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Bacteria
Fossil range: Archean or earlier - Recent
Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli bacilli
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phyla[1]
  • unknown/ungrouped
.The bacteria (en-us-bacteria.ogg [bækˈtɪərɪə] ; singular: bacterium)[α] are a large group of unicellular, prokaryote, microorganisms.^ Bacteria (singular: bacterium) These are self-contained, free-living, relatively large entities by microscopic standards.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A microorganism for the purposes of this subclass includes actinomycetates, unicellular algae, bacteria, fungi (including yeast), plant cells, and animal cells.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As they are prokaryotes , bacteria do not tend to have membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm and thus contain few large intracellular structures.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.^ Examples of rod-shaped bacteria.

^ Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria typically have one of three shapes: rods (bacilli), spheres (cocci) or spiral (spirilla).

.Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste,[2] water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals.^ Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth , growing in soil, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , [2 ] water, and deep in the Earth's crust , as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, the object of examination can also be all media that can be contaminated by bacteria such as foods and beverages that can be food poisoned or contaminated, waters in the environment such as hot spring waters or filters of air cleaners.
  • PRIMER FOR BACTERIUM GENOME AMPLIFICATION REACTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth,[3] forming much of the world's biomass.^ Species in soil and in fresh water and salt water.
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water ; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (510 30 ) bacteria on Earth, [3 ] forming much of the world's biomass .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacterial cell - Bacteria as prokaryotes .
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction.^ Nitrogen fixation: Reduction of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These nitrogen fixation genes are functional.
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Fertilizers - Trade Memorandum T-4-119 - Explanatory Notes on the Information Useful for Safety assessmentsof Microorganisms in Fertilizers and Supplements 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.inspection.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.However, most bacteria have not been characterized, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory.^ However, most bacteria have not been characterized, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly and microbes such as bacteria can also freely exchange genes by conjugation, transformation and transduction between widely-divergent species.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.^ The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology , a branch of microbiology .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetics and Microbiology of Biofilm Formation by Vibrio cholerae In nature, most bacteria grow as matrix-enclosed, surface-associated communities known as biofilms.

.There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora.^ There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water ; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (510 30 ) bacteria on Earth, [3 ] forming much of the world's biomass .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are more than 400 different species of bacteria in an individual's microbiota (=bacterial micro-flora), the total population of which is approximately 10.sup.14 cells.
  • Shelf-Stable Product with Living Micro-Organisms - Food Industry News 15 September 2009 23:10 UTC www.flex-news-food.com [Source type: Reference]

[5] .The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, and a few are beneficial.^ The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system , and a few are beneficial .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemo- and radio-protective effects of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis on hemopoietic system of mice and dogs.
  • Spirulina (Arthrospira): An edible microorganism 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spirulina.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Systemic administration of HA-1A exerts a beneficial effect by reducing the circulating levels of endotoxin and by increasing the gut barrier function to translocating microorganisms .

.However, a few species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague.^ A few species are highly pathogenic.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Microorganisms are the cause of many infectious diseases.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Brucellosis: A disease caused by Brucella species.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa.^ The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections , with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tuberculosis: A respiratory disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By far the most common form of the disease is pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in agriculture, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common.^ The mainstay of bacterial infection treatment is antibiotics.
  • Bacterial Infections: Online References For Health Concerns 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria ".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In developed countries , antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in agriculture, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment, the production of cheese and yoghurt through fermentation, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.^ In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment , the production of cheese and yoghurt through fermentation , as well as in biotechnology , and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the chemical industry , bacteria are most important in the production of enantiomerically pure chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or agrichemicals .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes.^ Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For purposes of this class, bacteria, actinomycetales, cyanobacteria (unicellular algae), fungi, protozoa, animal cells or plant cells or virus.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ralstoniaceae [M0442899] An obsolete family name of gram-negative bacteria in the order Burkholderiales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. Rhizobiaceae [M0019032] A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles.^ Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryo tes , bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organelle: A membrane-bound functional structure in a cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial cell walls and membranes, p.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor.^ The term "bacteria" was traditionally applied to all microscopic, single-celled prokaryotes.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This group of organisms termed prokaryotes is larger than viruses and smaller than other bacteria.

.These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea.^ These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three domains are Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviors called taxes : these include chemotaxis , phototaxis and magnetotaxis .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]

Contents

History of bacteriology

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first microbiologist and the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope.
.Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.^ Back to top ] Further information: Microbiology Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , the first microbiologist and the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antony van Leeuwenhoek: Tercentenary of his discovery of bacteria ".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .He called them "animalcules" and published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society.^ He called them "animalcules" and published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[10][11][12] The name bacterium was introduced much later, by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in 1838.[13]
.Louis Pasteur demonstrated in 1859 that the fermentation process is caused by the growth of microorganisms, and that this growth is not due to spontaneous generation.^ Accidental pathogen: A microorganism that does not generally cause disease in its normal life cycle.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Class 435, provides for the growth of a microorganism on a liquid media and the apparatus therefor as well as providing for process utilizing an immobilized microorganism, per se.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Differential media: Culture media that permit growth of one bacterial type and inhibit others or permit a microorganism to demonstrate specific biological properties.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.(Yeasts and molds, commonly associated with fermentation, are not bacteria, but rather fungi.^ The micro-organism can be any micro-organism, including bacteria, yeasts or fungi, suitable for mucosal delivery.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Coliform Bacteria         Coliform bacteria is the bacteria most commonly associated with water quality.
  • American Ground Water Trust - Bacteria and Water Wells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.agwt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The microorganisms included in these applications are bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi.
  • Foods Derived from Biotechnology 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

) .Along with his contemporary, Robert Koch, Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease.^ Along with his contemporary, Robert Koch , Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Footnote 9 ] In 1873, the Patent Office granted Louis Pasteur a patent on "yeast, free from organic germs of disease, as an article of manufacture."

^ The bacillus of anthrax was described by Robert Koch in 1876 and, being one of the first disease organisms to be identified, became a cornerstone of his challenge to the miasmatic theory.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Robert Koch was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked on cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis.^ Robert Koch was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked on cholera , anthrax and tuberculosis .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacillus of anthrax was described by Robert Koch in 1876 and, being one of the first disease organisms to be identified, became a cornerstone of his challenge to the miasmatic theory.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his research into tuberculosis, Koch finally proved the germ theory, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905.[15] In Koch's postulates, he set out criteria to test if an organism is the cause of a disease; these postulates are still used today.^ Disease-causing organisms remain to be discovered.
  • PLoS Pathogens: A Novel Bacterium Associated with Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Testing a water supply for specific disease-causing organisms is expensive.
  • WQ102 Bacteria in Drinking Water | University of Missouri Extension 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CAUSATIVE MICRO-ORGANISM Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.Though it was known in the nineteenth century that bacteria are the cause of many diseases, no effective antibacterial treatments were available.^ HISTORICAL PROFILE There is no convincing evidence of the disease prior to the Middle Ages, but several epidemics have occurred in recent centuries.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanthomonas vesicatoria [M0444551] A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus XANTHOMONAS, causing disease in TOMATO and pepper crops.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Credits : Acquired from Vast Video] Learn about the two different ways bacteria can cause disease.
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .In 1910, Paul Ehrlich developed the first antibiotic, by changing dyes that selectively stained Treponema pallidum—the spirochaete that causes syphilis—into compounds that selectively killed the pathogen.^ CAUSATIVE MICRO-ORGANISM Treponema pallidum .
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treponema pallidum is the bacterial species that causes syphilis.

^ In 1910, Paul Ehrlich developed the first antibiotic, by changing dyes that selectively stained Treponema pallidum the spirochaete that causes syphilis into compounds that selectively killed the pathogen.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .Ehrlich had been awarded a 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on immunology, and pioneered the use of stains to detect and identify bacteria, with his work being the basis of the Gram stain and the Ziehl-Neelsen stain.^ Morphological features of bacteria - - The Gram stain .
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria isolated and coloured with Gram stain.
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Faith is one thing, what you believe from the heart," said Joseph E. Murray, who won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1990 for his work in organ transplantation.
  • The rise of pseudoscience - Sepia Mutiny 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.A major step forward in the study of bacteria was the recognition in 1977 by Carl Woese that archaea have a separate line of evolutionary descent from bacteria.^ The proposal that lithotrophy was widely distributed among bacterial organisms before photosynthesis developed suggests that the Archaea came from a different line of descent than Bacteria.
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The rRNAs of Bacteria and Archaea are as different from each other as they are from eukaryotic rRNA. This suggests that the bacterial and archaeal lines diverged from a common precursor somewhat before eukaryotic cells developed.
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of these features, bacteria have become a popular system for studying mutations and alleged evolutionary transformations.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

[20] .This new phylogenetic taxonomy was based on the sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA, and divided prokaryotes into two evolutionary domains, as part of the three-domain system.^ Since 16S rRNA makes very specific contacts with many different ribosomal proteins and with other parts of itself, the pace at which spontaneous random mutation can change the sequence of the bases in the rRNA is slow.
  • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Its action is divided into two chronologies, with three stages recognizable in all.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison confirmed that this archaeon is a member of the genus Haloferax and was most closely related to Haloferax volcanii .

[21]

Origin and early evolution

.The ancestors of modern bacteria were single-celled microorganisms that were the first forms of life to develop on earth, about 4 billion years ago.^ Some researchers believe that the first oxygen that appeared on Earth, 2 billion years ago, was created by bacteria.
  • American Ground Water Trust - Bacteria and Water Wells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.agwt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clearly bacteria are the dominant life form on planet Earth!
  • Friendly Bacteria -- Lactobacillus acidophilus & Bifido bacterium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Timeline of evolution The ancestors of modern bacteria were single-celled microorganisms that were the first forms of life to develop on earth, about 4 billion years ago.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.For about 3 billion years, all organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.^ Clearly bacteria are the dominant life form on planet Earth!
  • Friendly Bacteria -- Lactobacillus acidophilus & Bifido bacterium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Oyster samples were dominated by halophilic fermentative bacteria during most of the year with predominance of two Vibrio species, V .

[22][23] .Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species.^ Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites , their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This uncertainty was due to the lack of distinctive structures in most bacteria, as well as lateral gene transfer between unrelated species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.^ Bacterial and archaeal isolates were, however, different from any of the retrieved environmental sequences .

^ However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny , and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Material and Methods to the Examples Bacteria [0146] The L. lactis strain MG1363 is used throughout this study.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[24] .The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was probably a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago.^ "The universal ancestor and the ancestor of bacteria were hyperthermophiles".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was probably a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion3.2 billion years ago.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections , with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[25][26]
.Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes.^ Eukaryotic signalling domain homologues in archaea and bacteria.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most genes involved in M. jannaschii's cellular-information processing (replication, transcription, and translation) are more similar to functionally equivalent counterparts in eukaryotes, not bacteria.
  • DOE Microbial Genome Program Report 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of asparagine, archaea primarily use the transamidation pathway, eukaryotes use the direct pathway, and bacteria have a patchy distribution of both systems.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Here, eukaryotes resulted from ancient bacteria entering into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea.^ Here, eukaryotes resulted from ancient bacteria entering into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Endosymbiotic theory: The theory that the mitochondrion, chloroplast, and other organelles arose through an endosymbiotic association of bacteria with eukaryotic ancestors.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Delayed Type Hypersensitivity TH1-cells (CD4 + ) are a subset of T-lymphocytes that recognize Ag in association with Class II (and possibly Class I) MHC proteins.
  • Immune Defense against Microbial Pathogens: Acquired Immunity 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC textbookofbacteriology.net [Source type: Academic]

[27][28] .This involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alpha-proteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still found in all known Eukarya (sometimes in highly reduced form, e.g.^ They are found in all eukaryote cell membranes and a few bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Structure - Prokaryotic cells lack most of the organelles found in eukaryotic cells.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Small prokaryotic cells capable of cellular respiration or photosynthesis entered eukaryotic cells, either as parasites or indigestible food, and these prokaryotes evolved into mitochondria and chloroplasts as they developed a symbiotic relationship with the host cell.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

in ancient "amitochondrial" protozoa). .Later on, some eukaryotes that already contained mitochondria also engulfed cyanobacterial-like organisms.^ Later on, some eukaryotes that already contained mitochondria also engulfed cyanobacterial-like organisms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With genomic nucleic acid sequences of such enzymes from eukaryotic sources containing introns, already processed nucleic acid sequences like the corresponding cDNAs are to be used in the case that the host organism is not capable or cannot be made capable of splicing the corresponding mRNAs.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like all living organisms , bacteria contain ribosomes for the production of proteins, but the structure of the bacterial ribosome is different from those of eukaryotes and Archaea .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This led to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants.^ This led to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The third and fourth groups of protists, the algae, contain chloroplasts and photosynthesize like plants; these can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

.There are also some algae that originated from even later endosymbiotic events.^ There are also some algae that originated from even later endosymbiotic events.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also the probability that some sporozoites may lie dormant in liver cells for months or even years, to reappear suddenly as merozoites.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our data suggest that the plastids of Chromophyta and Cryptophyta have originated from endosymbiotic unicellular red algae .

.Here, eukaryotes engulfed a eukaryotic algae that developed into a "second-generation" plastid.^ Here, eukaryotes engulfed a eukaryotic algae that developed i nto a "second-generation" plastid.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The gene is found in the cyanelle (plastid) DNA of an eukaryotic alga, Cyanophora paradoxa .

^ Here, eukaryotes resulted from ancient bacteria entering into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[29][30] This is known as secondary endosymbiosis.

Morphology

Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements
.Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies.^ Back to top ] Further information: Bacterial cellular morphologies Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their genetic material is typically a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacterial cells are about one tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5–5.0 micrometres in length.^ Which of these is not a typical shape for a bacterial cell?

^ The third process, transduction, happens when bacteriophage transfer portions of bacterial DNA from one cell to another.

^ Plasma cells are relatively short-lived (about one week) but produce large amounts of antibody during this period.
  • Immune Defense against Microbial Pathogens: Acquired Immunity 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC textbookofbacteriology.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, a few species–for example Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni–are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye.^ Finally, activated oxygen species with long half-lives may be eliminated by superoxide dismutases and catalases such as SodA and KatA ( 129 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus Mycoplasma, which measure only 0.3 micrometres, as small as the largest viruses.^ No pathogenic bacteria , mycoplasmas, or viruses were found in her faeces, but they did contain a toxin .

^ "Microorganism" shall mean a member of one of the following classes: bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa or viruses.
  • Direct stain specific binding assays for microorganisms - Patent # 5741662 - PatentGenius 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kingella kingae [M0027014] A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria which is distinguished from other members of the genus KINGELLA by its beta hemolysis.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[32] .Some bacteria may be even smaller, but these ultramicrobacteria are not well-studied.^ Some bacteria may be even smaller, but these ultramicrobacteria are not well-studied.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also the probability that some sporozoites may lie dormant in liver cells for months or even years, to reappear suddenly as merozoites.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is my belief, based on readings, physicians, and personal experience, that these bacteria should be used constantly by all arthritics, as an important wellness supplement.
  • Friendly Bacteria -- Lactobacillus acidophilus & Bifido bacterium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.Most bacterial species are either spherical, called cocci (sing.^ Cells of strain YKJ-16T are non-motile and cocci or short rods, unlike most Halomonas species .

