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Avatar: The Last Airbender
Also known as Avatar: The Legend of Aang
Genre Adventure, Fantasy
Created by Michael Dante DiMartino
Bryan Konietzko
Written by Michael Dante DiMartino
Bryan Konietzko
Aaron Ehasz
Tim Hedrick
Directed by Lauren MacMullan
Dave Filoni
Giancarlo Volpe
Ethan Spaulding
Joaquim Dos Santos
Voices of Zach Tyler Eisen
Mae Whitman
Jack DeSena
Jessie Flower
Dante Basco
Mako (Season 1-2)
Greg Baldwin (Season 3)
Grey DeLisle
Composer(s) Jeremy Zuckerman
Country of origin United States
Language(s) English
No. of seasons 3
No. of episodes 61 (List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Michael Dante DiMartino
Bryan Konietzko
Aaron Ehasz
Running time 24 minutes
Original channel Nickelodeon
Nicktoons Network
Picture format NTSC 4:3 (480i)
Original run February 21, 2005 (2005-02-21) – July 19, 2008 (2008-07-19)
Status Ended

Avatar: The Last Airbender (also known as Avatar: The Legend of Aang)[1] is an American animated children's television series that aired for three seasons on Nickelodeon and the Nicktoons Network. The series was created and produced by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko, who served as executive producers along with Aaron Ehasz. Avatar is set in an Asian-influenced world[2] of Chinese martial arts and elemental manipulation. The show drew on elements from East Asian, Japanese and Chinese culture, making it a mixture of an anime like and US domestic cartoons.

The series follows the adventures of the main protagonist Aang and his friends, who must save the world by defeating the evil Fire Lord and ending the destructive war with the Fire Nation.[3] The pilot episode first aired on February 21, 2005[4] and the series concluded with a widely-lauded two-hour television movie on July 19, 2008.[5] The show is available from the following sources: on DVD, the iTunes Store, the Zune Marketplace, the Xbox Live Marketplace, the PlayStation Store, and its home on Nickelodeon.[6]

Avatar: The Last Airbender was popular with both audiences and critics,[7] garnering 5.6 million viewers on its best-rated showing and receiving high ratings in the Nicktoons lineup, even outside its 6–11-year-old demographic.[3][8] Avatar has been nominated for and won awards from the Annual Annie Awards, the Genesis Awards, the primetime Emmy awards and a Peabody Award among others. The first season's success prompted Nickelodeon to order second[9] and third[10] seasons. The first part of a movie trilogy titled The Last Airbender is expected to be released on July 2, 2010.

Merchandise based on the series includes scaled action figures,[11] a trading card game,[12][13] three video games based on the first,[14] second,[15][16] and third seasons, stuffed animals distributed by Paramount Parks, and two LEGO sets.[17]


Series synopsis



One hundred years before the start of the series, a 12-year-old airbender named Aang learns he is the new Avatar. Fearful of the heavy responsibilities of being the Avatar, coupled with the coming separation from his beloved mentor Monk Gyatso (to complete his training), Aang flees from home on his animal guide, a flying bison called Appa. Caught by a fierce storm, they crash into the ocean, and Aang's protective Avatar State freezes them in a state of suspended animation inside an iceberg. Right after his disappearance, the Fire Nation launches a genocidal campaign on the Air Nomads. The current Fire Lord Sozin did this because after killing the Avatar Roku who was native to the Fire Nation, he realized the next one would come from the Air Nomads according to the Avatar cycle. This way he could ensure that the next Avatar would not try to foil his plots for world domination just as the last one had.

Season One (Book One: Water)

After being frozen in an iceberg, Aang and Appa are awoken a hundred years later by two siblings of the Southern Water Tribe, Katara and Sokka. Aang learns that the Fire Nation started a war a hundred years ago, just after his disappearance. The Fire Nation launched a genocidal attack on the Air Nomads, starting the war and driving Aang's entire nation to extinction making him "The Last Airbender". He realizes that he must fulfill his destiny of becoming the Avatar and return the balance to the world by defeating the Fire Nation army. Aang sets out to master the other three elements: Water, Earth, and Fire. With Katara and Sokka, Aang decides to head to the North Pole to find a Waterbending master for himself and Katara, the only Waterbender in the South Pole. The journey is long, made longer by Aang's lack of focus and desire for fun and discovery. During the journey however, the group manages to save the lives of many people, several of whom will become future allies, and Aang and Katara gain strength in waterbending.

