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.The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.^ Vitamin B 6 is a water-soluble vitamin.
  • Vitamin B 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.diet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamins are either fat soluble or water soluble.
  • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin .
  • Vitamin B Deficiency | LIVESTRONG.COM 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • B Vitamins | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historically, the B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as vitamin B (much as people refer to vitamin C or vitamin D).^ Historically, the B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as vitamin B (much as people refer to vitamin C or vitamin D).
  • Vitamin B 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • B Vitamins - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Historically, the B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to as Vitamin B (much like how people refer to Vitamin C or Vitamin D ).
  • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ "Vitamin B" was once thought to be a single nutrient that existedin extracts of rice, liver, or yeast.

.Later research showed that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods.^ They are isolated chemical versions of vitamins.
  • Vitamin B Complex: Essential for Health 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.chetday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are also often deficient in vitamin B6.
  • Medical Publications - Vitamin B-6 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC medicalpublications.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later research showed that they are chemically distinct vitamins whoch very often can be found in the same foods.
  • Vitamin B 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Supplements containing all eight are generally referred to as a vitamin B complex.^ View clinical references for this vitamin or supplement References: .
  • VITAMIN B12: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Supplements containing all eight are generally referred to as a vitamin B complex .
  • Vitamin B 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A vitamin B complex is a supplement that contains all the vitamin B groups.
  • Vitamin B from Think Natural 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.thinknatural.com [Source type: Academic]

.Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g.^ Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g.
  • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin B 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ View clinical references for this vitamin or supplement References: .
  • VITAMIN B12: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This component of vitamin B supplement is also referred to as thiamin or thiamine.
  • Vitamin B Supplement- A Complete Solution 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.isityourneed.com [Source type: Academic]

B1, B2, B3 etc.).

Contents

List of B vitamins

Health benefits

The B vitamins are necessary in order to:
.
  • Support and increase the rate of metabolism
  • Maintain healthy skin and muscle tone
  • Enhance immune and nervous system function
  • Promote cell growth and division—including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia.
  • Reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal forms of cancer[1], when consumed in food, but not when ingested in vitamin tablet form.^ Forming red blood cells .
    • WHFoods: vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vitamin B-12 Helps to maintain a healthy nervous system, and helps in the prevention of pernicious anemia.
    • Vitamin B-12, California Natural, 1000 mcg - 60 Tablets 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.herbalremedies.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A combination of B-Vitamins which help convert food into energy and are necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system.

    [2][3]
.All B vitamins are water soluble, and are dispersed throughout the body.^ Since B-vitamins are water-soluble, they are not stored in the body.
  • Natural Vitamin B Complex Vitamin Supplement Nutrition - NeoLife GNLD 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC amazing-health-products.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Vitamin B Complex contains eight different vitamins, all water soluble.
  • Symptoms of a vitamin B-complex deficiency - a knol by Sarah 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vitamin B 6 is a water-soluble vitamin.
  • Vitamin B 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.diet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most of the B vitamins must be replenished regularly, since any excess is excreted in the urine.^ Most of the B vitamins must be replenished daily, since any excess is excreted in the urine.
  • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Any excess is excreted in urine.
  • Vitamins, Water-Soluble - effects, food, nutrition, deficiency, needs, body, diet, absorption, carbohydrate, protein, fat, eating, carbohydrates, vitamin, amino, acids, weight, habits 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This group of vitamins is water soluble and excess quantities are excreted in the urine.

[4]

B vitamin deficiency

.Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B-vitamins.^ Deficiencies of B vitamins can result in severe damage to the body.

^ Severe cases of vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy or rickets.
  • Vitamin B Deficiency | LIVESTRONG.COM 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B-vitamins.
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins | Yaeyama Chlorella 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.yaeyama-chlorella.co.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.neurosoup.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Deficiencies of other B vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease.^ Vitamin B group: deficiency symptoms and functions in disease and health .
  • Vitamin B group: deficiency symptoms andfunctions in disease and health 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.balanceyournutrition.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B-vitamins.

^ What are deficiency symptoms for vitamin B6?
  • WHFoods: vitamin B6 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Vitamin Name Deficiency effects
Vitamin B1 thiamine Deficiency causes beriberi. .Symptoms of this disease of the nervous system include weight loss, emotional disturbances, Wernicke's encephalopathy (impaired sensory perception), weakness and pain in the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat, and edema (swelling of bodily tissues).^ Symptoms include loss of appetite, skin rash, diarrhea, and digestive and emotional disturbances.

^ Symptoms of this disease of the nervous system include weight loss, emotional disturbances, Wernicke's encephalopathy (impaired sensory perception), weakness and pain in the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat , and edema (swelling of bodily tissues).
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Beriberi, a nervous system disease .

