Bahir: Wikis

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Rabbinical Eras

Bahir or Sefer Ha-Bahir סֵפֶר הַבָּהִיר (Hebrew, "Book of the Brightness") is an anonymous mystical work, attributed pseudepigraphically to a first century rabbinic sage Nehunya ben ha-Kanah (a contemporary of Yochanan ben Zakai) because it begins with the words, "R. Nehunya Ben Ha-Kanah said".[1] It is also known as Midrash of Rabbi Nehunya Ben Ha-Kanah מִדְרָשׁ רַבִּי נְחוּנְיָא בֶּן הַקָּנָה.

It was first published in the 12th century, in southern France. Historians suspect Rabbi Yitzhak Saggi Nehor, also known as Isaac the Blind, wrote it at that time. An important problem in this ascription is that "eyn sof" ("that which is without end") as a term naming God does not occur in the Bahir though it does in the works of Isaac the Blind.

It is an early work of esoteric Jewish mysticism which eventually became known as Kabbalah.

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Ein Sof · Tzimtzum · Ohr · Sephirot · Four Worlds · Seder hishtalshelus · Tree of Life · Merkavah · Jewish angelic hierarchy · Shemhamphorasch · Shechina · Kelipot · Tikkun · Sparks of holiness · Messianic rectification in Kabbalah · Gilgul · Ibbur  · Kabbalistic astrology · Gematria · Notarikon · Temurah · Tzadik · Tzadikim Nistarim · Panentheism
Chronological history
The Zohar
Early: Sefer Yetzirah · Tannaim · Heichalot Medieval: Bahir · Toledano tradition · Chassidei Ashkenaz · Prophetic Kabbalah · Zohar · Kabbalistic commentaries on the Bible · Mainstream replacement of Philosophy with Kabbalah Rennaisance: Selective influence on Western thought · Mysticism after Spanish expulsion · Mystics of 16th century Safed · Cordoveran Kabbalah · Lurianic Kabbalah · Philosophy of the Maharal · Shnei Luchos HaBris Early Modern: Baal Shem-Nistarim · Sabbatean mystical heresies · Emden-Eybeschutz Controversy · Immigration to the Land of Israel · Traditional Oriental Kabbalists · Beit El Synagogue · Eastern European Judaism · Hasidic Judaism · Hasidic philosophy · Lithuanian Jews · Hasidic-Mitnagdic schism Modern: Hasidic dynasties · HaSulam · Academic interest in Jewish mysticism · Non-Orthodox interest in Jewish mysticism
Practices
Visiting grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai
Torah study · Mitzvot · Minhag · Customery immersion in Mikveh · Jewish meditation · Deveikut · Jewish prayer · Nusach · Kavanot · Names of God in Judaism · Tikkun Chatzot · Tikkun Leil Shavuot · Teshuvah · Asceticism in Judaism · Pilgrimage to Tzadik · Pilgrimage to holy grave · Lag BaOmer at Meron · Practical Kabbalah
People
Medieval Tree of Life illustration
100s: The Four Who Entered the Pardes · Shimon bar Yochai

1100s: Isaac the Blind · Azriel 1200s: Nahmanides · Abraham Abulafia · Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla · Moses de Leon · Menahem Recanati 1300s: Bahya ben Asher 1400s: 1500s: Meir ibn Gabbai · Joseph Karo · Shlomo Alkabetz · Moshe Alshich · Moshe Cordovero · Isaac Luria · Chaim Vital · Judah Loew ben Bezalel 1600s: Isaiah Horowitz · Abraham Azulai 1700s: Chaim ibn Attar · Baal Shem Tov · Dov Ber of Mezeritch · Moshe Chaim Luzzatto · Shalom Sharabi · Vilna Gaon · Chaim Joseph David Azulai · Nathan Adler · Schneur Zalman of Liadi · Chaim Volozhin 1800s: Nachman of Breslov · Ben Ish Chai · Shlomo Eliyashiv 1900s: Abraham Isaac Kook · Yehuda Ashlag · Baba Sali · Menachem Mendel Schneerson