During one brief stop over, Aang finds his way to the spirit world where he encounters Avatar Roku's dragon animal guide, who instructs him to travel on the day of Winter Solstice to the Fire-Temple on Crescent Island and speak with Roku. Roku tells Aang that he must master all four elements and end the war before the next summer, as Sozin's Comet will be closest to the world then in its hundred year orbit. Fire Lord Ozai will end the war using this comet, an additional power source that will make the fire benders even stronger. The comet was named after Ozai's Grandfather, Sozin, who also used the coming of the comet to start the war, and deal a deadly first strike to the other nations.

For most of their journey to the North Pole, the group is pursued by Zuko, a banished Fire Nation prince and son of Fire Lord Ozai, and by Commander Zhao, an ambitious naval officer who also wants to capture the Avatar to further his own ambitions. Zuko is obsessed with capturing Aang to restore his honor and his place in line for the Fire Nation throne; he was banished for speaking out of turn in a war meeting and refusing to fight his father in an agni kai (literally a 'fire duel'). Zuko was accompanied by his uncle,General Iroh, a wise and kindly general who was supposed to be the successor to the Fire Nation throne before it was usurped by his younger brother Ozai. Fire Lord Azulon, the father of Iroh and Ozai and the son of Sozin approved of this because Iroh's only son, Liuten, was killed in battle, leaving no one as a possible successor. Ozai's children, Azula (named after Azulon) and Zuko were alive and well. Zuko and Iroh were the first to discover that the Avatar is still alive, but Zhao, after capturing Zuko's ship and questioning its crew, also learns of the Avatars reappearance. Zhao prevents Zuko and Iroh from pursuing the Avatar while starting a search of his own. The Fire Lord, seeing Zhao's zeal in the pursuit, promotes the commander to Admiral status, making him in charge of the operation to capture the Avatar.

When the Avatar reaches the Northern Water Tribe along with Sokka and Katara, he and Katara are trained in the art of waterbending by Master Pakku. When the Fire Nation attacks the North Pole, Aang enters the Avatar state and destroys their fleets of ships after restoring balance to the stolen Moon Goddess. The Season ends with the group having destroyed Zhao's attempts at conquering the North Pole.

Season Two (Book Two: Earth)

After leaving the North Pole, Aang finishes mastering Waterbending under the instruction of Katara, who has mastered the element faster than he has. Aang and friends travel to the Earth Kingdom to master Earthbending. Their initial plan was to learn under Bumi, king of the Earth Kingdom city of Omashu, but discover that he and Omashu have been captured by the Fire Nation and Bumi is waiting for the right time to strike. Searching for a new Earthbending teacher, the group meets Toph, a blind Earthbending prodigy who becomes Aang's second teacher and teaches him, amongst other things, her unique ability to use earthbending to "see" with her feet. After discovering a hidden ancient library, the heroes discover information about an upcoming solar eclipse which would leave the Fire Nation powerless and open to invasion. They struggle to reach the Earth King with this vital information, but are detoured by Appa's kidnapping. Azula, Zuko's sister, and her two friends Mai and Ty Lee chase the group as they struggle to reach Ba Sing Se, the Earth Kingdom capital. By capturing and then impersonating the Kyoshi Warriors, Azula engineers a plan that allows the Fire Nation to take complete control over Ba Sing Se and the rest of the Earth Kingdom, and destroys any hope of a large-scale invasion of the Fire Nation. Azula is believed to have killed the Avatar using lightning while Aang was in the Avatar state, and there is no hope left. In reality she disaligned his seventh chakra, thus blocking the Avatar state seemingly for good.

Zuko deals with internal conflict as he and Iroh defect from the Fire Nation, settle in the Earth Kingdom, and disguise themselves as refugees and open a successful tea shop called "The Jasmine Dragon." After a brief period of reformation, Zuko helps Azula defeat Aang and is allowed to return back to the Fire nation as a re-instated prince.

