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Baku
Bakı

Seal
Baku is located in Azerbaijan
Baku
Location in Azerbaijan
Coordinates: 40°23′43″N 49°52′56″E / 40.39528°N 49.88222°E / 40.39528; 49.88222
Country Azerbaijan
Government
 - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov
Area [1]
 - Total 2,130 km2 (822.4 sq mi)
Elevation -28 m (-92 ft)
Population (2009)[2]
 - Total 2,039,700
 Density 900/km2 (2,331/sq mi)
Time zone AZT (UTC+4)
 - Summer (DST) AZST (UTC+5)
Postal code AZ1000
Area code(s) 12
Website BakuCity.az

Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes known as Baqy, Baky, Baki or Bakou, is the capital, the largest city, and the largest port of Azerbaijan and all the Caucasus. Located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, the city consists of two principal parts: the downtown and the old Inner City (21.5 ha). Baku is one of the oldest and biggest cities in East for antiquity, territory and population.[3] Its urban population in the beginning of 2009 was estimated at 2.0397 million people.[2] In 2003 Baku additionally had 153,400 internally displaced persons and 93,400 refugees.[4]

In 2007 Culture Ministers of the member-states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference declared Baku the capital of Islamic Culture in 2009.[5] The Walled City of Baku along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking Baku is also amongst the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife.[6]

Baku is divided into eleven administrative districts (Azizbayov, Binagadi, Garadagh, Narimanov, Nasimi, Nizami, Sabail, Sabunchu, Khatai, Surakhany and Yasamal) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on islands in the Baku Bay and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 km (37 mi) away from Baku.

Contents

Etymology

The name Baku is widely believed to be derived from the old Persian names of the city باد-که Bād-kube, meaning "Wind-pounded city", in which bād means "wind" and kube is rooted in the verb کوبی kubidan, "to pound", thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding. Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds.[7] It is also believed that Baku refers to Baghkuh, meaning "Mount of God". Baga (now bagh) and kaufa (now kuh) are the Old Persian words for "god" and "mountain" respectively; the name Baghkuh may be compared with Baghdād ("God-given") in which is the Old Persian word for "give". Arabic sources refer to the city as Baku, Bakukh, Bakuya, and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from a Persian name.

Various different hypotheses were also proposed to explain the etymology of the word Baku. According to L.G.Lopatinski[8] and Ali Huseynzade[9] Baku is derived from Turkic word for "hill". Caucasian history specialist K.P. Patkanov also explains the name as "hill" but in the Lak language.[9] The Turkish Islamic Encyclopedia presents the origin of the word Baku as being derived from the words Bey-Kyoy, which mean "the main city" in Turkic. Also another theory suggest that the name Baku is derived from the ancient Caucasian Albanian city which present was called Baguan.

History

Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Maiden Tower in old town Baku
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 958
Region** Middle East
Inscription history
Inscription 2000  (24th Session)
Endangered 2003-2009
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Fire Temple at Suraxany and its surroundings
Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace

The first written evidence for Baku dates to the 6th century AD.[10] Much of its history since that time has been linked to various Persian Empires.

The city became important after an earthquake destroyed Shamakhy in the 12th century, when the ruling Shirvanshah, Ahsitan I, chose Baku as the new capital. In 1501, Safavid Shah Ismail I laid a siege on Baku. At this time the city was however enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land. In 1540 Baku was again captured by the Safavid troops. In 1604 the Baku fortress was destroyed by Iranian shah Abbas I.

On 26 June 1723, after a lasting siege using cannons, Baku surrendered to the Russians. According to Peter the Great's decree the soldiers of two regiments (2,382 people) were left in the Baku garrison under the command of Prince Baryatyanski, the commandant of the city. In 1795, Baku was invaded by Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar to defend against tsarist Russia's ambitions to subjugate the South Caucasus. In the spring of 1796, by Catherine II's order, General Zubov's troops began a major campaign in Transcaucasia. Baku surrendered after the first demand of Zubov who had sent 6,000 troops to capture the city. On 13 June 1796 the Russian flotilla entered Baku Bay and a garrison of Russian troops was placed in the city. General Pavel Tsitsianov was appointed Baku's commandant. Later, however, Czar Paul I ordered him to cease the campaign and withdraw Russian forces. In March 1797 the tsarist troops left Baku but a new tsar, Alexander I, began to show a special interest in capturing Baku. In 1803, Tsitsianov reached an agreement with the Baku khan to compromise, but the agreement was soon annulled. On 8 February 1806, upon the surrendering of Baku, Huseyngulu khan of Baku stabbed and killed Tsitsianov at the gates of the city.

