Baden-Württemberg: Wikis


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—  State of Germany  —


Coat of arms
Coordinates: 48°32′16″N 9°2′28″E / 48.53778°N 9.04111°E / 48.53778; 9.04111
Country Germany
Capital Stuttgart
 - Minister-President Stefan Mappus (CDU)
 - Governing parties CDU / FDP
 - Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69)
 - Total 35,751.65 km2 (13,803.8 sq mi)
Population (2007-10-31)[1]
 - Total 10,755,000
 Density 300.8/km2 (779.1/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code DE-BW
GDP/ Nominal € 331 billion (2005)[citation needed]
NUTS Region DE1
A campaign sticker, translated, "We can do anything except [speak] standard German." This is an allusion to the fact that Baden-Württemberg is one of the principal centres for innovation in Germany and has many inhabitants with distinctive dialects.

Baden-Württemberg (Alemannic German: Baade-Wiirdebäärg; German pronunciation: [ˈbaːdən ˈvʏɐ̯təmˌbɛɐ̯k]) is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, bordering Alsace (France) to the west, Switzerland to the south, Bavaria to the east and northeast, Hessen to the north, and Rhineland Palatinate to the northwest. Most of the states' major cities straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs centrally through the state (downstream (from southwest to the centre, then northwest) first Tübingen, then Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Heidelberg, and Mannheim). It is third largest in both area and population among the country's sixteen states, with an area of 35,742 square kilometers (13,800.1 sq mi) and 10.7 million inhabitants (both almost equivalent to all of Belgium). The state capital is Stuttgart.



The area used to be covered by the historical states of Baden, the Prussian Hohenzollern and Württemberg, part of the region of Swabia.[2]

Württemberg was occupied by the Romans in the 1st century A.D. who defended their position there by constructing a (limes) rampart. Early on in the 3rd century the Alemanni drove the Romans beyond the Rhine and the Danube, but in their turn they succumbed to the Franks under Clovis, the decisive battle taking place in 496. It later become part of the Holy Roman Empire.

After World War II Allied forces established three federal states: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, South Baden (both occupied by France), and Württemberg-Baden (US-occupied). In 1949 these three states became founding members of the Federal Republic of Germany. Article 118 of the new German constitution however had already prepared a procedure for those states to merge. After a plebiscite held on 9 December 1951 in four different regions, of which three approved the merger (South Baden refused, but was overruled as the result of total votes was decisive), the three states merged on 25 April 1952 into Baden-Württemberg.

In 1956 the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled that the plebiscite was unlawful because it had disadvantaged Baden's population. The plebiscite was then held again within the area of former Baden in 1970 resulting in a majority of more than 81% for the new state.


The Rhine (German: Rhein) forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border. The Black Forest (Schwarzwald), the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Rhine valley. The high plateau Swabian Alb between Neckar, Black Forest and Danube is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance (Bodensee; the border with Switzerland is the middle of the lake) with Switzerland, the foothills of the Alps (known as the Allgäu) with Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria (Vorarlberg forms part of the southeastern bank of Lake Constance, but doesn't border Baden-Württemberg over land).

The Danube (Donau) river has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest.



Baden-Württemberg is divided into 35 districts (Landkreise) and 9 independent cities (Stadtkreise), both grouped into the four Administrative Districts (Regierungsbezirke) of Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, and Tübingen.

Cities and Districts in Baden-Wuerttemberg.svg

  1. Alb-Donau
  2. Biberach
  3. Bodensee
  4. Böblingen
  5. Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
  6. Calw
  7. Konstanz (Constance)
  8. Emmendingen
  9. Enz
  10. Esslingen
  11. Freudenstadt
  12. Göppingen
  1. Heidenheim
  2. Heilbronn
  3. Hohenlohe
  4. Karlsruhe
  5. Lörrach
  6. Ludwigsburg
  7. Main-Tauber
  8. Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis
  9. Ortenaukreis
  10. Ostalbkreis
  11. Rastatt
  12. Ravensburg
  1. Rems-Murr-Kreis
  2. Reutlingen
  3. Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
  4. Rottweil
  5. Schwäbisch Hall
  6. Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis
  7. Sigmaringen
  8. Tübingen
  9. Tuttlingen
  10. Waldshut
  11. Zollernalbkreis