In the season finale, while captured by bounty hunters sent by the Bei Fong family to return Toph to her home, the "Blind Bandit" uses her earthbending skills to "see" the particles of refined earth that make metal and becomes the world's first "metal bender," a feat previously thought to be impossible.

Season Three (Book Three: Fire)

Ba Sing Se has fallen, and Aang is critically injured. He awakes to find his group on a Fire Nation ship disguised in similar regalia.

Sokka has planned a small-scale invasion of the Fire Nation to claim the palace and ultimately defeat Lord Ozai, making use of a soon-approaching solar eclipse which will render Firebending impossible for eight minutes. They travel to the rendezvous point to meet with various warriors that the group encountered in Book One and Two.

The invasion proceeds as planned with the group defeating much of the land forces and watch towers, but Aang finds the palace empty; the royal company has taken refuge in a nearby volcanic temple and prepared an air fleet in a surprise counter-maneuver. Aang never finds Lord Ozai, but Zuko does and uses the eclipse as his chance to confront his father and proclaim his decision to join the Avatar. The eclipse is over, and the air fleet destroys the protagonist party's ships. Only Aang's sky bison Appa can provide a means of escape, and Aang retreats with the children aboard Appa while the adults are taken captive.

Zuko catches up with Aang at the Western Air Temple and offers to teach Aang the art of firebending. After some conflict, he is allowed to join the group. The two travel to unlock the firebending secrets of the "Sun Warriors". He and Sokka also plan an infiltration of Boiling Rock, the prison where high ranking prisoners of war are kept. They find Sokka's father and Suki, the leader of the Kyoshi Warriors and Sokka's former love interest, but Zuko is quickly discovered and Azula comes to question him, accompanied by Mai and Ty Lee. Both girls eventually aid Zuko and Sokka in escaping the prison, betraying Azula in the process. Enraged, Azula demands their imprisonment and begins to slip into paranoia and insanity at the loss of her most trusted confidants.

After regrouping, Sokka tries to create a battle plan, but peace-loving Aang refuses to kill any living being, including Lord Ozai. He is drawn to a mysterious island and meditates on other ways to defeat Ozai by calling on the spirits of other past Avatars for advice. Each Avatar advises him to destroy Ozai, and Aang is reluctantly resigned to killing him until he discovers that the island is really an ancient, giant, wise "lion-turtle." Aang asks it for advice, and the Lion-Turtle teaches him the ancient art of Energybending as a way to avoid killing Ozai.

On the day of Sozin's Comet, Lord Ozai, now the self-proclaimed "Phoenix King" harnesses the comet's power to start a genocidal campaign to destroy the rest of the world. Aang's friends (Aang still missing from his trip to the mysterious island) set off to face him, Azula (soon to be crowned the new Fire Lord), and the entire Fire Nation army. Zuko and Katara go to face Azula just moments before her coronation, so that he can usurp the throne in her stead; Sokka, Suki and Toph fight the air fleet; and the Order of the White Lotus fights to reclaim Ba Sing Se from the Fire Nation. Aang returns just in time to take on Lord Ozai. Finally reclaiming his ability to enter the Avatar State, Aang almost kills Ozai before restraining himself and instead calls upon the lost art of Energybending to remove Ozai's bending abilities altogether. The war over, Zuko is crowned Fire Lord, and alongside Aang, he promises to bring harmony to the entire world.


Michael DiMartino, one of the co-creators of the show, at the 2008 New York Comic Con.

Avatar: The Last Airbender was co-created and produced by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko at Nickelodeon Animation Studios in Burbank, California. According to Bryan Konietzko, the program was conceived in the spring of 2001 when he took an old sketch of a balding, middle-aged man and re-imagined the character as a child.[2] Konietzko drew the character herding bison in the sky, and showed the sketch to Mike DiMartino. At the time, DiMartino was studying a documentary about explorers trapped in the South Pole.

Konietzko described their early development of the concept:

We thought, "There's an air guy along with these water people trapped in a snowy wasteland... and maybe some fire people are pressing down on them..."