.Heart failure and death may occur in advanced cases.^ In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to dementia and death.
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Heart failure and death may occur in advanced cases.
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In more advanced cases, cerebral function may also be affected resulting in disturbances of mood, psychoses, and dementia.
  • Vitamin B-12 Therapy 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.aetna.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chronic thiamine deficiency can also cause Korsakoff's syndrome, an irreversible psychosis characterized by amnesia and confabulation.^ Thiamin deficiency also causes the diseases Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi, diseases common in chronic abusers of alcohol.

^ Chronic thiamine deficiency can also cause Korsakoff's syndrome , an irreversible psychosis characterized by amnesia and confabulation .
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?

Vitamin B2 riboflavin Deficiency causes ariboflavinosis. .Symptoms may include cheilosis (cracks in the lips), high sensitivity to sunlight, angular cheilitis, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), seborrheic dermatitis or pseudo-syphilis (particularly affecting the scrotum or labia majora and the mouth), pharyngitis, hyperemia, and edema of the pharyngeal and oral mucosa.^ Ariboflavinosis: inflammation of tongue (glossitis), cracks at corners of mouth (cheilosis), dermatitis, growth retardation, conjunctivitis, nerve damage .
  • Vitamins, Water-Soluble - effects, food, nutrition, deficiency, needs, body, diet, absorption, carbohydrate, protein, fat, eating, carbohydrates, vitamin, amino, acids, weight, habits 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The common symptoms may include hypersensitivity to sunlight, edema, cheilosis, hyperemia and oral mucosa.

^ Symptoms associated with riboflavin deficiency include itching and burning eyes, angular stomatitis and cheilosis (cracks and sores in the mouth and lips), bloodshot eyes, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue leading to purplish discoloration), seborrhea (dandruff, flaking skin on scalp and face), trembling, sluggishness, and photophobia (excessive light sensitivity).

Vitamin B3 niacin Deficiency, along with a deficiency of tryptophan causes pellagra. .Symptoms include aggression, dermatitis, insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, and diarrhea.^ Common symptoms may include aggression, dermatitis, confusion, insomnia and diarrhea.

^ Symptoms include loss of appetite, skin rash, diarrhea, and digestive and emotional disturbances.

^ Other possible symptoms include dizziness, hair loss, insomnia, poor digestion, and slowed mental response.

.In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to dementia and death.^ In severe cases, dementia and death may occur.
  • Symptoms of Vitamin B Deficiency 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to dementia and death.
  • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.neurosoup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heart failure and death may occur in advanced cases.
  • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.neurosoup.com [Source type: Academic]

Vitamin B5 pantothenic acid Deficiency can result in acne and paresthesia, although it is uncommon.
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine Deficiency may lead to microcytic anemia .(because pyridoxyl phosphate is the cofactor for heme synthesis), depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and elevated levels of homocysteine.^ The common complications are depression, mood disorder, hypertension, anemia, water retention, and increased level of homocysteine.

^ Inadequate levels of plasma P5P can lead to anemia, depression, dermatitis, hypertension, water retention, insomnia, premenstrual tension, irritability, muscle twitching, convulsions, and kidney stones.
  • Shop for VITAMIN B supplements - National Nutrition 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.nationalnutrition.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Elevated levels of this substance appear to be linked with heart disease and, possibly, depression and Alzheimer's Disease .
  • Vitamin B12 for depression, Natural Vitamin Supplement 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.realmentalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

Vitamin B7 biotin Deficiency does not typically cause symptoms in adults but may lead to impaired growth and neurological disorders in infants. .Multiple carboxylase deficiency, an inborn error of metabolism, can lead to biotin deficiency even when dietary biotin intake is normal.^ Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.
  • Three of the Bs: Folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 - What Should You Eat? - The Nutrition Source - Harvard School of Public Health 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.hsph.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.
  • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B6 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If pernicious anemia is left untreated, it causes vitamin B12 deficiency, leading to megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders, even in the presence of adequate dietary intake of vitamin B12.
  • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Vitamin B9 folic acid Deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, and elevated levels of homocysteine. .Deficiency in pregnant women can lead to birth defects.^ Deficiency is common among pregnant women.

^ Deficiency: anemia, birth defects.
  • Human Nutrition 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The help of a healthcare professional is needed to determine when a true vitamin B12 deficiency exists in pregnant women with low blood levels of the vitamin.
  • Vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Supplementation is often recommended during pregnancy.^ The American Dietetic Association recommends supplemental vitamin B12 for vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians during both pregnancy and lactation to ensure that enough vitamin B12 is transferred to the fetus and infant [ 44 ].
  • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A supplement is therefore advisable during pregnancy to help to prevent neural tube defects.

^ Vegan mothers will need supplementation throughout pregnancy and during lactation in sufficient amounts to ensure adequate supplies for themselves and their child.
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.Researchers have shown that folic acid might also slow the insidious effects of age on the brain.^ Slows effects of aging.