In 1813, Russia signed the Treaty of Gulistan with Persia, which provided for the cession of Baku and most of the Caucasus from Iran and their annexation by Russia.

Oil boom

The first oil well to be mechanically drilled was in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846, though hand dug wells pre date this. Large-scale oil development started in 1872, when the Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors. Within a short period of time Swiss, British, French, Belgian, German, Swedish and American investors appeared in Baku, among them were the firms of the Nobel brothers together with the family von Börtzell-Szuch (Carl Knut Börtzell, who also owned the Livadia Palace) and the Rothschild family. An industrial oil belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku. By the beginning of the 20th century almost half of world production was being extracted in Baku.[11]

Icheri sheher.jpg

In 1917, after the October revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shaumyan. Seeking to capitalize on the existing inter-ethnic conflicts, by spring 1918, Bolsheviks inspired and condoned civil warfare in and around Baku. During the infamous March Days, using the support of the Dashnak Armenian militia in the city, and under the pretext of suppressing Musavat party, Bolsheviks attacked and massacred thousands of Azeris and other Muslims in Baku.[12]

On 28 May 1918, the Azerbaijani faction of the Transcaucasian Sejm proclaimed the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in Ganja. Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam led by Nuru Pasha, started their advance into Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Mensheviks and British forces under the command of General Lionel Dunsterville on 15 September 1918. Thousands of Armenians in the city were massacred in revenge for the earlier March Days.[13] Baku became the capital of the ADR. On 28 April 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolsheviks, making Baku the capital of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.

Historical city core

The centre of Baku is the old town, which is also a fortress. In December 2000, the Inner City of Baku with the Palace of the Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower became the first location in Azerbaijan classified as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO.

Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaries (ancient inns), the Maiden Tower (nice view of the harbor), the baths and the Juma Mosque (it used to house the Carpet and Applied Arts Museum, but now is a mosque again; the carpets got moved to the former Lenin museum). The old town also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them from the next building.

In 2003, UNESCO placed the Inner City on the List of World Heritage in Danger, citing damage from a November 2000 earthquake, poor conservation as well as "dubious" restoration efforts.[14]

See Further reading links below for more information.

Geography

Topography

Climate

Baku has a humid subtropical climate, with warm summers and relatively mild winters. During Soviet times, Baku was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea. The climate is hot and humid in the summer, and cool and wet in the winter. During the winter gale-force winds sweep through on occasion, driven by masses of polar air (strong northern winds Khazri and southern Gilavar are typical here); however, snow is rare at 28 m (91.86 ft) below sea level, and temperatures on the coast rarely drop to freezing. The average annual temperature of Baku and that of the Earth differ by less than 0.1 °C (0.18 °F) : it is 14.2 °C (57.6 °F).[15] The southwestern part of Great Baku is a more arid part of Azerbaijan (precipitation here is less than 150 mm (6 in) a year). In the vicinities of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) and salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan etc.).

Climate data for Baku
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
6
(43)
9
(48)
16
(61)
22
(72)
27
(81)
31
(88)
29
(84)
26
(79)
19
(66)
13
(55)
9
(48)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
4
(39)
9
(48)
14
(57)
19
(66)
22
(72)
23
(73)
19
(66)
13
(55)
8
(46)
4
(39)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
17
(0.67)
17
(0.67)
7
(0.28)
2
(0.08)
5
(0.2)
15
(0.59)
25
(0.98)
30
(1.18)
25
(0.98)
Source: Weather.com[16] 2008

Governance

Districts of Baku

Today, Baku is divided into 11 rayons (administrative districts) and 5 settlements of city type.[17][18]

Demographics

Until 1988 Baku had very large Armenian, Russian, and Jewish population that contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture) to Baku's history treasure chest. Under Communism, the Soviets took over the majority of Jewish property in Baku and Kuba. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliev has returned several synagogues and a Jewish college nationalized by the Soviets, to the Jewish community. He has encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well-liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Renovation has begun on seven of the original eleven synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in 1896, and the large Kruei Synagogue.[19] The new Azerbaijan constitution grants religious freedom and asserts that there is no state religion.