Furthermore there are nine independent cities, which do not belong to any district:

A. Baden-Baden
B. Freiburg
C. Heidelberg
D. Heilbronn
E. Karlsruhe
F. Mannheim
G. Pforzheim
H. Stuttgart
I. Ulm


Baden-Württemberg is among the most prosperous states in Germany[2] and is one of the wealthiest regions in Europe with a traditionally low unemployment rate. A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Porsche, Robert Bosch GmbH (automobile industry), Carl Zeiss AG (optics), and SAP AG (largest software enterprise in Europe). In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources (formerly lead, zinc, iron, silver, copper and salts) and still rural in many areas, the region is heavily industrialized. In 2003, there were almost 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500. The latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy.[3] Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 exceeded 240,000 million, 43% of which came from exports. The region depends to some extent on global economic developments, though the great adaptability of the region's economy has generally helped it through crises. Half of the employees in the manufacturing industry are in mechanical and electrical engineering and automobile construction. This is also where the largest enterprises are to be found. The importance of the precision mechanics industry also extends beyond the region's borders, as does that of the optical, clock making, toy, metallurgy and electronics industries. The textile industry, which formerly dominated much of the region, has now all but disappeared from Baden-Württemberg. Research and development (R&D) is funded jointly by the State and industry. In 2001, more than a fifth of the 100,000 or so persons working in R&D in Germany were located in Baden-Württemberg, most of them in the Stuttgart area.[4] Baden-Württemberg is also one of the Four Motors of Europe.

A study performed in 2007 by the pr campaign "Initiative for New Social Market Economy" (German: Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM)) and the trade newspaper "Wirtschaftswoche" awarded Baden-Württemberg for being the "economically most successful and most dynamic state" among the 16 states.


Baden-Württemberg is a popular holiday destination rivalled in Germany only by Bavaria in its natural landscapes and variety of culinary and cultural offering and its possibilities for outdoor activities.[2] Main sights include the capital and biggest city, Stuttgart, modern and historic at the same time, with its urban architecture and atmosphere (and famously, its inner city parks and historic Wilhelma zoo), its castles (such as Castle Solitude), its (car and art) museums as well as a rich cultural programme (theatre, opera) and mineral spring baths in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt (also the site of a Roman Castra), the residential (court) towns of Ludwigsburg and Karlsruhe, the spas and casino of luxurious Baden-Baden, the medieval architecture of Ulm (Ulm Cathedral is the tallest church in the world), the vibrant, young, but traditional university towns of Heidelberg and Tübingen with their old castles looking out above the river Neckar, sites of former monasteries such as the ones on Reichenau Island and at Maulbronn (both World Heritage Sites) as well as Bebenhausen Abbey, the lush Upper Neckar valley (where Rottweil is famous for its carnival (Fastnacht)) and the pristine Danube valley, rich old Free Imperial Cities such as Biberach, Esslingen am Neckar, Heilbronn, Ravensburg, Reutlingen and Schwäbisch Hall, and the southernmost and sunniest city of Germany, Freiburg, close to Alsace and Switzerland, being an ideal base for exploring the heights of the nearby Black Forest (e.g. for skiing in winter or for hiking in summer) with its traditional villages and the surrounding wine country of the Rhine Valley of South Baden.[2] The countryside of the Swabian Alb (with Hohenzollern Castle), the largely pristine Swabian Forest, the Rhine Valley and Lake Constance (German: Bodensee), where all kinds of water sports are popular, with the former Imperial, today border town of Konstanz (where the Council of Constance took place), the Neolithic and Bronze Age village at Unteruhldingen, the flower island of Mainau, and the hometown of the Zeppelin, Friedrichshafen a.o., are especially popular for outdoor activities in the summer months.[2]

In spring and autumn (April/May and September/October), beer festivals (fun fairs) are taking place at the Cannstatter Wasen in Stuttgart; the one in the autumn, the Cannstatter Volksfest, is the second biggest such festival in the world after the Munich Oktoberfest. In late November/early December, Christmas markets are a tourist magnet in all major towns, with the biggest one in Stuttgart, lasting for the three weeks prior to Christmas.