^ Folic Acid has been the talk of late and there is a great need for women who are of child bearing age to be aware they are getting enough.
  • http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/vitamins.htm 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.vanderbilt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eussen, S. J. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Vitamin B12 cobalamin Deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, elevated .homocysteine, peripheral neuropathy, memory loss and other cognitive deficits.^ Beri Beri: anorexia, weight loss, weakness, peripheral neuropathy Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: staggered gait, cross eyes, dementia, disorientation, memory loss .
  • Vitamins, Water-Soluble - effects, food, nutrition, deficiency, needs, body, diet, absorption, carbohydrate, protein, fat, eating, carbohydrates, vitamin, amino, acids, weight, habits 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Smith AD. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive deficit in the elderly.
  • VITAMIN B12: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They include sensory disturbances in the extremities, motor disturbance and cognitive changes from memory loss to dementia, with or without mood change.
  • NHMRC Nutrient Reference Values - Nutrients vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.nrv.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.It is most likely to occur among elderly people as absorption through the gut declines with age; the autoimmune disease pernicious anemia is another common cause.^ Pernicious anemia is the most common cause of vitamin B-12 deficiency.
  • ISPUB - Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.
  • Diagnose-Me: Treatment: Vitamin B-Complex 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is particularly important for elderly people to get adequate intake of the B vitamins due to the fact that absorption of these nutrients decrease with age.
  • Wheydepot.com - Ultimate B-Complex / 90ct 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis. In rare extreme cases, paralysis can result.

B vitamin toxicity

.Although most B vitamins are eliminated regularly in the urine, taking large doses of certain B vitamins may produce harmful effects.^ Although the results of supplementation trials involving CFS patients have been inconclusive so far Dr. Werbach nevertheless recommends that CFS patients be given large doses of certain supplements for at least a trial period to see if their symptoms improve.

^ If you buy a vitamin B coenzyme supplement along with a multivitamin product, alternate their use since if you take them the same day you may get too high a dosage of B vitamins.
  • Vitamin-B-Coenzyme complex supplements, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxine 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.physicianformulas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although it is unclear which micronutrients are most beneficial for people with burns, many studies suggest that a multivitamin including the B complex vitamins may aid in the recovery process.
  • Vitamin B12 for depression, Natural Vitamin Supplement 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.realmentalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

Vitamin Name Tolerable Upper Intake Level Harmful effects
Vitamin B1 thiamine None[5] No known toxicity from oral intake. There are some reports of anaphylaxis caused by high dose thiamin injections into the vein or muscle. .However, the doses were greater than the quantity humans can physically absorb from oral intake.^ Both are much more expensive (on a per dose basis) than the human brands and deliver lower doses of the key b vitamins.
  • Vitamin B Complex Injectable 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.zzcat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, even in 1996, 71 per cent of the internists still held the incorrect view that sufficient quantities of cobalamin cannot be absorbed from oral supplements (91 per cent of the internists held this view in 1989).

^ Large doses of cholestyramine (greater than 32 g/day) may be associated with malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

[5]
Vitamin B2 riboflavin None No known toxicity
Vitamin B3 niacin 35 mg/day from supplements, drugs or fortified food[6] Flushing (redness of the skin, often accompanied by itching or a mild burning sensation). Intake of 3000 mg/day of nicotinamide and 1500 mg/day of nicotinic acid are associated with nausea, vomiting, and signs and symptoms of liver toxicity.[6]
Vitamin B5 pantothenic acid None No known toxicity
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 100 mg/day from supplements, drugs or fortified food[7] sensory neuropathy and dermatological lesions[7]
Vitamin B7 biotin None No known toxicity
Vitamin B9 folic acid 1 mg/day [8] Masks B12 deficiency, which can lead to permanent neurological damage[8]
Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin None No known toxicity

B vitamin sources

.B vitamins are found in all whole, unprocessed foods.^ Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in all the foods we eat.

^ B vitamins are found in all foods, but they're only found all together in flesh or dairy products and nutritional yeast.

^ However, studies evaluating the population as a whole found that there was no difference in mortality rate between those who took vitamin supplements and those who didn't.
  • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Processing, as with sugar and white flour, tends to significantly reduce B vitamin content[citation needed].^ Vitamins are essential to so many processes within the body that it would be very difficult for me to tell you all of the things vitamins are needed for.
  • http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/vitamins.htm 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.vanderbilt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some researchers propose that the current standard norms of vitamin B12 levels are too low [ citation needed ] .
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin B6 Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient needed to process proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
  • Vitamin B 50 Complex | B Complex | StopAgingNow.com 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.stopagingnow.com [Source type: Academic]

.B vitamins are particularly concentrated in meat and meat products such as liver, turkey, and tuna.^ Oct 7, 2009 Vitamin D is found in many dietary sources such as fish, eggs, fortified milk, and cod liver oil.
  • Super Vitamin B Complex :: B Vitamins :: Vitamins and Minerals :: Rhinebeck Health Nutrients 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.rhinebeckhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins :: Vitamins and Minerals :: Rhinebeck Health Nutrients 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.rhinebeckhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ The vitamin is tightly bound to proteins in meat and dairy products and requires high acidity to cut it loose.