The co-creators successfully pitched the idea to Nickelodeon VP and executive producer Eric Coleman just two weeks later.[18]

The show was first revealed to the public in a teaser reel at Comic-Con 2004,[19] and aired February 21, 2005. In the United States, the first two episodes of the series were shown together in a one-hour premiere event. A second twenty-episode season ran from March 17, 2006 through December 1.[9] A third and final season, beginning September 21, 2007, featured twenty-one episodes rather than the usual twenty.[10] The final four episodes were packaged as a two-hour movie.


A map of the four nations. The characters at the top, 群雄四分, mean "the heroes divide [the world or the country or the land] in four." The characters of the four lands are 水善 (Water Peaceful), 土強 (Earth Strong), 火烈 (Fire Fierce), and 气和 (Air Harmony). The phrase at the bottom, 天下一匡, reads "correct all things under heaven".

Avatar: The Last Airbender takes place in a world that is home to humans, fantastic animals, and spirits. Human civilization is divided into four nations: the Water Tribes, the Earth Kingdom, the Air Nomads, and the Fire Nation. Each nation has its own natural element, on which it bases its society. Within each nation exists an order called "Benders" who have the ability to manipulate the eponymous element of their nation. The show’s creators based each Bending art on a style of martial arts. The Bending types are Waterbending, Earthbending, Firebending, and Airbending.[20]

The world yields one person who is capable of bending all four elements, the Avatar, the spirit of the planet manifested in human form. When an Avatar dies, he or she is reincarnated into the next nation in the Avatar Cycle. The Avatar Cycle parallels the seasons: autumn for the Air Nomads, winter for the Water Tribe, spring for the Earth Kingdom and summer for the Fire Nation.[21] Legend holds the Avatar must master each bending art in order, starting with his native element. This can sometimes be compromised when the situation requires it, as Aang demonstrates in the show. For the Avatar, learning to bend the element opposite his native element can be extremely difficult. This is because opposing Bending arts are based on opposing fighting styles and disciplines. Firebending and Waterbending are opposites, as are Earthbending and Airbending.[22]

The Avatar possesses a unique power called the Avatar State, which endows the Avatar with the knowledge and abilities of all past Avatars and acts as a self-triggering defense mechanism, although it can be made subject to the will of the user through various methods, such as extensive trial and training (such as Avatar Roku), or if he/she opens his/her bodily Chakras.[23] If an Avatar is killed in the Avatar State, the reincarnation cycle will be broken, and the Avatar will cease to exist.[24] Through the ages, countless incarnations of Avatar have served to keep the four nations in harmony, and maintain world order.[20] The Avatar serves as the bridge between the physical world and the Spirit World, allowing him or her to solve problems that normal benders cannot.[25]

Cultural influences

Avatar is notable for borrowing extensively from Asian art and mythology to create its universe. The show's character designs are heavily influenced by anime; the show, however, is not generally considered to be "anime" because of its origination in the United States. (However, this ignores the fact that the animation was outsourced to Korea, where almost all modern anime production takes place.) Explicitly stated influences include Chinese art and history, Japanese anime, Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism,[26] and Yoga.[27] The production staff employs a cultural consultant, Edwin Zane, to review scripts.[28]

Traditional East Asian calligraphy styles are used for nearly all the writing in the show. For each instance of calligraphy, an appropriate style is used, ranging from seal script (more archaic) to clerical script.[29] The show employed calligrapher Siu-Leung Lee as a consultant and translator.[27]

The choreographed martial art bending moves were profoundly affected by Asian cinema.[2] In an interview, Bryan revealed that, "Mike and I were really interested in other epic 'Legends & Lore' properties, like Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings, but we knew that we wanted to take a different approach to that type of genre. Our love for Japanese anime, Hong Kong action and kung fu cinema, yoga, and Eastern philosophies led us to the initial inspiration for Avatar."[30]


The term "Avatar" comes from the Indian language of Sanskrit. The word Avatāra, (Sanskrit: अवतार), which means "descent"; its roots are ava, "down," and tri, "to pass." In the Hindu scriptures, avatara signifies the descent of Divinity into flesh. One who attains union with Spirit and then returns to earth to help humanity is called an avatar. The Chinese characters that appear at the top of the show's title card mean "the divine medium who has descended upon the mortal world."[29]