^ There are various species of shigellae , historically the most virulent being Shigella shigae , also called Shigella dysentariae .
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the most generalized form, an intermediate species (called SE) is formed, .
  • Automated methods for simulating a biological network - Patent 7319945 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

coccus, from .Greek kókkos, grain, seed) or rod-shaped, called bacilli (sing.^ Greek kkkos , grain, seed) or rod-shaped, called bacilli ( sing .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria typically have one of three shapes: rods (bacilli), spheres (cocci) or spiral (spirilla).

^ They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-shaped forms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

bacillus, from .Latin baculus, stick).^ Latin baculus , stick).
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Latin baculus , a stick.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Elongation is associated with swimming.[34] .Some rod-shaped bacteria, called vibrio, are slightly curved or comma-shaped; others, can be spiral-shaped, called spirilla, or tightly coiled, called spirochaetes.^ Some rod-shaped bacteria, called v ibrio , are slightly curved or comma-shaped; others, can be spiral-shaped, called spirilla , or tightly coiled, called spirochaetes .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the types that appear in this guide, bacilli (singular: bacillus) are rod-like and straight, spirochaeta (singular: spirochaete) are long, slender, and spirally coiled; streptococci (singular: streptococcus) are spherical and tend to grow in chains; staphylococci (singular: staphylococcus) grow in bunches of grapes; and vibrios are curved.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buchnera aphidicola [M0328877] Burkholderia [M0028526] A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.A small number of species even have tetrahedral or cuboidal shapes.^ These patterns reveal that M. xanthus as a species is not composed of a small number of cooperative units.
  • PLoS Biology: Exploitative and Hierarchical Antagonism in a Cooperative Bacterium 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[35] .More recently, bacteria were discovered deep under the Earth's crust that grow as long rods with a star-shaped cross-section.^ More recently, bacteria were discovered deep under the Earth's crust that grow as long rods with a star-shaped cross-section.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth , growing in soil, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , [2 ] water, and deep in the Earth's crust , as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Buchnera aphidicola [M0328877] Burkholderia [M0028526] A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.The large surface area to volume ratio of this morphology may give these bacteria an advantage in nutrient-poor environments.^ Bacteria (singular: bacterium) These are self-contained, free-living, relatively large entities by microscopic standards.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frz proteins, fundamental differences exist between these different bacteria in terms of the ability of cells to recognize and respond to substances in their environment .

^ These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment .

[36] .This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial cell wall and cytoskeleton, and is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients, attach to surfaces, swim through liquids and escape predators.^ Bacterial cell walls and membranes, p.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Marshall states that this is very significant in marking a TH1 type immune response and claims they are responses to these cell wall deficient bacteria located in macrophages.

^ The bacteria are sometimes further divided into gram-positive and gram-negative according to the cell wall structure.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[37][38]
.Many bacterial species exist simply as single cells, others associate in characteristic patterns: Neisseria form diploids (pairs), Streptococcus form chains, and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters.^ Many bacterial species exist simply as single cells, others associate in characteristic patterns: Neisseria form diploids (pairs), Streptococcus form chains, and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the types that appear in this guide, bacilli (singular: bacillus) are rod-like and straight, spirochaeta (singular: spirochaete) are long, slender, and spirally coiled; streptococci (singular: streptococcus) are spherical and tend to grow in chains; staphylococci (singular: staphylococcus) grow in bunches of grapes; and vibrios are curved.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such microorganism include, but arenot limited to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Group A and B, Escherichia coli, Legionella pneumophilia, Pneumocystis carinii, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Proteus vulgaris, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia,Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasmosis, Haemophilus influenzae species, Cryptococcus and Candida.
  • Direct stain specific binding assays for microorganisms - Patent # 5741662 - PatentGenius 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

.Bacteria can also be elongated to form filaments, for example the Actinobacteria.^ Bacteria can also be elongated to form filaments, for example the Actinobacteria .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Actinomycetales [M0000285] An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some Actinobacteria form branching filaments and some Actinomycetes species produce endospores.

.Filamentous bacteria are often surrounded by a sheath that contains many individual cells.^ Filamentous bacteria are often surrounded by a sheath that contains many individual cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A major problem in transplantation of tissues from one individual to another is rejection which is often based on CMI response to "foreign" cells (not a perfect match antigenically).
  • Immune Defense against Microbial Pathogens: Acquired Immunity 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC textbookofbacteriology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Bacterial cellular morphologies Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain types, such as species of the genus Nocardia, even form complex, branched filaments, similar in appearance to fungal mycelia.^ Certain types, such as species of the genus Nocardia , even form complex, branched filaments, similar in appearance to fungal mycelia .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium species can help to maintain a favorable intestinal microflora which has been associated with good nutrition and health.
  • Friendly Bacteria -- Lactobacillus acidophilus & Bifido bacterium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain YKJ-16T and the type strains of other Halomonas species are 93.0-96.3% .

[39]
The range of sizes shown by prokaryotes, relative to those of other organisms and biomolecules
.Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms or bacterial mats.^ Bacterial Subgingival Bacterial Resistance in a Biofilm A protective measure that is utilized by dental bacteria is that of a biofilm formation.

^ The medical forms are: cutaneous anthrax, sometimes called malignant pustule; intestinal anthrax; and pulmonary anthrax, often referred to as wool-sorters disease.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cortex: Dense area between the endospore coat and core in endospore-forming bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.These films can range from a few micrometers in thickness to up to half a meter in depth, and may contain multiple species of bacteria, protists and archaea.^ These films can range from a few micrometers in thickness to up to half a meter in depth, and may contain multiple species of bacteria, protists and archaea .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Following present classification, there are fewer than 9,000 known species of bacteria (including cyanobacteria) [136 ] , but attempts to estimate the true level of bacterial diversity have ranged from 10 7 to 10 9 total species - and even these diverse estimates may be off by many orders of magnitude.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a few speciesfor example Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures such as microcolonies, through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients.^ Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures such as microcolonies, through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water ; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (510 30 ) bacteria on Earth, [3 ] forming much of the world's biomass .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ultrastructure of the inclusions corresponded to endothelial phagocytic cells in which complex invaginations of the cell surface had produced a labyrinth of interconnected channels and vacuoles containing degraded bacteria , extracellular matrix components, or both .

[40][41] .In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms.^ In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those plants, like the bacteria involved in this case, were new varieties not naturally occurring.

^ Trends Plant Sci, 2001 Feb, 6(2), 66 - 71 Plant salt tolerance ; Zhu JK; Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide .

[42] .Biofilms are also important in medicine, as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted medical devices, and bacteria protected within biofilms are much harder to kill than individual isolated bacteria.^ These bacteria are present during all the stages of the life-cycle of E .

^ It is my belief, based on readings, physicians, and personal experience, that these bacteria should be used constantly by all arthritics, as an important wellness supplement.
  • Friendly Bacteria -- Lactobacillus acidophilus & Bifido bacterium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[43]
.Even more complex morphological changes are sometimes possible.^ Even more complex morphological changes are sometimes possible.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, the large and complex structural changes associated with the acidic species make it a poor model for the long-lived photocycle intermediate, I(2), which undergoes more moderate structural changes .

^ In addition, the pattern of changes suggests that the structure of evolving microorganism populations may be more complex than expected.

.For example, when starved of amino acids, Myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as quorum sensing, migrate towards each other, and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100,000 bacterial cells.^ For example, when starved of amino acids, Myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as quorum sensing , migrate towards each other, and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100,000 bacterial cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, about one in 10 cells migrate to the top of these fruiting bodies and differentiate int o a specialised dormant state called myxospores, which are more resistant to drying and other adverse environmental conditions than are ordinary cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water ; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (510 30 ) bacteria on Earth, [3 ] forming much of the world's biomass .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .In these fruiting bodies, the bacteria perform separate tasks; this type of cooperation is a simple type of multicellular organisation.^ In these fruiting bodies, the bacteria perform separate tasks; this type of cooperation is a simple type of multicellular organization.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marshall states that this is very significant in marking a TH1 type immune response and claims they are responses to these cell wall deficient bacteria located in macrophages.

^ This results in the formation of a multicellular fruiting body structure filled with differentiated, environmentally resistant spores .

.For example, about one in 10 cells migrate to the top of these fruiting bodies and differentiate into a specialised dormant state called myxospores, which are more resistant to drying and other adverse environmental conditions than are ordinary cells.^ Though notintending to be bound by any one particular theory, the fungal cell walls contain relatively high proportions of mannan-based oligosaccharides and are particularly resistant to degradation under alkaline conditions.
  • Direct stain specific binding assays for microorganisms - Patent # 5741662 - PatentGenius 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The researchers further claim that with lysis of the coliforms, much lipopolysaccharide is released with adverse effects on intestinal cells, and also through absorption, on other body cells.

^ Marshall states that this is very significant in marking a TH1 type immune response and claims they are responses to these cell wall deficient bacteria located in macrophages.

[45]

Cellular structure

Structure and contents of a typical Gram positive bacterial cell

Intracellular structures

.The bacterial cell is surrounded by a lipid membrane, or cell membrane, which encloses the contents of the cell and acts as a barrier to hold nutrients, proteins and other essential components of the cytoplasm within the cell.^ Hemolysins: Bacterial toxins that can disrupt cytoplasmic membranes of cells.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabolism of lipids and cell wall components.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytoplasmic domains: The portion of a membrane-bound molecule that is within the cell cytoplasm.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.As they are prokaryotes, bacteria do not tend to have membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm and thus contain few large intracellular structures.^ They are found in all eukaryote cell membranes and a few bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organelle: A membrane-bound functional structure in a cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Purple membrane: Areas in cytoplasmic membranes of halophilic bacteria containing bacteriorhodopsin.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.They consequently lack a nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells, such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.^ Structure - Prokaryotic cells lack most of the organelles found in eukaryotic cells.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ They consequently lack a nucleus , mitochondria , chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells, such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They also lack a discrete nucleus.

[46] .Bacteria were once seen as simple bags of cytoplasm, but elements such as prokaryotic cytoskeleton,[47][48] and the localization of proteins to specific locations within the cytoplasm[49] have been found to show levels of complexity.^ Bacteria were once seen as simple bags of cytoplasm, but elements such as prokaryotic cytoskeleton , [47 ] [48 ] and the localization of proteins to specific locations within t he cytoplasm [49 ] have been found to show levels of complexity.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their genetic material is typically a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cytoplasmic helical linker domain of receptor histidine kinase and methyl-accepting proteins is common to many prokaryotic signalling proteins.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

These subcellular compartments have been called "bacterial hyperstructures".[50]
.Micro-compartments such as carboxysome[51] provides a further level of organization, which are compartments within bacteria that are surrounded by polyhedral protein shells, rather than by lipid membranes.^ Cytoplasmic membrane or cell membrane: The protein and lipid structure that surrounds the cytoplasm of cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gas vesicles: Organelles with protein membranes that fill with gas in aquatic bacteria; serve as flotation devices.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a eukaryotic cell, the plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer that separates the materials inside the cell from the environment surrounding it.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[52] .These "polyhedral organelles" localize and compartmentalize bacterial metabolism, a function performed by the membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotes.^ Organelle: A membrane-bound functional structure in a cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Polyhedral organelles compartmenting bacterial metabolic processes " (PDF).
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This does not mean, however, that these cells do not carry on the functions performed by organelles in eukaryotes.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[53][54]
.Many important biochemical reactions, such as energy generation, occur by concentration gradients across membranes, a potential difference also found in a battery.^ Many important biochemical reactions, such as energy generation, occur by concentration gradients across membranes, a potential difference also found in a battery .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Arch Biochem Biophys, 1992 Jan, 292(1), 102 - 6 Sodium-coupled ATP synthesis in the bacterium Vitreoscilla ; Efiok BJ et al.; The bacterium Vitreoscilla generates an electrical potential gradient due to sodium ion (delta psi Na+) across its membrane via respiratory-driven primary Na+ pump(s) .

^ The driving force for the exchanger, a transmembrane Na+ gradient, is in turn generated and maintained at the expense of metabolic energy by the (Na+-K+) ATPase, which is present in the basal-lateral membrane of these cells .

.The general lack of internal membranes in bacteria means reactions such as electron transport occur across the cell membrane between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic space.^ The general lack of internal membranes in bacteria means reactions such as electron transport occur across the cell membrane between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic space .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Facilitated diffusion: Carrier mediated transport across a cytoplasmic membrane.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mesosome: Cytoplasmic membrane invagination in bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[55] .However, in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and fills most of the cell with layers of light-gathering membrane.^ However, in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and fills most of the cell with layers of light-gathering membrane.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Bacterial cellular morphologies Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[56] .These light-gathering complexs may even form lipid-enclosed structures called chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria.^ Green sulfur bacteria, p.
  • Molecular Characterization of the Nonphotosynthetic Partner Bacterium in the Consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum" -- Kanzler et al. 71 (11): 7434 -- Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC aem.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lamellar organization of pigments in chlorosomes, the light harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria ".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These light-gathering complexs may even form lipid-enclosed structures called chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[57] .Other proteins import nutrients across the cell membrane, or to expel undesired molecules from the cytoplasm.^ Cytoplasmic domains: The portion of a membrane-bound molecule that is within the cell cytoplasm.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytoplasmic membrane or cell membrane: The protein and lipid structure that surrounds the cytoplasm of cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phospholipid: The component part of a cytoplasmic membrane composed of fatty acids, glycerol phosphate, and generally with a polar molecule linked to the phosphate.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.
Carboxysomes are protein-enclosed bacterial organelles.
^ Carboxysomes are protein-enclosed bacterial organelles.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Protein-based organelles in bacteria: carboxysomes and related microcompartments".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Top left is an electron microscope image of carboxysomes in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, below is an image of purified carboxysomes.^ Top left is an electron microscope image of carboxysomes in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus , below is an image of purified carboxysomes.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

On the right is a model of their structure. .Scale bars are 100 nm.^ Scale bars are 100 nm.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[58]
.Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their genetic material is typically a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid.^ Vesicle: A membrane-bound body.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their genetic material is typically a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is located on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[59] .The nucleoid contains the chromosome with associated proteins and RNA.^ The structure of viruses consists of a protein capsule containing DNA or RNA with 1000 - 200000 base pairs.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In Archaea, SRP contains 7S RNA like its eukaryal counterpart, yet only includes two of the six protein subunits found in the eukaryal complex .

^ Three more Nudix proteins are specifically related to the proteins containing this duplication, and the genes for two of these are adjacent on the chromosome (DR0783 and DR0784).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.The order Planctomycetes are an exception to the general absence of internal membranes in bacteria, because they have a membrane around their nucleoid and contain other membrane-bound cellular structures.^ Structure bounded by double membrane; contains chromosomes .
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellar stacks and contain bacteriochlorophyll a or b and carotenoids.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No pathogenic bacteria , mycoplasmas, or viruses were found in her faeces, but they did contain a toxin .