^ We investigated vitamin B(12)-dependent metabolism and oxidative stress in groups with various or no intake of meat or animal products.
  • Vitamin B-12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Other good sources for B vitamins are potatoes, bananas, lentils, chile peppers, tempeh, beans, nutritional yeast, brewer's yeast, and molasses.^ Nutritional yeast is different from brewer's yeast or torula yeast.

^ The source and content of vitamin B12 in the tempehs.
  • WHFoods: vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Molasses and nutritional yeast are known sources of vitamin B. .

.Marmite and Vegemite bill themselves as "one of the world's richest known sources of vitamin B". Although the yeast used to make beer results in beer being a source of B vitamins[9],their bioavailability ranges from poor to negative given the fact consumption of ethanol is known to inhibit absorption of thiamine (B1)[10][11], riboflavin (B2)[12], niacin (B3)[13], biotin (B7)[14],and folic acid (B9)[15][16].^ The consumption of B vitamins particularly B-12, B-6, folic acid, biotin and niacin may reverse memory problems.

^ (Pantothenic acid, biotin and folic acid are often used in tandem by the body.

^ Vitamin B3 (niacin) also known as nicotinic acid .
  • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, each of the preceding studies further emphasizes that elevated consumption of beer and other ethanol-based drinks results in a net deficit of those B vitamins and the health risks associated with such deficiencies.^ Pellagra is another health complications occurred as a result of vitamin B deficiencies .

^ Whether such treatment will result in vitamin B12 deficiency is controversial.

^ Inositol hexanicotinate delivers niacin to the bloodstream slowly, eliminating the niacin "flush," and has not been associated with impaired liver health or other side effects of conventional or "slow-release" niacin.
  • Shop for VITAMIN B supplements - National Nutrition 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.nationalnutrition.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The B12 vitamin is of note because it is not available from plant products, making B12 deficiency a concern for vegans.^ N 2 O pathomechanisms in vitamin B-12 deficiency .
  • Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases: eMedicine Neurology 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes of vitamin B 12 deficiency .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ B-12 is often deficient in vegans because the predominant source of B-12 is animal products.

.Manufacturers of plant-based foods will sometimes report B12 content, leading to confusion about what sources yield B12.^ Manufacturers of plant-based foods will sometimes report B-12 content, leading to confusion about what sources yield B-12.

^ To be safe I recommend between 12,500 and 25,000 IU of beta-carotene per day from food sources such as carrots” [39].
  • The Truth About Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.doctorsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Regression of plasma vitamin B-12 on log of intake, by source, yielded significant slopes for each contributor adjusted for the others.
  • Vitamin B-12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

.The confusion arises because the standard US Pharmacopeia (USP) method for measuring the B12 content does not measure the B12 directly.^ The confusion arises because the standard US Pharmacopeia (USP) method for measuring the B-12 content does not measure the B-12 directly.

^ Serum vitamin B-12 measurement is a widely applied standard method.
  • Vitamin B-12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.ecologos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The standard method for measuring vitamin B12 in foods measures both active and inactive forms of vitamin B12.

.Instead, it measures a bacterial response to the food.^ Instead, it measures a bacterial response to the food.

.Chemical variants of the B12 vitamin found in plant sources are active for bacteria, but cannot be used by the human body.^ Vitamin B-1 Vitamin B-1 is essential for the body to be able to use carbohydrate as an energy source as well...
  • Buy Vitamin B-12 Online :: Online Canadian Pharmacy 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC rxmeds4all.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin are the forms of vitamin B 12 used in the human body (1) .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The B vitamins have a wide and varied range of functions in the human body.
  • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This same phenomenon can cause significant over-reporting of B12 content in other types of foods as well.^ This same phenomenon can cause significant over-reporting of B-12 content in other types of foods as well.

^ Other causes of vitamin B 12 deficiency .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The type of fat found in coconut milk is the same type of fat found in human milk which is why it is doesn’t cause why gain.
  • B Vitamins | Vitamin Information Center 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.vitamins5.com [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.Vitamin B may also be delivered by injection to reverse deficiencies.^ Vitamin B12 deficiencies may be treated by injections of the vitamin or by oral supplementation.

^ A deficiency in vitamin B may lead to anemia.

^ This may lead to vitamin B-12 deficiency.

