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Drawing of a ballista
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The ballista (Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra[1] and that from - βάλλω ballō, "to throw"),[2] plural ballistae, was a weapon developed from earlier Greek weapons. It relied upon different mechanics, using two levers with torsion springs instead of a prod, the springs consisting of several loops of twisted skeins. Early versions ejected heavy darts or spherical stone projectiles of various sizes for siege warfare. It developed into a smaller sniper weapon, the Scorpio,[3] and possibly the polybolos.

Contents

The Greek weapon

The early ballista in Ancient Greece were developed from two weapons called as oxybeles and gastraphetes. The gastraphetes ('belly-bow') was a hand held crossbow. It had a composite prod and was spanned with both hands, with a ratchet preventing it from shooting while loading. The power available was not sufficient to be used successfully against hoplites and phalangites. Bigger and heavier constructions, the oxybeles employed a winch and were mounted on a tripod. They had a lower rate of fire and were used as siege engines.
With the invention of torsion spring bundle technology, the first ballista was built. The advantage of this new technology was the fast relaxation time of this system. Thus it was possible to shoot lighter projectiles with higher velocities over a longer distance. .For an oxybele, the rules of a torsion weapon demanded that the more energy could be stored, the thicker the prod had to be and the heavier the projectile, otherwise it would only fly with a share of the stored energy.^ Give me a break, it would make more sense to leave the date and time on the pix so that those like Shadowscourge could not use the evidence against him.
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The earliest form of the ballista is thought to have been developed for Dionysius of Syracuse, circa 400 BC.
The Greek ballista were a siege weapon. All components that were not made of wood were transported in the baggage train. It would be assembled with local wood, if necessary. Some were positioned inside large, armored, mobile siege towers or even on the edge of a battlefield. .For all the tactical advantages offered, it was only under Philip II of Macedon and even more so under his son Alexander, that the ballista began to develop and gain recognition as siege engine and field artillery.^ There are enough stories and periods that have only been touched on and even more never told.
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^ Nobody knows what will happen and all possibilities are highly speculative and chances are small that there even will be more.
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^ I am the real deal i swear, u have to trust me, ii know its hard buts it what i know and what the imposters know that counts, the only down side is that u all have to deal with imposters shit.
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.Polybius reports about the usage of smaller more portable ballistae, called scorpions, during the Second Punic War.^ I'm sick of u guys makin fun of me and me mom bcuz I'm more well informed about Star Wars than any of u.
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^ To prove to you cry babys that the Star Wars saga more then just Anakin Skywalker a see the real truth that its about the Skywalker and Solo family.
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^ Besides, the TV show is about to provide more hours of Star Wars than ANY trilogy could.
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.Since these weapons delivered lighter munitions (thus delivering less energy on impact) it is a widely held opinion that they were used more as a counter-battery role, or to destroy lighter offensive or defensive structures.^ Since obviously none of you morons wish to use logic, I'll use it for you: There logically is no reason to make another movie, because (a) people are growing tired of the whole thing, (b) and the more movies you make, the less the effect each movie has.
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^ With this new powerful and destructive anger that I have I want to use it to unleash an unstopable and even more evil Sith army to destroy all man kind.
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.A less accurate weapon like an onager or other single-arm artillery could hit with more force, and thus would be the more useful weapon against reinforced wood or heavy masonry.^ Yendar Platis had six arms and could use six light sabers at a time.
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^ Were they people to be defended against, or people forced into the service who had no desire to fire a weapon.
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^ I just wanted to comment about luke being able to sense Yoda, Yoda could have hid his presence in the fictional account above using a force technique to mask his power.
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.Ballistae could be easily modified to shoot both spherical and shaft projectiles, allowing their crews to adapt easily to prevailing battlefield situations in real time.^ NOBODY and I mean NOBODY in his right mind really beleives this shit, if it were true it could easily be confirmed by 1,2,3, dozens of sources.
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^ Darth Crimson (Who is three times your height, and could kick your ass easily, punk.
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As the role of battlefield artillery became more sophisticated, a universal joint (which was invented just for this function) was integrated into the ballista's stand, allowing the operators to alter the trajectory and firing direction of the ballista as required without a lengthy disassembly of the machine.

