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The Balkan peninsula as defined by the Soča-Krka-Sava border in the north.
.The Balkans (often referred to as the Balkan Peninsula, although the two are not coterminous) is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe.^ Photos from the countries on the Balkans and Southeastern Europe.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to fish in the Balkans countries and the Balkan peninsula region?
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balkan factors refer to the ethnic tensions and historical controversies that are obstacles for co-operative behavior and to the delayed and unfinished process of state formation in the region.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

.The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains, which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia.^ The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the early guerrilla groups in Greece and Yugoslavia were Organized on a regional basis, taking as a unit designation the name of their leader or of the area, or of such geographical features as forests or mountains.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The region has a combined area of 550,000 km2 (212,000 sq mi) and a population of about 55 million people.^ Archaeological evidence indicates that the Balkans were populated well before the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age; about 10,000 years ago).
  • Balkans -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The present population of Turkey is over sixty million, but only about seven million Turks live in European Turkey, around Istanbul.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That has been a tragedy in that region as well, in both Bosnia and in Kosovo, which people don't like talking about.
  • Global Balkans: Neo-Liberalism and Protectorate States in the Post-Yugoslav Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

."Balkan" comes from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains".[1] The ancient Greek name for the Balkan Peninsula was the "Peninsula of Haemus” (Χερσόνησος τοῦ Αἵμου, Chersónēsos tou Haímou).^ The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term "Balkan" is derived from a Turkish word meaning "mountain."
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greeks are as ancient as the Albanians in their Balkan ties.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Balkans are also referred to as Southeastern Europe.^ As used by the English-speaking nations, however, the word refers to that peninsula of southeastern Europe lying between the Black and Adriatic Seas and extending south to the Mediterranean.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Videos from the Balkans countries related to travel, tourism, politics, business and news from the Balkans and Southeastern Europe.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balkans tag Southeastern Europe Travel Guide .
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Definitions and boundaries

The Balkan Peninsula

The Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line.
.The Balkan Peninsula may be defined as an area of southeastern Europe surrounded by water on three sides: the Adriatic Sea to the west, the Mediterranean Sea (including the Ionian and Aegean seas) to the south and the Black Sea to the east.^ The Black, the Aegean, the Mediterranean and the Adriatic Seas surround it; they have served as both barriers and entry points.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it is surrounded on three sides by water, the peninsula is not cut off from neighboring regions to the east, west or south.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located between the Adriatic Sea , the Mediterranean Sea , and the Aegean and Black seas, it contains many countries, including Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Moldova, Romania, and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Its northern boundary is often given as the Danube, Sava and Kupa/Kolpa rivers.^ All along the coast, from the mouth of the Danube to the head of the Adriatic, the Greek and Roman names have been retained though places have often been given alternative names by the Slavonic settlers.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To the north, the geographic boundary is less definite, but is generally accepted as the area south of the line of the Danube and Sava, west along the Kupa River, whence an imaginary line is drawn to the Adriatic port of Fiume.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the north, this region is drained by the Sava and Morava Rivers, flowing into the Danube; to the south, by the Vardar, wending its way through Macedonia to the Gulf of Salonika and the Aegean.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
Countries which are geographically fully located within the Balkan peninsula:
Countries which are significantly located in the peninsula:
Countries which are located mostly outside the peninsula:

The Balkans

.The term "The Balkans" covers not only those countries which lie within the boundaries of the "Balkan Peninsula", but may also include Croatia, Slovenia, and Romania.^ Cooperation with the ICTY constitutes one of the essential pre-conditions: the page covering the dark years can only be turned when those indicted by the ICTY have been arrested and handed over.
  • France-Diplomatie - - Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.diplomatie.gouv.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this article, the term "Balkans" refers to the CEE countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, and the Federal Republic (FR) of Yugoslavia, now consisting primarily of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first covered the whole of the country between the Danube and the Balkan range, overflowed into Macedonia, and filtered down into Greece.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Slovenia, which was part of Yugoslavia from 1919 to 1991, lies partially north of the Danube-Sava line and therefore outside the Peninsula, but prior to 1991 the whole of Yugoslavia was considered to be part of the Balkans.^ In the Balkan peninsula the Slav had been expelled or assimilated to the south of a line stretching from Avlona to Salonika.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended because this is one of the very few documentaries on newly independent Slovenia, recently part of the former Yugoslavia.

^ Recommended because Slovenia is considered geographically to be part of the Balkans, but it has achieved statehood in the E.U. in the hope of differentiating itself from its bellicose neighbors.

[3] The father of the term "The Balkans" August Zeune defined it in 1808 to describe areas that remained under Turkish rule after 1699.
In most of the English-speaking world, the countries commonly included in the Balkan region are:[4]
Other countries sometimes included are:

Etymology and evolving meaning

.The region takes its name from the Stara Planina mountain range in Bulgaria, commonly known as the Balkan Mountains (from the Turkish balkan meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").^ The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term "Balkan" is derived from a Turkish word meaning "mountain."
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Bulgarian balkan means simply ‘mountain’, and in Turkish ‘steep forested mountain’.
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .The name is still preserved in Central Asia where there exist the Balkan Mountains[5] and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan.^ The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Balkan peoples have been in contact with the inhabitants of Asia Minor, the Hungarian Plain, Central Europe, and the highly developed Mediterranean civilizations for thousands of years.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central uplands, east of the mountain chain extending the length of the Balkan Peninsula, are fertile enough to support large centers of population and some industry.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On a larger scale, the mountains are only one part of a long continuous chain of mountains crossing the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before marching away east into Anatolian Turkey.^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greece lies further south; Poland and Finland further east; the Adriatic is a stone’s throw away.
  • LRB · Misha Glenny: Only in the Balkans 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.lrb.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Balkan Peninsula is a land of ´one-man empires.´Alexander´s did not long survive him.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

.On the west coast, an offshoot of the Dinaric Alps follows the coast south through Dalmatia and Albania, crosses Greece and continues into the sea in the form of various islands.^ On the west coast, an offshoot of the Dinaric Alps follows the coast south through Dalmatia and Albania, crosses Greece and continues into the sea in the form of various islands.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gk.Haimos ) lies north of Greece, extending eastwards from the Morava for about 550km as far as the BlackSea coast, but the Rhodope range forms an arc running down from this range through Macedonia towardsthe plain of Thrace.
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first attested time the name "Balkan" was used in the West for the mountain range in Bulgaria was in a letter sent in 1490 to Pope Innocent VIII by Buonaccorsi Callimaco, an Italian humanist, writer and diplomat.^ I knew from the map that this was definitely the Balkans the mountain range carrying that name.
  • Balkans? No Problem: Editors' Choice - Flying Carpet - Travelers' Tales 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC travelerstales.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Balkans, politicians, diplomats, writers, geographers, folklorists and historians fleshed out that nationalism, especially during the crucial period from 1878 to 1914.
  • LRB · Misha Glenny: Only in the Balkans 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.lrb.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[6] .English traveler John Morritt introduced this term into the English literature at the end of the 18th century, and other authors started applying the name to the wider area between the Adriatic and the Black Sea.^ During the sixth century they seem to have been settled in the country to the north of the Black Sea, forming a colony known as Black Bulgaria.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Austira and Russia had plans to divide Balkans between them in 18th century.
  • The Balkans by Mark Mazower (Phil Gyford’s website) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.gyford.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Black, the Aegean, the Mediterranean and the Adriatic Seas surround it; they have served as both barriers and entry points.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The concept of the “Balkan peninsula” was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808.[7]
.As time passed, the term gradually obtained political connotations far from its initial geographic meaning, arising from political changes from the late 1800s to the creation of post-World War I Yugoslavia (initially the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).^ Croats are among the leaders in assembling the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes at the end of the war.

^ The victorious Serbs, the only South Slav people with an army in the field at the end of the war, readily assume the role of first among equals in the creation of the postwar Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (see above under "Yugoslavia").

^ A most heterogeneous state, the homeland of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, derived its name from the Slavic terms for South Slav and became a state following World War I. Yugoslavia had a population of nearly sixteen millions by 1941, and in geographic area was slightly smaller than the state of Wyoming.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Zeune's goal was to have a geographical parallel term to the Italic and Iberian Peninsula, and seemingly nothing more.^ After this nothing more was heard of the Avars in the Balkan peninsula, though their power was only finally crushed by Charlemagne in 799.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The gradually acquired political connotations are newer, and, to a large extent, due to oscillating political circumstances.^ To a large extent, Stephenson integrates his concept of Balkan history with the now familiar picture of the cultural and political significance of late antique and medieval frontiers and borderlands.
  • balkans : Message: Book Review: Stephenson, Byzantium's Balkan Frontier. Reviewed by Florin Curta 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term Balkans is generally used to describe areas that remained under Turkish rule after 1699, namely: Bulgaria, Serbia (except for Vojvodina), Macedonia, Thrace, Albania, Valahia, Moldavia, Epirus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro (except for the Boka Bay and Budva), central Greece and the Peloponnese.^ Examines the relationship between NGOs and the general public in Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, and Macedonia.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Serbia differ significantly.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It serves as a natural bridge between Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Albania.

Vojvodina and Transylvania, it is argued, do not belong to Balkans. .After the split of Yugoslavia beginning in June 1991, the term 'Balkans' again received a negative meaning, even in casual usage (see Balkanization).^ Yugoslavia: The Insurgents and the Swastika Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 3/28/2005 "Even going back ten years it was easy to see something gripping Yugoslavia by the throat.