[18]
.Another popular means of increasing one's vitamin B intake is through the use of dietary supplements purchased at supermarkets, health centers, or natural food stores.^ Dietary supplement With Vitamin B that supports heart health.
  • Buy Online for Vitamin B products at AmericaRx.com 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.americarx.com [Source type: General]
  • Buy Online for Vitamin B products at AmericaRx.com PNASC252 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.americarx.com [Source type: General]

^ Thiamin hydrochloride is the form of vitamin B-1 that is used in most dietary supplements.
  • Vitamin B Complex: Essential for Health 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.chetday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For decades the ‘natural’ health industry has been touting thousands of vitamin supplements.
  • The Truth About Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.doctorsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

.B vitamins are also commonly added to energy drinks.^ This sports drink - nutritional supplement contains quercetin, green tea, B complex vitamins , and vitamins E and C. It helps to boost energy and is a great addition to your wellness program.
  • B Vitamins - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One vitamin commonly added to foods is vitamin C, a vitamin found citrus fruits, berries and some vegetables.
  • B Vitamins | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies now suggest vitamin D plays a role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and that drinking milk with added vitamin D may help protect against AMD. .
  • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Many energy drinks have been marketed with large amounts of B vitamins (5-Hour Energy contains an astounding 8333% of the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin B12 and 2000% of the RDA for vitamin B6.^ Vitamin B-12 2000 mcg .
  • Vitamins and Suppliments For 20 Bucks Or Less - Vitamin B 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC 20bucksorless.com [Source type: General]

^ Recommended dietary allowance (RDA), AI, or dietary reference intake (DRI) .
  • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ U.S. recommended daily allowance of vitamin s and minerals.
  • B Vitamins | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Red Bull offers "360% of the RDA for vitamin B6, 120% of B12, 140% of niacin (vitamin B3)"[19]) with claims that this will cause the consumer to "sail through your day without feeling jittery or tense." [19] Nutritionists, such as Case Western University Professor Hope Barkoukis, dismiss these claims: "It's brilliant marketing, but it doesn't have any basis [in fact]."[19]
.While B vitamins do "help unlock the energy in foods...^ Vitamin b2: Helps release energy from foods.

^ B Vitamins help convert food into energy.

^ This sports drink - nutritional supplement contains quercetin, green tea, B complex vitamins , and vitamins E and C. It helps to boost energy and is a great addition to your wellness program.
  • B Vitamins - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Just about everyone in America already gets all of the B vitamins they could possibly need in their diets… Extra B vitamins are generally just flushed out of the system—although everyone's limit of absorption is different in regards to B complex vitamins and no-one knows how much is needed on an individual basis of these vitamins…"[19] The elderly and athletes may need to supplement their intake of B12 and other B vitamins due to problems in absorption and increased needs for energy production.^ These may cause problems with digestion and absorption.
  • Vitamin B Complex: Essential for Health 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.chetday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, vitamin B 12 supplements don't need acid for absorption and should, therefore, get around this problem.

^ They point out that vitamin B-12 deficiency is widespread especially among the elderly.

.Also, Vitamin B9 (folic acid) deficiency in early embryo development has been linked to neural tube defects.^ Supplementation with folic acid may mask a deficiency of vitamin B12.

^ Folate levels and neural tube defects.
  • Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases: eMedicine Neurology 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Folic acid and vitamin B12.

.Thus, women planning to become pregnant are usually encouraged to increase daily dietary folic acid intake and/or take a supplement.^ Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes.
  • VITAMIN B12: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases: eMedicine Neurology 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Directions: As a dietary supplement, take capsule daily, preferably with meals.
  • Vitamin B 50 Complex | B Complex | StopAgingNow.com 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.stopagingnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggested Use: As a supplement to the diet, take 2 capsules daily, or use as directed by a physician, licensed nutritionist, or personal trainer.
  • Optimum Nutrition Stress B-Complex, 120 Capsules - Vitamin B - Vitamins and Minerals - A1Supplements.com 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

[20] .However, for "most typical consumers of energy supplements or drinks, B vitamins are nothing more than a 'gimmick' when they are making these false claims."^ They are perhaps the most well-known of the vitamin supplements.

^ Taurine supplement in energy drinks .
  • Vitamin-B-Coenzyme complex supplements, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxine 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.physicianformulas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence Vitamin D supplementation makes sense.

[19]

Related nutrients

.Many of the following substances have been referred to as vitamins because they were believed to be vitamins at one time, and they are relevant to vitamin nomenclature in that the numbers that were assigned to them form "gaps" in the series of B-vitamin names.^ Because of the close bond between them, they were referred to as the B complex vitamins.
  • Vitamin B Complex, Sources, Benefits, Deficiency, Dosage 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.healthvitaminsguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were therefore at one time believed to be just the one chemical entity.