[60] .Like all living organisms, bacteria contain ribosomes for the production of proteins, but the structure of the bacterial ribosome is different from those of eukaryotes and Archaea.^ Bioluminescence: Production of light by living organisms.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The component molecules that make up different organisms are fundamentally alike: around 99% of the proteins in humans have recognizable equivalents in mice, and vice versa; many of those proteins are also conserved in other animals, and those involved in basic cellular processes are conserved in all eukaryotes.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum This organism is a member of the archaea, one of the three major kingdoms into which all living things can be classified (the other two are bacteria, which include most of the familiar disease-causing organisms; and eucarya, which include protozoa, fungi, plants, animals, and humans).
  • DOE Microbial Genome Program Report 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: Academic]

[61]
.Some bacteria produce intracellular nutrient storage granules, such as glycogen,[62] polyphosphate,[63] sulfur[64] or polyhydroxyalkanoates.^ Some bacteria produce intracellular nutrient storage granules, such as glycogen , [62 ] polyphosphate , [63 ] sulfur [64 ] or polyhydroxyalkanoates .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Volutin: A term used to describe polyphosphate granules produced by some bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Actinobacteria: Bacteria from the phylum Actinobacteria , some of which produce mycelia.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] .These granules enable bacteria to store compounds for later use.^ These granules enable bacteria to store compounds for later use.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flow microcalorimetry is preferentially used for testing the effect of antibiotics and to a smaller extend the effect of other chemical compounds on bacteria and yeasts .

^ Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain bacterial species, such as the photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, produce internal gas vesicles, which they use to regulate their buoyancy - allowing them to move up or down into water layers with different light intensities and nutrient levels.^ Certain bacterial species, such as the photosynthetic Cyanobacteria , produce internal gas vesicles, which they use to regulate their buoyancy - allowing them to move up or down into water layers with different light intensities and nutrient levels.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium species can help to maintain a favorable intestinal microflora which has been associated with good nutrition and health.
  • Friendly Bacteria -- Lactobacillus acidophilus & Bifido bacterium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]

Extracellular structures

.Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall.^ Bacterial cell walls and membranes, p.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endoflagella or periplasmic flagella: Produced by members of the Spirochaetes ; lie outside the cell membrane but inside the cell wall.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Extrusomes: Exocytotic vesicles that contain material to be discharged outside of the cell membrane for defense or offense.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (called murein in older sources), which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids.^ The cell wall contained Lys and Gly .

^ The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid .

^ The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[67] .Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are made of cellulose and chitin, respectively.^ Bacterial cell walls and membranes, p.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi , which are made of cellulose and chitin , respectively.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[68] .The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan.^ The cell wall contained Lys and Gly .

^ Pseudomurein: Modified peptidoglycan that is present in the cell walls of some Archaea .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid .

.The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria, and the antibiotic penicillin is able to kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan.^ The toxin kills cells by inhibiting their protein synthesis.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Penicillins: Antibiotics that have a β-lactam ring and inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by blocking crosslinking of peptide chains in newly synthesized peptidoglycan.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria are sometimes further divided into gram-positive and gram-negative according to the cell wall structure.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, called Gram-positive and Gram-negative.^ The bacteria are sometimes further divided into gram-positive and gram-negative according to the cell wall structure.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Stains gram-negative but cell well is gram-positive type.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, called Gram-positive and Gram-negative .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain, a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species.^ The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain , a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Streptococcus mutans visualized with a Gram stain Further information: Scientif ic classification , Systematics and Clinical pathology Classification seeks to describe the diversity of bacterial species by naming and grouping organisms based on similarities.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[69]
.Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids.^ The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell wall contained Lys and Gly .

^ The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid .

.In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins.^ The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell wall contained Lys and Gly .

^ The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid .

.Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria are sometimes further divided into gram-positive and gram-negative according to the cell wall structure.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Stains gram-negative but cell well is gram-positive type.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[70] .These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, vancomycin can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative pathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.^ These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, vancomycin can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative pathogens , such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa < /a> .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most pathogenic gram positive bacteria have additional extracellular structures.

^ Broad-spectrum antibiotic: Antimicrobial that is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[71]
.In many bacteria an S-layer of rigidly arrayed protein molecules covers the outside of the cell.^ In many bacteria an S-layer of rigidly arrayed protein molecules covers the outside of the cell.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Bacterial cellular morphologies Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common archaeal cell envelope is composed of a single crystalline protein or glycoprotein surface layer (S-layer), which is associated with the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane .

[72] .This layer provides chemical and physical protection for the cell surface and can act as a macromolecular diffusion barrier.^ This layer provides chemical and physical protection for the cell surface and can act as a macromolecular diffusion barrier .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ S-layers have diverse but mostly poorly understood functions, but are known to act as virulence factors in Campylobacter and contain surface enzymes in Bacillus stearothermophilus .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.S-layers have diverse but mostly poorly understood functions, but are known to act as virulence factors in Campylobacter and contain surface enzymes in Bacillus stearothermophilus.^ "Involving" in this and the indented subclasses includes (a) the use of a known microorganism or enzyme to detect or identify a chemical compound or composition, (b) the use of a chemical compound or composition to detect or identify a microorganism or enzyme, (c) a composition containing a microorganism or enzyme for use as in (a), and (d) a composition distinguished by the presence of an indicator for use as in (b).
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The measures for overexpression of transcription factors are known to the person skilled in the art and are also disclosed for the enzymes of Table 1 within the scope of the present invention.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although it is known that these multiple resistance phenotypes stem from efficient DNA repair processes, the mechanisms underlying these extraordinary repair capabilities remain poorly understood.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[73]
Helicobacter pylori electron micrograph, showing multiple flagella on the cell surface
.Flagella are rigid protein structures, about 20 nanometres in diameter and up to 20 micrometres in length, that are used for motility.^ Flagella: Structures involved in motility of bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The optimum pore diameter for the membrane for use in the invention is about 10 to about 50 .mu.m.
  • Direct stain specific binding assays for microorganisms - Patent # 5741662 - PatentGenius 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For practicality, in C. glutamicum, typical first and second homologous DNA sequence are usually at least about 200 base pairs in length, and can be up to several thousand base pairs in length.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Flagella are driven by the energy released by the transfer of ions down an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane.^ Active transport: Movement of ions or molecules across the cell membrane at an expenditure of energy.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ H+ electrochemical gradient across the tonoplast.

^ Flagella are driven by the energy released by the transfer of ions down an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[74]
.Fimbriae are fine filaments of protein, just 2–10 nanometres in diameter and up to several micrometers in length.^ Fimbriae are fine filaments of protein, just 210 nanometres in diameter and up to several micrometers in length.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A comparison of all available protein sequences from Thermus to those encoded in the Deinococcus genome showed several features that are unique to this clade (Table 10 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fine filaments: Fibrous cytoskeletal proteins that assemble into fine filaments.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are distributed over the surface of the cell, and resemble fine hairs when seen under the electron microscope.^ They are distributed over the surface of the cell, and resemble fine hairs when seen under the electron microscope .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The other layers are regarded as a sheath, since they surround groups of cells and form on the surface of daughter cells as they separate ( 187 , 208 , 221 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Fimbriae are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens.^ Fimbriae are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface; some have a single flagellum (monotrichous ), a flagellum at each end (amphitrichous ), clusters of flagella at the poles of the cell (lophotrichous ), while others have flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell (peritrichous ).
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Leptospira [M0012362] A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[75] Pili (sing. pilus) are cellular appendages, slightly larger than fimbriae, that can transfer .genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation (see bacterial genetics, below).^ Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is cell-to-cell transfer of genetic material, usually plasmids or transposons.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conjugative transposon: A transmissible genetic element that can excise from the chromosome of a donor cell and transfer to a recipient, where it inserts into a new site.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Foreign art collections including processes or materials for the selection or identification of cells which contain the exogenous DNA-bearing vector.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

[76]
.Capsules or slime layers are produced by many bacteria to surround their cells, and vary in structural complexity: ranging from a disorganised slime layer of extra-cellular polymer, to a highly structured capsule or glycocalyx.^ Glycocalyx: Equivalent to capsule, the layer outside the cell envelope or wall.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta-hydroxybutyrate: A storage polymer produced by many bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Outside the cell wall, there may be a capsule or a slime layer.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

.These structures can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages.^ These structures can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Structure - Prokaryotic cells lack most of the organelles found in eukaryotic cells.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In view of the preponderance of target proteins in the bacterial filtrate, we present the hypothesis that such proteins secreted or otherwise leaked from the dividing mycobacterium are pinocytosed from the phagosome and used by the infected macrophage as the key protective Ag leading to T cell sensitization .

[77] .They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms.^ They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glycolipids only occur in the outer half of the bilayer, where they function in cell-to-cell recognition.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Immunoglobulin or antibody binds a microorganism or normal or mutant component or product thereof (e.g., animal cell, cell surface antigen, secretory product, etc.
  • Class Schedule for Class 435 CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

[78]
.The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems.^ Some of these techniques have been made available to the clinical microbiologist through commercial systems, e.g., assessment of bacterial fatty acids .

^ Comparison of the oligosaccharide structures of these gangliosides suggests that the minimum sugar structure needed for avid bacterial binding is GalNAc beta 4Gal .

^ These must be dealt with as a time-dependent variable structure system (VSS).
  • Automated methods for simulating a biological network - Patent 7319945 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.These transfer proteins from the cytoplasm into the periplasm or into the environment around the cell.^ Proteosome: A complex of enzymes in the cytoplasm of host cells that degrades proteins into peptides, some of which are suitable for presentation to T cells as antigens.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common archaeal cell envelope is composed of a single crystalline protein or glycoprotein surface layer (S-layer), which is associated with the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane .

^ Frz proteins, fundamental differences exist between these different bacteria in terms of the ability of cells to recognize and respond to substances in their environment .

.Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are intensively studied.^ The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are intensively studied.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These observations on epithelial structure suggest that isolated gastrointestinal epithelia may be well suited for physiological studies of epithelial function and interactions with the microbial flora.

[79]

Endospores

Bacillus anthracis (stained purple) growing in cerebrospinal fluid
.Certain genera of Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporohalobacter, Anaerobacter and Heliobacterium, can form highly resistant, dormant structures called endospores.^ Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES. Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods [M0025767] Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most pathogenic gram positive bacteria have additional extracellular structures.

^ Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria [M0025766] Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[80] .In almost all cases, one endospore is formed and this is not a reproductive process, although Anaerobacter can make up to seven endospores in a single cell.^ Generally from reproduction of a single cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The process comes to a halt in unfavorable external condition; endospore is formed to protect the DNA until the danger has abated.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Ig class switching: The process through which antibody-forming cells couple the antigen-binding parts of an immunoglobulin with different Fc pieces.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[81] .Endospores have a central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes surrounded by a cortex layer and protected by an impermeable and rigid coat.^ Endospores have a central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes surrounded by a cortex layer and protected by an impermeable and rigid coat.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Riboplasm: The part of the cytoplasm of members of the Planctomycetes that contains ribosomes.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A transducing particle is a DNA molecule surrounded by a complete bacteriophage protein coat, said particle facilitating independent entry of said DNA into a host microoorganism.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Endospores show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV light, gamma radiation, detergents, disinfectants, heat, pressure and desiccation.^ Endospores show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV light , gamma radiation , detergents , disinfectants , heat, pressure and desiccation .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mutagen: A physical agent (radiation) or chemical that induces mutation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the cells in the third generations showed remarkably increased pressure resistance, and no significant loss of viability was confirmed .

[82] .In this dormant state, these organisms may remain viable for millions of years,[83][84] and endospores even allow bacteria to survive exposure to the vacuum and radiation in space.^ In this dormant state, these organisms may remain viable for millions of years, [83 ] [84 ] and endospores even allow bacteria to survive exposure to the vacuum and radiation in space.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marshall states that this is very significant in marking a TH1 type immune response and claims they are responses to these cell wall deficient bacteria located in macrophages.

^ The findings suggest that periodontal probes may have the potential of transmitting pathogenic bacteria from involved sites to other sites in the mouth, although it remains to be demonstrated that this will result in actual implantation of the organisms at the new sites.

[85] .Endospore-forming bacteria can also cause disease: for example, anthrax can be contracted by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis endospores, and contamination of deep puncture wounds with Clostridium tetani endospores causes tetanus.^ Bacillus anthracis [M0002103] A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Endospore-forming bacteria can also cause disease: for example, anthrax can be contracted by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis endospores, and contamination of deep puncture wounds with Clostridium tetani endospores causes tetanus .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CAUSATIVE MICRO-ORGANISM Bacillus anthracis .
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86]

Metabolism

.Bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types.^ Back to top ] Further information: Microbial metabolism Bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria potentially face a wide variety of environmental conditions.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[87] .The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy, but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications.^ The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy , but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bioengineer bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as insulin , growth factors , or antibodies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These two domains, along with Eukarya, are the basis of the three-domain system , which is currently the most widely used classification system in microbiolology.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[88] .Bacterial metabolism is classified into nutritional groups on the basis of three major criteria: the kind of energy used for growth, the source of carbon, and the electron donors used for growth.^ Glucose is used as an energy source in cells.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Food chain: The carbon cycle in which organisms at successively higher levels ingest smaller organisms at lower levels as their source of carbon and energy; photosynthesis is the ultimate source of carbon for consumers in the food chain.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mixotroph: A microorganism that assimilates organic carbon sources while using inorganic energy sources.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.An additional criterion of respiratory microorganisms are the electron acceptors used for aerobic or anaerobic respiration.^ Aerobic respiration: A process in which oxygen serves as the electron acceptor in metabolism.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Microorganisms in deep subsurface biosphere exploit every available oxidant, or terminal electron acceptor (TEA), for anaerobic respiration .

^ In addition, H2 uptake was at least fourfold faster when sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate was available as the electron acceptor instead of a haloaromatic substrate .