^ The term "Balkan" is derived from a Turkish word meaning "mountain."
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the meaning of the term ‘the Balkans’?
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Over the last decade, in the wake of the former Yugoslav split, many Slovenians and Croatians, as well as Serbs of Vojvodina have attempted to reject their label as 'Balkan nations'.[8]
.This is in part due to the pejorative connotation of the term 'Balkans' in the 1990s, and continuation of this meaning until now.^ The term "Balkan" is derived from a Turkish word meaning "mountain."
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This small polity (in terms of square kilometers) is again at the focus of international interest due to the process of solving the Albanian issue on the Balkans.

.Today, the term 'Southeast Europe' is preferred or, in the case of Slovenia and Croatia, 'Central Europe' and Greece has almost exclusively been regarded and referred to as a 'Southern European' country.^ Other historians exclude Hungary, Croatia and other Habsburg lands, because of their "central" European character, supposedly contrary to Balkan themes.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US seeks to make an independent Kosovo for the Albanians, something which is rightly perceived by several European countries, including Greece, as a threat to Balkan stability.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, German offensive planning for southern Europe had to be restricted to the campaign against Greece.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Southeastern Europe

.Because of the negative connotations of the term "Balkan", writers such as Maria Todorova and Vesna Goldsworthy have suggested the use of the term Southeastern Europe instead.^ As West observed, the region is one of the loveliest in Europe, yet the term "Balkan" carries with it a negative connotation--a result of the centuries of conflict that have taken place in the region, which has spent much of its history as a buffer zone between more powerful neighbors.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The linguistic evidence supports the Romanian position: Romanian lacks Greek loan words for religious or pastoral terms, which should have come into use if Romanians spent such a long time in a Balkan exile.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As used by the English-speaking nations, however, the word refers to that peninsula of southeastern Europe lying between the Black and Adriatic Seas and extending south to the Mediterranean.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] The use of this term is slowly growing; a European Union initiative of 1999 is called the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, and the online newspaper Balkan Times renamed itself Southeast European Times in 2003.

Western Balkans

The Western Balkan states according to the European Union
.European Union institutions and member states define the "Western Balkans" as Albania, the constituent republics of the former Yugoslavia, minus Slovenia, and Kosovo.^ In this article, the term "Balkans" refers to the CEE countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, and the Federal Republic (FR) of Yugoslavia, now consisting primarily of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A video taken by members of a Serb paramilitary unit, the Scorpions, was shown recently to the ICTY in The Hague as evidence against former president of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic.
  • Balkans | the earley edition 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC earleyedition.com [Source type: General]

^ And I would like to ask my colleagues: if we are going to go to nation-states, what does that say about the European Union, which is going to be the ultimate multi-ethnic state?
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] .The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development uses "Western Balkans" to refer to the above states, minus Croatia.^ From 1200-1500 AD, many Jews expelled from Western European countries made their way to the Turkish Balkans.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balkan factors refer to the ethnic tensions and historical controversies that are obstacles for co-operative behavior and to the delayed and unfinished process of state formation in the region.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A European Union initiative under its French presidency, the Zagreb Summit (24th November 2000) brought the countries of the European Union and of the Western Balkans together for the first time.
  • France-Diplomatie - - Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.diplomatie.gouv.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Regional organizations

Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe      members     observers      supporting partners
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)      members      former members, joined the EU
Central European Initiative (CEI) member states
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI)      members      observers
Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      members      observers

Nature and natural resources

.Most of the area is covered by mountain ranges running from north-west to south-east.^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hungarians occupied several small areas of Yugoslavia to the west and south of Hungary, and immediately incorporated them into their national state.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weather varies enormously: 10-20 inches less rain east of mountains than further west.
  • The Balkans by Mark Mazower (Phil Gyford’s website) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.gyford.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main ranges are the Dinaric Alps in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia, the Šar massif which spreads from Albania to Republic of Macedonia and the Pindus range, spanning from southern Albania into central Greece.^ In this article, the term "Balkans" refers to the CEE countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, and the Federal Republic (FR) of Yugoslavia, now consisting primarily of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first covered the whole of the country between the Danube and the Balkan range, overflowed into Macedonia, and filtered down into Greece.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is just a matter of time till they declare themselves to be "Islamic Republics" of Albania, Kosovo and Bosnia.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Bulgaria there are ranges running from east to west: the Balkan mountains and the Rhodope mountains at the border with Greece.^ Gk.Haimos ) lies north of Greece, extending eastwards from the Morava for about 550km as far as the BlackSea coast, but the Rhodope range forms an arc running down from this range through Macedonia towardsthe plain of Thrace.
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greece has certain advantages here, with its placement geographically in the Balkans, and because of its historically good relations with the countries of the Middle East.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest mountain of the region is Rila in Bulgaria, with Musala at 2925 m, with Mount Olympus in Greece, the throne of Zeus, being second at 2919 m and Vihren in Bulgaria being the third at 2914 m.^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Turkey, Portugal, Finland, Bulgaria, and Greece also agreed to screen any individuals who might have seen time in this region of the world as peacekeepers or servicemen.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE), Template 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the coasts the climate is Mediterranean, in the inland it is moderate continental. .In the northern part of the peninsula and on the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry.^ It was proposed by some planners that the Germans abandon the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and withdraw to a more defensible line in northern Greece.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the southern part winters are milder.
.During the centuries many woods have been cut down and replaced with bush.^ Amidst the Slavs there were many who had converted to Islam during the intervening five centuries of the Ottoman Jihad in Europe.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romaic race, which had been split into so many fragments during the dissolution of the Empire, was reunited again in the sixteenth century under the common yoke of the Turk.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

In the southern part and on the coast there is evergreen vegetation. .In the inland there are woods typical of Central Europe (oak and beech, and in the mountains, spruce, fir and pine).^ And yet, there was a time when the woods and mountain slopes of this picture-postcard state concealed one of the murkiest secrets of the 20th century.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

The tree line in the mountains lies at the height of 1800–2300 m.
The soils are generally poor, except on the plains where areas with natural grass, fertile soils and warm summers provide an opportunity for tillage. .Elsewhere, land cultivation is mostly unsuccessful because of the mountains, hot summers and poor soils, although certain cultures such as olives and grapes flourish.^ Recommended because although this website is devoted mostly to Western European affairs, it has a section on Byzantium which may be of interest.

.Resources of energy are scarce, except in Kosovo, where considerable coal, lead, zinc, chromium, silver deposits are located.^ One of the worst contaminants in the Balkans is lead, which is produced as a by-product of the extraction and processing of such metals as zinc, copper, gold, and silver.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Other deposits of coal, especially in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia also exist.^ Relations with the other Balkan States, especially with Serbia and Montenegro, improved considerably, and there was ample room for such improvement.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The levels of physical and economic insecurity are not much more different in the former Yugoslavia on the one side and in Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania on the other.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty of San Stephano gave Romania and Montenegro their independence, Serbia and Russia each received extra territory, Austria was given control over Bosnia, and Bulgaria was given almost complete autonomy.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

Lignite deposits are widespread in Greece. .Petroleum is most notably present in Romania, although scarce reserves exist in Greece, Serbia, Albania and Croatia.^ For the purposes of this course of lectures, the Balkan area includes Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Albania and Hungary.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It serves as a natural bridge between Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Albania.

^ The USA and its Western allies regard Macedonia as a bridge between Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania.

Natural gas deposits are scarce. Hydropower stations are largely used in energetics.
.Metal ores are more usual than other raw materials.^ Anti-corruption rhetoric and anti-corruption sentiments are structurally more important for post-communist politics than it is usually believed.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At least in the Maltese Temple Period material, there is more than a little suggestion of duality and a healthy respect for gender differences.
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, they have never been enthusiastic Pan-Slavists, any more than the Dutch have ever been ardent Pan-Germans; it is as unreasonable to expect such a thing of the one people as it is of the other.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Iron ore is rare but in some countries there is a considerable amount of copper, zinc, tin, chromite, manganese, magnesite and bauxite.^ A metalliferous bolt runs down the whole east coast of the Greek mainland, cropping up again in many of the Aegean islands, and some of the ores, of which there is a great variety, are rare and valuable.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chief exports were lumber, bauxite, copper, some iron ore, and processed fruits; imports included textiles and machinery.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some metals are exported.

History and geopolitical significance

Political history of the Balkans
The Balkans at the end of the 19th century
.The Balkan region was the first area of Europe to experience the arrival of farming cultures in the Neolithic era.^ The Ottoman conquest of the area actually made the region more attractive than Western Europe for Jews, because of Ottoman policies of religious toleration.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this sense, the countries of the Balkan region experience the worst of both worlds: they must suffer the diseases of both industrialization and rural poverty.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Balkan peninsula is a region dominated by mountain systems, and although not particularly high,these cover some 66% of the surface area.
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The practices of growing grain and raising livestock arrived in the Balkans from the Fertile Crescent by way of Anatolia, and spread west and north into Pannonia and Central Europe.^ This began a 500-plus year dominance by the Ottoman Turks in Central Europe, and particularly in that powder keg known as the Balkans.
  • Big Deal in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: General]

^ Which brings me to the second concept, and that is, understanding the differences between nationalism in the West - Western Europe, the United States and Canada, perhaps - and Central Europe, and perhaps the rest of the world.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Turks were all this time spreading into Europe.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

.The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geographical position; historically the area was known as a crossroads of various cultures.^ Greece has certain advantages here, with its placement geographically in the Balkans, and because of its historically good relations with the countries of the Middle East.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, Im not arguing that there will be some sort of a geographical spread ruled by Islamic law, a caliphate as is traditionally known, in the Balkans someday.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Balkan peninsula is a region dominated by mountain systems, and although not particularly high,these cover some 66% of the surface area.
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire, the destination of a massive influx of pagan Slavs, an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity.^ Without seeming to take sides, Andric describes the backgrounds and motivations of the Turkish and Austrian rulers as well as explains the various religious groups (Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, and Muslim) that lived together over the centuries.