^ Related nutrients Many of the following substances have been referred to as vitamins because they were believed to be vitamins at one time, and they are relevant to vitamin nomenclature in that the numbers that were assigned to them form "gaps" in the series of B-vitamin names.
  • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in the diets of other organisms; others have no known nutritional value.^ Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in the diets of other organisms; others have no known nutritional value.
  • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • B Vitamins - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in the diet other organisms; others have no known nutritional value.
  • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Minerals are essential factors in human nutrition .
  • Vitamins from Solgar - Vitamin Supplements and Mineral Supplements - Discount Vitamins, Vitamin Shop, Vitamin Store, Vitamins, Amino Acids, Antioxidants, Carotenoids, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin E 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC solgar-store.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Vitamin B4: adenine, a nucleobase, is synthesized by the human body.^ When these vitamins enter the human body, they don’t stay stored in reserve like fat soluble vitamins but go in circulation through the bloodstream.

    ^ This vitamin is synthesized in our body cells itself in the presence of sun light.

    ^ Vitamin E is an important nutrient with many potential benefits to the human body.
    • B Vitamins | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [21]
  • .
  • Vitamin B7: "vitamin I" of Centanni E. (1935)—also called "Enteral factor"—is a water and alcohol soluble rice-bran factor which prevents digestive disturbance in pigeons.^ Vitamins C and B complex are water soluble.
    • Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin C & Vitamin B Complex in Cats 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin C & Vitamin B Complex in Dogs 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vitamins are either fat soluble or water soluble.
    • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pyridoxine is a water-soluble B vitamin.
    • NATIONAL NUTRITION: B VITAMIN RESEARCH INFORMATION 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.nationalnutrition.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .It governs the anatomical and functional integrity of the intestinal tract.^ It governs the anatomical and functional integrity of the intestinal tract.
    • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
    • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Necessary for proper functioning of the nervous system, bone marrow and intestinal tract (B-vitamin deficiencies appear in these tissues first) .
    • Isotonix Advanced B-complex - Health & Nutrition From Market America 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.marketamerica.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ B vitamins are necessary for proper functioning of the nervous system, bone marrow and intestinal tract.
    • Isotonix Advanced B-complex - Health & Nutrition From Market America 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.marketamerica.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Later found in yeast.^ Later found in yeast.
    • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
    • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Possible candidates for this substance are inositol, niacin (nicotinic acid), and biotin.^ The other related substances include choline, inositol and para- aminobenzoic acid (PABA).
    • vitamin b complex | Buy cheap vitamin b complex and compare prices on vitamin b complex at Shopping.com UK | | Nutrition | Health and Beauty 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC uk.shopping.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid nicotinamide, and vitamin b 3, is a water-soluble vitamin, and apart of the b-complex.

    ^ We will detail thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, B12, and biotin.
    • Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin C & Vitamin B Complex in Dogs 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Carnitine was also claimed to be a candidate but is not soluble in alcohol.^ Carnitine was also claimed to be a candidate but is not soluble in alcohol.
    • Vitamin b? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
    • B vitamins - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • B vitamins: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    .February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Vitamin B8: adenosine monophosphate, or alternately myo-inositol, is synthesized by the human body.^ When these vitamins enter the human body, they don’t stay stored in reserve like fat soluble vitamins but go in circulation through the bloodstream.

    ^ Unless the person supplementing is diabetic, the body can convert beta-carotene into vitamin A as it is needed.
    • B Vitamins | Vitamin Information Center 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.vitamins5.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vitamins are essential to so many processes within the body that it would be very difficult for me to tell you all of the things vitamins are needed for.
    • http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/vitamins.htm 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.vanderbilt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Vitamin B10: para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
  • Vitamin B11: pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid—chick growth factor, which is a form of folic acid.^ PABA 10 mg (Para Amino Benzoic Acid) 60mg .

    ^ Folic acid and vitamin B12.

    ^ August 10, 2008 .
    • Buy Vitamin B12 Shots - Your Vitamin B12 Injectables Store 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.b12-shot.com [Source type: General]

    .Later found to be one of five folates necessary for humans; also known as vitamin S or factor S. L-Carnitine is called vitamin B11 in France.^ Thiamine Thiamine is one of the vitamins of B group, which is also called ...

    ^ At least one synthetic vitamin B-6 analogue has been found to inhibit natural vitamin B-6 action [49].
    • The Truth About Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.doctorsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This factor was later isolated as vitamin B-12 by Folker and Todd.
    • ISPUB - Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    .February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Vitamin B13: orotic acid, now known to not be a vitamin.
  • Vitamin B14: cell proliferant, anti-anemia, rat growth, and antitumor pterin phosphate named by Earl R. Norris.^ Vitamin B5 is also known as Pantothenic Acid .

    ^ Pantothenic acid is also known as vitamin B 5 .