[89]
Nutritional types in bacterial metabolism
Nutritional type Source of energy Source of carbon Examples
 Phototrophs  Sunlight  Organic compounds (photoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (photoautotrophs)  Cyanobacteria, Green sulfur bacteria, Chloroflexi, or Purple bacteria 
 Lithotrophs Inorganic compounds  Organic compounds (lithoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (lithoautotrophs)  Thermodesulfobacteria, Hydrogenophilaceae, or Nitrospirae 
 Organotrophs Organic compounds  Organic compounds (chemoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (chemoautotrophs)    Bacillus, Clostridium or Enterobacteriaceae 
.Carbon metabolism in bacteria is either heterotrophic, where organic carbon compounds are used as carbon sources, or autotrophic, meaning that cellular carbon is obtained by fixing carbon dioxide.^ Carbon metabolism in bacteria is either heterotrophic , where organic carbon compounds are used as carbon sources, or autotrophic , meaning that cellular carbon is obtained by fixing carbon dioxide .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE).
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Heterotrophic bacteria include parasitic types.^ Heterotrophic bacteria include parasitic types.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Typical autotrophic bacteria are phototrophic cyanobacteria, green sulfur-bacteria and some purple bacteria, but also many chemolithotrophic species, such as nitrifying or sulfur-oxidising bacteria.^ Typical autotrophic bacteria are phototrophic cyanobacteria , green sulfur-bacteria and some purple bacteria , but also many chemolithotrophic species, such as nitrifying or sulfur-oxidising bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some autotrophic bacteria are photosynthetic.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These light-gathering complexs may even form lipid-enclosed structures called chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[90] .Energy metabolism of bacteria is either based on phototrophy, the use of light through photosynthesis, or on chemotrophy, the use of chemical substances for energy, which are mostly oxidised at the expense of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors (aerobic/anaerobic respiration).^ Energy metabolism of bacteria is either based on phototrophy , the use of light through photosynthesis , or on chemotrophy , the use of chemical substances for energy, which are mostly oxidised at the expense of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors (aerobic/anaerobic respiration).
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In aerobic organisms , oxygen is used as the electron acceptor.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The metabolism of bacteria can be anaerobic (without oxygen) as well as aerobic.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, bacteria are further divided into lithotrophs that use inorganic electron donors and organotrophs that use organic compounds as electron donors.^ Filaments of photosynthetic cyanobacteria Finally, bacteria are further divided into lithotrophs that use inorganic electron donors and organotrophs that use organic compounds as electron donors.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common inorganic electron donors are hydrogen, carbon monoxide , ammonia (leading to nitrification ), ferrous iron and other reduced metal ions, and several reduced sulfur compounds.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chemotrophic organisms use the respective electron donors for energy conservation (by aerobic/anaerobic respiration or fermentation) and biosynthetic reactions (e.g.^ In aerobic organisms , oxygen is used as the electron acceptor.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An additional criterion of respiratory microorganisms are the electron acceptors used for aerobic or anaerobic respiration .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotrophic organisms use the respective electron donors for energy conservation (by aerobic/anaerobic respiration or fermentation) and biosynthetic reactions (e.g.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

carbon dioxide fixation), whereas phototrophic organisms use them only for biosynthetic purposes. .Respiratory organisms use chemical compounds as a source of energy by taking electrons from the reduced substrate and transferring them to a terminal electron acceptor in a redox reaction.^ In aerobic organisms , oxygen is used as the electron acceptor.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glucose is used as an energy source in cells.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This reaction releases energy that can be used to synthesise ATP and drive metabolism.^ Energy is released when ATP is .
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The chemical energy chains that nurse macromolecular organization commonly use ATP as their final link.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This energy drives ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate by ATP synthase.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.In aerobic organisms, oxygen is used as the electron acceptor.^ In aerobic organisms , oxygen is used as the electron acceptor.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aerobe: An organism that utilizes molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aerobic respiration: A process in which oxygen serves as the electron acceptor in metabolism.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds, such as nitrate, sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors.^ In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds , such as nitrate , sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional in organisms growing on two-carbon compounds, such as acetate.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In aerobic organisms , oxygen is used as the electron acceptor.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This leads to the ecologically important processes of denitrification, sulfate reduction and acetogenesis, respectively.^ This leads to the ecologically important processes of denitrification , sulfate reduction and acetogenesis , respectively.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another way of life of chemotrophs in the absence of possible electron acceptors is fermentation, where the electrons taken from the reduced substrates are transferred to oxidised intermediates to generate reduced fermentation products (e.g.^ Fermentation: Production of ATP via catabolic sequences in which organic compounds serve as electron donor and organic intermediates as electron acceptor.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another possible way around this problem is the use of inorganic catalysts such as the surface of some mineral to perform the function.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, H2 uptake was at least fourfold faster when sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate was available as the electron acceptor instead of a haloaromatic substrate .

lactate, ethanol, hydrogen, butyric acid). .Fermentation is possible, because the energy content of the substrates is higher than that of the products, which allows the organisms to synthesise ATP and drive their metabolism.^ Fermentation is possible, because the energy content of the substrates is higher than that of the products, which allows the organisms to synthesise ATP and drive their metabolism.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This reaction releases energy that can be used to synthesise ATP and drive metabolism.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[91][92]
.These processes are also important in biological responses to pollution; for example, sulfate-reducing bacteria are largely responsible for the production of the highly toxic forms of mercury (methyl- and dimethylmercury) in the environment.^ These processes are also important in biological responses to pollution ; for example, sulfate-reducing bacteria are largely responsible for the production of the highly toxic forms of mercury (methyl- and dimethylmercury ) in the environment.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These data are consistent with a kinetic model in which the enzyme is irreversibly converted from an initial form to a final stable form during the first seconds of the encapsulation process .

^ This subclass is indented under subclass 106 .   Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of 2-aminopropanoic acid or 2-amino-4-methyl pentanoic acid or 2-amino-3-methyl pentanoic acid or 2-amino-3-hydroxypropionic acid or 2-amino-4-hydroxy butanoic acid.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

[93] .Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste.^ Alcoholic fermentation: Anaerobic metabolism where alcohol (ethanol, butanol, etc.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biotechnology: Use of living organisms to generate useful industrial products.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "organism" or "microorganism" for the purposes of the present invention refers to any organism that is commonly used of the production of amino acids such as methionine.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Facultative anaerobes can switch between fermentation and different terminal electron acceptors depending on the environmental conditions in which they find themselves.^ Anaerobe: An organism that does not employ oxygen as terminal electron acceptor.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aerotolerant: An organism that does not utilize molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor but is not harmed by O 2 .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under constant environmental conditions, they reverse their swimming direction about every 10-30 s .

.Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.^ Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE).
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds , such as nitrate , sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Common inorganic electron donors are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia (leading to nitrification), ferrous iron and other reduced metal ions, and several reduced sulfur compounds.^ Common inorganic electron donors are hydrogen, carbon monoxide , ammonia (leading to nitrification ), ferrous iron and other reduced metal ions, and several reduced sulfur compounds.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds , such as nitrate , sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Unusually, the gas methane can be used by methanotrophic bacteria as both a source of electrons and a substrate for carbon anabolism.^ Unusually, the gas methane can be used by methanotrophic bacteria as both a source of electrons and a substrate for carbon anabolism .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methanotrophic bacteria: Organisms that oxidize methane.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds , such as nitrate , sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[94] .In both aerobic phototrophy and chemolithotrophy, oxygen is used as a terminal electron acceptor, while under anaerobic conditions inorganic compounds are used instead.^ Aerobe: An organism that utilizes molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aerobic respiration: A process in which oxygen serves as the electron acceptor in metabolism.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anaerobe: An organism that does not employ oxygen as terminal electron acceptor.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most lithotrophic organisms are autotrophic, whereas organotrophic organisms are heterotrophic.^ Most lithotrophic organisms are autotrophic, whereas organotrophic organ isms are heterotrophic.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Facultative: Term applied to aerobes and autotrophs to indicate that the organism can grow either aerobically/anaerobically or autotrophically/heterotrophically under appropriate conditions.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to fixing carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, some bacteria also fix nitrogen gas (nitrogen fixation) using the enzyme nitrogenase.^ Nitrogenase: The enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen fixation in microorganisms.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reductive TCA cycle: The reversed form of the TCA cycle that is used by some bacteria to fix carbon dioxide.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cyanobacteria [M0000697] A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.This environmentally important trait can be found in bacteria of nearly all the metabolic types listed above, but is not universal.^ This environmentally important trait can be found in bacteria of nearly all the metabolic types listed above, but is not universal.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the temperature becomes hostile or the preferred nutrients become scarce, bacteria have three basic options: endospore formation (not possible for all types of bacteria), adapt, or die.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bartonella bacilliformis [M0448531] The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[95]

Growth and reproduction

Many bacteria reproduce through binary fission
.Unlike multicellular organisms, increases in the size of bacteria (cell growth) and their reproduction by cell division are tightly linked in unicellular organisms.^ Cell growth: Increase in cell size in absence of division.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unicellular organisms increase in size to approximately twice the original size.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Unicellular: An organism that grows a single cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria grow to a fixed size and then reproduce through binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction.^ These mechanisms, combined with their rapid reproduction and large population sizes, enable bacteria to quickly and effectively adapt to a variety of environmental changes.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their normally rapid reproduction rate (by asexual binary fission) and high capacity for spontaneous mutation allows .
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Reductive TCA cycle: The reversed form of the TCA cycle that is used by some bacteria to fix carbon dioxide.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[96] .Under optimal conditions, bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and bacterial populations can double as quickly as every 9.8 minutes.^ Xerophile: A microorganism that grows optimally under low a w conditions.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been shown that this system is necessary for cells to grow under alkaline conditions ( 95 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, bacteria have numerous mechanisms for introducing genetic variation into a growing population.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

[97] .In cell division, two identical clone daughter cells are produced.^ In cell division, two identical clone daughter cells are produced.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In frogs, the nuclei og a number of fertilized ova may be replaced by the nuclei of vegetative cells of a single frog (a) and thus produce a clone of identical frogs (a) .

^ Fused cells are cells of which the cellular matter of two or more individual cells is combined producing a singlecell which initially contains the genes of all the combined cells.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that help disperse the newly formed daughter cells.^ Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that help disperse the newly formed daughter cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are asexual microorganisms that can rapidly reproduce.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures such as microcolonies, through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Examples include fruiting body formation by Myxobacteria and aerial hyphae formation by Streptomyces, or budding.^ Examples include fruiting body formation by Myxobacteria and aerial hyphae formation by Streptomyces , or budding.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Production of SapB is impaired in bld mutants, which are blocked in aerial hyphae formation, but not in whi mutants in which spore formation is prevented .

^ We report that aerial hyphae formation by a newly identified bld mutant is restored by juxtaposition of the mutant near colonies of SapB-producing bacteria or by the application of the purified protein near mutant colonies .

.Budding involves a cell forming a protrusion that breaks away and produces a daughter cell.^ Budding involves a cell forming a protrusion that breaks away and produces a daughter cell.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The other layers are regarded as a sheath, since they surround groups of cells and form on the surface of daughter cells as they separate ( 187 , 208 , 221 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymphocyte: A leukocyte that produces antibodies or is involved in cellular immune responses, including production of cytokines and killing of infected host cells.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

A growing colony of Escherichia coli cells[98]
.In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media.^ Culture medium: A liquid or solid nutrient on which microorganisms can be grown.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From soil samples taken in deserts and tundra, antarctic halophilic bacteria , able to grow in liquid media containing 20-25% of sodium chloride, were isolated .

^ It is very important to explain that the helical shape of Spirulina in liquid culture is changed to spiral shape in solid media (Figure 3).
  • Spirulina (Arthrospira): An edible microorganism 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spirulina.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

.Solid growth media such as agar plates are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain.^ Solid growth media such as agar plates are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A growing colony of Escherichia coli cells [98 ] In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The isolated Acanthamoeba strains were studied for growth in axenic medium, cytopathic effect in Vero cell cultures, and virulence in mice .

.However, liquid growth media are used when measurement of growth or large volumes of cells are required.^ However, liquid growth media are used when measurement of growth or large volumes of cells are required.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A growing colony of Escherichia coli cells [98 ] In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a change of these parameters may require the cell to reestablish the sacrificed system, and perhaps sacrifice a different system instead.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

.Growth in stirred liquid media occurs as an even cell suspension, making the cultures easy to divide and transfer, although isolating single bacteria from liquid media is difficult.^ Algal growth media and sources of algal cultures.
  • Spirulina (Arthrospira): An edible microorganism 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spirulina.org.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ For bacteria, the adaptive mutations need only to occur in a single cell.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Method of culturing cells in suspension: .
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The use of selective media (media with specific nutrients added or deficient, or with antibiotics added) can help identify specific organisms.^ The use of selective media (media with specific nutrients added or deficient, or with antibiotics added) can help id entify specific organisms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We present here a genetic circuit for detecting and quantifying horizontal gene transfer from a defined donor microorganism to recipient organisms in the absence of selection for a recipient-specific phenotype .

^ Biovars: A term used to identify a particular sub-species or organism; a biological variety.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[99]
.Most laboratory techniques for growing bacteria use high levels of nutrients to produce large amounts of cells cheaply and quickly.^ Most laboratory techniques for growing bacteria use high levels of nutrients to produce large amounts of cells cheaply and quickly.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A growing colony of Escherichia coli cells [98 ] In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, in natural environments nutrients are limited, meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce indefinitely.^ However, in natural environments nutrients are limited, meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce indefinitely.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to the large phylogenetic distance to other known bacteria, however, physiological properties cannot be inferred from its phylogenetic position.
  • Molecular Characterization of the Nonphotosynthetic Partner Bacterium in the Consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum" -- Kanzler et al. 71 (11): 7434 -- Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC aem.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This nutrient limitation has led the evolution of different growth strategies (see r/K selection theory).^ When limited for different nutrients, yeast strains may not enter stationary phase but opt for pathways such as pseudohyphal growth .

.Some organisms can grow extremely rapidly when nutrients become available, such as the formation of algal (and cyanobacterial) blooms that often occur in lakes during the summer.^ For an organism such as C. glutamicum it has now been found that the formation of homolanthionine (see FIG. 3) is a side reaction of MetB due to the high intracellular homocysteine levels.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the twentieth century a resurgence of syphilis occurred amongst troops of all nations during the First World War and to some extent during the Second World War.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Functional in organisms growing on two-carbon compounds, such as acetate.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[100] .Other organisms have adaptations to harsh environments, such as the production of multiple antibiotics by Streptomyces that inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms.^ Other organisms have adaptations to harsh environments, such as the production of multiple antibiotics by Streptomyces that inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotic: A metabolite produced by a microorganism that inhibits or destroys other microorganisms.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Appl Environ Microbiol, 1986 Oct, 52(4), 605 - 6 Biogenesis of some antibiotics in the presence of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid ; Sharma A et al.; 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) affected both the growth of and antibiotic production in Streptomyces aureofaciens, S .

[101] .In nature, many organisms live in communities (e.g.^ In nature, many organisms live in communities (e.g.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, however, recombinant DNA and molecular phylogenetic techniques have provided methods for characterizing natural microbial communities without the need to cultivate organisms .

.biofilms) which may allow for increased supply of nutrients and protection from environmental stresses.^ The implications are that rG-CSF may allow increased dose intensity and stricter adherence to chemotherapy schedules .

[42] .These relationships can be essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms (syntrophy).^ These analyses did not detect any evidence for the previously suggested specific relationship between the Thermus-Deinococcus group and cyanobacteria.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes there is a clear relationship between the expansion of a particular protein family and the adaptation of the respective organism to its environment.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Previous attempts to clarify these relationships ( 80 ) have led to the proposition that the Thermus-Deinococcus group is an intermediate between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[102]
.Bacterial growth follows three phases.^ Bacterial growth follows three phases.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial metabolism is classified into nutritional groups on the basis of three major criteria: the kind of energy used for growth, the source of carbon , and the electron donors used for growth.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cell lysates of all three serotypes showed the presence of phospholipase C activity during the exponential phase of growth, and no significant difference in activity was observed among the three serotypes .