The Roman Weapon

A reconstruction of Roman Ballista
Roman 'catapult-nest' on Trajan's Column
Ballista bolt heads.
.After the absorption of the Ancient Greek city-states into the Roman Republic in 146 BCE, the highly advanced Greek technology began to spread across many areas of Roman influence.^ The Cloud City of Bespin has been converted into one of the many Jedi training facilities located all throughout the galaxy.
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.This included the hugely advantageous military advances the Greeks had made (most notably by Dionysus of Syracuse), as well as all the scientific, mathematical, political and artistic developments.^ Well thats all the proof anyone needs, when the sith banner is posted, you know i made them.
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^ All my regards to Darth Elway get well soon we await your most brilliant stories, the fun never ends when Darth Elway begins his stories.
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^ But it's all BS. Shadow claims to have made most of the movie however he is not seen anywhere in the credits.
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.The Romans 'inherited' the torsion powered Ballista, which had by now spread to several cities around the Mediterranean, all of which became Roman spoils of war in time, including one from Pergamum, which was depicted among a pile of 'trophy' weapons in relief on a balustrade.^ Have no fear though to those fans who want an episode 7 there will be one someday I am sure of it, but it will be a long time from now.
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^ The young Darth Augor grew to become one of the greatest Sith of all time.
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^ Bontu Sitmus became a legend in his own lifetime by slaying 7 Dark Jedi at a single time, all by himself.
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.The torsion ballista, developed by Alexander, was a far more complicated weapon than its predecessor and the Romans developed it even further, especially into much smaller versions, that could easily be carried.^ I am FAR more advanced than you could ever imagine.
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^ Instead Obi-Wan?s demise actually started something much greater than Vader could have imagined.
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^ Unbeknownst to Plagueis, Palpatine had found a far more potent kyber crystal than anything Imperius had.
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The early Roman ballista

The early Roman ballistae were made of wood, and held together with iron plates around the frames and iron nails in the stand. .The main stand had a slider on the top, into which were loaded the bolts or stone 'shot'. Attached to this, at the back, was a pair of 'Winches' and a 'Claw', used to ratchet the bowstring back to the armed firing position.^ He fires a cable from his arm that attaches to the ship.
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^ INT. MAIN HANGAR-TRADE FEDERATION CRUISER ARTOO ignites his arm rockets and shoots out of their grip, spraying them both with oil and setting them on fire.
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The slider passed through the field frames of the weapon, in which were located the torsion springs (rope made of animal sinew), which were twisted around the bow arms, which in turn were attached to the bowstring.
Drawing the bowstring back with the winches twisted the already taut springs, storing the energy to fire the projectiles. The bronze or iron caps, which secured the torsion-bundles were adjustable by means of pins and peripheral holes, which allowed the weapon to be tuned for symmetrical power and for changing weather conditions.
.The ballista was a highly accurate weapon (there are many accounts of single soldiers being picked off by ballista operators), but some design aspects meant it could compromise its accuracy for range.^ Our fight is about the lies that many out there believe, just as many of us once did, not to just bash Suttle, who for some, is just asking for trouble.
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^ I just wanted to comment about luke being able to sense Yoda, Yoda could have hid his presence in the fictional account above using a force technique to mask his power.
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^ Maybe you could even lay off the drugs too and make some normal sense out of the world and its history.
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The maximum range was over 500 yards (460 m), but effective combat range for many targets was far shorter. The ballista's relatively lightweight bolts also did not have the high momentum of the stones thrown by the later onagers, trebuchets, or mangonels; these could be as heavy as 200-300 pounds (90-135 kg).
The Romans continued the development of the Ballista, and it became a highly prized and valued weapon in the army of the Roman Empire.
.It was used, just before the start of the Empire, by Julius Caesar during his conquest of Gaul and on both of his campaigns in subduing Britain.^ It does seem kinda strange that the death star just sorta existed in the background until the Empire started using it in A New Hope.
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^ But just because thoase words weren't used before isn't a good argument, but please!
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^ I think you should learn to spell before you start using abusive language!
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Both attempted invasions of Britain and the siege of Alesia are recorded in his own Commentarii (journal), The Gallic Wars (De Bello Gallico).