^ (At one point Constantine even considered making Sofia -- then known by the Thracian name of Serdica -- the capital of his new Eastern Roman Empire.
  • Byzantium in the Balkans - The New York Times 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ They would never have heard of the word Byzantine, a term first used to describe the Eastern Roman Empire in the 16th century, and had you called them Hellenes or Greeks they would have felt affronted, thinking you were calling them pagans.
  • Keyword: balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In pre-classical and classical antiquity, this region was home to Greeks, Illyrians, Paeonians, Thracians, Dacians and other ancient groups.^ After 1200 BC, classical Greek records describe the Illyrians as a non-Greek people to the north and west.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rome swept down on the struggling mass of Thracians, Illyrians, Greeks, and Macedonians.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on that, and on the lack of recorded migration to the area by other groups, scholars believe the Illyrians became the modern Albanians.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later the Roman Empire conquered most of the region and spread Roman culture and the Latin language but significant parts still remained under classical Greek influence.^ The Greek world was part of Rome, but Greek culture survived under Roman rule.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Danube played a significant part in the logistical support of the attack forces, the waterways within Greece and Yugoslavia proper played little part in the later supply of the occupation troops.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern half of the Roman Empire was culturally Greek and survived as the Byzantine Empire until 1453 AD (or CE, Christian Era).
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Middle Ages, the Balkans became the stage for a series of wars between the Byzantine, Bulgarian and Serbian Empires.^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ Ten and a half months later when the war had ended, the age of Ottoman domination over the Balkans was over.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the collapse of the First Bulgarian Empire the country came under increasing oppressive Byzantine rule for nearly two centuries.

.By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire had become the controlling force in the region after expanding from Anatolia through Thrace to the Balkans.^ "Ottoman Kyustendil in the 15th and 16th centuries.
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Historical and social conditions of the Balkan nations The time period studied in this book spans from the beginning of the Christianization of the people living in the Balkan Peninsula until the Ottomans conquered it at the end of the 14 th century.
  • The First Contacts of Islam with Balkans 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten and a half months later when the war had ended, the age of Ottoman domination over the Balkans was over.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many people in the Balkans and Carpathians place their greatest folk heroes in the era of either the onslaught or the retreat of the Ottoman Empire.^ The Persians, Berbers, Mongols, and the Ottomans have given great contribution to this end.  Insofar as the people of the Balkan Peninsula are concerned, the Ottomans were crucial in spreading Islam.
  • The First Contacts of Islam with Balkans 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many people live in the place where they lived 10 years ago?
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended because the Balkan states (the former Yugoslav nations, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania) are grouped with Turkey because the former were for centuries part of the Ottoman Empire.

.As examples, for Croats, Nikola Šubić Zrinski and Petar Kružić; for Greeks Constantine XI Palaiologos and Kolokotronis for Serbs, Miloš Obilić and Tzar Lazar; for Albanians, Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg; for ethnic Macedonians, Nikola Karev; for Bosniaks, Husein Gradaščević; and for Bulgarians, Vasil Levski, Georgi Sava Rakovski and Hristo Botev.^ Recommended because this is a remarkable film that shows both the beauty of Macedonia and the violence and hatred that exists between its ethnic Macedonian and Albanian peoples.

.In the past several centuries, because of the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe fought in and around the Balkans, and the comparative Ottoman isolation from the mainstream of economic advance (reflecting the shift of Europe's commercial and political centre of gravity towards the Atlantic), the Balkans has been the least developed part of Europe.^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ Whilst Constantinople no longer had the strategic significance of former years it gave the Ottomans a new imperial capital and commercial centre, Istanbul.

^ It moves away from measuring and ranking democracies and from imposing the logic of democratisation on the political developments in the Balkans.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Balkan nations gained independence in the 19th century (Greece in 1829, Serbia in 1833, Bulgaria and Montenegro in 1878).^ Nationalism and Religion in the Balkans since the 19th Century .
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The independence of Greece was recognised in 1829.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

.In 1912–1913 the First Balkan War broke out when the Christian nations, having large populations under Ottoman rule, united in an alliance against the Turks and after a five months war essentially terminated the Turks' presence in Europe after five centuries.^ Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804 .
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Crypto-Christianity in the Balkan area under the Ottomans."
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

.Two months after the end of the common war, a Second Balkan War broke out when Bulgaria dissatisfied from its share, attacked its allies Serbia and Greece.^ Bosnia-Herzegovina war, fought between Serbs, Croats and Bosnians, broke out in March 1992 and constituted the most dramatic page in the annals of this war.
  • France-Diplomatie - - Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.diplomatie.gouv.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, with the end of Tito and the end of the Cold War, the kettle again boiled over, and the major powers were back at war in the Balkans in the spring of 1999.
  • Big Deal in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: General]

^ HM Submarine Torbay (Cdr Miers) carried out a difficult attack on shipping off Corfu, an island on the west coast of Greece and torpedoed two merchantmen.
  • Balkans, Greece, Crete, HMS, Gloucester, Nubian, Ajax, Fiji, Greyhound, Formidable, Hereward, Dido, Orion, Perth, Barham 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Serbs and the Greeks repelled them and after Greek army invaded Bulgaria following by a Romanian intervention, Bulgaria collapsed.^ After the death of John Alexander in 1365 the Hungarians invaded northern Bulgaria, and his successor invoked the help of the Turks against them and also against the Greeks.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After a triumphant campaign of one month, in which the Serbs were joined by the Greeks, Bulgaria had to bow to the inevitable.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Ottoman army entered Wallachia, the Serbs started attacking the Ottomans stationed in Bulgaria and, at the same time, urged by the Pope, the Anatolian emirate of Karaman attacked the Empire from the rear.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Turks used the favourable opportunity to recapture Eastern Thrace, establishing its new western borders that stand until today.^ "Aren't there any Turks in Western Thrace?"
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Ethnic minority in regionalization: the case of Turks in Western Thrace."
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He waited until 1794 before revealing his plans to establish the Nizam-i-Cedid (New Order).
  • The Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The First World War was sparked in the Balkans in 1914 when a Serbian backed organisation assassinated in Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital Sarajevo the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.^ Topics covered include the war for Macedonia pitting Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece against the Turks; political manipulation of the Balkans by Russia, Austria, Britain, and France; domination of Serbia; the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand; the fall of czarist Russia; the Hungarian Revolution of 1918; rise of the Communist Party; birth of the Czechoslovakian Republic; the Treaty of Versailles; the rise of Marshal Pilsudski in Poland; formation of the United Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; and the Munich Conference (55 minutes).

^ Their first traces are to be found as far back as the 8 th century.  Their superior religious beliefs made the locals (the Balkan nations) embrace them openly.
  • The First Contacts of Islam with Balkans 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final end to the aged and crippled empire came in the First World War.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.That caused a war between the two countries which -through the existing chains of alliances- led to the First World War.^ The first covered the whole of the country between the Danube and the Balkan range, overflowed into Macedonia, and filtered down into Greece.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final end to the aged and crippled empire came in the First World War.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The succession was eventually settled through papal intervention and Zvonimir (1075-1089) fought a series of wars as a papal vassal which economically ruined the country.

.The Ottoman empire soon joined the Central powers becoming one of the three empires participating in that alliance.^ Close relations with Germany and the continued enmity towards Russia pushed the empire into joining the Central Powers.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years later on November 5, 1914 the United Kingdom annexed Cyprus, and together with France declared war on the Ottoman empire.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not surprising then that at the mid point of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire was at the mercy of the Russians until other European powers intervened.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.The next year Bulgaria joined the Central Powers attacking Serbia which was successfully fighting Austro-Hungary to the north for a year.^ Close relations with Germany and the continued enmity towards Russia pushed the empire into joining the Central Powers.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That the secretly prepared attack on Serbia by Bulgaria was planned in Vienna and Budapest there is no doubt.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His first campaign against the Greeks was not very fruitful, because the latter summoned the Magyars, already settled in Hungary, to their aid and they attacked Simeon from the north.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.That led to Serbia's defeat and the intervention of the Entente in the Balkans which sent an expeditionary force to establish a new front, the third one of that war, which soon became also static.^ Balkans ) New Kosovo security force angers Serbia .
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ A conflict within a conflict soon developed, with one Yugoslav force attacking the other while that force was already engaged against occupation troops.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The participation of Greece in the war three years later, in 1918, on the part of the Entente finally altered the balance between the opponents leading to the collapse of the common German-Bulgarian front there which caused the exit of Bulgaria from the war, and in turn the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire ending the First World War[13]
.With the start of the Second World War all Balkan countries with the exception of Greece were allies of Germany having bilateral military agreements or being part of the Axis Pact.^ "National problem in the Balkans until the Second World War."
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all of the CEE countries are in the Balkan region.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, the Balkans are a fascinating part of the world.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Fascist Italy expanded the war in Balkans by using its protectorate Albania to invade Greece.^ Italy collected on its loans in 1939, when it invaded Albania on the way to its Balkan treasure hunt.