.When a population of bacteria first enter a high-nutrient environment that allows growth, the cells need to adapt to their new environment.^ When a population of bacteria first enter a high-nutrient environment that allows growth, the cells need to adapt to their new environment.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first phase of growth is the lag phase , a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the high-nutrient environment and preparing for fast growth.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first phase of growth is the lag phase, a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the high-nutrient environment and preparing for fast growth.^ The first phase of growth is the lag phase , a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the high-nutrient environment and preparing for fast growth.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When a population of bacteria first enter a high-nutrient environment that allows growth, the cells need to adapt to their new environment.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a broad context, adaptive mutation has been defined as that collection of growth-independent mutations that enhance the cell’s survival and growth when confronted with stressful and growth-limiting environments.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

.The lag phase has high biosynthesis rates, as proteins necessary for rapid growth are produced.^ Idiophase: End of the exponential growth phase, when secondary metabolites are synthesized in certain organisms, such as antibiotic producing actinomycetes.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Zero-order specific growth rates ranged from 0.22 to 0.32 h(-1), while observed cell yields were 0.18-0.28 mg cell protein/mg phenol for the five cultures .

^ The rate of cellobiose uptake for early- or late-log-phase cellobiose-grown cells was 9 nmol/min per mg of whole-cell protein .

[103] .The second phase of growth is the logarithmic phase (log phase), also known as the exponential phase.^ Log phase: Exponential phase in growth curve of a culture.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In exponential growth phase, the cells divided in a 16/32 pattern .

^ Secondary metabolites: Products that are synthesized near the end of the exponential growth phase and during early stationary phase.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The log phase is marked by rapid exponential growth.^ The log phase is marked by rapid exponential growth .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second phase of growth is the logarithmic phase (log phase), also known as the exponential phase.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Log phase: Exponential phase in growth curve of a culture.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The rate at which cells grow during this phase is known as the growth rate (k), and the time it takes the cells to double is known as the generation time (g).^ Exotoxin: A toxin released by cells, generally during growth.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The rate at which cells grow during this phase is known as the growth rate ( k ), and the time it takes the cells to double is known as the generation time ( g ).
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In comparison with the free cells, the immobilized cells required 30% less light energy at a H2S removal rate of 2 mM/(L.h) and showed an activity of 2.4 times that of the free cells .

.During log phase, nutrients are metabolised at maximum speed until one of the nutrients is depleted and starts limiting growth.^ Primary metabolites: Products secreted during the growth phase.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When limited for different nutrients, yeast strains may not enter stationary phase but opt for pathways such as pseudohyphal growth .

^ Nutrient: Any substance that is assimilated by a microorganism during growth.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The final phase of growth is the stationary phase and is caused by depleted nutrients.^ The final phase of growth is the stationary phase and is caused by depleted nutrients.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first phase of growth is the lag phase , a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the high-nutrient environment and preparing for fast growth.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair , antioxidant metabolism and nutrient transport .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cells reduce their metabolic activity and consume non-essential cellular proteins.^ The cells reduce their metabolic activity and consume non-essential cellular proteins.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Foreign art collections including subject matter in which the fused peptide or protein is a peptide or protein that initiates or permits some cellular activity.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These methods also allow the detection and identifi cation of "viable but nonculturable" cells that are metabolically active but non-dividing.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair, antioxidant metabolism and nutrient transport.^ These genes are involved in oligopeptide transport.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair , antioxidant metabolism and nutrient transport .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transition metals in control of gene expression.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[104]

Genetics

.Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome that can range in size from only 160,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Carsonella ruddii,[105] to 12,200,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacteria Sorangium cellulosum.^ The genomes of many bacteria consist of a single, circular chromosome.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Plasmid , Genome Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome that can range in size from only 160,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Carsonella ruddii , [105 ] to 12,200,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacteria Sorangium cellulosum .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reproduction - Bacteria has only one set of chromosome (always haploidic).
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[106] .Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement, with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, containing a single linear chromosome.^ Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement, with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi , the cause of Lyme disease , containing a single linear chromosome.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Linear plasmids and chromosomes in bacteria".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus , typhoid fever , diphtheria , syphilis , cholera , foodborne illness , leprosy and tuberculosis .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[107] .The genes in bacterial genomes are usually a single continuous stretch of DNA and although several different types of introns do exist in bacteria, these are much more rare than in eukaryotes.^ The genes in bacterial genomes are usually a single continuous stretch of DNA and although several different types of introns do exist in bacteria, these are much more rare than in eukaryotes.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genomes are more affected by noise than bacterial genomes.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria colonized the antral mucosa more frequently than the body or than the duodenal cap mucosa .

[108]
.Bacteria may also contain plasmids, which are small extra-chromosomal DNAs that may contain genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors.^ R plasmids: Plasmids that carry antibiotic resistance genes.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Virulence plasmids: Plasmids of pathogenic bacteria encoding virulence-promoting factors.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insertion sequence: A small transposon that caries the genes for enzymes needed for its integration into a new site in a chromosome or a plasmid.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria, as asexual organisms, inherit identical copies of their parent's genes (i.e., they are clonal).^ Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These include organisms such as Myxococcus xanthus , which forms swarms of cells that kill and digest any bacteria they encounter.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Pathogenic bacteria If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or mutations.^ However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or mutations .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the genetic level, again, one does not see DNA constantly mutating in the gross way that gave rise to such dramatic innovations as wings or flight.
  • The rise of pseudoscience - Sepia Mutiny 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RNA molecules evolved in self-replicating patterns, using recombination and mutation to explore new niches.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Mutations come from errors made during the replication of DNA or from exposure to mutagens.^ Proofreading: Correction of errors created in DNA during replication.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mutations come from errors made during the replication of DNA or from exposure to mutagens .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The mutator phenotype would be similar to the hypermutable state in E. coli wherein mutations are made but not repaired because of a faulty DNA repair system (discussed previously).
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

.Mutation rates vary widely among different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria.^ Mutation rates vary widely among different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Evolution of mutation rates in bacteria".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[109] .Genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from either random mutation during replication or "stress-directed mutation", where genes involved in a particular growth-limiting process have an increased mutation rate.^ Additionally, noncellular factors may also limit bacterial growth.

^ Then, in one of those dramatic evolutionary transformations that created the Y, a gene on an X chromosome in a particular mammal mutated.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently, and unfortunately, most of the genome sequences available are those of microorganisms which are either not amenable to gene transfer or not among the most promising candidates for genetic studies.

[110]
.Some bacteria also transfer genetic material between cells.^ It is possible to implement the neighborhood field of domains via a potential function operator v(t i ,t j ) that is nonzero only when there is some interaction between the two cells.
  • Automated methods for simulating a biological network - Patent 7319945 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, sex for bacteria is simply the fusion of genetic material from more than one individual in a single creature.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is cell-to-cell transfer of genetic material, usually plasmids or transposons.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

.This can occur in three main ways.^ This can occur in three main ways.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Firstly, bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment, in a process called transformation.^ Natural competence: The ability of bacteria to take up DNA from their environment.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Competent: A bacterial cell that can take up DNA fragments and be transformed.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Firstly, bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment, in a process called transformation .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Genes can also be transferred by the process of transduction, when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome.^ Can be used to transfer foreign genes into plants.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chromosome mobilizing ability: The ability of integrated plasmids to mediate transfer of chromosomal genes.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transduction: Transfer of DNA between bacteria by bacteriophages.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The third method of gene transfer is bacterial conjugation, where DNA is transferred through direct cell contact.^ Donor: A cell that is the source of plasmid during conjugative DNA transfer.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conjugation: Transfer of DNA from donor to recipient by direct cell to cell contact.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Foreign art collections including subject matter in which the transfer of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA by DNA-directed RNA polymerase is modified.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This gene acquisition from other bacteria or the environment is called horizontal gene transfer and may be common under natural conditions.^ Examples of horizontally transferred genes in D. radiodurans .
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Horizontal (lateral) gene transfer: Acquisition of new genes from other organisms.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ancient ancestry and horizontal gene transfer.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[111] .Gene transfer is particularly important in antibiotic resistance as it allows the rapid transfer of resistance genes between different pathogens.^ R plasmids: Plasmids that carry antibiotic resistance genes.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gene transfer is particularly important in antibiotic resistance as it allows the rapid transfer of resistance genes between different pathogens.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Antibiotic-induced lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[112]

Bacteriophages

.Bacteriophages are viruses that change the bacterial DNA. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome.^ Bacteriophage: Virus that infects Bacteria or Archaea .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Defensins: Host peptides that lyse bacteria and some protozoa.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteriophages are viruses that change the bacterial DNA. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.A bacteriophage can contain genes that contribute to its host's phenotype: for example, in the evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Clostridium botulinum, the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacteria into a lethal pathogen.^ A bacteriophage can contain genes that contribute to its host's phenotype : for example, in the evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Clostridium botulinum , the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacteria into a lethal pathogen.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cadaver-skin allografts were frequently found to contain pathogenic bacteria .

^ Insertion sequence: A small transposon that caries the genes for enzymes needed for its integration into a new site in a chromosome or a plasmid.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[113] .Bacteria resist phage infection through restriction modification systems that degrade foreign DNA,[114] and a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of phage that the bacteria have come into contact with in the past, which allows them to block virus replication through a form of RNA interference.^ DNA sequence was used to probe an R .

^ Integration: Incorporation of a DNA sequence into the genome.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Complete genomes Archaea Archaeal virus Bacteria Eukaryota Organelle Phage Plasmid Viroid Virus Links WGS info Genome Reviews Integr8 (proteomes) Fasta33 Server Ensembl .
  • Genomes Pages - Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ebi.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[115][116] .This CRISPR system provides bacteria with acquired immunity to infection.^ This CRISPR system provides bacteria with acquired immunity to infection.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cactus tissue then provides a substrate for the growth of bacteria and yeasts, which represent the microorganismic components of the model system.
  • Chemical Interactions in the Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert -- Fogleman and Danielson 41 (4): 877 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Behavior

Secretion

.Bacteria frequently secrete chemicals into their environment in order to modify it favorably.^ It is likely that in the crystalline environment the ordered form of pB is strongly favored.

^ Epizootic bovine abortion resembled a naturally acquired superinfection in circumstances where the agent was frequently present in the environment under conditions favoring transmission .

^ Type I-V secretion systems: Distinct mechanisms utilized by gram-negative bacteria to secrete proteins into the external medium.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The secretions are often proteins and may act as enzymes that digest some form of food in the environment.^ Using mushroom as an example, we show that the enzyme activity may, in some instances, require a partial purification before its presence is clearly detectable .

^ Our findings significantly extend the known phylogenetic distribution of this enzyme and suggest that it may play an indispensable role in protein metabolism.

^ Signal peptides on lipoproteins are removed by a different enzyme (SPase II) than the remainder of secreted proteins, which are processed by SPase I. .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

Bioluminescence

.A few bacteria have chemical systems that generate light.^ Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 266 through 274 for chemical process control or monitoring system.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Photosynthesis: Use of light energy to generate chemical energy for cell maintenance and CO 2 assimilation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biological networks and the detailed chemical processes that occur within them, are described by the methods and systems of the present invention utilizing general canonical forms.
  • Automated methods for simulating a biological network - Patent 7319945 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.This bioluminescence often occurs in bacteria that live in association with fish, and the light probably serves to attract fish or other large animals.^ Bioluminescence: Production of light by living organisms.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are often symbiotic; they live in association with other organisms.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Selenomonas [M0029993] Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[117]

Multicellularity

.Bacteria often function as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms, exchanging a variety of molecular signals for inter-cell communication, and engaging in coordinated multicellular behavior.^ At least four cell-cell signals, cell motility, and aggregation functions are required for the completion of fruiting body formation.

^ Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Quoromones: Signaling molecules used by bacteria to communicate with each other.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[118][119]
.The communal benefits of multicellular cooperation include a cellular division of labor, accessing resources that cannot effectively be utilized by single cells, collectively defending against antagonists, and optimizing population survival by differentiating into distinct cell types.^ For purposes of this and the indented subclasses "animal cell" includes cells of organisms of the animal kingdom wherein said cells are not part of a tissue or an organ nor are they part of a multicellular organism during the process.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This has been referred to as antagonistic pleiotropy; meaning the cell experiences a trade-off where a temporary benefit for surviving one environmental condition is provided at the expense of systems used for other environments.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC): A cell that can mature or differentiate into any of the lymphoid or myeloid cells that make up the host immune system.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[118] .For example, bacteria in biofilms can have more than 500 times increased resistance to antibacterial agents than individual "planktonic" bacteria of the same species.^ The bacteria colonized the antral mucosa more frequently than the body or than the duodenal cap mucosa .

^ On the other hand, sex for bacteria is simply the fusion of genetic material from more than one individual in a single creature.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ It exhibited about 100 times more strongly cytotoxic activity against leukemic L1210 cell culture than doxorubicin.

[119]
.One type of inter-cellular communication by a molecular signal is called quorum sensing, which serves the purpose of determining whether there is a local population density that is sufficiently high that it is productive to invest in processes that are only successful if large numbers of similar organisms behave similarly, as in excreting digestive enzymes or emitting light.^ Succession: The process of changes in types and concentrations of organisms over time.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there is still a great interest in replacing the existing chemical production by a biotechnological process.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction of antigen systemically, whether by injection or injury, leads to local infiltration of inflammatory cells and specific immunoglobulin production.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is thought that bacteria are too small to use pheromones to attract other individuals, as is common among animals.^ On the other hand, sex for bacteria is simply the fusion of genetic material from more than one individual in a single creature.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX. Fusobacterium [M0008916] A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[120]

Movement

.Many bacteria can move using a variety of mechanisms: flagella are used for swimming through water; bacterial gliding and twitching motility move bacteria across surfaces; and changes of buoyancy allow vertical motion.^ Flagella: Structures involved in motility of bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Motility or moving fluids over surfaces .
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Chemotaxis , Flagellum , Pilus Motile bacteria can move using flagella , bacterial gliding , twitching motility or changes of buoyancy.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[121]
.
Flagellum of Gram-negative Bacteria.
^ Flagellum of Gram-negative Bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Buchnera aphidicola [M0328877] Burkholderia [M0028526] A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Azospirillum lipoferum [M0440271] A species of gram-negative to gram-variable, nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

The base drives the rotation of the hook and filament.
.Swimming bacteria frequently move near 10 body lengths per second and a few as fast as 100. This makes them at least as fast as fish, on a relative scale.^ The bacteria colonized the antral mucosa more frequently than the body or than the duodenal cap mucosa .

^ Preferably, said antigen is delivered in a dose of at least 10 fg to 100 .mu.g per day, preferably between 1 .mu.g and 100 .mu.g per day, most preferably between 1 ng and 100 .mu.g per day.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For practicality, in C. glutamicum, typical first and second homologous DNA sequence are usually at least about 200 base pairs in length, and can be up to several thousand base pairs in length.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[122]
.In twitching motility, bacterial use their type IV pili as a grappling hook, repeatedly extending it, anchoring it and then retracting it with remarkable force (>80 pN).^ In the development of the skin eruptions a type I, and a type IV allergic reaction could be demonstrated using the H .

^ Archeabacterial flagellar filaments share important features with type IV pili, which are components of retractable linear motors involved in twitching motility and cell adhesion .

