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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Balinese
Basa Bali
Spoken in Bali, Nusa Penida, Lombok and Java, Indonesia
Total speakers 3.9 million (as of 2001)
Language family Austronesian
Writing system Latin, Balinese
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2 ban
ISO 639-3 ban

Balinese or simply Bali is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.9 million people (as of 2001) on the Indonesian island of Bali, as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.[1] Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian.

Kawi is a related priestly language.

Contents

Classification

Balinese is part of the Austronesian language family, and is closely related to the Sasak and Sumbawa languages.

Phonology

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e ə o
Low a

Consonants

Grammar

Registers

Balinese has different registers depending on the relationship and status of those speaking: low (basa ketah), middle (basa madia), and high (basa singgih). Basa singgih contains many loanwords from Sanskrit and Javanese.

Writing

Balinese has been written in two different writing systems: the Balinese script, and in modern times the Latin alphabet.

Balinese script

Basic signs of the Balinese script

The Balinese script (Carakan) is an abugida, ultimately derived from the Brāhmī script of India. The earliest known inscriptions date from the 11th century AD.

Few people today are familiar with the Balinese script.[2] The Balinese Script is almost the same as Javanese script.

Latin alphabet

Schools in Bali today teach a form of the Latin alphabet for writing Balinese, known as Tulisan Bali.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ Ethnologue.
  2. ^ Omniglot.
  3. ^ The Balinese Languages by Fred B Eiseman, Jr - Bali Vision

References








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