The first invasion of Britain

.The first invasion of Britain took place in 55 BC, after a rapid and successful initial conquest of Gaul, in part as an exploratory expedition to see the land across the sea, and more practically to try and put an end to the reinforcements sent across by the native Britons to fight the Romans in Gaul.^ Lucas really should have put in that post coruscant planet in ROTJ, he eventually ended up with just two planets a movie or something, it really should have been more!
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^ The two JEDI fight off FOUR MORE DROIDS as ARTOO tries to find the Chancellor.
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.A total of eighty transports, carrying two legions, attempted to land on the British shore (the eighteen accompanying cavalry transports had been blown off course on the way over), only to be driven back by the many British warriors assembled along the shoreline.^ Massive only looks half-way decent when the fighters are extremely small and the camera is pulled way back.
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The ships had to unload their troops on the beach, as it was the only one suitable for many miles, yet the massed ranks of British charioteers and javeliners were making it impossible.
.Seeing this, Caesar ordered the warships – which were swifter and easier to handle than the transports, and likely to impress the natives more by their unfamiliar appearance – to be removed a short distance from the others, and then be rowed hard and run ashore on the enemy’s right flank, from which position the slings, bows and artillery could be used by men on deck to drive them back.^ I look like an angel, have the genius of Socrates, the Martial Arts of Bruce Lee, and more money than Donald Trump.
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^ A2: My bro used to build sites for folks, and tought me sum shit so I could run it.
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^ You sound like you need help more than he does...
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This manoeuvre was highly successful.
Scared by the strange shape of the warships, the motion of the oars, and the unfamiliar machines, the natives halted and then retreated a little. (Caesar, The Conquest of Gaul, p99)

The siege of Alesia

In Gaul, the stronghold of Alesia was under a Roman siege in 52 BC, and was famously almost completely surrounded by a fourteen mile (21 km) long trench filled with water diverted from the local river, then another trench, then a wooden palisade and towers, then the besiegeing Roman army, then another series of palisades and trenches to protect them from any Gallic relief forces. As was standard siege technique at the time, small ballistae were placed up in the towers as snipers and other troops armed with either bows or slings.

The ballista in the Roman Empire

A four-wheeled ballista drawn by armored horses, from an engraving illustrating a 1552 edition of the war-machine catalog De Rebus Bellicis (c. 400).
During the days of the conquest of Empire, the ballista proved its worth many times, in sieges and battles, on ships and on the land. It was even used to quell riots. .It is from the time of the Roman Empire that many of the archaeological finds of ballistae date and in these times that many of the authors, whose technical manuals and journal accounts used by archaeologists to reconstruct these weapons, wrote their accounts.^ Give me a break, it would make more sense to leave the date and time on the pix so that those like Shadowscourge could not use the evidence against him.
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^ I also have this trilogy...and it IS said in these interviews that SW is the TRILOGY of TRILOGIES..and that HE would be making 1 and 2maybe 3 at this time and that he would be finding a replacement to do 7,8 and 9 BUT would still be involved.
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^ Lucas is done with these episodes, there will be no 7-12 because this story we have seen was really about Anakin as Lucas has stated many times.
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After the time of Julius Caesar, the ballista was a permanent fixture in the Roman Army and, over time, modifications and improvements were made by successive engineers. This included replacing the remaining wooden parts of the machine with metal, creating a much smaller and lighter machine, capable of even more power than the wooden version, since the metal was not liable to snap like the wood, and which required less maintenance (though the vital torsion springs were still vulnerable to the rain).