Position in Jewish thought
Ark of the Ari Ashkenazi Synagogue, Safed
History:
Torah · Tanakh · Prophecy · Ruach HaKodesh · Pardes exegesis · Talmudical hermeneutics · Midrash · Jewish commentaries on the Bible · Oral Torah · Eras of Rabbinic Judaism · Generational descent in Halacha · Generational ascent in Kabbalah · Rabbinic literature · Talmudic theology · Halakha · Aggadah · Hakira (Medieval Jewish Philosophy) · Classic Mussar literature · Ashkenazi Judaism · Sephardi Judaism · Modern Jewish Philosophies · Jewish studies
Topics:
God in Judaism · Divine transcendence · Divine immanence · Free Will in Judaism · Divine Providence in Judaism · Kabbalistic reasons for the 613 Mitzvot · Jewish principles of faith · Jewish eschatology

Contents

Title

Nahmanides, in his commentary on the Torah, (Genesis 1) is one of the first to quote the work under the title Midrash R. Nehunya ben ha-Kanah. ("R. Nehunya b. ha-Kanah said," the opening sentence)

Among medieval Kabbalists it became known as Sefer ha-Bahir, taken from its opening comment, "One verse says: 'And now men see not the light which is bright (bahir) in the skies'" (Job 37:21).

Authorship

Kabbalists ascribed authorship of the Bahir to R. Nehunya, a rabbi of the Mishnaic era, who lived around 100 CE. Medieval Kabbalists write that the Bahir did not come down to them as a unified book, but rather in pieces found in scattered scrolls and booklets. The scattered and fragmentary nature of the Bahir's text, which sometimes ends discussion in mid-sentence, and which often jumps randomly from topic to topic, supports this claim.

The historical critical study of this book points to a later date of composition. For some time scholars believed that it was written in the thirteenth century by Isaac the Blind, or by those in his school. The first sentence, "And now men see not the light which is bright in the skies" (Job 37:21), being isolated, and having no connection with what follows, was taken to be an allusion to the blindness of its author. However, modern scholars of Kabbalah now hold that at least part of the Bahir was an adaptation of an older work, the Sefer Raza Rabba. This older book is mentioned in some of the works of the Geonim; however no complete copies of Sefer Raza Rabba are still in existence. However, quotes from this book can still be found in some older works.

Many scholars of Kabbalah hold that the Bahir adds gnostic elements to the older work. The question of how much gnosticism has influenced Kabbalah is one of the major themes of modern-day research on Kabbalah, see the works of Gershom Scholem and Moshe Idel for more information.

There is a striking affinity between the symbolism of Sefer ha-Bahir, on the one hand, and the speculations of the Gnostics, and the theory of the "aeons," on the other. The fundamental problem in the study of the book is: is this affinity based on an as yet unknown historical link between the gnosticism of the mishnaic and talmudic era and the sources from which the material in Sefer ha-Bahir is derived? Or should it possibly be seen as a purely psychological phenomenon, i.e., as a spontaneous upsurge from the depths of the soul's imagination, without any historical continuity?
"Bahir", Encyclopedia Judaica, Keter Publishing

History

  • Kabbalists believe that oral tradition of The Bahir goes back to the 1st century CE. It is possible that some secret manuscripts existed before publication in the 12th century.
  • c. 1174 - The Bahir was published by the Provence school of Kabbalists and was circulated to a limited audience in manuscipt form.
  • 1331 - Earliest commentary on The Bahir is written by Rabbi Meir ben Shalom Abi-Sahula, a disciple of Rabbi Shlomo ben Avraham Aderet (Rashba), and it is published anonymously under the title Or HaGanuz.
  • End of 15th century - The Bahir is translated into Latin by Flavius Mitridates but this translation is wordy and not useful.
  • 1651 - The Bahir is published in Amsterdam together with Mayin HaChakhmah in printed form.
  • 1706 - The Bahir is published in Berlin together with Mayin HaChakhmah.
  • 1784 - The Bahir is published in Sklav and Koretz.
  • 1800 - The Bahir is published in Lvov.
  • 1830 - The Bahir is published in Lvov.
  • 1849 - The Bahir is publishe in unknown place as part of Chamishah Chumshey Kabbalah.
  • 1865 - The Bahir is published in Lvov.
  • 1883 - The Bahir is published in Vilna.
  • 1913 - The Bahir is published in Vilna.
  • 1923 - German translation is published by Gershom Scholem.
  • 1951 - The Bahir is published in Jerusalem.
  • 1979 - English translation is published.
  • 1980 - Latin Translation (Guillaume Postel's) is published by Francois Secret.
  • 1994 - Hebrew Text is published from the manuscripts by Daniel Abrams.
  • 2005 - Latin Translation (Flavius Mithridates') is published, together with a critical edition of the Hebrew text, by Saverio Campanini.