^ This brings us to an interesting dilemma: that is, the role of Greece in foreign policy in the Balkans and the war on terror.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria, which collaborated with Serbia, Russian and Greece against the Ottomans in the First Balkan War - joined the Turks against its former allies.

.After repelling the attack the Greeks counterattacked invading Italy held Albania causing a Nazi Germany's intervention in the Balkans in order to help its ally[14].^ Milutin raided south against the Empire invading Macedonia and repelling Byzantine inspired attacks by Nogaj Tartars.

^ Hitler, however, would not permit it, nor could Germany risk exposing; the sources of so many strategic raw materials to attack by aircraft the Allies would certainly bring with them to Greek bases.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was, they say, an attack by the Greeks, whom they had formerly helped, on Albanian liberty.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

.Days before the German invasion a successful coup d'état in Belgrade by neutral military personnel sized the power[15].^ Temporarily, it would suffice to have satellite and puppet military and security forces hold the interior while German units moved to the coastal areas and likely invasion points.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the new government reaffirmed Serbia's intentions to fulfil its obligations as member of the Axis[16], Germany using its other two allied countries on the region, Bulgaria and Romania, invaded both Greece and Yugoslavia.^ Yugoslavia and Greece - Ger many invaded both countries on the 6th.
  • Balkans, Greece, Crete, HMS, Gloucester, Nubian, Ajax, Fiji, Greyhound, Formidable, Hereward, Dido, Orion, Perth, Barham 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ Within four years, full-scale war would return to the region when the combined armies of Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro drove the Ottomans from Macedonia, and almost from Europe itself.
  • Western Intervention in the Balkans: Recurring History, Tragic Results - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Yugoslavia immediately disintegrated when the loyal to the Serbian King and the Croatian units, mutinied[17].^ The Battle of Kosovo is an event entrenched in the Serbian, Montenegrin, Croatian (and all southern Slav) consciousness , uniting all Serbs who treasure Kosovo as their Jerusalem, their holy land.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Koloman, King of Hungary reached agreement with leading Croatian nobles in 1102, uniting the kingship although the two countries retained their separate identities.

Greece resisted, but after two months fighting collapsed and occupied. .The two countries partitioned between the three Axis allies, Bulgaria, Germany, and Italy, and two independent states, Croatia and Montenegro created.^ Explores the implications of Turkish accession on two countries acceding to the EU in 2007, Romania and Bulgaria.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ The USA and its Western allies regard Macedonia as a bridge between Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania.

^ Although states came and went with some rapidity three key states, Serbia, Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire dominated.

.During the occupation the population suffered considerable hardship due to ethnic cleansing policies, repression and starvation on which the population reacted by creating a mass resistance movement[18].^ The successes achieved by the guerrillas against the Germans, Italians, and Bulgarians in the Balkans during World War II strengthened considerably the tradition of resistance to foreign occupation forces.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With its more homogeneous population and a central government, however weak and collaborationist, Greece did not pose the occupation problem that Yugoslavia did during this period.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We're against ethnic cleansing and we don't want to forcibly move populations around in exchange, but somehow that's going to happen.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Together with the early and extremely heavy winter of that year (which caused hundreds of thousands deaths among the poorly fed population), the German invasion had disastrous effects in the timetable of the planned invasion in Russia causing a significant delay[19] which had key consequences to the route of the war[20].^ However, the dilution of the Guard Corps with former prisoners of war and the excesses of the Cossack Division against the civilian population reacted to the disadvantage of the Germans.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thought that his own Greece might perish, to be succeeded by another Greece after the lapse of more than two thousand years, would have caused an Ancient Greek surprise.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After years of raiding he made significant gains in 1334 when peace was forced upon him by a strengthening Empire and Hungarian invasions in the north.

.Finally at the end of 1944, the Soviets invaded Romania and Bulgaria while the Germans evacuated the Balkans.^ Italy, Hungary, and to a certain extent Bulgaria, would have to lend direct military support, whereas Romania's principal role was to block any attempts at Soviet intervention.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The purpose of this study is to describe briefly the German campaign against the guerrillas in the Balkans during the period of the European Axis occupation, from the end of hostilities against Greece and Yugoslavia in April 1941 to the capture of Belgrade by the Soviet forces and the Partisans in October 1944.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary succumbed to German pressure to become partners of the European Axis, and Turkey remained neutral until the end of World War II, this study will consider these countries but briefly.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They left behind an economically ransacked through exploitation and largely ruined region, but by making use of the post-war separation of Germany into two independent entities, the German states succeeded to avoid legally, paying any reparations or repaying the forced taken loans to the occupied countries.^ Ethnic Serbs make up roughly a third of the country's population--you'll remember that large ethnic minorities are what percipitated most of the problems in Yugoslavia in the 1990s--but so far, they had yet to take any serious negative action.
  • Balkans || Jaunted 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.jaunted.com [Source type: General]

^ The landscape of the place is one reason; for the last few thousand years, whenever there was an occupying force, the Albanians retreated into the mountains, which make up much of the nation's topography.
  • Balkans || Jaunted 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.jaunted.com [Source type: General]

^ The succession was eventually settled through papal intervention and Zvonimir (1075-1089) fought a series of wars as a papal vassal which economically ruined the country.

.During the Cold War, most of the countries on the Balkans were ruled by Soviet Union-controlled communist governments.^ The Romanian chief of state then explained his country's plan of defense against an attack by the Soviet Union.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, Clinton and Blair have repeatedly stated that, after the war ends, all Balkan countries should become members of the economic and political expressions of the New Order in the area, i.e.
  • The First War of the Internationalised Market Economy TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol. 5, no. 2, (July 1999) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most certainly German planners were preoccupied with the approaching campaign against the Soviet Union.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Greece became the first battleground of the emerging Cold War and finally remained the only non-Soviet country in the region, after having successfully dealt with a wild guerilla war unleashed by the local communist party backed by the neighbouring communist countries (Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia) much in the same fashion as with Vietnam, causing a full scale civil war during 1944-49.
.However, despite being under communist governments, Yugoslavia (1948) and Albania (1961) fell out with the Soviet Union.^ Though not at war with the Soviet Union, the Bulgarians feared imminent invasion by either Russians or Turks, and government leaders met to consider ending the alliance with Germany.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With its more homogeneous population and a central government, however weak and collaborationist, Greece did not pose the occupation problem that Yugoslavia did during this period.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the German Foreign Office was simultaneously to carry out a political offensive in cooperation with the puppet and allied governments against communist centers in the Balkan countries.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yugoslavia, led by marshal Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980), first propped up then rejected the idea of merging with Bulgaria, and instead sought closer relations with the West, later even joining many third world countries in the Non-Aligned Movement.^ Ethnic Serbs make up roughly a third of the country's population--you'll remember that large ethnic minorities are what percipitated most of the problems in Yugoslavia in the 1990s--but so far, they had yet to take any serious negative action.
  • Balkans || Jaunted 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.jaunted.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1829 a history of Bulgaria was published by a native of that country in Moscow; in 1835 the first school was established in Bulgaria, and many others soon followed.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the decision by President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia to turn the former Yugoslavia into a Serb-dominated state, according to Silber and Little, that led to the breakup of the country."

.Albania on the other hand gravitated toward Communist China, later adopting an isolationist position.^ In Albania, the struggle between the nationalist and communist factions was no less bitter than the fight of both against the Italians and later the Germans.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, Guzzoni asked the Germans to abstain from sending troops to Albania as planned for Operation A LPENVEILCHEN .
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China Hand Slouching Toward Islamabad .
  • Global Balkans: Neo-Liberalism and Protectorate States in the Post-Yugoslav Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.As the only non-communist countries, Greece and Turkey were (and still are) part of NATO consisting the South-eastern wing of the alliance.^ The only way for NATO and the EU to bring more security to the region is by policing these countries, but these two organizations are inexperienced at providing soft security.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So long as Turkey was there, Greece was practically an island, and her only communication with continental Europe lay through her ports.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their only chance of success, however, was to strike in concert, for Turkey, handicapped though she was, could still easily outmatch them singly.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1990s, the region was gravely affected by the civil war between the former Yugoslav republics broken out after Serbia's attempt to change the constitutional status of equality between the federated Republics.^ The Czech Republic already hosts a great number of "Former Yugoslavs" and of Albanians, ...

^ In 1992 the Badenter Commission singled out "government's full control over the territory" as a critical criterion for recognizing the right of the ex-Yugoslav republics to secession.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Napoleonic wars had just extinguished the Venetian Republic and swept the Ionian Islands into the struggle between England and France for the mastery of the Mediterranean.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its denial to accept the dissolution of the union as subsequently had been asked by the rest οf the Republics, caused a 10 years armed confrontation between Serbia and most of the other Republics.^ Biden, the most senior US official to visit Serbia since Jimmy Carter came to the then Yugoslav republic as president in 1980, said the US administration...
  • Keyword: balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to other rumors, each man taking the oath of allegiance in the German cause would be imprisoned for 10 years if he were ever to return to Italy.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the west his arms were more successful, and he subjected most of the eastern part of Serbia to his rule.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The long lasting civil war and the use of ethnic cleansing practises finally resulted in a UN intervention and NATO ground and air forces took action against Serbia in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.^ Ethnic cleansing of a much bigger scale took place against the Serbians themselves at the hands of the Croats during the Bosnian war when hundreds of thousands were expelled from Croatia to no objection by the West, not to mention the ethnic cleansing of the Greeks at the hands of Turks in Cyprus after the Turkish invasion, or the massive ethnic cleansing of the Palestinian people.
  • The First War of the Internationalised Market Economy TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol. 5, no. 2, (July 1999) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike its neighbours, it has not spent the last 18 years celebrating its uniqueness, fighting wars, or reinventing itself as a Nato ally or as a place to go for stag weekends.