Baden-Württemberg is home to some of the oldest, most renowned and prestigious universities in Germany, such as the universities of Heidelberg, Freiburg and Tübingen. It also contains four of the nine German 'excellence universities' (Heidelberg, Freiburg, Karlsruhe, and Konstanz).

Other university towns are Mannheim and Ulm. Furthermore, two universities are located in the state capital Stuttgart, the University of Hohenheim and the University of Stuttgart. Ludwigsburg is home to the renowned national film school Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg (Film Academy Baden-Wuerttemberg). The private International University in Germany is situated in Bruchsal. There is another private university, located in Friedrichshafen, Zeppelin University.

Furthermore, there are more than a dozen Fachhochschulen, i.e. universities of applied sciences, as well as Pädagogische Hochschulen, i.e. teacher training colleges, and other institutions of tertiary education in Baden-Württemberg (a.o. in Aalen, Esslingen, Ludwigsburg, Nürtingen, Pforzheim, Ravensburg-Weingarten, Reutlingen, several in Stuttgart, Schwäbisch Hall).

The state has the highest density of academic institutions of any territorial state (i.e. excluding Berlin and Hamburg) in Germany.


Two dialect groups of German are spoken in Baden-Württemberg in various variants: Alemannic and Franconian dialects. In southern and central Württemberg, the Alemannic dialect of Swabian is spoken (slightly differing even within the area, e.g. between Upper Swabian, the Alb Swabian and the central Neckar Valley variant of the Stuttgart region). In South Baden, the local dialects are Low Alemannic and High Alemannic (i.e. variants of what is also Swiss German). In the northern part of Baden, i.e. the former Kurpfalz (Electoral Palatinate) with the capital Heidelberg, the idiom is Rhine Franconian (Kurpfälzisch, i.e. Palatinate German), while in the Northeast (around Schwäbisch Hall) East Franconian is spoken.

The same or similar Alemannic dialects are also spoken in the neighbouring regions of Bavarian Swabia, Alsace (Alsatian), German-speaking Switzerland (Swiss German), Liechtenstein, Vorarlberg, small parts of Tyrol and the Piemont and Aosta Valley (Walliser German), while other Franconian dialects are spoken in the Palatinate, parts of Hessen and the Rhineland and in Franconia.

see also Alemannic separatism


The population of Baden-Württemberg is 10,749,755 (2008), of which 5,466,966 is female and 5,282,789 is male, total population up 0.10 per cent over a year earlier. This was due to more births than deaths. In 2006, the birth rate was 8.61 per 1000, lower than that of 8.80 per 1000 in 2005. The death rate decreased from 8.80 per 1000 in 2005 to 8.60 per 1000 in 2006. In 2008, Nearly 14.87 percent of the population under the age of 15, fell from 15.13 per cent over a previous year. The proportion of people aged 65 and over rose from 18.72 per cent to 18.99 per cent. Correspondingly, the median age (aged 15–64) of the population fell from 66.15 to 66.14 over the same period. The ratio of people aged under 15 and aged 65 and over to the population of working age (aged 15–64), the overall dependency ratio is 512 per 1000 in 2008. The Sex ratio of total population is 0.966 male(s)/female.[citation needed]


While Northern and most of central Württemberg has been traditionally Lutheran-Protestant (later also Pietist) since the Reformation that was adopted there in 1534 (with its centre at the famous and notorious Tübinger Stift) and the former Electoral Palatinate (Northwestern Baden) with its capital Heidelberg was shaped by Calvinism before being integrated into Baden, Upper Swabia, the Upper Neckar Valley up to the bishop seat of Rottenburg and Southern Baden (the Catholic archbishopric has its see in Freiburg) have traditionally been bastions of Catholicism.