Contents

The Bahir assumes the form of an exegetic midrash on the first chapters of Genesis. It is divided into sixty short paragraphs or a hundred and forty passages[2], and is in the form of a dialogue between master and disciples.

The main characters are "R. Amora" (or "Amorai"), and "R. Rahamai" (or "Rehumai"). Some statements in the book are attributed to R. Berechiah, R. Johanan, R. Bun, rabbis mentioned in the later midrashic literature.

The Bahir contains commentaries explaining the mystical significance of Biblical verses; the mystical significance of the shapes of the Hebrew letters; the mystical significance of the cantillation signs and vowel points on the letters; the mystical significance of statements in the Sefer Yetzirah ("Book of Creation"); and the use of sacred names in magic.

There are two hundred aphorism-like paragraphs. Each paragraph uses references from the Torah to expand upon its presentation. As with all Kabbalistic texts the meanings are highly symbolic and subject to numerous opportunities for interpretation. A common analogy is used throughout. A king, his servants, his daughter and his gardens are all used to explain a meaning, first of Torah and then in general, of the main topic of the text. The paragraphs refer to each other in segments and are broken into five sections in the Aryeh Kaplan translation. These sections are loosely grouped together but they do more or less stay within the underlying themes given by their title.

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Sections

Section 1 (v. 1-16) consists of commentary on the first verses of Genesis or of the Creation Story.

Section 2 (v. 17-44) talks about the Aleph-Beth or the Hebrew alphabet and gets its inspiration from the Sefer Yetzirah, which links these letters of creation to the overall mysticism presented in the Torah.

Section 3 (v. 45-122) concerns the Seven Voices and the Sefirot.

Section 4 (v. 124-193) is grouped under the section title of Ten Sefirot.

Section 5 (v. 193-200) completes the discourse and is called Mysteries of the Soul.

Sefirot

The Hebrew word "sefirot" was first described in Sefer Yezirah as corresponding to the ten basic numbers, and did not possess the meaning that later Kabbalists gave to it. It is in the Bahir that we find the first discussion of the Kabbalistic concept of Sefirot as divine attributes and powers emanating from God.

Creation of the universe

The world, according to the "Bahir," is not the product of an act of creation. Like God, this book existed from all eternity, not only in potentiality, but in actuality; and the Creation consisted merely in the appearance of that which was latent in the first "Sefirah," "Or ha-Ganuz," or, as it is called, "Keter 'Elyon," which emanated from God.

This Sefirah gave birth to "Hokmah" (Wisdom), from which emanated "Binah" (Intelligence). From these three, which are the superior "Sefirot", and from the primary principles of the universe, emanated, one after another, the seven inferior Sefirot from which all material beings are formed. All the ten Sefirot are linked one to the other, and every one of them has an active and a passive quality—emanating and receiving. The efflux of one Sefirah from another is symbolized in the form of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Thus the gimel (ג), shaped like a tube open at each end, represents a Sefirah, which receives strength at one end and discharges it at the other. The ten Sefirot are the energy of God, the forms in which His being manifests itself.

Reincarnation

The "Bahir" adopts the concept of reincarnation to solve the question of why the just may suffer in this world, while the wicked may be prosperous: "The just may have been wicked in their former lives, and the wicked righteous."

Editions and commentaries

One of the most accurate manuscripts of the final form of Sefer Bahir was written in 1331 by Meir ben Solomon Abi-Sahula; his commentary on the Bahir was anonymously published as Or ha-Ganuz, "The Hidden Light".

It has been translated into German by Gershom Scholem (1923) and into English by Aryeh Kaplan.

Recently it has been critically edited by Saverio Campanini. See The Book of Bahir. Flavius Mithridates' Latin Translation, the Hebrew Text, and an English Version, edited by Saverio Campanini with a Foreword by Giulio Busi, Torino, Nino Aragno Editore 2005.

See also

References

External links

General links on Kabbalah


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Mohomed M. Bahir article)

From Wikispecies

Mohomed M. Bahir, herpetologist

Wildlife Heritage Trust, 95 Cotta Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka


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