Currently the vast majority of the population of Baku are ethnic Azerbaijanis (more than 90%). The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku was a small town with the population of about 7 thousand people. The population increased again from about 13,000 in the 1860s to 112,000 in 1897 and 215,000 in 1913, making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region.[20]

Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population.[21]

Year Azerbaijanis Russians Armenians Iranian Citizens Germans Jews Georgians Total
1897 40,148 37,399 19,060 9,426 2,460 2,341 971 111,904
1903 44,257 56,955 26,151 11,132 3,749 n/a n/a 155,876
1913 45,962 76,288 41,680 25,096 3,274 9,690 4,073 214,672

Culture

The city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from history to opera, drawing both from the rich local dramatic portfolio and from the international repertoire; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to history, religion, and modern art. Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 2009 when Baku was designated Islamic Culture Capital.[22]

Baku also chosen to host Eurovision Dance Contest 2010.

Recreation

Baku is home to a variety of venues including Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre and Shirvanshah Palace and is home to many municipal museums and art galleries, the most famous being the Azerbaijan State Museum of Art, Nizami Museum of Azerbaijan Literature and the Carpet and Applied Arts Museum, which exhibits the carpets from all periods, styles and from both Azerbaijan proper and the Azeri provinces in Iran. The main movie theatre is "Azerbaijan Cinema".

Music scene

Jazz Center in Baku.

The music scene in Baku can be traced back to ancient times and villages of Baku, generally revered as the fountainhead of meykhana and mugham in the Azerbaijan.[23][24]

In recent years, the success of Azerbaijani performers such as AySel, Elnur Hüseynov and Arash in Eurovision has significantly boosted the profile of the Baku music scene, prompting international attention.

The 2005 was a landmark in the development of jazz in the city, who is home of legendary jazz musicians like Vagif Mustafazadeh, Aziza Mustafa Zadeh and Rain Sultanov.[25][26] Among Baku's prominent annual fairs and festivals is Baku International Jazz Festival, which includes world's biggest jazz names.[27][28]

International Center of Mugham in Baku Boulevard.

Baku also has a thriving International Center of Mugham, which is located in Baku Boulevard.[29]

Media

The large majority of Azerbaijan’s media companies (including television, newspaper and radio) are headquartered in Baku. The films The World Is Not Enough and The Diamond Arm are set in the city, while Amphibian Man includes several scenes filmed in Old City.

Baku is home to the Azerbaijani national media and AzTV, ANS, Azad Azerbaijan TV, Ictimai TV, Lider TV, Space TV, Khazar TV channels.

Baku has a number of newspaper publishing houses. Some of the most noteworthy newspapers include the daily Zaman ("The Time"), Bakinskiy Rabochiy ("Worker of the Baku"), Echo, the English-language based Baku Today

Various radio stations are also located in Baku. Out of the city’s radio stations ANS ChM, Ictimai Radio, Radio Antenn, Burc FM, and Lider FM Jazz are some of the more influential competitors with large national audiences. ANS ChM was one of the first private and independent FM radio broadcasting service in the Caucasus and Central Asia regions when it was established in May 1994.[30]

Architecture

Baku has wildly varying architecture, from the centre of Old City, typical of a medieval town, to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of Port Baku.

Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built during Azerbaijan Democratic Republic period, as architectural elements of these European styles were combined with each other as evidenced in the eclecticism that evolved.[31]

Development in Baku.

In general, referring to the architecture of Baku in the period of capitalism, it should be noted that in a relatively short historical period, Azerbaijan is experiencing one of the most tumultuous periods in its development. With labor and talent of architects and builders who created it, Baku obtains an original and unique appearance, deservedly earned him a reputation as the Paris of the East.[32]

Nightlife

Baku has a reputation for offering a vibrant nightlife, and many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. Most of the pubs and bars are located near Fountain Square and are usually open until the early hours of the morning. There are several British, Scottish and Irish style public houses, among them "The Clansman", "Corner Bar", "Shakespeares", "Finnigans" the "Rig Bar", "O'Malley's" and the "Phoenix Bar".