^ Characterization of Adhesion Threads of Deinococcus geothermalis as Type IV Pili..
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[123]
.Flagella are semi-rigid cylindrical structures that are rotated and function much like the propeller on a ship.^ In actinomycetes, these propeller domains are fused to protein kinases and are likely to perform specific protein-protein interaction functions in signaling ( 163 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Much attention is paid to the current notions on the fusion pore structure and function, as well as on fusion mechanisms of biological membranes and factors regulating this process.

.Objects as small as bacteria operate a low Reynolds number and cylindrical forms are more efficient that the flat, paddle-like, forms appropriate at human size scale.^ Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that help disperse the newly formed daughter cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At 3 weeks, the polymorphonuclear response was more pronounced with large numbers of neutrophils in some areas forming small microabscesses .

^ Spinae: Large pilus-like appendages formed by some bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[124]
.Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface; some have a single flagellum (monotrichous), a flagellum at each end (amphitrichous), clusters of flagella at the poles of the cell (lophotrichous), while others have flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell (peritrichous).^ Peritrichous: Having flagella distributed over the surface of a bacterium.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monotrichous: A bacterium with a single flagellum.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common archaeal cell envelope is composed of a single crystalline protein or glycoprotein surface layer (S-layer), which is associated with the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane .

.The bacterial flagella is the best-understood motility structure in any organism and is made of about 20 proteins, with approximately another 30 proteins required for its regulation and assembly.^ Flagella: Structures involved in motility of bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The methyl group can be sensed by proteins that turn gene expression on or off through regulating chromatin structure.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ However, little is known about the way in which these organisms stabilize their secreted proteins in such 'hostile' conditions .

[121] .The flagellum is a rotating structure driven by a reversible motor at the base that uses the electrochemical gradient across the membrane for power.^ H+ electrochemical gradient across the tonoplast.

^ The flagellum is a rotating structure driven by a reversible motor at the base that uses the electrochemical gradient across the membrane for power.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transport of solutes across the bacterial and archaeal membrane is mainly catalyzed by primary ATP driven transport systems or by proton or sodium motive force driven secondary transport systems .

[125] This motor drives the motion of the filament, which acts as a propeller.
.Many bacteria (such as E. coli) have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling.^ Many bacteria (such as E. coli ) have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Typical autotrophic bacteria are phototrophic cyanobacteria , green sulfur-bacteria and some purple bacteria , but also many chemolithotrophic species, such as nitrifying or sulfur-oxidising bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When bacteria such as the K99 antigen Escherichia coli were present, the combined infection caused mortality .

.The tumbling allows them to reorient and makes their movement a three-dimensional random walk.^ The tumbling allows them to reorient and makes their movement a three-dimensional random walk .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[126] (See external links below for link to videos.) .The flagella of a unique group of bacteria, the spirochaetes, are found between two membranes in the periplasmic space.^ Endoflagella or periplasmic flagella: Produced by members of the Spirochaetes ; lie outside the cell membrane but inside the cell wall.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although bacteria, grew in control specimens, were totally eradicated in all antibiotic-treated specimens, no significant difference was found between these groups with regard to sperm motility throughout the time of incubation .

^ No significant difference was demonstrated between the two groups .

.They have a distinctive helical body that twists about as it moves.^ They have a distinctive helical body that twists about as it moves.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They move about and feed by means of cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia, or false feet.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[121]
.Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviors called taxes: these include chemotaxis, phototaxis and magnetotaxis.^ Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviors called taxes : these include chemotaxis , phototaxis and magnetotaxis .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These light-gathering complexs may even form lipid-enclosed structures called chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These genes are homologous to the chemotaxis genes of enteric bacteria and control the rate of cell reversal during gliding .

[127][128] .In one peculiar group, the myxobacteria, individual bacteria move together to form waves of cells that then differentiate to form fruiting bodies containing spores.^ In one peculiar group, the myxobacteria , individual bacteria move together to form waves of cells that then differentiate to form fruiting bodies containing spores.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, about one in 10 cells migrate to the top of these fruiting bodies and differentiate int o a specialised dormant state called myxospores, which are more resistant to drying and other adverse environmental conditions than are ordinary cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, when starved of amino acids, Myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as quorum sensing , migrate towards each other, and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100,000 bacterial cells.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[45] .The myxobacteria move only when on solid surfaces, unlike E. coli which is motile in liquid or solid media.^ Gliders move only when on a semi-solid surface.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Motility or moving fluids over surfaces .
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Gliding bacteria move on a semi-solid surface such as an agar plate.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Several Listeria and Shigella species move inside host cells by usurping the cytoskeleton, which is normally used to move organelles inside the cell.^ Several Listeria and < i> Shigella species move inside host cells by usurping the cytoskeleton , which is normally used to move organelles inside the cell.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These are normally complexed with MHC class II molecules on the surface of the host cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The terms "host cell" and "recombinant host cell" are used interchangeably herein.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.By promoting actin polymerization at one pole of their cells, they can form a kind of tail that pushes them through the host cell's cytoplasm.^ By promoting actin polymerization at one pole of their cells, they can form a kind of tail that pushes them through the host cell's cytoplasm.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some conditions, they cause cytoplasmic damage in the host tissues, which demonstrates their pathogenicity .

^ Two germ cells (that is, sperm and egg) must combine to form the zygote, and it is unlikely they would have the same adaptive mutations.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

[129]

Classification and identification

Streptococcus mutans visualized with a Gram stain
.Classification seeks to describe the diversity of bacterial species by naming and grouping organisms based on similarities.^ Classification: Placing organisms in groups based on phylogenetic relatedness.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a plasmid based operon, it can be transferred to various bacterial species.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Incompatability group: Classification of plasmids based on the inability of closely related plasmids to coexist in the same cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria can be classified on the basis of cell structure, cellular metabolism or on differences in cell components such as DNA, fatty acids, pigments, antigens and quinones.^ Metabolism of lipids and cell wall components.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ig class switching: The process through which antibody-forming cells couple the antigen-binding parts of an immunoglobulin with different Fc pieces.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both techniques demonstrated that the halophilic Bacteria and halophilic Archaea populations in the Eilat, Israel saltern are dynamic communities with extensive metabolic potentials and changing community structures .

[99] .While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.^ Deinococcus is the first representative with a completely sequenced genome from a distinct bacterial lineage of extremophiles, the Thermus-Deinococcus group.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Levels of 16S rDNA similarity between strain YKJ-16T and the type strains of other Halomonas species are 93.0-96.3% .

^ The difference in survival rate between spores and mycelia of isolates of the same species points to the existence of adapted halotolerant and/or halophilic fungi in the Dead Sea.

.This uncertainty was due to the lack of distinctive structures in most bacteria, as well as lateral gene transfer between unrelated species.^ Oyster samples were dominated by halophilic fermentative bacteria during most of the year with predominance of two Vibrio species, V .

^ It appears that for most bacterial genomes, at least 10 to 15% of genes have been involved in horizontal transfer ( 18 , 153 ; K. S. Makarova, L. Aravind, and E. V. Koonin, unpublished data).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This probably reflects the distinct metabolic repertoires of these bacteria, as well as the presence in Thermus of genes associated with thermophilicity.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[130] .Due to lateral gene transfer, some closely related bacteria can have very different morphologies and metabolisms.^ Due to lateral gene transfer, some closely related bacteria can h ave very different morphologies and metabolisms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This uncertainty was due to the lack of distinctive structures in most bacteria, as well as lateral gene transfer between unrelated species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some support for this idea comes from sequence data showing that the DNA polymerases (a DNA copying enzyme) of eukaryotes and bacteria are more closely related to similar enzymes found in viruses than they are to each other.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

.To overcome this uncertainty, modern bacterial classification emphasizes molecular systematics, using genetic techniques such as guanine cytosine ratio determination, genome-genome hybridization, as well as sequencing genes that have not undergone extensive lateral gene transfer, such as the rRNA gene.^ As with bacterial classification, identification of bacteria is increasingly using molecular methods.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To overcome this uncertainty, modern bacterial classification emphasizes molecular systematics , using genetic techniques such as guanine cytosine ratio determination, genome-genome hybridization, as well as sequencing genes that have not undergone extensive lateral gene transfer, such as the rRNA gene .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Method of production of hybrid or fused cells, e.g., chromosome or genome transfer techniques, etc.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

[131] .Classification of bacteria is determined by publication in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology,[132] and Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.^ Classification of bacteria is determined by publication in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, [126 ] and Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, vol.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) maintains international rules for the naming of bacteria and taxonomic categories and for the ranking of them in the International Code of Nomenc lature of Bacteria .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[133] .The International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) maintains international rules for the naming of bacteria and taxonomic categories and for the ranking of them in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.^ The naming of the species of pathogenic leptospira interrogans is therefore not in confirmity with the requirements of the International Code of Nomenclature .

.The term "bacteria" was traditionally applied to all microscopic, single-celled prokaryotes.^ The term "bacteria" was traditionally applied to all microscopic, single-celled prokaryotes.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth in stirred liquid media occurs as an even cell suspension, making the cultures easy to divide and transfer, although isolating single bacteria from liquid media is difficult.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many years ago archaebacteria were believed to be the earliest prokaryotes (cells without nucleus, i.e., the bacteria).
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

.However, molecular systematics showed prokaryotic life to consist of two separate domains, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, but now called Bacteria and Archaea that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor.^ Now replaced by Archaea and Bacteria .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three domains are Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .The archaea and eukaryotes are more closely related to each other than either is to the bacteria.^ Inhibition experiments with bacteria other than H .

^ Some support for this idea comes from sequence data showing that the DNA polymerases (a DNA copying enzyme) of eukaryotes and bacteria are more closely related to similar enzymes found in viruses than they are to each other.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria colonized the antral mucosa more frequently than the body or than the duodenal cap mucosa .

.These two domains, along with Eukarya, are the basis of the three-domain system, which is currently the most widely used classification system in microbiolology.^ These two domains, along with Eukarya, are the basis of the three-domain system , which is currently the most widely used classification system in microbiolology.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three domains are Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria : One of the three domains, along with Archaea and Eukarya .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[134] .However, due to the relatively recent introduction of molecular systematics and a rapid increase in the number of genome sequences that are available, bacterial classification remains a changing and expanding field.^ Number of repeats in bacterial genomes .
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A comparison of all available protein sequences from Thermus to those encoded in the Deinococcus genome showed several features that are unique to this clade (Table 10 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently, and unfortunately, most of the genome sequences available are those of microorganisms which are either not amenable to gene transfer or not among the most promising candidates for genetic studies.

[4][135] .For example, a few biologists argue that the Archaea and Eukaryotes evolved from Gram-positive bacteria.^ For example, a few biologists argue that the Archaea and Eukaryotes evolved from Gram-positive bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES. Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods [M0025767] Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[136]
.Identification of bacteria in the laboratory is particularly relevant in medicine, where the correct treatment is determined by the bacterial species causing an infection.^ Xanthomonas vesicatoria [M0444551] A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus XANTHOMONAS, causing disease in TOMATO and pepper crops.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Identification: The part of taxonomy that entails the determination of the species to which an unknown organism belongs.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Brucella canis [M0425350] A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Consequently, the need to identify human pathogens was a major impetus for the development of techniques to identify bacteria.^ Burkholderia gladioli [M0441791] A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The isolation of pathogenic bacteria in the operative exudate did not in general predispose to the development of infection, which did not occur when these cultures were negative .

^ The risks run by the investigator using this technique are much smaller than those to which he is exposed in the case of pathogenic bacteria .

Euryarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Crenarchaeota Protozoa Algae Plantae Slime molds Animal Fungus Gram-positive bacteria Chlamydiae Chloroflexi Actinobacteria Planctomycetes Spirochaetes Fusobacteria Cyanobacteria Thermophiles Acidobacteria Proteobacteria
.
Phylogenetic tree showing the diversity of bacteria, compared to other organisms.
^ Their complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined and, when compared to sequences available from the databases, they showed a close phylogenetic relationship to Chromohalobacter marismortui .

^ Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are often symbiotic; they live in association with other organisms.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[137] Eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue.
.The Gram stain, developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram, characterises bacteria based on the structural characteristics of their cell walls.^ These bacteria are distinct from other bacteria with respect to their characteristic RNA compositions, the absence of muramic acid in the cell walls and the predominance of nonsaponifiable {correction of nonsaponifable} lipids .

^ Stains gram-negative but cell well is gram-positive type.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sphingomonas [M0328587] A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[69] .The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink.^ The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stains gram-negative but cell well is gram-positive type.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thin sections showed a cell wall typical for Gram-positive bacteria; the peptidoglycan layer, however, was very thin .

.By combining morphology and Gram-staining, most bacteria can be classified as belonging to one of four groups (Gram-positive cocci, Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative cocci and Gram-negative bacilli).^ Stains gram-negative but cell well is gram-positive type.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By combining morphology an d Gram-staining, most bacteria can be classified as belonging to one of four groups (Gram-positive cocci, Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative cocci and Gram-negative bacilli).
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The types of bacteria found were classified into three groups: cocci-Gram positive, rod-Gram positive; and rod-Gram negative .

.Some organisms are best identified by stains other than the Gram stain, particularly mycobacteria or Nocardia, which show acid-fastness on Ziehl–Neelsen or similar stains.^ Some of the cleavable HAs of pathogenic strains were genetically more closely related to the uncleaved HAs than to other cleavable HAs .

^ No close relatives are known so far, with sequence similarity to other cultivated members of the gamma-Proteobacteria being lower than 88% .

^ Database searches with individual sequences of these proteins failed to show statistically significant similarity to any proteins other than their paralogs from Deinococcus .
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[138] .Other organisms may need to be identified by their growth in special media, or by other techniques, such as serology.^ This may also be true for other unicellular organisms such as yeast and protists.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organisms may need to be identified by their growth in special media, or by other techniques, such as serology .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds , such as nitrate , sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Culture techniques are designed to promote the growth and identify particular bacteria, while restricting the growth of the other bacteria in the sample.^ Culture techniques are designed to promote the growth and identify particular bacteria, while restricting the growth of the other bacteria in the sample.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Often these techniques are designed for specific specimens; for example, a sputum sample will be treated to identify organisms that cause pneumonia , while stool specimens are cultured on selective media to identify organisms that cause diarrhoea , while preventi ng growth of non-pathogenic bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Often these techniques are designed for specific specimens; for example, a sputum sample will be treated to identify organisms that cause pneumonia, while stool specimens are cultured on selective media to identify organisms that cause diarrhoea, while preventing growth of non-pathogenic bacteria.^ Culture media, per se, or technique .
  • Class Schedule for Class 435 CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Culture media, per se, or technique: .
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Culture techniques are designed to promote the growth and identify particular bacteria, while restricting the growth of the other bacteria in the sample.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Specimens that are normally sterile, such as blood, urine or spinal fluid, are cultured under conditions designed to grow all possible organisms.^ It has been shown that this system is necessary for cells to grow under alkaline conditions ( 95 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional in organisms growing on two-carbon compounds, such as acetate.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under strictly anaerobic culture conditions, novel halophiles were isolated .