The Cheiroballistra/Manuballista

External images
Reenactor with manuballista [4]
The Cheiroballistra and the Manuballista (hereafter Manuballista) are held by many archaeologists to be the same weapon.[citation needed] The difference in names comes from the different languages spoken in the Empire. .Latin remained the official language in the Western Empire, but the Eastern Empire predominantly used Greek, which added an extra 'r' in the word Ballista.^ SR is only 2 words not 3 ROTE is stupid because Empire was used already for Episode V-THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK TLC is only 3 words not 4.
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The Manuballista was a handheld version of the traditional Ballista. .This new version was made entirely of glass, which conferred greater power to the weapon, since it was smaller, and less iron, an expensive material before the 19th century, was used in its production.^ Thats all fine and dandy Mark if thats who you are, but dont you think any new movies should be made soon before you all get too old?
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^ Mara explains the capabilities of the new weapon and the fact that it can be used to destroy entire star systems.
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^ Also, if u look back, before my new banner was used on ss.com i said ss.com will get some new banners soon.
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It was not the ancient Gastraphetes, but the Roman weapon. However, the same physical limitations applied as with the Gastraphetes.

The Carroballista

Roman cart-mounted carroballista
The Carroballista was a cart-mounted version of the weapon. .This gave it a great deal of flexibility and much more ability as a battlefield weapon, since the increased maneuverability allowed it to be moved with the flow of the battle.^ I don't mind though, I'd love to read some more bold statements and how much you've been through so much in life, dealing with such hardship.
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This weapon features several times on Trajan's Column.

The Polybolos

External images
Trigger of the polybolos[5]
Side elevation of the polybolos[5]
From above with magazin removed[5]
Another view of the trigger[5]
According to some sources, the Roman military, at one time in its history, also fielded 'repeating' ballistae, also known as a polybolos. .Reconstruction and trials of such a weapon carried out in a BBC documentary 'What the Romans Did For Us' showed that they "were able to shoot eleven bolts a minute, which is almost four times the rate at which an ordinary ballista can be operated".[6] However, this has not yet been found archaeologically.^ WHy the hell did they take out my comment when I was pissed off.
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^ Our fight is about the lies that many out there believe, just as many of us once did, not to just bash Suttle, who for some, is just asking for trouble.
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^ They now brought out the original version of the OT on DVD. So without all the alterations as Greedo shooting first and Gayden Christensen as Anakin.
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They operate using a cam to pull the mensa (the place where the projectile travels on) backwards and the string along with it. At the rearmost position, the string is unlocked and propels the projectile forwards. The mensa is then pushed forward and pushes a bolt out of the magazine above it, and latches on to the string, all done with the rotating cam. The cycle then repeats.

Archaeology and the Roman ballista

A small ballista (nine feet long). Note: The torsion springs are shorter than would be historically accurate.
Metal components of a 4th century ballista
Archaeology, and in particular Experimental archaeology has been particularly influential on this subject. Although several ancient authors (such as Vegetius) wrote very detailed technical treatises, providing us with all the information necessary to reconstruct the weapons, all their measurements were in their native language and therefore highly difficult to translate.
Attempts to reconstruct these ancient weapons began at the end of the 19th century, based on the rough translations of these ancient authors. .It was only during the 20th century, however, that many of these reconstructions began to make any sense as a weapon.^ I can't believe Lucasfilm and 20th century fox is going to skip making Episode III-ROTS for Video and going straight to dvd.
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^ And Lucas will most definately not make movies about these books, he will only come up with new stuff.
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By bringing in modern engineers, progress was made with the ancient measurement systems. By redesigning the reconstructions using the new information, archaeologists in the field were able to recognize certain finds from Roman military sites, and identify them as ballistae. The information learned from the excavations then went back into the next generation of reconstructions and so on.
.Sites across the empire have yielded information on ballistae, from Spain (the Ampurias Catapult), to Italy (the Cremona Battleshield, which proved that the weapons had decorative metal plates to shield the operators), to Iraq (the Hatra Machine) and even Scotland (Burnswark siege tactics training camp), and many other sites between.^ His E-mail adress is known but I heard that he sends virusses, he even attacks other sites.
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^ The scipts are poorly written and (thank god) FAKE. Maybe some other sites have stolen SS' his bullshit information, and Mickey has some other sites too.
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^ Lucas has stated many times that he is not interested in any more movies and wants to concentrate on other projects related to the 6 movies, primarily between episodes 2 and 4.
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.The most influential archaeologists in this area have been Peter Connolley and Eric Marsden, who have not only written extensively on the subject but have also made many reconstructions themselves and have refined the designs over many years of work.^ It's just a shame that most people who are fortunate only become egotistical and greedy.
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^ Second, everybody knows that the only people who call other people names like gay are only covering up for themselves.
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^ I've read most of this thing and truthfuly the only person who has a chance of passing second grade is (sadly) Crisis.
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The Middle Ages