^ The operation was to deprive the British of bases for future ground and air operations across the restive Balkans against the Romanian oil fields.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the dissolution of Yugoslavia six Republics achieved full independence Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro.^ You can see Kosovo here and Montenegro and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first issue is the issue of further dissolution in the region, and in particular, dealing with, in the immediate future, Montenegro, Kosovo, Bosnia, and Macedonia.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, once the dismembering of Yugoslavia has effectively been achieved by the end of this decade and half of its ex-members (Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia) have already been converted into Western protectorates and on the way to become fully integrated into the internationalised market economy (with Bosnia still in the process of pacification), the new Yugoslavia of Serbia and Montenegro presented a problem to the AMEs since it was the only part of the Balkans not yet fully controlled by them.
  • The First War of the Internationalised Market Economy TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol. 5, no. 2, (July 1999) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a revolution in Belgrade, Slobodan Milošević, the Serbian communist prime minister during the last 11 years following Tito's death, lost power and handed to UN to trial for crimes against the International Humanitarian Law by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.^ In most of the former Yugoslavia, in particular, the power was in the hands of personalities, of leaders.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended because this is the homepage of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).

^ Recommended because this is an excellent lesson plan which enables students to understand why Serbs are ambivalent about the trial for war crimes of their former president, Slobodan Milosevich, before the International Criminal Tribunal in the Hague.

Ιn .2001 an Albanian uprising in the Republic of Macedonia forced the country to give local autonomy to the ethnic Albanians in the areas where they predominate.^ Recommended because this is a remarkable film that shows both the beauty of Macedonia and the violence and hatred that exists between its ethnic Macedonian and Albanian peoples.

^ He said the force would be recruited from majority ethnic Albanians and minority Serbs and would come under the control of the Kosovo parliament.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ The Bulgarians, meanwhile, had begun to assemble their occupation units in Macedonia into a compact force in the area just west of their own national border.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Serbia still denying to recognize Kosovo's full independence status.^ "The United States does not, I emphasise, does not expect Serbia to recognise the independence of Kosovo," Biden told a joint media conference with Serbia's pro-Western president Boris Tadic.
  • Keyword: balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, a vast majority of U.N. member states, including many with multiethnic populations, have refused to recognize Kosovo's independence.
  • Keyword: balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, we stated clearly that Serbia would never recognize Kosovo's unilateral...
  • Keyword: balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has recognized the Autonomy of the Vojvodina Province which has a significant Hungarian minority.
.Balkan countries control the direct land routes between Western Europe and South West Asia (Asia Minor and the Middle East).^ Greece has certain advantages here, with its placement geographically in the Balkans, and because of its historically good relations with the countries of the Middle East.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first covered the whole of the country between the Danube and the Balkan range, overflowed into Macedonia, and filtered down into Greece.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As used by the English-speaking nations, however, the word refers to that peninsula of southeastern Europe lying between the Black and Adriatic Seas and extending south to the Mediterranean.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 2000, all Balkan countries are friendly towards the EU and the USA.^ By various criteria, Macedonia has attained more than all its neighbors and has even done better than the vastly richer countries of the EU or Israel.

^ Also, Clinton and Blair have repeatedly stated that, after the war ends, all Balkan countries should become members of the economic and political expressions of the New Order in the area, i.e.
  • The First War of the Internationalised Market Economy TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol. 5, no. 2, (July 1999) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Full visa liberalisation for all will probably have to wait until the Balkan states are much closer to EU membership.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

.Greece has been a member of the European Union since 1981; Slovenia and Cyprus since 2004. Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007. In 2005, the European Union decided to start accession negotiations with candidate countries; Croatia, Turkey, and Macedonia were accepted as candidates for European Union membership.^ Macedonia's Framework Agreement - VII. Interview with Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 8/25/2005 Macedonia a landlocked country at the southeastern tip of the Balkan, bordering Yugoslavia, Albanian, Bulgaria, and Greece has been coping with an Albanian armed insurgency since February this year.

^ Since Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary succumbed to German pressure to become partners of the European Axis, and Turkey remained neutral until the end of World War II, this study will consider these countries but briefly.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turks who emigrated toTurkey in the past, either voluntarily or by government pressure, are returning to Bulgaria in large numbers in anticipation of Bulgaria ' s membership in the European Union, now scheduled for 2007, while Turkey ' s prospects for membership in the EU remain uncertain at best.
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As of April 2009,[21] Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Slovenia are also members of NATO.^ Analyzes the impact of modernizing naval ships among the new NATO members Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Recommended because the Balkan states (the former Yugoslav nations, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania) are grouped with Turkey because the former were for centuries part of the Ottoman Empire.

^ The levels of physical and economic insecurity are not much more different in the former Yugoslavia on the one side and in Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania on the other.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bosnia and Herzegovina and what was then Serbia and Montenegro started negotiations with the EU over the Stabilisation and Accession Agreements, although shortly after they started, negotiations with Serbia and Montenegro were suspended for lack of co-operation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.^ Number one was the international sanctions that we imposed on Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended because this is the homepage of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).

^ They went on to found The Bosnian Institute which played a very vocal role in lobbying for an aggressively interventionist position in relation to Bosnia and Serbia.
  • Global Balkans: Neo-Liberalism and Protectorate States in the Post-Yugoslav Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.All other countries have expressed a desire to join the EU but at some date in the future.^ All of them see membership of the EU as their most desirable future.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By various criteria, Macedonia has attained more than all its neighbors and has even done better than the vastly richer countries of the EU or Israel.

^ It is obvious that the deficit in RM has seriously restricted its economic development (as distinct from some other countries), which complicates the problem.

.The Balkans today is a very diverse ethno-linguistic region, being home to multiple Slavic, Romance, and Turkic languages, as well as Greek, Albanian and others.^ "Bulgarian Muslims from the Chech region and their linguistic self-identification," International Journal of the Sociology of Language , 179:131-144.
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The noun is often inflected as in Servian, but, on the other hand, the adjective is compared not by inflection, as in Servian, but by prefixing ' more' and 'very,' as in Bulgarian and Albanian.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Population distribution of Greece today according to language, national consciousness and religion," Balkan Studies , 20 (1)123-132.
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Through its history many other ethnic groups with their own languages lived in the area, among them Thracians, Illyrians, Romans, Pechenegs, Cumans, Avars, Celts and various Germanic tribes-folk.^ Without seeming to take sides, Andric describes the backgrounds and motivations of the Turkish and Austrian rulers as well as explains the various religious groups (Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, and Muslim) that lived together over the centuries.

^ In 1829 a history of Bulgaria was published by a native of that country in Moscow; in 1835 the first school was established in Bulgaria, and many others soon followed.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Conversations turn to Belgrade and Pristina or ethnic Albanians and Serbs when in actuality, a comprehensive discussion of the situation should include many other groups of people.

Demographics

Ethnic composition of the central Balkans in 1870 by the English-German cartograge E.G. Ravenstein.
Ethnic composition map of the Balkans by the pro-Greek[22] E. Stanford of 1877 during the Russo-Turkish war, when the state of Bulgaria was created.
Ethnic composition map of the Balkans by A. Synvet of 1877, a French professor of the Ottoman Lyceum of Constantinople.
Ethnographic map of the Balkans by Serbian Professor J. Cvijic, 1918.
Distribution of races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1918 (National Geographic).
The population of countries of the region is:
State Population
 Albania 3,639,453[23]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,613,414[24]
 Bulgaria 7,928,901[25]
 Croatia 4,489,409[26]
 Greece 11,257,285[27]
 Kosovo 2,180,686[28]
 Macedonia 2,048,619[29]
 Montenegro 620,145[30]
 Romania 971,643[31] in Dobruja
 Serbia 7,334,935[32] excluding Kosovo
 Slovenia 2,038,733[33]
 Turkey 9,799,745[34] in the European part
.Note that most of Slovenia and parts of Serbia and Croatia are not included in the Balkans, yet these parts are included in the population counts in the table.^ Mediaeval history, whether of the East or the West, is mostly a record of bloodshedding and cruelty; and the Middle Age has been prolonged to our own time in most parts of the Balkans, and is not yet over in some parts.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After his death these for the most part fell again to the Albanians.
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the west his arms were more successful, and he subjected most of the eastern part of Serbia to his rule.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The region's principal religions are Christianity (Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic) and Islam.^ While some survived to retain their original Eastern Orthodox Christian character, some nations were not so fortunate.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "In search of the true face of Islam: Orthodox Christians between historical myth and reality."
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ [Footnote 1: The Armenians split off from the Catholic Church four centuries before the schism between the Roman and Orthodox sections of the latter.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church.^ There were differences of language among them, but they were bound by one faith - that of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While some survived to retain their original Eastern Orthodox Christian character, some nations were not so fortunate.
  • History of Jihad against the Serbs, Croats, and Albanians (1389 to 1920) 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