    ^ People who have vitamin deficiency anemia often don't get enough folic acid.
    • Vitamin B Deficiency | LIVESTRONG.COM 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    .Isolated from human urine at 0.33ppm (later in blood), but later abandoned by him as further evidence did not confirm this.^ These studies were confirmed by later studies showing further evidence of vitamin B6 deficiency in asthmatics ( 4 , 5 ).

    ^ Subsequently, tritiated 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a major metabolite of folate, was isolated from the human host urine, demonstrating that the human host did absorb and consequently metabolized these bacterially synthesized folates [9].

    .He also claimed this was not xanthopterin.
  • Vitamin B15: pangamic acid
  • Vitamin B16: dimethylglycine (DMG)
  • Vitamin B17: amygdalin, nitrilosides, or laetrile.^ B-1 Vitamin, also called thiamin ; this Vitamin was first one to be discovered B-2 Vitamin, or riboflavin ; B-3 Vitamin, called niacin ; that includes nicotinic acid and nicotinamide B-5 Vitamin, or pantothenic acid ; B-6 Vitamin, or pyridoxine ; B-7 Vitamin, also known as vitamin H, or biotin (not always present in Vitamin B complex supplements) B-9 Vitamin, also called folic acid ; B-12 Vitamin, or cobalamin Sometimes other unclassified vitamins of the B group can be found in B vitamin complex supplements: amygdalin (B-17), adenine (B-4), adenylic (B-8) and pangamic (B-15) acids.

    ^ But does it follow from this that vitamin B-17 (nitriloside) is the specific antineoplastic vitamin?
    • The Nitrilosides(Vitamin B-17) 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC users.navi.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ I believe that in light of the experimental evidence that he has produced, you might agree that vitamin B-17 (nitriloside) is indeed the antineoplastic vitamin.* One might ask, then, whether we suggest that vitamin B-17 (nitriloside) or Laetrile is an effective cancer drug.
    • The Nitrilosides(Vitamin B-17) 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC users.navi.net [Source type: Academic]

    .These substances are found in a number of seeds, sprouts, beans, tubers and grains.^ This vitamin can be found in whole grains (such as wheat and oat), wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, sardines, egg yolks, nuts, bread, cereals and seeds.

    ^ Vitamin B 5 , Pantothenic Acid, is found in many common foods such as meat, egg yolks, peanuts, whole grains and beans.
    • http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/vitamins.htm 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.vanderbilt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Thiamin, like many other valuable nutrients, is found in the coating of the seed which is ground away to make white refined grains and grain flours.

    .While toxic in large quantities, proponents claim that it is effective in cancer treatment and prevention.^ It has also been found to be effective in helping to prevent lung cancer, oxalate-type kidney stones and premenstrual syndrome.
    • Vitamin B 50 Complex | B Complex | StopAgingNow.com 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.stopagingnow.com [Source type: Academic]

    [22]
  • .
  • Vitamin B18:
  • Vitamin B19:
  • Vitamin B20: carnitine
  • Vitamin B21:
  • Vitamin B22: often claimed as an ingredient of Aloe vera extracts but also in many other foods.^ Vitamin B12 is required for the proper function and development of the brain, nerves, blood cells, and many other parts of the body.
    • VITAMIN B12: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Many of these symptoms are general and can result from a variety of medical conditions other than vitamin B12 deficiency.
    • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Obviously this does not apply to the NutriPlex or other natural, whole food vitamins.
    • Vitamin B Complex: Essential for Health 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.chetday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Claimed by one source to be vitamin B12b-δ.
  • Vitamin Bh: biotin
  • Vitamin Bm: "mouse factor": also used to designate inositol
  • Vitamin Bp: choline Choline is only required for survival of some mutants.^ The body can manufacture only three vitamins (D, K, and the B vitamin biotin) from nondietary sources.
    • Vitamins - Introduction 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vitamin B-x, Vitamin B-8, Vitamin B factors like Choline : PABA was once called vitamin B-x, while inositol was once called vitamin B-8.
    • The Truth About Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements 10 February 2010 11:51 UTC www.doctorsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Further adding to confusion has been the 'unofficial' designation of other substances as members of the B-complex, such as choline, inositol, and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), even though they are not essential vitamins.
    • Bodybuilding.com - Vitamin B Information and Product Listing! Vitamin B FAQ! 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Most commonly it is synthesized in vivo de novo [23] May be added as supplement especially when methionine supply is limited.
  • Vitamin Bt: L-carnitine
  • Vitamin Bv: a type of B6 but not pyridoxine
  • Vitamin Bw: a type of biotin but not d-biotin
  • Vitamin Bx: para-aminobenzoic acid
.Note: B16, B17, B18, B19, B20, B21 & B22 do not appear to be animal factors but are claimed by some naturopaths as human therapeutic factors.^ The formation of the cobalamin-intrinsic factor complex appears indispensable for the vitamin to be absorbed in the terminal ileum via an active transport system [19].