Some of the most popular discotheques and night clubs include, "X-Site", "Le Chevalier" at Grand Hotel Europe, "Zagulba Disco Club" and "Le Mirage". Most of them are open till the early hours of the morning.

According to Lonely Planet, Baku is one of world's top 10 party cities for having ultimate experience.[6][33]

Religion

More than 94% of the residents of Baku practice various forms of Islam. A small minority of the population (about 4%) are Christians (majority Russian Orthodox Church, Georgian Orthodox Church and Molokans). Baku also has three Jewish communities, namely the Ashkenazim Jews, the Mountain Jews, and the Georgian Jews.

Parks and gardens

Other prominent parks and gardens include:

  • Heydər Əliyev parkı (Heydar Aliyev Park)
  • Səməd Vurğun parkı (Samad Vurgun Park)
  • Nərimanov parkı‎ (Narimanov Park)
  • Fəvvarələr Bağı (Fountains Park)

Economy

Office buildings at Jafar Jabbarli St.
Entrenchments and antitank obstacles near Baku (during the operation Edelweiss). 1976, Ilya Repin Academy of Arts, Saint Petersburg.

The basis of Baku's economy is petroleum. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku.[34] By the 15th century oil for lamps was obtained from hand dug surface wells. Commercial exploitation began in 1872, and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil fields were the largest in the world. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells of which 2,000 of them were producing oil at industrial levels. Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. The World War II Battle of Stalingrad was fought to determine who would have control of the Baku oil fields. Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply: Azerbaijan and the United States are the only two countries ever to have been the world's majority oil producer. Currently the oil economy of Baku is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium lead by BP), development of the Shah Deniz gas field, the expansion of the Sangachal Terminal and the construction of the BTC Pipeline.

The Baku Stock Exchange has been operating since February 2001.

Tourism

Baku is one of Caucasus most important tourist destinations; with hotels in city earning 7 million euros last year.[35] The city boasts several popular tourist attractions, such as the Government House, International Mugham Center, Maiden Tower, Palace of the Shirvanshahs, Amburan, One and Thousand Nights and Shikov beaches, Yanar Dag and Oil Rocks.

The city also has numerous luxury hotels, including Park Hyatt Baku, the Boutique Palace Hotel, Radisson SAS Plaza, the Crown Hotel Baku, Ambassador Hotel, Hyatt Regency, Grand Europe Hotel, Sultan Inn Boutique Hotel, Park Inn, Excelsior Hotel, Caspian Palace and Respublica Hotel.[36][37]

Infrastructure

Bulk power supply of Baku is provided by five 110 kV lines. As of 8 February 2008 three of them (total length 23.6 km/15 mi) have been completely refitted and modernized with their carrying capacity being doubled.[38] Three 110 kV and twelve 35 kV substations were commissioned recently.[38] Water supply is secured by several lines, the purest water comes from Khachmaz and Shollar lines.[39]

Communication

Baku had its first permanent internet link only in 1995, through the Academy of Sciences. Dial-up internet access has been available since 1991. ADSL service was made widely available in 2007. The city is served by the English language paper Baku Today.[40]

Transportation

Baku is served by the Heydar Aliyev International Airport and the Baku Metro. There were once also trams. There are two official taxi companies in the city: the yellow Star cabs and the white taxis with blue sign from "Azeri Taxis". The van buses stop at any point along that route when flagged down or told to stop. Shipping services operate regularly from Baku across the Caspian Sea to Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) in Turkmenistan and to Bandar Anzali and Bandar Nowshar in Iran.

Education

As Azerbaijan's centre of education, Baku boasts many universities and vocational schools. After Azerbaijan gained independence, the fall of Communism led to development of a number of private institutions. Baku also houses the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan founded here in 1945 .

