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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The nationality law of Bangladesh, entitled the Bangladesh Citizenship Order, governs the issues of citizenship and nationality of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.



A part of British India until 1947, the territory of modern Bangladesh formed the eastern wing of the state of Pakistan. In this period, immigration and citizenship were governed by the Pakistani Citizenship Act of 1951.[1] Following the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Bangladesh became an independent state. The primary law concerning nationality and citizenship in Bangladesh is the Bangladeshi Citizenship Order, which was first issued by the President of Bangladesh on 15 December 1972 and has subsequently been amended over the years by the Parliament of Bangladesh.[1][2]


Bangladesh law grants citizenship to a person whose father or grandfather was born in the territories now comprised in Bangladesh and who was a permanent resident of such territories on 25 March 1971 and continues to reside there.[2] Citizenship is also granted to a person(s) who was a permanent resident of the territories now comprised in Bangladesh on 25 March 1971, and continues to be so resident.[2] The law also describes Bengalis who were in West Pakistan during the 1971 war and facing obstacles over returning as permanent residents eligible for Bangladeshi citizenship.[2]

Controversial issues

The independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971 led to the abandonment in the Bengali-majority state of around half a million "Stranded Pakistanis", who traced their ethno-linguistic heritage to the Bihar region. Despite official promises, neither Pakistan nor Bangladesh recognise them as citizens. Several hundred thousand Rohingya people fled Burma for Bangladesh including 250,000 in 1978 as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan. In 1991, following a crackdown on Rohingyas, 250,000 refugees took shelter in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. Some were later repatriated back to the nation that denied them citizenship. As of 2005, the UNHCR had been assisting with the repatriation of Rohingya from Bangladesh, but allegations of human rights abuses in the refugee camps have threatened this effort.[3] Despite earlier efforts by the UN, the vast majority of Rohingya refugees have remained in Bangladesh, unable to return because of the regime in Burma. Now they face problems in Bangladesh where they do not receive support from the government.[4]

See also


  1. ^ a b Swan Sik Ko et al. (1990). Nationality and International Law in Asian Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 3–6. ISBN 079230876X.  
  2. ^ a b c d Bangladeshi Citizenship Order
  3. ^ "UNHCR threatens to wind up Bangladesh operations". New Age BDNEWS, Dhaka. 2005-05-21. Retrieved 2007-04-25.  
  4. ^ Burmese exiles in desperate conditions


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