in .
  • Backpacks from Backcountry.com 11 September 2009 5:28 UTC www.backcountry.com [Source type: General]

All of these ships are double-hulled.

Advertisement

The recent BP advertising campaign has been criticized by many as a superficial and stereotypical representation of the common man. Often the ads showcase a series of "man-on-the-street" type questionnaires in which obviously paid actors answer certain questions pertaining to BP. However, the music composed by BP for the purpose of the ads has been praised and lauded.[citation needed]
BP was also recently awarded a satirical prize, the "Emerald Paintbrush" award, by Greenpeace UK. The "Emerald Paintbrush" award was given to BP in order to highlight its alleged greenwashing campaign. .Critics point out that while BP advertises its relatively minimal investment in alternative energy sources, the majority of its investments continue to go into fossil fuels.^ The deal will enable BP to expropriate a major public investment.

[2]
.BP is a sponsor of the Scripps Institution CO2 program to measure carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.^ The deal specifies that BP representatives will serve in "high-level" positions on the Institute's governing committees.

[70]

Bibliography

  • The history of the British Petroleum Company
    • Vol. I:R.W.Ferrier, The Developing Years 1901-1932, Cambridge University Press, 1982
    • Vol. II: James H. Bamberg, The Anglo-Iranian Years, 1928-1954, Cambridge University Press, 1994
    • Vol. III: James H. Bamberg, British Petroleum and Global Oil, 1951-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, Cambridge University Press, 2000
For the early history of BP in Iran and Iraq see
Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Brysac. Kingmakers: the Invention of the Modern Middle East. W.W. Norton (2008)ISBN 978-0-393-06199-4

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Annual Results 2009". BP. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/STAGING/global_assets/downloads/B/bp_fourth_quarter_and_full_year_2009_results.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  2. ^ "Contact BP in the United Kingdom." BP. Retrieved on 18 August 2009.
  3. ^ "Maps." City of Westminster. Retrieved on 28 August 2009.
  4. ^ It's about time oil started defending itself
  5. ^ a b c Australian Dictionary of Biography
  6. ^ The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill
  7. ^ Yousof Mazandi, United Press, and Edwin Muller, Government by Assassination (Reader's Digest September 1951)
  8. ^ Britain Fights Oil Nationalism
  9. ^ a b BP: History at Funding Universe
  10. ^ Sztucki, Jerzy (1984). Interim measures in the Hague Court. Brill Archive. pp. 43. ISBN 9789065440938. http://books.google.com/books?id=3yDlnBv6Y8cC&lpg=PA43&ots=3VRY_7MGuX&dq=AIOC%20hague%20iran&pg=PA43. 
  11. ^ a b How a Plot Convulsed Iran in '53 (and in '79)
  12. ^ New York Times article, 1953
  13. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah's Men, (2003), p.195–6
  14. ^ Background to Confrontation
  15. ^ Natural Gas and Alaska's Future: The Facts page 22
  16. ^ BP dossier
  17. ^ a b Sohio timeline
  18. ^ TNK appoints Sir Peter Walters
  19. ^ Privitisation
  20. ^ Kuwait has 10% of BP
  21. ^ Britain drops a barrier to BP bid
  22. ^ Organising for performance: how BP did it
  23. ^ Royal Academy of Engineering
  24. ^ BP and Amoco in oil mega-merger
  25. ^ BP strikes it rich in America
  26. ^ BP Amoco to buy Burmah Castrol
  27. ^ BP sells chemical unit for £5bn
  28. ^ Errors led to BP refinery blast
  29. ^ BP puts 100 gas stations up for sale in Colorado.(British Petroleum Company PLC)
  30. ^ Gas station signs of change
  31. ^ BP to Sell Most Company-Owned, Company-Operated Convenience Stores to Franchisees
  32. ^ Oil Gushes into Arctic Ocean from BP Pipeline
  33. ^ "Penny Shares Online: BP(BP.)". 2006-07-10. http://www.pennysharesonline.com/company/B/BP-BP..asp. Retrieved 2006-07-10. 
  34. ^ "BP Set to Leave Russia Gas Project" by Guy Chazan and Gregory White, Wall Street Journal, 2007-06-22 p. A3.
  35. ^ Mark Tran (2006-07-19). "BP shuts leaking Alaskan wells". "Guardian Unlimited". http://money.guardian.co.uk/businessnews/article/0,,1824145,00.html. 
  36. ^ BP CEO set to retire
  37. ^ BP's Browne quits over lie
  38. ^ BP: The Board
  39. ^ Alaska Oil Spill Fuels Concerns Over Arctic Wildlife, Future Drilling
  40. ^ "Alaska Update". BP. 2 October 2006. http://usresponse.bp.com/go/doc/1249/132386/. 
  41. ^ BP accused of 'draconian' cost cuts prior to Alaskan pipeline spill
  42. ^ Methanol and crude spill from Prudhoe Bay pipeline
  43. ^ The tactics of these rogue climate elements must not succeed
  44. ^ Cree aboriginal group to join London climate camp protest over tar sands
  45. ^ a b Baker Panel Report
  46. ^ Associated Press, "BP fined record $87 million for safety breaches", October 31, 2009.
  47. ^ The Baku Ceyhan Pipeline: BP's Time Bomb
  48. ^ BP pays out millions to Colombian farmers
  49. ^ Citizens concerned about project
  50. ^ Seabed supplies a cure for global warming crisis
  51. ^ Ten Worst Corporations of 2000
  52. ^ The 10 Worst Corporations of 2005
  53. ^ bp: Beyond Petroleum?
  54. ^ SaveTheArctic.com
  55. ^ GB patent application 1435945, "Oil Clean-Up Method", published 1976-05-12  
  56. ^ "Global Climate Coalition". Sourcewatch. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Global_Climate_Coalition. 
  57. ^ How green is BP?
  58. ^ George Monbiot: Behind the spin, the oil giants are more dangerous than ever | Comment is free | The Guardian
  59. ^ Edinburgh Evening News
  60. ^ BP – nominated for green spin on the activities of the company
  61. ^ Energy Biosciences Institute - Main Home
  62. ^ Stop BP-Berkeley
  63. ^ About the station | The greencurve
  64. ^ 'Green' BP Station Still Pumps Gas : NPR
  65. ^ BP unveils green gas station : Business News : Redding Record Searchlight
  66. ^ "BP". The Center For Responsive Politics. http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.asp?ID=D000000091&Name=BP. 
  67. ^ "BP". The Center for Responsive Politics. http://opensecrets.org/lobbyists/clientsum.asp?year=2007&txtname=BP. 
  68. ^ BP stops paying political parties
  69. ^ VB.com Internet Hall of Fame - List of large corporations that own a Two Letter .com Domain
  70. ^ Scripps Institution

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Initialism

BP
  1. Abbreviation for British Petroleum.
  2. (pharmacy) Abbreviation for British Pharmacopoeia.
  3. Abbreviation for blood pressure.
  4. Abbreviation for boiling point.
  5. Abbreviation for before present.
  6. Abbreviation for bipolar.
  7. (biochemistry) Abbreviation for base pair.
  8. Abbreviation for Brazilian Portuguese.

See also

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of bp
  • PB

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on BP, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message