[99][139] .Once a pathogenic organism has been isolated, it can be further characterised by its morphology, growth patterns such as (aerobic or anaerobic growth, patterns of hemolysis) and staining.^ No single aerobic or anaerobic organism could be related to abnormal semen samples .

^ In addition, the demonstration that microorganisms are sequestered in phagocytes helped to establish the pathogenic nature of such isolates and distinguish them from contaminants even when present in low numbers .

^ Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.As with bacterial classification, identification of bacteria is increasingly using molecular methods.^ As with bacterial classification, identification of bacteria is increasingly using molecular methods.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Material and Methods to the Examples Bacteria [0146] The L. lactis strain MG1363 is used throughout this study.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Diagnostics using such DNA-based tools, such as polymerase chain reaction, are increasingly popular due to their specificity and speed, compared to culture-based methods.^ Diagnostics using such DNA-based tools, such as polymerase chain reaction , are increasingly popular due to their specificity and speed, compared to culture-based methods.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DNA in ticks has been sought with polymerase chain reaction test (PCR) .

^ Biotechnology (N Y), 1991 Jan, 9(1), 74 - 9 Unknown sequence amplification: application to in vitro genome walking in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 ; Copley CG et al.; A recently described technique, 'Chemical Genetics' unknown sequence amplification method, which requires only one specific oligonucleotide, has broadened the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction to DNA of unknown sequence .

[140] .These methods also allow the detection and identification of "viable but nonculturable" cells that are metabolically active but non-dividing.^ Method of storing cells in a viable state .
  • Class Schedule for Class 435 CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Method of regulating cell metabolism or physiology .
  • Class Schedule for Class 435 CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The method allowed the detection of purified T .

[141] .However, even using these improved methods, the total number of bacterial species is not known and cannot even be estimated with any certainty.^ However, even using these improved methods, the total number of bacterial species is not known and cannot even be estimated with any certainty.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Following present classification, there are fewer than 9,000 known species of bacteria (including cyanobacteria) [136 ] , but attempts to estimate the true level of bacterial diversity have ranged from 10 7 to 10 9 total species - and even these diverse estimates may be off by many orders of magnitude.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Following present classification, there are fewer than 9,000 known species of bacteria (including cyanobacteria)[142], but attempts to estimate the true level of bacterial diversity have ranged from 107 to 109 total species - and even these diverse estimates may be off by many orders of magnitude.^ Following present classification, there are fewer than 9,000 known species of bacteria (including cyanobacteria) [136 ] , but attempts to estimate the true level of bacterial diversity have ranged from 10 7 to 10 9 total species - and even these diverse estimates may be off by many orders of magnitude.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, dipeptidase is present in many species, including P .

^ However, even using these improved methods, the total number of bacterial species is not known and cannot even be estimated with any certainty.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[143][144]

Interactions with other organisms

.Despite their apparent simplicity, bacteria can form complex associations with other organisms.^ Bacteria are often symbiotic; they live in association with other organisms.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ D. radiodurans encodes a broad spectrum of proteins that have been associated with various forms of stress response in other bacteria as well as several proteins that appear to be unique and could contribute to more specific forms of the stress response (Table 3 ).
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Given that this complex is active predominantly under low-oxygen conditions in other bacteria, its apparent loss in Deinococcus is consistent with D. radiodurans being strictly aerobic.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.These symbiotic associations can be divided into parasitism, mutualism and commensalism.^ These symbiotic associations can be divided into parasitism , mutualism and commensalism .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Small prokaryotic cells capable of cellular respiration or photosynthesis entered eukaryotic cells, either as parasites or indigestible food, and these prokaryotes evolved into mitochondria and chloroplasts as they developed a symbiotic relationship with the host cell.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These 20-kDa protein antibiotics are not excreted into the environment, but are associated with small particles apparently derived from the cell's S-layer.

.Due to their small size, commensal bacteria are ubiquitous and grow on animals and plants exactly as they will grow on any other surface.^ Due to their small size, commensal bacteria are ubiquitous and grow on animals and plants exactly as they will grow on any other surface.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth , growing in soil, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , [2 ] water, and deep in the Earth's crust , as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The range of sizes shown by pr okaryotes , relative to those of other organisms and biomolecules Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms or bacterial mats .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, their growth can be increased by warmth and sweat, and large populations of these organisms in humans are the cause of body odor.^ However, their growth can be increased by warmth and sweat , and large populations of these organisms in humans are the cause of body odor .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The mean count of nitrate-reducing microorganisms in human milk is regarded as a maximum permitted count of these organisms in milk for bottle-fed sucklings .

^ There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Predators

.Some species of bacteria kill and then consume other microorganisms, these species called predatory bacteria.^ Some species of bacteria kill and then consume other microorganisms, these species called predatory bacteria .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterivores: Species that consume bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviors called taxes : these include chemotaxis , phototaxis and magnetotaxis .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[145] .These include organisms such as Myxococcus xanthus, which forms swarms of cells that kill and digest any bacteria they encounter.^ Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus and form unicellular organisms such as bacteria.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These include organisms such as Myxococcus xanthus , which forms swarms of cells that kill and digest any bacteria they encounter.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[146] .Other bacterial predators either attach to their prey in order to digest them and absorb nutrients, such as Vampirococcus, or invade another cell and multiply inside the cytosol, such as Daptobacter.^ Other bacterial predators either attach to their prey in order to digest them and absorb nutrients, such as Vampirococcus , or invade another cell and multiply inside the cytosol, such as Daptobacter .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Or in another scenario, one compound could be taken twice daily and the other once daily, either at the same time as one of the twice-a-day dosing occurred, or separately.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The gels in the chimneys act as membranes allowing small molecules such as nutrients and wastes to pass through but keeping the macro-molecules such as proteins inside.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

[147] .These predatory bacteria are thought to have evolved from saprophages that consumed dead microorganisms, through adaptations that allowed them to entrap and kill other organisms.^ These bacteria are distinct from other bacteria with respect to their characteristic RNA compositions, the absence of muramic acid in the cell walls and the predominance of nonsaponifiable {correction of nonsaponifable} lipids .

^ Some of the proteins encoded in these prophages are distantly related to several phage proteins from other bacteria, but most ORFs have no detectable homologs.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several genetic and non-genetic factors that distinguish bacteria from humans and animals, and allow the former to be successful in using mutations for adaptation.
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

[148]

Mutualists

.Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival.^ Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This result indicates that cytochrome c553 that is closely associated with the reaction center is a tetraheme cytochrome, as described for some purple bacteria .

^ Main article: Pathogenic bacteria If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.One such mutualistic association, called interspecies hydrogen transfer, occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume organic acids such as butyric acid or propionic acid and produce hydrogen, and methanogenic Archaea that consume hydrogen.^ Propionic or butyric acid: .
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Lactic acid bacteria: Bacteria that produce lactic acid by fermentation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acids: Organic acids such as acetate and butyrate.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[149] .The bacteria in this association are unable to consume the organic acids as this reaction produces hydrogen that accumulates in their surroundings.^ Lactic acid bacteria: Bacteria that produce lactic acid by fermentation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinegar bacteria: Bacteria that produce acetic acid.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Only the intimate association with the hydrogen-consuming Archaea keeps the hydrogen concentration low enough to allow the bacteria to grow.^ In some experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere.

^ They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.In soil, microorganisms which reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation, converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds.^ Anammox reaction: A reaction in which ammonia and nitrite are converted to nitrogen gas.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ammonia production is probably carried out mainly by the low activity species, which again include P .

^ Three different surface zones corresponding to the inlet area, the middle area and the outlet area of the flow cell were analyzed, and compared with enumerations of microorganisms in the whole saliva samples .

[150] .This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants, which cannot fix nitrogen themselves.^ This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants, which cannot fix nitrogen themselves.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Root nodule: Enlarged structure on a leguminous plant root where nitrogen-fixing endosymbionts live.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fixation (metabolism): The process whereby gases in the atmosphere are fixed into non-gaseous forms, e.g., nitrogen fixation and carbon dioxide fixation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many other bacteria are found as symbionts in humans and other organisms.^ Many other bacteria are found as symbionts in humans and other organisms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the presence of over 1,000 bacterial species in the normal human gut flora of the intestines can contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin K and biotin, convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus), as well as fermenting complex undigestible carbohydrates.^ Lactic acid bacteria: Bacteria that produce lactic acid by fermentation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the presence of over 1,000 bacterial species in the normal human gut flora of the intestines can contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid , vitamin K and biotin , convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus ), as well as fermenting complex undigestible carbohydrates .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lactic acid and ethanol are examples.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[151][152][153] .The presence of this gut flora also inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (usually through competitive exclusion) and these beneficial bacteria are consequently sold as probiotic dietary supplements.^ Probiotics: Dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathogenic or potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 7 (25%) of them .

^ Probiotics [M0029610] Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[154]
Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells

Pathogens

.If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens.^ Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Host: An organism on which a parasite or pathogen can grow.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parasite: A symbiotic association where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, foodborne illness, leprosy and tuberculosis.^ These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Food infection: An infection caused by ingestion of food contaminated with disease-causing pathogens.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Typhoid fever: An infection caused by Salmonella typhi.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years after, as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease.^ A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years after, as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathogen: A disease-causing organism.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium implicated in human gastritis, share many characteristics .

.Bacterial diseases are also important in agriculture, with bacteria causing leaf spot, fire blight and wilts in plants, as well as Johne's disease, mastitis, salmonella and anthrax in farm animals.^ Bacillary dysentery: A bacterial disease caused by enteric bacteria, esp.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial diseases are also important in agricul ture , with bacteria causing leaf spot , fire blight and wilts in plants, as well as Johne's disease , mastitis , salmonella and anthrax in farm animals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth , growing in soil, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , [2 ] water, and deep in the Earth's crust , as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Each species of pathogen has a characteristic spectrum of interactions with its human hosts.^ Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some species are pathogenic in humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Burkholderia gladioli [M0441791] A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response producing shock, massive vasodilation and death.^ Sepsis has become the systemic inflammatory response due to invading microorganisms .

^ Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), "severe sepsis", and "septic shock" may occur without infection, or persist, and lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after infection has been eradicated with antibiotics and surgery .

^ Streptococcus pneumoniae [M0020574] A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[155] .Yet these organisms are also part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease at all.^ All of these organisms were sensitive to cefuroxime .

^ Pathogen: A disease-causing organism.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peptostreptococcus [M0016247] A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans, such as the Rickettsia, which are obligate intracellular parasites able to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms.^ Host: An organism on which a parasite or pathogen can grow.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans, such as the Rickettsia , which are obligate intracellular parasites able to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathogen: A disease-causing organism.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.One species of Rickettsia causes typhus, while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.^ One species of Rickettsia causes typhus , while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stickland reaction: An ATP-generating reaction employed by some clostridial species where one amino acid is oxidized and another serves as electron acceptor.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Murine typhus: Infection caused by Rickettsia typhi.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chlamydia, another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia, or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease.^ Brucellosis: A disease caused by Brucella species.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chlamydia , another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia, or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Klebsiella oxytoca [M0425629] A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA. Klebsiella pneumoniae [M0012060] Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[156] .Finally, some species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium avium are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis.^ Some species may be pathogenic.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some species are pathogenic for man.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

[157][158]
.
Overview of bacterial infections and main species involved.
^ Overview of bacterial infections and main species involved.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a fair number of cases, involving infections with viral, bacterial, and parasitic microorganisms , protection has been successfully induced .

^ Several lines of experimental data involving several bacterial species strongly support the independent-action, or "single-organism," hypothesis of the pathogenesis of colonization and infection .

[159][160]
.Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics, which are classified as bacteriocidal if they kill bacteria, or bacteriostatic if they just prevent bacterial growth.^ Bacteriostatic: Inhibits bacterial reproduction or growth but does not kill.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, noncellular factors may also limit bacterial growth.

^ Even though the study of bacterial adherence gives a new insight: to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, the question that always arises is whether infection can be prevented or treated by interfering with this first step in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases .

.There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the host.^ Ig class switching: The process through which antibody-forming cells couple the antigen-binding parts of an immunoglobulin with different Fc pieces.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In many patients we found characteristic differences in history, clinical picture and laboratory results as compared with Crohn's disease .

^ Furthermore, both types of membrane exhibited different degrees of inhibition by cyanide.

.An example of how antibiotics produce selective toxicity are chloramphenicol and puromycin, which inhibit the bacterial ribosome, but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome.^ "The bacterial ribosome as a target for antibiotics".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An example of how antibiotics produce selective toxicity are chloramphenicol and puromycin , which inhibit the bacterial ribosome , but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, vancomycin can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative pathogens , such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa < /a> .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[161] .Antibiotics are used both in treating human disease and in intensive farming to promote animal growth, where they may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.^ An tibiotics are used both in treating human disease and in intensive farming to promote animal growth, where they may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In developed countries , antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in agriculture, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[162] .Infections can be prevented by antiseptic measures such as sterilizating the skin prior to piercing it with the needle of a syringe, and by proper care of indwelling catheters.^ Prevention of colonization still must rely heavily on basic infection control measures to prevent contact between patient and pathogen.

^ Such prevention or reduction prior to affliction refers to administration of the compound or composition of the invention to a patient that is not at the time of administration afflicted with the disease or condition.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilized to prevent contamination by bacteria.^ Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilized to prevent contamination by bacteria.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of sterile water reservoirs alone did not effectively reduce levels of microbial contamination in five control dental units.

^ Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection.^ Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, vancomycin can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative pathogens , such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa < /a> .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus , typhoid fever , diphtheria , syphilis , cholera , foodborne illness , leprosy and tuberculosis .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Significance in technology and industry

.Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, in combination with yeasts and molds, have been used for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese, pickles, soy sauce, sauerkraut, vinegar, wine and yoghurt.^ Lactic acid bacteria: Bacteria that produce lactic acid by fermentation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further informa tion: Economic importance of bacteria Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Lactococcus , in combination with yeasts and molds , have been used for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese , pickles , soy sauce , sauerkraut , vinegar , wine and yoghurt .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinegar bacteria: Bacteria that produce acetic acid.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[163][164]
.The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable and has been used in waste processing and bioremediation.^ Bacteria are also used for the bioremediation of industrial toxic wastes .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable and has been used in waste processing and bioremediation .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This subclass is indented under subclass 41 .   Processes wherein the product is an organic compound which contains nitrogen.
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria capable of digesting the hydrocarbons in petroleum are often used to clean up oil spills.^ Bacteria capable of digesting the hydrocarbons in petroleum are often used to clean up oil spills .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy , but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ METHOD OF USE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CELLS OTHER THAN HYBRID OR FUSED CELLS, E.G., OIL SPILL CLEANUP, ETC.: .
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

[165] .Fertilizer was added to some of the beaches in Prince William Sound in an attempt to promote the growth of these naturally occurring bacteria after the infamous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.^ These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium , Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea .

^ Some of the proteins encoded in these prophages are distantly related to several phage proteins from other bacteria, but most ORFs have no detectable homologs.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The isolation of pathogenic bacteria in the operative exudate did not in general predispose to the development of infection, which did not occur when these cultures were negative .