Religion  %
Roman Catholics 36.9%[5] 4.0M
Evangelical Church in Germany 33.3%[6] 3.6M
Muslims 5.6% 600 000
Buddhists 0.23% 25 000
Hindu 0.14% 15 000
Jews 0.08% 9 000
Non Religious 22.3% 2.4M

Religious Freedom Controversy

Baden-Württemberg was the first of Germany's 16 states to outlaw the wearing of headscarves by Muslim teachers at state schools after a similar ban in France in 2004. Several resultant cases received international attention.

In one prominent example, one of the women affected, Doris Graber, had been teaching since 1973 but began wearing a headscarf in 1995. On March 18, 2008, a German court ruled that she could not wear a headscarf despite her argument that she should be permitted to do so under equal treatment laws since nuns were allowed to teach in a public school at that time while wearing religious habits.[7] The state attorney spoke of a "historic exception" in the aforementioned public school where the nuns still teach in habit.[7] The school, a former monastery, was taken over by the state and authorities are bound to a contract governing the "exceptions status" of the school.[7]


The politics of Baden-Württemberg are dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU), who have led all but one governments since the establishment of the state in 1952. The CDU currently have a minority of one in the state assembly, and rule in coalition with the liberal Free Democratic Party. The opposition is led by the leftist Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Alliance '90/The Greens party. Until 2001 the anti-immigration The Republicans party also had seats in the state assembly.

Minister-presidents of Baden-Württemberg since 1952

Minister-presidents of Baden-Württemberg
Nr. Name Born-Died Party affiliation Begin of Tenure End of Tenure
1 Reinhold Maier 1889–1971 DVP 1952 1953
2 Gebhard Müller 1900–1990 CDU 1953 1958
3 Kurt Georg Kiesinger 1904–1988 CDU 1958 1966
4 Hans Filbinger 1913–2007 CDU 1966 1978
5 Lothar Späth *1937 CDU 1978 1991
6 Erwin Teufel *1939 CDU 1991 2005
7 Günther Oettinger *1953 CDU 2005 2010
8 Stefan Mappus *1966 CDU 2010 incumbent

See also



  • Philip Cooke, Kevin Morgan (1998). The Associational Economy: Firms, Regions, and Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780198296591. 

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Germany : Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Württemberg [1] is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Home to the world famous Black Forest and the celebrated romantic city of Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg is a top tourist destination within Germany and Central Europe. Located in southern Germany, it is part of the southern German speaking world where dialect and tradition remain strong. Thus it shares many traditions with its neighbors in Alsace in France to the west and in Switzerland and Vorarlberg (Austria) to the south. It is also much more rural and bucolic than central and northern Germany making it a popular destination for visiting natural spas with supposed curative properties or going on long hikes in its many old forests.

Alternative spellings of the name of this state are Baden-Wuerttemberg and Baden-Wurttemberg.


Baden-Württemberg consists of two parts, Baden and Württemberg. The former is subdivided into the Regierungsbezirk Freiburg and the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe, while the latter consists of the Regierungsbezirks Tübingen and Stuttgart.


Among the West-German states, Baden-Württemberg is one of the youngest, having been founded in 1952 through a unification of administrative areas that, until the end of WW I in 1918, had been mostly covered by the kingdom of Württemberg, the grand-duchy of Baden and the kingdom of Hohenzollern. The consequence of this - and that's the important bit a traveller should know - is that there are now two tribes living together in the state: Badener in the west and Schwaben in the east. Both speak different dialects (see below) and share a love-hate relationship towards each other that's nurtured with a lot of humour. For what unites both tribes and the rest of the people living here is a pride for "their" Baden-Württemberg and what they have made of it since its creation, that's surprising for Germans from up north. Since 1999, the state has been advertising itself all over Germany with the slogan "We can do everything, except for speaking Standard German." (Wir können alles, außer Hochdeutsch), a tongue-in-cheek play on the infamous dialects (see below).