Eastern Orthodoxy is the principal religion in the following countries:
Roman Catholicism is the principal religion in the following countries:
  • Croatia (87.83% Catholics (3 897 332); according to 2001 census official data)
  • Slovenia (57.80% Catholics (1 135 626); according to 2002 census official data)
Islam is the principal religion in the following countries:
  • Kosovo (absolute majority)
  • Albania (principal religious group)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (relative/partial majority)
  • Turkey (absolute majority)

The following countries have significant minority religious groups of the following denominations:
  • Albania: Orthodoxy, Catholicism
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Eastern Orthodoxy (see Orthodoxy in Bosnia and Herzegovina), Catholicism
  • Bulgaria: Islam
  • Croatia: Orthodoxy
  • Greece: Islam
  • Macedonia: Islam
  • Montenegro: Islam
  • Serbia: Catholicism, Islam, Protestantism
  • Romania: Catholicism, Protestantism

Jewish communities of the Balkans

.The Jewish communities of the Balkans were some of the oldest in Europe and date back to ancient times as well as having received a large influx of Sephardic Jews and later Ashkenazi Jews.^ For some Muslims among the Albanian, Turkish Bosnian and other Slavic Muslim communities, the Ottoman days represent some sort of golden age, the natural order of civilization in the Balkans.
  • New Information and Key Trends Regarding Islamic Extremist Groups in the Balkans - by Christopher Deliso 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unprecedented speed with which Germany had conquered western Europe in 1940 had immediate repercussions in the Balkan countries, some of which had previously belonged to the French sphere of influence.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central location of the Balkans as a gateway between Europe, Asia, and Africa and the existence of a well-developed road system for carrying military, administrative, commercial, and cultural traffic since ancient times facilitated such movements.
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In Slovenia, there were Jewish immigrants dating back to Roman times pre-dating the 6th Century settlement of the region by the Slavic peoples.^ However, the more widespread settlement of Turks in Bulgaria and the Balkans coincides with the beginning of Ottoman conquests in the region during the fourteenth century.
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[35] .In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the tiny Jewish community is 90% Sephardic and Ladino is still spoken among the elderly.^ Bosnia and Herzegovina, pp 90-134.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Security Sector Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Role of the International Community.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ Europeanisation Without Democratisation: A Critique of the International Community Peacebuilding Strategy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

The Sephardi Jewish cemetery in Sarajevo has tombstones of a unique shape, inscribed in ancient Ladino.[36] .However the Jewish communities in the Balkans suffered immensely during World War II and the vast majority were killed in the Holocaust.^ However, with the end of Tito and the end of the Cold War, the kettle again boiled over, and the major powers were back at war in the Balkans in the spring of 1999.
  • Big Deal in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: General]

^ However, Mr. Rustad also claimed that I support a revisionist view of the Balkan wars of the 1990s which is "just as factually wrong, immoral and politically dangerous as David Irving's Holocaust revisionism."

^ "National problem in the Balkans until the Second World War."
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Most of the remainder emigrated to Israel and elsewhere.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b ""Balkan."". Encarta World English Dictionary. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwPqi7mD. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  2. ^ a b Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6. http://books.google.ie/books?id=qR4EeOrTm-0C&printsec=frontcover. 
  3. ^ Tintero, Felipa L.; Felicitas R. Manacsa. World Geography Affected by World Upheavals. Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.. p. 51. ISBN 9715740413. http://books.google.ie/books?id=jsnlxH9nnn4C&printsec=frontcover. 
  4. ^ britannica.com; encarta.msn.com (Archived 2009-10-31); The Columbia Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ ""Balkhan Mountains."". World Land Features Database. Land.WorldCityDB.com. http://land.worldcitydb.com/balkhan_mountains_3522246.html. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  6. ^ Todorova, Maria (2009). Imagining the Balkans. Oxford University Press US. p. 22. ISBN 0-19-538786-4. 
  7. ^ Pavic, Silvia (2000-11-22). ""Some Thoughts About The Balkans."". About, Inc.. http://geography.about.com/library/misc/ucbalkans.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  8. ^ Lindstrom, Nicole (2003). "Between Europe and the Balkans: Mapping Slovenia and Croatia's 'Return to Europe' in the 1990s". Dialectical Anthropology 27 (3–4): 313–329. doi:10.1023/B:DIAL.0000006189.45297.9e. 
  9. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Ian Jeffries (2007). A history of Eastern Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-36627-4. http://books.google.ie/books?id=PTB0gn_qwTcC&printsec=frontcover. 
  10. ^ "Western Balkans: Enhancing the European Perspective". Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. 2008-03-05. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/balkans_communication/western_balkans_communication_050308_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-08. 
  11. ^ Marjola Xhunga (2006-05-21). "Western Balkans Initiative launched". European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. http://www.ebrd.com/new/stories/2006/060521a.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  12. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/3524092.stm
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of World War I, Spencer Tucker,Priscilla Mary Roberts, p.242
  14. ^ Europe in Flames, J. Klam, 2002, p.41
  15. ^ Russia's life-saver, Albert Loren Weeks, 2004, p.98
  16. ^ Germany and the 2nd World War Volume III:The Mediterranean, south-east Europe, and north Africa, 1939-1941, Gerhard Schreiber,Bernd Stegemann,Detlef Vogel, 1995, p.484
  17. ^ Germany and the 2nd World War Volume III:The Mediterranean, south-east Europe, and north Africa, 1939-1941, Gerhard Schreiber,Bernd Stegemann,Detlef Vogel, 1995, p.521
  18. ^ Inside Hitler's Greece:The Experience of Occupation, Mark Mazower, 1993
  19. ^ Hermann Goring: Hitler's Second-In-Command, Fred Ramen, 2002, p.61
  20. ^ The encyclopedia of codenames of World War II#Marita, Christopher Chant, 1986, p.125-6
  21. ^ Ceremony marks the accession of Albania and Croatia to NATO, NATO - News, 7 April 2009, retrieved 2009-04-18
  22. ^ Castellan, Georges, 1999, Histoire des Balkans, XIVe–XXe siècle. transl. Lilyana Tsaneva (Bulgarian translation ed.). Paris: Fayard. p. 358. ISBN 2213605262
  23. ^ "Anketa e Matjes së Nivelit të Jetesës 2008". http://www.instat.gov.al/. 
  24. ^ CIA World Factbook
  25. ^ "POPULATION BY DISTRICTS AND ETHNIC GROUP AS OF 1.03.2001". http://www.nsi.bg/Census_e/Ethnos.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  26. ^ "CIA World Factbook: Croatia". Central Intelligence Agency, United States. 2009-02-24. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hr.html. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  27. ^ "Total population". Eurostat. 2009-01-01. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  28. ^ Statistical office of Kosovo
  29. ^ State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia
  30. ^ Official results of the 2003 Montenegrin census
  31. ^ The 2002 census counted 715,151 persons in the Constanţa County and 256,492 persons in the Tulcea County [1]
  32. ^ Census 2002
  33. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
  34. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2008). "2008 Census, population by provinces and districts". Turkish Statistical Institute. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/jsp/duyuru/upload/adnks_Harita_TR/HaritaTR.html. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  35. ^ Jews of Yugoslavia 1941–1945 Victims of Genocide and Freedom Fighters, Jasa Romano
  36. ^ European Jewish Congress - Bosnia-Herzegovina [Accessed July 15, 2008].

References

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    • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .American Historical Review (University of Chicago Press) 97 (4): 1084–1104. doi:10.2307/2165494.^ Washington, D.C. American University Press.
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    .http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8762(199210)97%3A4%3C1084%3AY%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O.^ Also available online at: https://consortium.pims.org/trafficking-routes-and-links-to-terrorism-in-south-eastern-europe-the-case-of-romania .
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    .Retrieved 2008-06-19.
     
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    .The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics.^ "Imagined communities and the Origins of the national question in the Balkans," European History Quarterly , 19 (2).
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    ^ "Writing and rewriting history in the context of Balkan nationalisms," Southeast European Politics Online, 1 (1):41-59.
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    ^ The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics .
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    .Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.^ Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
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    ^ Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2007.
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    ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2. 
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    ^ An Historical Geography of the Balkans, pp.
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Essays on the Historical Geography of the Greek World in the Balkans during the Turkokratia .
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    The Slavs in European History and Civilization Rutgers University Press, 1962.
  • Fine, John V. A., Jr. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century [1983]; The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, [1987].
  • Jelavich, Barbara (1983-07-29). History of the Balkans. .Cambridge University Press. 
  • Jelavich, Charles and Jelavich, Barbara, eds.^ London: Cambridge University Press.
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    ^ Jelavich, Charles and Barbara Jelavich (1977).
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    ^ Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
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    (1963). .The Balkans In Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics Since the Eighteenth Century.^ It moves away from measuring and ranking democracies and from imposing the logic of democratisation on the political developments in the Balkans.
    • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lampe, John R. Balkans into Southeastern Europe: A Century of War and Transition .
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The transition paradigm is reduced to measuring institutions and institutional performances, and the development/integration paradigm promotes a non-political, expert-driven approach to the region.
    • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