Public universities

Private universities

Sport

Baku was bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but was eliminated on 4 June 2008.[41] It is also bidding for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

The city's two main football clubs are Neftchi Baku (currently in the Azerbaijan Premier League) and FK Baku, both of whom play at the Tofik Bakhramov Stadium. Neftchi has won five Azerbaijani titles, whilst FK Baku has won twice. Baku also has several clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including Inter Baku, Olimpik-Shuvalan in Premier League, MOIK Baku, Adliyya Baku and Bakili Baku in Azerbaijani First Division. In the Azerbaijan Basketball League, Baku is represented by Gala BC Baku, BC Aztop Baku, NTD Devon Baku whose home is the Palace of Hand Games.[42]

First class sporting facilities were built for the indoor games, including the Palace of Hand Games and Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex. It hosted many sporting events, including Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships in 2007 and 2009, 2005 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, 2007 FILA Wrestling World Championships, 2009 Women's Challenge Cup and European Taekwondo Championships in 2007.[43][44]

Notable residents

Because of intermittent periods of great prosperity and as the largest city in the Caucasus and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in the Soviet Union, Baku prides itself on having produced a disproportionate number of notable figures in the sciences, arts and other fields. Some of the houses they resided in display commemorative plaques.

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Azerbaijan

Twin towns - Sister cities

Baku is twinned with:[45][in chronological order]

City Country Year
Dakar Senegal Senegal From 1967[46][47]
Naples Italy Italy From 1972[48]
Basra Iraq Iraq From 1972[46]
Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia-Herzegovina From 1975[46][47]
Houston, TX United States United States From 1976[49]
Bordeaux France France From 1979[46]
Tabriz Iran Iran From 1980's[47]
Mainz Germany Germany From 1984[47]
Izmir Turkey Turkey From 1985[50]
Vũng Tàu Vietnam Vietnam From 1985[46]

Partnership relations

Partnership relations also exist at different levels with:[51] Berlin, Paris, Aberdeen, Vienna, Stavanger, Tbilisi, Astana, Minsk, Moscow, Volgograd, Kizlyar, Tashkent and Chengdu.

Gallery

Further reading

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Abbasov, Mazakhir. Baku During the Great Patriotic War.
  • Madatov, G. Azerbaijan During the Great Patriotic War. Baku, 1975.
  • Baku at GEOnet Names Server