^ As noted by a vet below , some anemic animals sometimes cannot absorb enough B12 orally.
  • Vitamin B Complex Injectable 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.zzcat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Retail Price: $19.95 Our Price: $17.78 (You save: $2.17) Cost Per Serving: $0.20 .
  • Vitamin B & B Complex - Discount Sport & Bodybuilding Supplements - My Supplement Store Online 2 February 2010 10:18 UTC www.mysupplementstore.com [Source type: Academic]

References

  1. ^ "Confronting Pancreatic Cancer". http://www.pancreatica.org. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  2. ^ Schernhammer, E., et al. (June 1, 2007). "Plasma Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Four Large Cohorts". Cancer Research 67 (11): 5553–60. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4463. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/67/11/5553. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  3. ^ United Press International (June 1, 2007). "Pancreatic cancer risk cut by B6, B12". UPI.com. http://www.upi.com/Consumer_Health_Daily/Briefing/2007/06/01/pancreatic_cancer_risk_cut_by_b6_b12/3712/. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  4. ^ Vitamins, water soluble at FAQ.org
  5. ^ a b National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board., ed (1998). "Chapter 4 - Thiamin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. 58–86. ISBN 0-309-06411-2. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Thiamin/58-86_150.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  6. ^ a b National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board., ed (1998). "Chapter 6 - Niacin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. 150–195. ISBN 0-309-06411-2. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Thiamin/123-149_150.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  7. ^ a b National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board., ed (1998). "Chapter 7 - Vitamin B6". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. 150–195. ISBN 0-309-06411-2. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Thiamin/150-195_150.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  8. ^ a b National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board., ed (1998). "Chapter 8 - Folate". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. 58–86. ISBN 0-309-06411-2. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Thiamin/196-305_150.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  9. ^ Winklera, C; B. Wirleitnera, K. Schroecksnadela, H. Schennachb and D. Fuchs (Sep 2005). "Beer down-regulates activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro". International Immunopharmacology 6 (3): 390-395. PMID 16428074 doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2005.09.002. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W7N-4H6XNCT-1&_user=4423&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1170050114&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000059605&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4423&md5=ad33efbb2638c397f63aa8c4e2b202af. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  10. ^ Hoyumpa Jr, AM (1980). "Mechanisms of thiamin deficiency in chronic alcoholism". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33: 2750-2761. PMID 6254354. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/33/12/2750. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  11. ^ Leevy, Carroll M. (1982). "Thiamin deficiency and alcoholism". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 378 (Thiamin: Twenty Years of Progress): 316-326. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1982.tb31206.x. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119560210/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  12. ^ Pinto, J; Y P Huang, and R S Rivlin (May 1987). "Mechanisms underlying the differential effects of ethanol on the bioavailability of riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide". Journal of Clinical Investigation 79 (5): 1343-1348. doi:10.1172/JCI112960. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC424383/?report=abstract. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  13. ^ Spivak, JL; DL Jackson (June 1977). "Pellagra: an analysis of 18 patients and a review of the literature". The Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 140 (6): 295-309. PMID 864902. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/864902. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  14. ^ Said, HM; A Sharifian, A Bagherzadeh and D Mock (1990). "Chronic ethanol feeding and acute ethanol exposure in vitro: effect on intestinal transport of biotin". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52: 1083-1086. PMID 2239786. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/6/1083. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  15. ^ Halsted, Charles; Picciano, M.F., Stokstad, E.L.R. and Gregory, J.F. (eds) (1990). Intestinal absorption of dietary folates (in Folic acid metabolism in health and disease). New York, New York: Wiley-Liss. pp. 23-45. ISBN 0471567442. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=1992/v1803/US9141384.xml;US9141384. 
  16. ^ Watson, Ronald; Watzl, Bernhard, eds (September 1992). Nutrition and alcohol. CRC Press. pp. 16–18. ISBN 978-0849379338. 
  17. ^ Herbert, Victor (1 September 1998). "Vitamin B-12: Plant sources, requirements, and assay". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48 (3): 852–8. PMID 3046314. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/48/3/852. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  18. ^ Vitamin B injections mentioned
  19. ^ a b c d e Chris Woolston (July 14, 2008). "B vitamins don't boost energy drinks' power". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-he-skeptic14-2008jul14,0,3939169.story. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  20. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7619926
  21. ^ Vera Reader (1930). "The assay of vitamin B4". Biochem J. 24 (6): 1827–31.. doi:10.1007/BF01581575. PMID 16744538. PMC 1254803. http://www.biochemj.org/bj/024/1827/0241827.pdf. 
  22. ^ Clark, Jim (September 2003). "Foods Containing B17". All Natural Cancer Therapy. http://web.archive.org/web/20070828221422/http://home.bluegrass.net/~jclark/b17_dosage.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  23. ^ american journal of clinical nutrition; J A Stecol; ... pdf

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