When Aang was young, he unknowingly revealed that he was the Avatar when he chose four toys out of thousands, each of which were the childhood toys of the previous Avatars. In Tibetan Buddhism, there is a similar test for reincarnations of a Tulku Lama. In Magic and Mystery in Tibet, Alexandra David-Neel writes that "a number of objects such as rosaries, ritualistic implements, books, tea-cups, etc., are placed together, and the child must pick out those which belonged to the late tulku, thus showing that he recognizes the things which were theirs in their previous life."[31] Each successor is expected to show signs of continuity with the previous Avatar, such as being born within a week of the death.[20]


Avatar draws on the four classical elements common to most ancient philosophies (rather than the five classical Chinese elements) for its bending arts: Water, Earth, Fire and Air. Although each has its own variation, most ancient philosophies incorporate these four elements in some way: examples include the classical Hindu, Buddhist, and Greek elemental traditions.

In the show’s opening, each element is accompanied by two Chinese characters: an ancient Chinese seal script character on the left, and a modern Chinese character on the right:

  • Water (Chinese: pinyin: shui) is associated with benevolence and adaptivity (Chinese: ; pinyin: shan).
  • Earth (Chinese: ; pinyin: tu) is associated with strength and stability (Chinese: ; pinyin: qiang).
  • Fire (Chinese: ; pinyin: huo) is associated with intensity and passion (Chinese: ; pinyin: lie)
  • Air (Chinese: ; pinyin: qi) is associated with peace and harmony (Chinese: ; pinyin: he).[32]

Fighting styles

The fighting choreography of the show draws from martial arts; the fighting styles and weaponry are based on Chinese martial arts, with each bending art corresponding to a certain real-world style. The creators referred to Ba Gua for Airbending, Hung Gar for Earthbending, Northern Shaolin for Firebending, and Tai Chi for Waterbending.[20] The only exception to this is Toph, who employs a Chu Gar Southern Praying Mantis style.[33] The series employed Sifu Kisu of the Harmonious Fist Chinese Athletic Association as a martial arts consultant.[34]

Each fighting style was chosen to represent the element it projected:

  • Tai Chi focuses on alignment, body structure, breath, and visualization. This technique is the foundation of "Waterbending" in the series.[20]
  • Hung Gar was chosen for its firmly rooted stances and powerful strikes to represent the solid nature of earth. This martial art is the basis of "Earthbending" in the series.[20]
  • Northern Shaolin Kung Fu uses strong arm and leg movements. This technique is the foundation of "Firebending" in the series.[20]
  • Ba Gua uses dynamic circular movements and quick directional changes.[20] This technique uses centripetal force to generate power, and uses nearly constant circular movement to create angles between the combatants. This martial art is the basis of "Airbending" in the series.[35][36]