Notes

  1. ^ "Administrative, density and territorial units and land size by economic regions of Azerbaijan Republic for January 1. 2007". Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20071124164655/http://www.azstat.org/statinfo/demoqraphic/en/010.shtml#s11. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  2. ^ a b "Population by economic and administrative regions, urban settlements at the beginning of the 2009". http://www.azstat.org/statinfo/demoqraphic/en/2_2.shtml. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  3. ^ "The Executive Power of Baku City". Bakucity.az. http://bakucity.az/main/index_en.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  4. ^ (Russian)"Баку". Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20070701132551/http://www.baku-online.com/ru/baku.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-15. 
  5. ^ APA Azeri Press Agency
  6. ^ a b "Travel Picks: Top 10 cities to party the night away". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idUSTRE5AC0NE20091113?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=11617. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  7. ^ "Culture & Religion on Podium: Politicizing Linguistics". Web.archive.org. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013212555/http://iranchamber.com/podium/culture/020920_politicizing_linguistics.php. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  8. ^ Ган К.Ф. Oпыть объяснения кавказских географических названий. Тифлис, 1909
  9. ^ a b .The Name “Baku”
  10. ^ "Azerbaijan - Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace...". Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080102011734/http://worldheritage.heindorffhus.dk/frame-AzerbaijanBaku.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  11. ^ Window2Baku.com
  12. ^ Michael Smith. "Anatomy of Rumor: Murder Scandal, the Musavat Party and Narrative of the Russian Revolution in Baku, 1917-1920", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol 36, No. 2, (Apr. 2001), p. 228
  13. ^ Furuz Kazemzadeh, Struggle For Transcaucasia (1917 - 1921), New York Philosophical Library, 1951, p. 143-144
  14. ^ "Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/958. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  15. ^ Window to Baku
  16. ^ "Monthly Averages for Baku, Azerbaijan". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/AJXX0001. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  17. ^ bakupages.com "Baku's History"
  18. ^ kishmish.az "Baku's History"
  19. ^ JewishVirtualLibrary.org
  20. ^ Country-data.com
  21. ^ Audrey Altstadt, Conflict, Cleavage, and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 112, table 4.1, Ethnic composition of Baku, 1897, 1903,1913
  22. ^ Azerbaijan Business Center. "Closing ceremony of Cultural Year “Baku- Islamic Culture Capital-2009” conducted in Azerbaijan". http://abc.az/eng/news/41154.html. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
  23. ^ "Meyxana", ya "bədihə" sözü aləmi bir-birinə qatıb (Azerbaijani)
  24. ^ QARABAĞ MUĞAM MƏKTƏBİ (Azerbaijani)
  25. ^ The Emergence of Jazz in Azerbaijan
  26. ^ History of Jazz in Azerbaijan
  27. ^ Baku International Jazz Festival has been opened in Azerbaijan
  28. ^ Baku International Jazz Festival Official Site
  29. ^ The Director-General hails the importance of living traditions at the Mugham Festival in Baku, Azerbaijan
  30. ^ "Most Popular Azeri Commercial Broadcaster Taken Off Air". UNDP (via BBC Monitoring Service). 2006-11-25. http://www.un-az.org/undp/bulnews44/m5new.php. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  31. ^ Baku's Architecture:A Fusion of East and West
  32. ^ Архитектурное развитие города (Russian)
  33. ^ Beograd na vrhu liste gradova sa najboljim noćnim provodom (Serbian)
  34. ^ "The History of Oil in Azerbaijan by Natig Aliyev". Azer.com. http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/22_folder/22_articles/22_historyofoil.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  35. ^ Hotels in Baku earned 6,8 million euros last year
  36. ^ Luxury Hotels Listed in Luxury hotels Baku
  37. ^ Отели Баку (Russian)
  38. ^ a b (Russian)"Выполненные ОАО "Бакыэлекрикшебеке" обеспечивают стабильность электроснабжения Баку". http://www.azeri.ru/papers/news-azerbaijan/13024/. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  39. ^ (Russian)"Институциональные аспекты управления и охраны водных ресурсов в Азербайджане". http://water-resources.iatp.az/water-resources/Rus/Institutional%20Aspects.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  40. ^ "Baku Today". Baku Today. http://www.bakutoday.net/baku-today.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. "Baku Today began 3 years ago as the first online English language newspaper to cover Azerbaijan and the Caucasus, and continues today as the online English language news source updated 24 hours for the Caucasus/Caspian region." 
  41. ^ "ESPN - Chicago among four finalists to host 2016 Olympics - Olympics". Sports.espn.go.com. 2008-06-04. http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/news/story?id=3425680. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  42. ^ НТД обыграл Бакы (Russian)
  43. ^ Cev Cup: Final Four femminile a Baku (Italian)
  44. ^ Уралочка, Ямамай и ЦЗ. Добро пожаловать в бакинский ад! (Russian)
  45. ^ "The main directions of foreign relations of the executive authorities of Baku". http://www.bakucity.az/main/index_en.html. Retrieved 2007-07-15. 
  46. ^ a b c d e Musa Gasymly (2005). [http://www.anl.az/el/m/ks.htm "АЗЕРБАЙДЖАН В МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫХ СВЯЗЯХ(1946-1990 гг.) [Azerbaijan's cultural affairs (1946-1990)]"]. Tbilisi: Artanuchi. http://www.anl.az/el/m/ks.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  47. ^ a b c d "ВСЕ ОСТАЕТСЯ ЛЮДЯМ [Everything remains for people]". 29. Vyshka. 2008-07-25. http://vyshka.azeurotel.com/arxiv/2008/29/2.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  48. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan Republic in Italy
  49. ^ Maud Beck (Winter 2006). "Sister Cities: Baku and Houston. Celebrating 30 Years as Sister Cities". Azerbaijan International: 68–71. http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/ai144_folder/144_articles/144_sister_cities.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  50. ^ Izmir Metropolitan Municipality
  51. ^ (Russian)"Executive Power of the Baku City". Azerbaijan.az. http://www.azerbaijan.az/_GeneralInfo/_Capital/capital_02_r.html. Retrieved 2008-04-08. 

External links

Coordinates: 40°22′46″N 49°53′28″E / 40.379571°N 49.891233°E / 40.379571; 49.891233

Preceded by
Alexandria, Djibouti, Lahore
Capital of islamic culture
2009
Succeeded by
TBA







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