    .University of California Press. 
  • Kitsikis, Dimitri (2008).^ New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press, 2008.
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley : University of California Press.
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .La montée du national-bolchevisme dans les Balkans.^ L'Anarchie dans les Balkans a la fin du XVIIIe Siecle .
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Highlands values and nation-building in the Balkans," Balkanologie: Associaiton Francaise d'Etudes sur les Balkans, 6 (1-2).
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Les ordres mystique musulmans du sud-est europeen dans la period post-ottomane."
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Le retour à la Serbie de 1830
    . .Paris: Avatar. 
  • Lampe, John R., and Marvin R. Jackson; Balkan Economic History, 1550–1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations Indiana University Press, 1982
  • Király, Béla K., ed.^ Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York, United Nations University Press, 2005.
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Washington, National Defense University Press, 2006.
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    .East Central European Society in the Era of Revolutions, 1775–1856. 1984
  • Komlos, John (1990-10-15).^ East-Central European Communities, pp.
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "The commodification of otherness and the ethnic unit in the Balkans: how to think about Albanians," East European Politics and Societies , 12 (3).
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Notes and comments: ethnicity, nationalism and communist legacy in eastern Europe," East European Politics and Societies , 1:131-154.
    • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Successor States.^ It is in the context of internationalisation, in the sense of a gradual loss of economic sovereignty of nation-states, that we may develop a useful analytical framework to discuss the war in the Balkans.
    • The First War of the Internationalised Market Economy TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol. 5, no. 2, (July 1999) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .East European Monographs #28. East European Monographs.^ "The leader [Ahmet Dogan] and his movement," East European Reporter , 4 (3):27-28.
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    ^ Boulder, CO: East European Monographs.
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    ^ Boulder , CO : East European Monographs.
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    ISBN 978-0-88033-177-7. 
  • Mazower, Mark (2000). The Balkans: A Short History. Modern Library Chronicles. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-64087-8. 
  • Stavrianos, L. S. (2000-05-01) [1958]. .The Balkans since 1453.^ The Balkans since 1453 .
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    with Traian Stoianovich. .New York: NYU Press.^ New York, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
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    ISBN 978-0-8147-9766-2.
     
  • Stoianovich, Traian (September 1994). .Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe.^ Islam in the Balkans: Religion and Society between Europe and the Arab World .
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    ^ Europe and the Muslim World: European Union Enlargement and the Western Balkans.
    • The Balkans - Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Croatia Greece Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Romania Serbia 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One of the realities that motivates and alarms me - actually, it alarms me first and it motivates me second - is that much of the rest of the world has the kind of ethnic and cultural demography that we see in Central Europe.
    • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Sources and Studies in World History.^ "Ottoman tahrir defters as a source for studies on the history of Bulgaria and the Balkans," Archivum Ottomanicum , 8:133-213.
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    .New York: M.E. Sharpe.^ New York: M. E. Sharpe.
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    ISBN 978-1-56324-032-4.
     

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Balkan peninsula with northwest border Soča-Krka-Sava
.The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe.^ Photos from the countries on the Balkans and Southeastern Europe.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ Balkan factors refer to the ethnic tensions and historical controversies that are obstacles for co-operative behavior and to the delayed and unfinished process of state formation in the region.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

.The region has a combined area of 550000sqkm and an approximate population of 55 million people.^ Hungary, not a true Balkan country but adjacent to the Balkan area and continually involved in its problems, had a population of slightly over nine million and was approximately the size of Indiana.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slightly smaller in area than England, Greece had a population of less than eight million in 1941.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although some coastal areas are fertile, the limestone composition of these mountains makes the hinterland a barren region incapable of supporting any considerable population.
  • German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944) 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The archaic Greek name for the Balkan Peninsula is the Peninsula of Haemus (Χερσόνησος του Αίμου, Chersónisos tou Aímou).^ HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula .
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balkan Peninsula in the ancient times was called Haimos (pronounced Hemos ) and this name would be the most apropriate name for this peninsula while the name for its populations would be Haimian (pronounced Hemian ).
  • HAIMOS: Original name for Balkan Peninsula 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC p100.ezboard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Illustration: THE BALKAN PENINSULA ETHNOLOGICAL] Place-names are a good index of the extent and strength of the tide of Slav immigration.
  • The Balkans by Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D.G. Hogarth - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/6) 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia.^ The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

^ On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

  • A gay peninsula filled with sprightly people who ate peppered food, drank strong liquors, wore flamboyant clothes, loved and murdered easily and had a splendid talent for starting wars".
    • A Long Row of Candles by C. J. Sulzberger

External Links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans
.The Balkans is a region that includes countries on the Balkan Peninsula in the southeast of Europe, including most of the former Yugoslavia.^ Which languages speak people on the Balkans countries and Southeast Europe.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Food of the countries on the Balkans and Southestaern Europe.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to fish in the Balkans countries and the Balkan peninsula region?
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Albania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Kosovo
Macedonia
Moldova
Montenegro
Romania
Serbia
.Slovenia is sometimes considered to be part of the Balkans, but it is increasingly being included in tour packages as part of Central Europe, such as Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland.^ Most scholars also consider Slovenia, Slovakia, and Croatia to be part of Central Europe.
  • The Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.cotf.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Balkan is situated in South-East Europe, and the following countries are considered as part of it: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Roumenia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, Greece and the European part of Turkey.
  • Introduction "the Balkans" 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.fabian-vendrig.eu [Source type: Original source]

^ By subscribing you support independent journalism and media development in the 29 former-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the former Soviet Union.
  • Balkans Story Page - USATODAY.com 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]
  • Balkans Topics Page - USATODAY.com 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]
  • Balkans Topics Page - USATODAY.com 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.Slovenians consider themselves Central European too due to their long ties to Austria.^ I will mention in passing, with your indulgence, that most people would consider Professor Stokes the dean of East European studies, Central and Eastern European studies, in the United States.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This is probably also correct as the Balkan peninsula is, according to some definitions, what lies south of the rivers Sava and Danube from the city of Belgrade.^ Hide copyright information ) Copyright Balkans (or Balkan States ) The countries occupying the Balkan peninsula of south-eastern Europe, lying south of the Danube and Sava rivers, between the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the west, the Aegean and Black seas in the east, and the Mediterranean in the south.
  • Balkans – Dictionary definition of Balkans | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balkans , the Book article from: The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable Balkans , the the countries occupying the part of SE Europe lying south of the Danube and Sava Rivers, forming a peninsula bounded by...
  • Balkans – Dictionary definition of Balkans | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geographically, the northern boundary can be defined by the River Sava ; the lower River Danube from the point, at Belgrade in Serbia, where the Sava joins it; and a line drawn arbitrarily from the upper Sava to the Adriatic Sea near Rijeka , Croatia.
  • Balkan Peninsula - ninemsn Encarta 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This definition however then would rule out part of northern Serbia, known as Vojvodina, a good part of Croatia, Romania and of course Slovenia.^ Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Greece and Turkey should form it.
  • The Balkans to the Balkanians 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.nettime.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located between the Adriatic Sea , the Mediterranean Sea , and the Aegean and Black seas, it contains many countries, including Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Moldova, Romania, and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Balkan Holidays are the leading specialist holidays tour operator to Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Serbia and Romania.
  • BALKAN HOLIDAYS Voucher Codes and Package Deals/Offers | TRAVELPIXEL 11 September 2009 5:50 UTC www.travelpixel.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historically all these countries/regions were usually considered to be part of the Balkan countries, as Slovenia too was once part of Yugoslavia.^ Weather on the Balkans and weather forecast for the countries on the Balkans region.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all of the CEE countries are in the Balkan region.
  • Environ Health Perspect 107-12, 1999: Focus: The Worst of Both Worlds: Politics and Poverty in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Capitals of the countries in the Balkans region in photos.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is their recent independence that has allowed for the Slovenes to re-proclaim their desire to be considered Central European!^ How many analysts, when they consider Kosovo’s independence today, are factoring in Germany’s central role in the growth and expansion of the kla?
  • Republican Riot » How America Enables Fascists in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.juliagorin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austrian and Italian influences have created a Central European culture and Slovenes are chiefly Roman Catholic.
  • Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC staff.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will mention in passing, with your indulgence, that most people would consider Professor Stokes the dean of East European studies, Central and Eastern European studies, in the United States.
  • Leadership in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Lastly, much of Greece also resides upon the Balkan Peninsula, but its major travel destinations lie upon islands.^ Balkan Peninsula, to an unknown island in Greece.
  • Balkans Agriculture News - Agriculture Industry Today 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agriculture.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The Balkan Peninsula includes numerous mountain ranges, including the Dinaric Alps, which run north-west along the Adriatic Sea coast; the mountains of Greece; and the mountains of Bulgaria.
  • Balkan Peninsula - Peakware 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peakware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Captain Obvious on The Balkans The Balkan peninsula ( U.S. English : This is where we get all the hookers and heroin from ) is a historical place on Earth and a significant place in the Faroe Islands .
  • Balkans - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

Understand

The region is steeped in rich, though often turbulent history.

Talk

.Languages on Balkans include; Macedonian, which is spoken mainly in Macedonia; Serbian, which is spoken mainly in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro; Albanian, which is spoken in Albania, Kosovo, Serbia,Montenegro, Macedonia and Greece; Bosnian which is spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgarian, which is spoken in Bulgaria; and Croatian, which is spoken in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.^ Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Greece and Turkey should form it.
  • The Balkans to the Balkanians 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.nettime.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the Commission's report, we have reduced the Balkans to include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro.
  • The Balkans in Europe�s Future 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC mediatimesreview.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The white color is on the national flags of 7 Balkans countries (Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Slovenia and Kosovo).
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the countries in the former Yugoslavia (Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia) and Bulgaria are members of the South Slavic language group - therefore due to much commonality between words and language structure it is possible to communicate verbally between countries if you have a basic understanding of Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian or Bulgarian.^ Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Greece and Turkey should form it.
  • The Balkans to the Balkanians 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.nettime.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Differences between Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian (ijekvian dialect) .
  • Linguistic Maze in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.accurapid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Choose a country below: Albania Bosnia Bulgaria Romania Yugoslavia .
  • Sex, drugs and guns in the Balkans - June 2001: SEX SLAVES: Europe's trade in women- msnbc.com 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Some other useful languages might be Turkish, which many people in Greece and Bulgaria speak, and Gypsy may be useful in all of the Balkan states.^ "The elimination of Turkish language instruction in Bulgaria."
  • http://www-eminov/biblios-turks_and_other_muslims.html 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC academic.wsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Among other things, he stated: I wanted, above all.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, the people of the Balkans have some real “soul searching” to do.