  • Aang (Zach Tyler Eisen) is the fun-loving, 112-year-old protagonist of the series, but was frozen in an iceberg with his flying bison, Appa, for 100 years. He is the current incarnation of the Avatar, the spirit of the planet in human form. Aang is a reluctant hero, who would prefer adventure over his job as the Avatar and making friends over fighting the Fire Nation and has a crush on Katara although at first he is unable to express it.
  • Katara (Mae Whitman) is a 14-year-old Waterbender of the Southern Water Tribe. Katara and her brother, Sokka, discover and free Aang from the iceberg in which he had been trapped. With her brother Sokka, she accompanies Aang on his quest to defeat the Fire Lord, and eventually becomes his Waterbending teacher. In the original unaired pilot episode, Katara's name was Kya; this later is stated to be her mother's name. Katara also shows a love interest in Aang but she never shows it to him.
  • Sokka (Jack DeSena) is a 15-year-old warrior of the Southern Water Tribe. With his sister, Katara, he accompanies Aang on his quest to defeat the Fire Lord. The joker of the group, Sokka describes himself as "meat-loving" and "sarcastic".[22] Unlike his companions, Sokka does not have any bending ability, but the series, though it often makes him the victim of comedy at his expense, frequently grants him opportunities to use his ingenuity and weapons, including his trusty boomerang and a sword he forged from a meteorite.He also maintains a romantic relationship with Suki who is a Kioshi warrior he met on Kioshi island.
  • Toph Bei Fong (Jessie Flower) is a 12-year-old [20] blind tomboyish Earthbender that appears in the second season of the show. Not long after meeting Aang and his friends, she leaves her wealthy family and comfortable home to join Aang on his quest, with a plan to teach him Earthbending. Though blind, Toph "sees" by feeling the vibrations in the ground through her feet. She is the only Earthbender seen in the show to learn to bend metal and is considered one of the most powerful Earthbenders.
  • Zuko (Dante Basco) is the 16-year-old exiled prince of the Fire Nation and original antagonist of the series. Due to events in Zuko's past, his father, Fire Lord Ozai, deems him a complete failure, and Zuko feels he must capture the Avatar to regain his honor. Over time, Zuko struggles to deal with his anger, self-pity, and familial relationships; meanwhile, he grows sympathetic to the peoples his nation has terrorized. In season three, he defects from the Fire Nation, and joins Aang and the team in order to teach Aang Firebending. At the end of the series, he is crowned ruler of the Fire Nation.
  • Azula (Grey DeLisle) is the 15-year-old [20] princess of the Fire Nation. She is Zuko's younger sister and one of the major antagonists of the series. Azula is a Firebending prodigy and is one of the few living Firebenders capable of casting lightning. She has no qualms about bullying and threatening her relatives or friends, reserving any familial loyalty for her father. She is first introduced at the end of the last episode of season one, although she appears in the background in an earlier episode.
  • Iroh (Mako in seasons one and until episode 15 in season 2. Greg Baldwin in season three) is a retired Fire Nation general, known as the Dragon of the West, and Prince Zuko's uncle and mentor. Iroh was the original heir to the Fire Nation throne until his brother usurped the throne after Fire Lord Azulon's death.[37] On the surface, Iroh is a cheerful, kind, and optimistically eccentric old man, but he still remains a powerful warrior and a devoted surrogate parent to Zuko. Iroh is a Grand Master of the Order of the White Lotus, a secret society of men from all nations and helps retake Ba Sing Se during the series finale. Unlike most Firebenders, Iroh does not use fury as the source of his strength; instead he uses the original Firebending skills learned from the Dragons. He is the only shown character to both have the abilities of casting lightning and redirecting lightning attacks.



When the show debuted, it was rated the best animated television series in its demographic;[38] new episodes averaged 3.1 million viewers each.[38] A one-hour special showing of "The Secret of the Fire Nation" which aired on September 15, 2006, consisting of "The Serpent's Pass" and "The Drill", gathered an audience of 5.1 million viewers. According to the Nielsen Media Research, the special was the best performing cable television show airing in that week.[39] In 2007, Avatar was syndicated to more than 105 countries worldwide, and was one of Nickelodeon's top rated programs. The series was ranked first on Nickelodeon in Germany, Indonesia, Malaysia, Belgium, and Colombia.[40]

The series finale, Sozin's Comet: The Final Battle, received the highest ratings of the series. Its July 19, 2008 premiere averaged 5.6 million viewers, 95% more viewers than Nickelodeon had received in mid-July 2007.[41] During the week of July 14, it ranked as the most-viewed program for the under-14 demographic.[42][43] Sozin's Comet also appeared on iTunes' top ten list of best-selling television episodes during that same week.[44] Sozin's Comet's popularity affected online media as well; "Rise of the Phoenix King", a online game based on Sozin's Comet, generated almost 815,000 game plays within three days.[45]

Awards and nominations

Awards Outcome
2005 Pulcinella Awards:[46]
Best Action/Adventure TV Series Won
Best TV Series Won
33rd Annie Awards:[47]
Best Animated Television Production Won
Storyboarding in an Animated Television Production (The Deserter) Won
Writing for an Animated Television Production (The Fortuneteller) Nominated
34th Annie Awards:[48]
Character Animation in a Television Production (The Blind Bandit) Won
Directing in an Animated Television Production (The Drill) Won
36th Annie Awards:[49]
Best Animated Television Production for Children Won
Directing in an Animated Television Production (Joaquim Dos Santos for Into the Inferno) Won
2007 Genesis Awards:
Outstanding Children's Programming (Appa's Lost Days) Won
Primetime Emmy Awards:
Outstanding Animated Program (City of Walls and Secrets) Nominated
Individual Achievement Award (Sang-Jin Kim for Lake Laogai) Won
Nickelodeon Kid's Choice Awards 2008:
Favorite Cartoon[50] Won
Annecy 2008:
TV series (Joaquim Dos Santos for The Day of Black Sun Part 2: The Eclipse)[51] Nominated
56th Golden Reel Awards:
Best Sound Editing in a Television Animation (Avatar Aang)[52] Nominated
2008 Peabody Awards:
"Unusually complex characters and healthy respect for the consequences of warfare"[53] Won