And indeed, Baden-Württemberg is doing quite well in terms of economics compared to other places in Germany. It boasts the lowest unemployment rate of the Federation, some of the best universities in Germany, a GDP per capita that rivals Switzerland and is the only German state that still has a higher birth than death rate. The European Statistics Office (Eurostat) has called Baden-Württemberg the "high-tech central of Europe". And, famously, the percentage of people owning their own home is by far the highest in Germany.

The main reason for all those superlatives lies deeply in the history of the land: Although nowadays there are about as many protestants as catholics living in Baden-Württemberg (and a third group of comparable size without religous faith), during the reformation South-West Germany was strongly influenced by the schools of Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, which left behind a society with moral values circling around hard work, self-control and the general motto "God helps those who help themselves".

Hence the country that was once dirt poor, having to struggle with hard winters and frequent famines, today is plastered with high technology companies. The most important sectors are mechanical engineering (most famously Robert Bosch Inc.), Chemistry, Biotechnology and, above all, Automobiles (which were, in fact, invented here, as everyone will be happy to point out). Daimler and Porsche were founded and still have their headquarters around Stuttgart; Audi, Volkswagen and others have large plants in the state. If one counts in the small and medium-sized suppliers, every other employee in Baden-Württemberg is working for the car industry, directly or indirectly. As Max Weber, a philosopher at Heidelberg University said, around here, it's "Capitalism as it was meant to be".


While every region in Germany has its own dialect to the formal language (Hochdeutsch) Baden-Württemberg (together with Bavaria and maybe Saxony) is among those regions where the difference between formal German and the local dialect are strongest, even to the point of being incomprehensible for native German speakers from further north.

The two most prominent dialects spoken in the state are Badisch and Schwäbisch, but there are numerous others (among them Alemannisch, spoken by the tribe that earned the Germans their name in French, living around Lake Konstanz, Kurpfälzisch, spoken in the region surrounding Mannheim and Heidelberg and Fränkisch in the north east). Needless to say, the differences between those languages, albeit fundamental issues of local pride for the natives, are very difficult to hear for the outsider.

In stark contrast to other areas of Germany (where dialect is considered to be the language of peasants), people in Baden-Württemberg, especially around Stuttgart but even in the regions parliament, tend to be surprisingly proud of their dialect and might even be reluctant to speak formal German with foreigners (which is no problem for the English speaking visitor, of course. As everywhere in Germany, even in remote villages you will always find someone around who is able to speak at least broken English). A Linguist might point out that Schwäbisch and Badisch are in fact enhanced versions of German (the term Hochdeutsch actually means "Southern German". It was spread over Germany in a period of the south's hegemony and the actual south German dialects moved on from there). But a more realistic explanation for the reluctancy of many southerners to speak Hochdeutsch might be that many of them just don't know how to do so properly. In the truly German fashion of employing off-beat humor, the state's regional tourist website has gone as far as proclaiming Baden-Württembergers, with their high-tech image, "the federal-state that can do anything, outside of speaking standard German (Hochdeutsch)"!

Get in

By Air

Stuttgart has an international airport which is served by all major carriers. Frankfurt international (FRA), the busiest airport in mainland Europe is, although not in Baden Württemberg, well within reach by train (1 hour from FRA to Stuttgart main station via high speed ICE connection). Low-fares airlines offer services to the local airports of Karlsruhe-Baden Baden and Friedrichshafen.

Travellers beware: "Frankfurt Hahn", the big hub for low-fares airlines should not to be confused with FRA. In stark contrast, it has no train station and lies rather remote. It is still possible to get from Hahn into Baden-Württemberg rather conveniently, but it sure takes a lot longer and more hazzles than from FRA.