.Most of the people, especially in cities and touristic areas speak English.^ What I came to say is this: If you will report truly all you have seen and heard to the English people, you may do a great service to a most unhappy land.'
  • Durham.html 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peacelink.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ The map of peoples in Eastern Europe, especially the Balkans, still does not correspond to the map of countries in those areas today.
  • The Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.cotf.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because genealogical resources nationwide (in English or Greek) for research in Hellenic ancestry are so sparse, finding extensive background information about Greek-speaking peoples from northern areas of the Balkans, particularly Bulgaria, is invaluable.
  • Out of the Balkans by Jason C. Mavrovitis 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.helleniccomserve.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And sometimes German, Italian, French(in Romania).^ German forces launching from Romania, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria along with an Italian contigent from Albania capture and secure the Yugoslavian capital of Belgrade.

^ He is fluent in Serbo-Croatian, German, English, and French, with reading proficiency in Russian, Italian , modern Greek, classical Greek and Latin.
  • The Balkans: Past and Present 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.uri.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Neither the Italian nor the Soviet Government received official notification of the entry of German troops into Romania.
  • HyperWar: "The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)--Part I" 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get in

By Plane

.There are numerous international airports in the Balkans.^ As a historian who specializes in international relations and the Balkans, Malic has written numerous essays on the Kosovo War, Bosnia, and Serbian politics.
  • Biden Does the Balkans by Nebojsa Malic -- Antiwar.com 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC original.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The major airports in the region are (by country):

Get around

.Though two of the Balkan countries (Bulgaria and Romania) have joined the European Union with others on the way, no countries in Balkans have implemented the Schengen Treaty yet, which means, unlike most of the rest of Europe, border controls are still a reality in the region—which is rather inconvenient but a joy for the ones who want all those entry and exit stamps on their passports.^ Food of the countries on the Balkans and Southestaern Europe.
  • Balkans tag 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC balkans360.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Europe, control of the Balkans was imperative for the eastward expansion of the German-dominated European Union.
  • Russia’s Balkans | theTrumpet.com by the Philadelphia Church of God 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.thetrumpet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any of the bordering countries to the region may join it if they wish.
  • The Balkans to the Balkanians 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.nettime.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By train

.A cheap way for traveling around the Balkans is the Balkan Flexipass, which is valid in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Turkey.^ Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Serbia differ significantly.
  • Report on the State of Democracy in the Balkans 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC www.ned.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Turkey and Serbia for the Balkan stability .

^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
  • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

.
  • Guca festival, Guča (Гуча) Serbia, [1] - An annual "Trubacki" music festival held in the summer.^ The Festival has been held annually on Labor Day Weekend since 1985.
    • AXE - Special Collections - Little Balkans Festival Association, Records 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC library.pittstate.edu [Source type: Reference]

    This genre of music is best known as ethnic jazz, and is best played by the Balkan Roma people.
  • EXIT Festival, Novi Sad, Serbia, [2] - An annual rock festival held from July 6 - July 9, which many musicians and bands from all over Europe attend.
  • Ohrid Summer Fesitival, Ohrid, Macedonia - An international culture festival held annualy from July through August.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Balkan peninsula (as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line)
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Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˈbɔːl.kənz/, /ˈbɒl.kənz/
  • (US) IPA: /ˈbɑl.kənz/, /ˈbɔl.kənz/

Proper noun

Singular
Balkans
Plural
-
Balkans
.
  1. A geographical region in the southeast of Europe, roughly equivalent to the area covered by the former Yugoslav countries, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and sometimes Romania.^ Greece and Albania are hilly and mountainous countries in southeastern Europe.
    • Greek-Albanian Ranges - Peakware 11 September 2009 5:51 UTC www.peakware.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ As a result of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the village became part of Greece and was renamed, coinciding with the partition of the historic region of Macedonia among Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria.
    • Balkans | The Agonist 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Greece and Turkey should form it.
    • The Balkans to the Balkanians 16 September 2009 8:51 UTC www.nettime.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • 2002 — Dennis P. Hupchick, The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism, p104
      As the Ottomans' victories in the .Balkans multiplied, increasing numbers of Anatolian warriors flocked to their ranks, and their territorial conquests grew.^ The Commission will further increase the number of scholarships granted to students from the Western Balkans to study in the EU. EU support to civil society development and dialogue will increase substantially.
      • EUROPA - Press Releases - Western Balkans: enhancing the Europeanperspective 10 February 2010 11:53 UTC europa.eu [Source type: Reference]

Usage notes

Used with the definite article the.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|350px|Balkan peninsula with northwest border Soča-Krka-Sava]]

File:Balkan peninsula
Line stretching from the northernmost point of the Adriatic to the northernmost point of the Black Sea

[[File:|thumb|250px|Current political map of the Balkans. Countries firmly considered part of the region are in green; countries sometimes considered part of the region are in turquoise.]]

The Balkans is the historic and geographic area, a peninsula in southeastern Europe. The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and an approximate population of 55 million people.[1] The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia.

Contents

Definitions and boundaries

Balkan Peninsula

The Balkans are adjoined by water on three sides: the Black Sea to the east and branches of the Mediterranean Sea to the south and west (including the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean and Marmara seas).

The Balkans

The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geographical position; historically the area was known as a crossroads of several cultures. It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek parts of the Roman Empire. It became an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity. Many Jewish refugees fled here from Inquisition.

Current common definition

In most of the English-speaking, western world, the countries commonly included in the Balkan region are:

Some other countries are sometimes included in the list as well:

Related countries

Other countries not included in the Balkan region that are close to it and/or play or have played an important role in the region's geopolitics, culture and history:

Regional organizations

File:CEFTA members
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)      members      former members, joined the EU
File:CEI
Central European Initiative (CEI) member states

See also the Black Sea Regional organizations

Population composition by nationality and religion

[[File:|thumb|left|200px|Ethnic map of the Balkans prior to the First Balkan War.]] The region's principal nationalities include:

  • Romanians (22 million)
  • Greeks (10.5 million)
  • Turks (10 million)
  • Serbs (8.5 million)
  • Bulgarians (6.6 million)
  • Albanians (6 million)
  • Croats (4.5 million)
  • Bosniaks (4.5 million)
  • Slovenes (2 million)
  • Macedonians (1.3 million)
  • Montenegrins (0.3 million)
  • others (Roma, ...)

The region's principal religions are (Eastern Orthodox and Catholic) Christianity and Islam. A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church with its own patriarch.

Eastern Orthodoxy is the principal religion in the following countries:

  • Bulgaria (Bulgarian Orthodox Church)
  • Greece (Church of Greece)
  • Republic of Macedonia (Serbian Orthodox Church and uncanonical Macedonian Orthodox Church)
  • Montenegro (Serbian Orthodox Church and uncanonical Montenegrin Orthodox Church)
  • Romania (Romanian Orthodox Church)
  • Serbia (Serbian Orthodox Church)

Roman Catholicism is the principal religion in the following countries:

  • Croatia
  • Slovenia

Islam is the principal religion in the following countries:

  • Albania
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Kosovo
  • Turkey

The following countries have many religious groups which exceed 10% of the total population:

  • Albania: Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks are mostly Muslim, Serbs are mostly Serbian (Eastern) Orthodox and Croats are mostly Catholic.
  • Bulgaria: Islam.
  • Croatia: Serbs are Orthodox.
  • Republic of Macedonia: Albanian population is mostly Muslim.
  • Montenegro: Albanians and Bosniacs are Muslims.
  • Serbia: Albanians and Bosniacs are mostly Muslim, Hungarians, Slovaks and Croats are mostly Catholic.

For more detailed information and a precise ethnic breakdown see articles about particular states:

References

  • Banac, Ivo. Historiography of the Countries of Eastern Europe: Yugoslavia, American Historical Review, v 97 #4 (October 1992), 1084-1104.
  • Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, [1984].
  • Carter, Francis W., ed. An Historical Geography of the Balkans Academic Press, 1977.
  • Dvornik, Francis. The Slavs in European History and Civilization Rutgers University Press, 1962.
  • Fine, John V. A., Jr. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century [1983]; The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, [1987].
  • John R. Lampe and Marvin R. Jackson; Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations Indiana University Press, 1982
  • Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press, [1983].
  • Jelavich, Charles, and Jelavich, Barbara, eds. The Balkans in Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth Century University of California Press, 1963.
  • Király, Béla K., ed. East Central European Society in the Era of Revolutions, 1775-1856. 1984
  • Komlos, John, ed. Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Successor States: Essays 1990.
  • Mazower, Mark, The Balkans: A Short History, 2000
  • Traian Stoianovich; Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe 1994.
  1. The archaic Greek name for the Balkan Peninsula is the Peninsula of Haemus (Χερσόνησος του Αίμου, Chersónisos tou Aímou).

Other websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Balkans, which are similar to those in the above article.








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