With the decline of the Roman Empire, resources to build and maintain these complex machines became very scarce, so the ballista was supplanted by the simpler and cheaper onager and the more efficient esprignal.
Though the weapon continued to be used in the Middle Ages, it faded from popular use with the advent of the trebuchet and mangonel in siege warfare. The crossbow and eventually the longbow supplanted it as sniper weapon. .They all were simpler to make, easier to maintain (no anointment) and much cheaper.^ They make no sense.
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^ Don't listen to the guy who says we have to wait till 2020 because that makes no sense at all and he clearly has nothing to support his case.
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^ Man Starwars is the best movies ever created I wish there never stopped making them, all eras they could make so many more and I would love them all, there is no movie even close, they are awesome.
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Due to the limited influence of the (now mostly dissolved) Roman Empire, the ballista could rarely be found in use across both Europe and the Middle East in the Middle Ages.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ballistra, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  2. ^ Ballo, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  3. ^ Warry, J. (1995). Warfare in the Classical World. Pg.178 Salamander Books Ltd., London: United Kingdom. ISBN 0-8061-2794-5
  4. ^ http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/reenactment-birdoswald-2005-2.html Retrieved 6 February 2008
  5. ^ a b c d http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/RepCatapult.htm Retrieved 6 February 2008
  6. ^ Discovering Roman Technology, by Adam Hart-Davis

References

  • Caesar (tr Handforth), 1982, The Conquest of Gaul, London: Penguin Books
  • Campbell, D; 2003, Greek and Roman Artillery 399 BC – AD 363, Osprey
  • Connolly, P; 1975, The Roman Army, Macdonald Educational
  • Connolly, P; 1998, Greece and Rome at War, Greenhill Books
  • Feugère, M; 2002, Weapons of the Romans, Arcadia
  • Goldsworthy, A; 2003, The Complete Roman Army, Thames and Hudson
  • Marsden, E.W; 1971, Greek and Roman Technical Treatises, Clarendon
  • Warry, J. ;1995, Warfare in the Classical World, Salamander Books Ltd., London: United Kingdom. ISBN 0-8061-2794-5
  • Wilkins, A; 2003, Roman Artillery, Shire Archaeology

External links


Simple English

File:Ballista.gif
Modern reconstruction of a ballista

The ballista (plural ballistae) was one of the first artillery weapons used by the Ancient Greeks. The ballista was invented around 400 BC in a Greek town called Syracuse. It was one of the first catapults, and shot very large and heavy spears far distances. The ballista also resembled a large crossbow and could be used throw scaled-up arrows and darts as well. The steps to operating the ballista are: 1.Pulling back the bow-string with a winch, which creates tension. 2.Loading the ballista with a light missile e.g. darts with iron points. 3.Releasing the bow-string, which launched the missile. Ballistae would be used if a weapon that fired light, narrow ammunition was needed.


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