Other media

Promotion and merchandising

Avatar's success has led to some promotional advertising with third-party companies, such as Burger King and Upper Deck Entertainment. Avatar-themed roller coasters at Kings Island and at Nickelodeon Universe in the Mall of America also appeared. During the show's runtime, Nickelodeon published two special issues of Nick Mag Presents dedicated entirely to the show. Various members of the Avatar staff and cast appeared at the 2006 San Diego Comic-Con International convention, while Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko appeared with Martial Arts Consultant Sifu Kisu at the Pacific Media Expo on October 28, 2006. Avatar also has its own line of t-shirts, LEGO playsets, toys, a trading card game,[54] a cine-manga, and three video games, as well as an MMO.[55]

The Mattel-produced action figure toy line generated some controversy with its exclusion of any female characters.[56] Mattel came to release information stating that they have taken account of Katara's increased role within the program, and that she would be included in the figure assortment for a mid 2007 release.[57] The figure ultimately went unreleased, however, as the entire line was canceled before she could be produced.

Nickelodeon executives have since released optimistic plans for upcoming marketing strategies in regards to Avatar. Nickelodeon President Cyma Zarghami openly stated his belief that the franchise "could become their Harry Potter".[58] They expect consumers to spend about $121 million in 2007, rising to $254 million by 2009.[58] The marketing plans are to be coincided with the release of the first live-action film based on the series in 2010, which will be the first film in a trilogy.[58]

Feature film

The Last Airbender is an upcoming live action film directed by M. Night Shyamalan that is based on the animated television series Avatar: The Last Airbender. The film originally shared the title of the television series, but it was changed to The Last Airbender because the producers were worried it would be confused with the James Cameron film Avatar. The Last Airbender will star Noah Ringer as Aang, Dev Patel as Zuko, Jackson Rathbone as Sokka, and Nicola Peltz as Katara. Iroh will be played by Shaun Toub and Firelord Ozai by Cliff Curtis.

Video games

A video game trilogy about Avatar has been created. Avatar: The Last Airbender, the video game, was released on October 10, 2006. Avatar: The Last Airbender - The Burning Earth was released on October 16, 2007. Avatar: The Last Airbender – Into the Inferno was released on October 13, 2008. The three games were loosely based on seasons one, two and three, respectively. Players can select characters and complete quests to gain experience and advance the storyline. Despite lackluster critical reviews, the games did extremely well commercially; for example, Avatar: The Last Airbender was THQ's top selling Nickelodeon game in 2006 and even reached Sony CEA's "Greatest Hits" status.[59]

Avatar: Legends of the Arena, a video game for Microsoft Windows launched on September 25, 2008 by Nickelodeon.[60] Each user is able to create their own character, choose a nation, and to interact with others across the globe.[60][61][62]


All music and sound used in the series was done by Jeremy Zuckerman and Benjamin Wynn, who form The Track Team. They made use of a wide range of different ethnic instruments (like a guzheng or a pipa or a duduk) to compose a background music that fits into this fictional world.[63]


  1. ^ " : Avatar: The Legend of Aang". Nickelodeon. Retrieved 2009-01-07.  
  2. ^ a b c d DiMartino, Michael Dante; Konietzko, Bryan (2006). "In Their Elements". Nickelodeon Magazine (Winter 2006): 6.  
  3. ^ a b "Element of Shyamalan in "Airbender"". The Hollywood Reporter. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.. 2007-01-09. Retrieved 2008-05-03.  
  4. ^ "The Boy in the Iceberg". Avatar: The Last Airbender. IGN. 2005-02-21. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  
  5. ^ "Sozin's Comet". Avatar: The Last Airbender. TV Guide. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  
  6. ^ "BitTorrent Launches Download Platform". worldscreen. 2007-02-26. Archived from the original on 2008-01-20. Retrieved 2007-03-19.  
  7. ^ Tony (2005-06-10). "Aang the Avatar, our kids' newest hero". Tracking. Media Life.;title;2. Retrieved 2006-12-10.  
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External links

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

The City of Ba Sing Se.