.These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil.^ These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria are also used for the bioremediation of industrial toxic wastes.^ These characteristics were the impetus for sequencing the genome of D. radiodurans and the ongoing development of its use for bioremediation of radioactive wastes.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[166] .In the chemical industry, bacteria are most important in the production of enantiomerically pure chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or agrichemicals.^ In the chemical industry , bacteria are most important in the production of enantiomerically pure chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or agrichemicals .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment , the production of cheese and yoghurt through fermentation , as well as in biotechnology , and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "metabolite" refers to chemical compounds that are used in the metabolic pathways of organisms as precursors, intermediates and/or end products.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[167]
.Bacteria can also be used in the place of pesticides in the biological pest control.^ It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When non- pathogenic bacteria showing a high degree of biological containment are used, the hazard of spreading in the environment is small .

^ A control solution was monitored for viability of the bacteria throughout the course of the study, and positive endotoxin controls were used to confirm the sensitivity of the LAL .

.This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT), a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium.^ This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT), a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES. Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods [M0025767] Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nocardiaceae [M0014936] A family of gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes found in soil and animal tissue.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.Subspecies of this bacteria are used as a Lepidopteran-specific insecticides under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide.^ Subspecies of this bacteria are used as a Lepidopteran -specific insecticides under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bioengineer bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as insulin , growth factors , or antibodies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostics using such DNA-based tools, such as polymerase chain reaction , are increasingly popular due to their specificity and speed, compared to culture-based methods.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[168] .Because of their specificity, these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly, with little or no effect on humans, wildlife, pollinators and most other beneficial insects.^ Because of their specificity, these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly , with little or no effect on humans, wildlife , pollinators and most other beneficial insects .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The mean count of nitrate-reducing microorganisms in human milk is regarded as a maximum permitted count of these organisms in milk for bottle-fed sucklings .

^ Because all of the biologic actions of the complement system require complement activation, such newer activation-specific assays permit the precise evaluation of the status of this system in human diseases .

[169][170]
.Because of their ability to quickly grow and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria are the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry.^ Molecular genetics of bacteria .
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of their ability to quickly grow and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria are the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology , genetics and biochemistry .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. Gluconacetobacter [M0439472] A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.By making mutations in bacterial DNA and examining the resulting phenotypes, scientists can determine the function of genes, enzymes and metabolic pathways in bacteria, then apply this knowledge to more complex organisms.^ In addition to the corresponding functional enzymes, Deinococcus encodes truncated and apparently inactive forms of Glu-RS and Ala-RS, as well as apparently active paralogs of Trp-RS and His-RS. Possible horizontal transfer of these additional enzymes as well as other aminoacyl-RSs from archaea and thermophilic bacteria could be readily examined once more of these organisms are sequenced.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mutator phenotype would be similar to the hypermutable state in E. coli wherein mutations are made but not repaired because of a faulty DNA repair system (discussed previously).
  • A Creationist Perspective of Beneficial Mutations in Bacteria - Answers in Genesis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "metabolite" refers to chemical compounds that are used in the metabolic pathways of organisms as precursors, intermediates and/or end products.
  • MICROORGANISM AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF L-METHIONINE - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[171] .This aim of understanding the biochemistry of a cell reaches its most complex expression in the synthesis of huge amounts of enzyme kinetic and gene expression data into mathematical models of entire organisms.^ These data are consistent with a kinetic model in which the enzyme is irreversibly converted from an initial form to a final stable form during the first seconds of the encapsulation process .

^ Insertion sequence: A small transposon that caries the genes for enzymes needed for its integration into a new site in a chromosome or a plasmid.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Morphological, palaeontological and molecular data are integrated into a unified picture of large-scale bacterial cell evolution despite occasional lateral gene transfers .

.This is achievable in some well-studied bacteria, with models of Escherichia coli metabolism now being produced and tested.^ DNA-producing elements of Escherichia coli .

^ This is achievable in some well-studied bacteria, with models of Escherichia coli metabolism now being produced and tested.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the tested strains carried two R-plasmids in one cell, being in hetero R-state.

[172][173] .This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bioengineer bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as insulin, growth factors, or antibodies.^ This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bioengineer bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as insulin , growth factors , or antibodies .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biotechnology: Use of living organisms to generate useful industrial products.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

[174][175]

See also

Notes

α. ^  The word bacteria derives from the Greek βακτήριον, baktērion, meaning "small staff".

References

  1. ^ "Bacteria (eubacteria)". Taxonomy Browser. NCBI. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=2&lvl=3&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  2. ^ Fredrickson JK, Zachara JM, Balkwill DL, et al. (July 2004). "Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the Hanford site, Washington state". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70 (7): 4230–41. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.7.4230-4241.2004. PMID 15240306. 
  3. ^ a b Whitman WB, Coleman DC, Wiebe WJ (June 1998). "Prokaryotes: the unseen majority". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (12): 6578–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.12.6578. PMID 9618454. 
  4. ^ a b Rappé MS, Giovannoni SJ (2003). "The uncultured microbial majority". Annual Review of Microbiology 57: 369–94. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090759. PMID 14527284. 
  5. ^ Sears CL (October 2005). "A dynamic partnership: celebrating our gut flora". Anaerobe 11 (5): 247–51. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2005.05.001. PMID 16701579. 
  6. ^ "2002 WHO mortality data". http://www.who.int/healthinfo/bodgbd2002revised/en/index.html. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  7. ^ Ishige T, Honda K, Shimizu S (April 2005). "Whole organism biocatalysis". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 9 (2): 174–80. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.02.001. PMID 15811802. 
  8. ^ a b Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML (June 1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMID 2112744. 
  9. ^ Porter JR (June 1976). "Antony van Leeuwenhoek: tercentenary of his discovery of bacteria". Bacteriological Reviews 40 (2): 260–9. PMID 786250.& PMC 413956. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=786250. 
  10. ^ van Leeuwenhoek A (1684). "An abstract of a letter from Mr. Anthony Leevvenhoek at Delft, dated Sep. 17, 1683, Containing Some Microscopical Observations, about Animals in the Scurf of the Teeth, the Substance Call'd Worms in the Nose, the Cuticula Consisting of Scales". Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 14: 568–574. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/content/120136/?k=Sep.+17%2c+1683. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  11. ^ van Leeuwenhoek A (1700). "Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, concerning the Worms in Sheeps Livers, Gnats, and Animalcula in the Excrements of Frogs". Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 22: 509–518. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/link.asp?id=4j53731651310230. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  12. ^ van Leeuwenhoek A (1702). "Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, F. R. S. concerning Green Weeds Growing in Water, and Some Animalcula Found about Them". Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775) 23: 1304–11. doi:10.1098/rstl.1702.0042. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/link.asp?id=fl73121jk4150280. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  13. ^ "Etymology of the word "bacteria"". Online Etymology dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bacteria. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
  14. ^ "Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory". LSU Law Center's Medical and Public Health Law Site, Historic Public Health Articles. http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cphl/history/articles/pasteur.htm#paperII. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1905/. Retrieved 2006-11-22. 
  16. ^ O'Brien S, Goedert J (1996). "HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled". Curr Opin Immunol 8 (5): 613–618. doi:10.1016/S0952-7915(96)80075-6. PMID 8902385. 
  17. ^ Thurston A (2000). "Of blood, inflammation and gunshot wounds: the history of the control of sepsis". Aust N Z J Surg 70 (12): 855–61. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1622.2000.01983.x. PMID 11167573. 
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Further reading

  • Alcamo IE (2001). Fundamentals of microbiology. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN 0-7637-1067-9. 
  • Atlas RM (1995). Principles of microbiology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-8016-7790-4. 
  • Martinko JM, Madigan MT (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  • Holt JC, Bergey DH (1994). .Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology (9th ed.^ (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed) Edwardsiella ictaluri [M0328438] A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its nonmotility.
    • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, vol.
    • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed) Klebsiella [M0012058] A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains.
    • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

    ). .Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.^ The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md.
    • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-683-00603-7.
     
  • Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR (15 September 1998). ."Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity".^ SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Although most culture collection strains are not able to produce hydrolases, it has been shown that environmental isolates can produce these potentially biotechnological important enzymes.

    J Bacteriol 180 (18): 4765–74. PMID 9733676.& PMC 107498. .http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/180/18/4765?view=full&pmid=9733676. 
  • Funke BR, Tortora GJ, Case CL (2004).^ For an alternate route to Journals.ASM.org, visit: http://intl-journals.asm.org .
    • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

    Microbiology: an introduction (8th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-7614-3. 
  • Shively, Jessup M. (2006). .Complex Intracellular Structures in Prokaryotes (Microbiology Monographs).^ As they are prokaryotes , bacteria do not tend to have membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm and thus contain few large intracellular structures.
    • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Prokaryotes lack many of the structures found in the more complex, eukaryotic cells.
    • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

    Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-32524-7.
     
  • Witzany G, (2008). "Bio-Communication of Bacteria and their Evolutionary Roots in Natural Genome Editing Competences of Viruses". Open Evol J 2: 44–54. doi:10.2174/1874404400802010044. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also bacteria

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Proper noun

Bacteria
  1. In the three-domain system, a taxonomic domain comprising the single kingdom also called Bacteria containing about 25 phyla.
  2. In the two-empire system, a taxonomic kingdom, within domain Prokaryota - single cell organisms (the bacteria); once divided into the Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
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Wikispecies has information on:
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Wikipedia has an article on:

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Citrobacter freundii

Taxonavigation

[See also Clade Neomura]

References

.
  • Becerra, A.; Delaye, L.; Islas, S.; Lazcano, A. 2007: The very early stages of biological evolution and the nature of the last common ancestor of the three major cell domains.^ All strains could form long spiral filamentous cells up to 70-110 microm during the early stage of growth .

    ^ LCA (Last Common Ancestor) started out by utilizing the energy stored in the oxygen when it is combined with hydrogen to form water.
    • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This number may not be enough to maintain a cell-based life form in a hypothetical "last universal common ancestor" (LUCA) as depicted in Figure 10-02b .
    • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .Annual review of ecology, evolution, and systematics, 38: 361-379.
  • C. Woese, O. Kandler, M. Wheelis: Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.^ The three domains are Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya .
    • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya ".
    • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A major step forward in the study of bacteria was the recognition in 1977 by Carl Woese that archaea have a separate line of evolutionary descent from bacteria.
    • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]

    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(12): 4576-9 (1990). .PMID 2112744
  • Betsey Dexter Dyer A Field Guide to Bacteria (Comstock Book) 2003: Cornell University Press.^ Writing in the journal International Microbiology, Mercedes Berlanga of the University of Barcelona, Spain, describes a new book on Acinetobacter published by Caister Academic Press as a "useful book ...

    ^ Bacteria Discovered in 4,000 Feet of Rock Fuels Mars Comparison , by Mark Floyd, Oregon State University, 29 Dec 2003.
    • Bacteria: The Space Colonists. by Brig Klyce 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bibliography See P. Singleton, Introduction to Bacteria (1992); W. Biddle, A Field Guide to Germs (1995).
    • bacteria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .355 pp.
  • Steel K.J. & S.T. Cowan 2004: Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria.^ A definitive identification scheme for bacteria was first presented in 1984 in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology .
    • bacteria :: Classification of bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, 2nd Ed.
    • MICROORGANISM AND DEODORANT CONTAINING CELLS THEREOF - Patent EP0732396 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    Cambridge University Press.

links

.

Vernacular names

Alemannisch: Bakterie
العربية: بكتيريا
Asturianu: Bacteria
Bahasa Indonesia: Bakteri
Bosanski: Bakterije
Brezhoneg: Bakteri
Български: Бактерии
Català: Bacteris
Česky: Bakterie
Српски / Srpski: Бактерије
Dansk: Bakterie
Deutsch: Bakterien
Eesti: Bakterid
Ελληνικά: Bακτήρια
English: Bacterium, Eubacterium
Español: Bacteria
Esperanto: Bakterioj
فارسی: باکتری
Français: Bactéries
Galego: Bacteria
한국어: 세균
Հայերեն: Բակտերիա
Hrvatski: Bakterije
Interlingua: Bacterios
Italiano: Batteri
עברית: חיידקים אמיתיים
Latviešu: Baktērijas
Lietuvių: Bakterijos
Magyar: Baktérium
Македонски: Бактерии
Nederlands: Bacteriën
日本語: 真正細菌
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Bakterier
Occitan: Bacterias
Polski: Bakterie
Português: Bactéria
Română: Bacterii
Runa Simi: Añaki
Русский: Бактерии
Slovenčina: Baktérie
Slovenščina: Bakterije
Suomi: Bakteerit
Svenska: Bakterier
Tagalog: Bakterya
ไทย: แบคทีเรีย
Türkçe: Bakteri
Українська: Бактерії
ייִדיש: באַקטעריעס
中文: 细菌
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Bacteria on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Bacteria
Fossil range: Archean or earlier - Recent
File:EscherichiaColi
Escherichia coli image is 8 micrometres wide.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phyla

Actinobacteria (high-G+C)
Firmicutes (low-G+C)
Tenericutes (no wall)
Aquificae
Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia
Deinococcus-Thermus
Fusobacteria
Gemmatimonadetes
Nitrospirae
Proteobacteria
Spirochaetes
Synergistetes

  • unknown/ungrouped

Acidobacteria
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Dictyoglomi
Fibrobacteres
Planctomycetes
Thermodesulfobacteria
Thermotogae

Bacteria (one of them is a bacterium) are very small organisms (living things). Almost all bacteria are so tiny they can only be seen through a microscope. Bacteria are made up of one cell, so they are a kind of unicellular organism. They are among the simplest single-celled organisms on Earth. They have been living for billions of years. They include a number of extremophiles who live in extreme habitats.

There are more individual bacteria than any other sort of organism on the planet. Most bacteria live in the ground or in water, but many live inside or on the skin of other organisms, including humans. There are about ten times as many bacterial cells as human cells in each of our bodies. Some bacteria can cause diseases, but others help us in everyday activities like digesting food. Some even work for us in factories, producing cheese and yogurt.

A bacterium reproduces (creates more bacteria) by dividing in half and creating two "daughter" cells. Each daughter is identical in shape to the parent, but smaller.

They vary widely in size and shape, but in general are at least ten times larger than viruses. A typical bacterium is about 1 µm (one micrometer) in diameter, so a thousand bacteria lined up would be one millimeter long. There are about five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth.[1]

Bacteria are identified and grouped by their shapes. The bacilli are rod-shaped, the cocci are ball-shaped and the spirilla are spiral-shaped.

Pathogenic bacteria, the harmful kind, enter the human body from the air, water or food. Once inside, these bacteria attach themselves to or invade specific cells in our respiratory system, digestive tract or any open wound. There they begin to reproduce and spread while using the human body as a source of their own nutrients and energy.

Other pages

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

References

  1. Whitman W, Coleman D, Wiebe W (1998). "Prokaryotes: the unseen majority". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95 (12): 6578–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.12.6578. PMID 9618454. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/95/12/6578. 

rue:Бактерії


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bacteria, which are similar to those in the above article.