By train

All major cities are well connected through the Deutsche Bahn rail system. Ulm, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Stuttgart and Freiburg even have ICE connections (slick, comfortable, white high speed trains travelling at up to 190 mph (300km/h)). Tickets can be booked via the Deutsche Bahn Website [2]

Baden-Württemberg (as well as some other regions in Germany) offers a special regional train ticket (in this case, the Baden-Württemberg ticket). It is valid for one day from 9am. With this ticket up to five people can use all regional trains within Baden-Württemberg for 30 Euro alltogether (18 EURO for a single ticket). That means you can use all trains except InterCity(IC), InterCityExpress(ICE), EuroCity(EC) and some special trains. As it is valid for up to five people you can ask others, if they want to get to the same direction and share their ticket.

Get around

Baden-Württemberg has an excellent rail network, serving even quite remote areas. Especially rural villages are served by busses which generally leave from main train stations in larger towns and cities.

Of course you can always use your car. If you are travelling in the Black Forest or the Swabian Alb during winter, bring snow chains as some smaller roads may not be plowed frequently enough. When travelling on the Autobahn, the same precautions as everywhere on German high speed roads apply: If you're not willing (and prepared) to drive consistently above 80 mph (130 km/h), stay on the right. Make room for people trying to overtake, use your common sense, don't drive faster than you can think.


For those interested in "high culture":

  • The green capital Stuttgart with its world-class opera house (the Staatstheater), city castle and famous gallery of modern art.
  • Mannheim, the "Squared City" boasts one of Germany's most important theatres (the Nationaltheater).
  • The romantic student city Heidelberg with its famed castle, Germany's oldest University and scenic setting at the opening of the Neckar valley into the Rhine valley is an absolute must.
  • In the southeast, the calvinistic protestant citizens of Ulm built the world's tallest church.

For those fond of nature:

  • The Black Forest to the east of the Rhine Valley has been declared national heritage and will gradually return into a wild state over the next century.
  • The Schwäbische Alb in the south is a rough landscape with limestone geology, featuring huge caves, deep blue lakes (e.g. the Blautopf) and long walking trails.
  • [[Bodensee|Lake Constance] (Bodensee) at the border to Switzerland and Austria is Germany's largest lake, source of drinking water for millions and a haven for hikers, cyclists and sailors. Around its banks, you can discover Stone Age settlements, the "Flower Island" Mainau and the medieval peninsula of Lindau where the living Nobel Laureates of the world meet once a year.

For those interested in touring castles

  • Like much of Germany, Baden-Württemberg is sprinkled with beautiful castles. From the ancient home of the Hohenzollerns to the homes of the Wüttemberg Dukes and Kings.

For those interested in tourist routes

The official tourism homepage is at Click on the "English" link at the top.

  • The "national dish" of Württemberg is Spätzle, a freshly prepared pasta made from eggs, flour, salt and water (and nothing else). It is typically served topped with cheese (Kässpätzle) or lentills and Wiener Sausage (Spätzle mit Linsen und Saitenwürschdle, as the sausages are of course not called "Wiener" around here).
  • Another speciality, mostly eaten as a side-dish, is potato salad (Kartoffelsalat) which, in contrast to the northern German variety is prepared with broth instead of mayonaise, creating in effect a completely different dish.


Baden-Württemberg contains some of Germany's most significant wine-growing regions. Much of the wine economy is in the hands of local co-operatives and the locals enjoy the wine in old-fashioned wine cellars. The best wine grows in an area called the Kaiserstuhl in Baden.

Fruit brandies, e.g. Obstler (distilled from apples and pears) and Zwetschgenwasser (plums) are just two of the most common spirits. The queen of Schnaps is without any doubt the Kirschwasser (also sometimes referred to as Kirschwaesserle) made out of cherries from the black forest area. These are commonly drunk after a meal in a restaurant.

There are some breweries of note in the region, of which Rothaus is one which enjoys cult status.


Baden-Württemberg is one of the safest regions in Germany. In large cities like Mannheim and especially Stuttgart, be aware of theft. Other regions are safe and you can travel alone without any problems. Even walking alone late at night is no problem. When out hiking and trekking have a map and take proper clothing. The forests are thick and dark and surprisingly rural considering the population density of Central Europe.

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

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  1. One of the component states of Germany according to the current administrative division of the nation.


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