Ba Sing Se is a fictional city from Nickelodeon's animated television series Avatar: The Last Airbender. It is the capital of the Earth Kingdom.

Impenetrable City

Ba Sing Se means “Impenetrable City.”<ref> </ref> The city is so named for its world-famous walls. The gates to these walls have no hinges or other hardware, and are opened by use of Earthbending.<ref> </ref> There are two walls: the outer wall, which contains the city as well as a large area of farmland, Lake Laogai, and several mountains, and the inner wall, which encloses the city itself. In the history of the city, the walls have only been breached on two occasions: The first was by Fire Nation military forces led by General Iroh, the legendary “Dragon of the West”. This attack, a part of his 600 day long siege of the city, was quickly driven back by the city’s guardian forces because he was weakened by his son, Lu Ten's, death. Years later, the Fire Nation used a great drill to bore through the Outer Wall, but Aang and his friends stopped the machine before the army could take advantage of the hole. <ref> </ref>

Ba Sing Se is the cantonese pronunciation of bǎ chéng shì ( 把城市 ) which actually means "guarded city," not "impenetrable city." Then again, something guarded can be impenetrable.


Ba Sing Se is a divided city, with inhabitants sorted in various walled “rings” based on economic and social class. These range from the Outer Ring, a place of ghettoes inhabited by refugees and the poor, to the Inner Ring, home of the Kingdom’s ruling classes and the rich. Travel throughout the city (in addition to going in and out of it) is provided by large, Earthbending powered monorails. The monorails meet in large monorail stations.


As the capital of the Earth Kingdom, Ba Sing Se is home to the Earth King, ruler of the Kingdom. However, true power in the city belongs to the city’s Grand Secretariat, Long Feng. As leader of the Dai Li, Ba Sing Se’s "cultural enforcers", he enforces strict laws within the city. It is absolutely forbidden to mention the war with the Fire Nation within the city, and those that do are normally arrested and "re-educated" to believe that all is well. According to Long Feng, all this is necessary to maintain Ba Sing Se’s cultural heritage. It is in truth a totalitarian government.<ref> </ref>

Lake Laogai

Hidden beneath the waters of Lake Laogai is an underground facility operated by the Dai Li agents and run by the cultural minister Long Feng. It consists of many chambers and tunnels which hold prison cells and Dai Li and Joo Dee training facilities. These cells also hold equipment used to brainwash people consipiring to destroy the cultural heritage of Ba Sing Se.
As it is absolutely forbidden to mention the war against the Fire Nation within the walls, those that do are usually arrested and re-educated using the brainwashing technique used on Jet.

The term Laogai is an abbreviation for Laodong Gaizao, 勞動改造, which means "reform through labor," and refers to the use of prison labor in the People's Republic of China.


Ba Sing Se draws on many real world concepts. The division of the different sections of is reminiscent of social stratification systems such as that seen in the Middle Ages of Europe. Alternatively, it could be compared to the racially/socially segregated ghettos that existed in Nazi Germany and nations occupied by it during World War II. The poor section is also reminiscent of New York City's tenements in the 1800s-1900s. The royal palace in Ba Sing Se appears similar to the Forbidden City in China; compare the palace to the Forbidden City's Meridian Gate. Also, the way the city’s government operates, from a figurehead leader to apparent brainwashing techniques and constant observation, is reminiscent of the dystopian governments seen in such classic works of fiction as Nineteen Eighty-Four. Also, it may also be noted that the large wall surrounding the city may have come from the Great Wall of China. The Great Wall was originally built to keep out northern invaders (i.e. Mongols) from the capital, other cities, and the whole of China. Despite their differences (Great Wall is more of a line representing a winding dragon and the Ba Sing Se wall as taller and a ring) the two wind their way around the countryside protecting what is behind them.


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