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Bangor, Maine
—  City  —
Bangor from the Penobscot River

Seal
Nickname(s): The Queen City of the East
Location in Penobscot County, Maine
Coordinates: 44°48′13″N 68°46′13″W / 44.80361°N 68.77028°W / 44.80361; -68.77028Coordinates: 44°48′13″N 68°46′13″W / 44.80361°N 68.77028°W / 44.80361; -68.77028
Country  United States
State  Maine
County Penobscot
Incorporated February 12, 1834
Government
 - Type Council-Manager
 - City Manager Ed Barrett
Area
 - City 34.7 sq mi (90.0 km2)
 - Land 34.4 sq mi (89.2 km2)
 - Water 0.3 sq mi (0.8 km2)
Elevation 118 ft (36 m)
Population (2000)
 - City 31,473 (city proper)
 Density 913.5/sq mi (352.7/km2)
 Metro 148,000
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 04401-04402
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-02795
GNIS feature ID 0561558
Website www.bangormaine.gov
River Driver Statue.JPG
River Driver statue

Bangor (pronounced /ˈbæŋɡɔr, -ɡər/ / bang-gor, -ger/)[1] is a city in and the county seat of Penobscot County, Maine, United States,[2] and the major commercial and cultural center for eastern and northern Maine. It is also the principal city of the Bangor, Maine Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses Bangor and all of Penobscot County.

As of 2008, Bangor is the third-largest city in Maine, as it has been for more than a century. The population of the city was 31,473 at the 2000 census. The population of the Bangor Metropolitan Statistical Area is over 148,000. The population of the five-county area (Penobscot, Piscataquis, Hancock, Aroostook, and Washington) for which Bangor is the largest market town, distribution center, transportation hub, and media center, is over 325,000 people.

Bangor is approximately 30 miles from Penobscot Bay up the Penobscot River at its confluence with the Kenduskeag Stream. It is connected by bridge to the neighboring city of Brewer. Other suburban towns include Orono (home of the University of Maine campus), Hampden, Hermon, Old Town, Glenburn, and Veazie.

Contents

History

Earliest period

The Penobscot people long inhabited the area around present-day Bangor, and still occupy tribal land on the nearby Penobscot Indian Island Reservation. The first European to visit the site was probably the Portuguese Esteban Gómez in 1524, followed by Samuel de Champlain in 1605. Champlain was looking for the mythical city of Norumbega, thought to be where Bangor now lies. French priests settled among the Penobscots, and the valley remained contested between France and Britain into the 1750s, making it one of the last regions to become part of New England.

The British-American settlement which became Bangor was started in 1769 by Jacob Buswell, and was originally known as Condeskeag (or Kenduskeag) Plantation.[3] By 1772 there were 12 families, along with a sawmill, store, and school. The settlement’s first child, Mary Howard, was born that year. The first lawsuit was brought in 1790, when Jacob Buswell sued David Wall for calling him “an old damned grey-headed bugar of Hell” and Rev. Seth Noble “a damned rascall”.[4]

Starting in 1775, Condeskeag became the site of treaty negotiations by which the Penobscot were made to give up almost all their ancestral lands, a process complete by about 1820, when Maine became a state. The tribe was eventually left with only their main village on an island up-river from Bangor, called “Indian Old Town” by the settlers. Eventually a white settlement taking the name Old Town was planted on the river bank opposite the Penobscot village, which began to be called “Indian Island”, and remains the site of the Penobscot Nation.[5]

During the American Revolution in 1779, the rebel Penobscot Expedition fled up the Penobscot River after being routed in the Battle of Castine, Maine, and the last of its ships (at least nine) were burned or captured by the British fleet at Bangor. Paul Revere was among the survivors who fled into the woods.[6] A cannon from one of the rebel warships is mounted in a downtown park, and artifacts from the sunken ships continue to be discovered in the river-bed, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Having grown in size to 567 people, Condeskeag determined to incorporate as a town in 1791.[7] As legend has it, the settlers sent the Rev. Seth Noble to Boston with a petition to name the town "Sunbury" (at the time, Maine was part of Massachusetts). Noble's favorite song was a hymn tune by William Tans'ur entitled Bangor (after the Antiphonary of Bangor), and, in a moment of either drunkenness or misunderstanding, he caused the town to be given that name instead.[8]

The town was sacked by the British during the War of 1812.[7] following the rout of local militia in the Battle of Hampden.[7] After the selectmen surrendered the town, the British raided shops and homes for 30 hours, and threatened to burn ships in the harbor and unfinished ones on stocks. The selectmen, fearing the fires from the ships on stocks would spread to the town, struck a deal by which they put up a bond, and promised to deliver the unfinished vessels to the British by the end of November. The British floated the seaworthy ships into the middle of the Penobscot, set some ablaze, and took others loaded with horses and cattle back to their post in Castine, which they occupied until April 26, 1815, when they left for Canada. The British stayed only 30 hours, according to one account, because in the midst of celebrating their victory the soldiers became so drunk on local rum that the officers felt vulnerable to counter-attack.[9]

Lumber capital

Bangor in 1875

In the 19th century, Bangor prospered as a lumber port, and began to call itself "the lumber capital of the world". Most of the local sawmills (as many as 300-400) were actually upriver in neighboring towns like Orono, Old Town, Bradley, and Milford, Bangor controlling the capital, port facilities, supplies and entertainment. Bangor capitalists also owned most of the forests. The main markets for Bangor lumber were the East Coast cities - Boston and New York were largely built from Maine lumber - but much was also shipped directly to the Caribbean. The city was particularly active in shipping building lumber to California in the Gold Rush period, via Cape Horn, before sawmills could be established in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Bangorians subsequently helped transplant the Maine culture of lumbering to the Pacific Northwest, and participated directly in the Gold Rush themselves. Bangor, Washington; Bangor, California; and Little Bangor, Nevada are legacies of this contact.[10]

Sailors and loggers gave the city a widespread reputation for roughness — their stomping grounds were known as the "Devil's Half Acre".[7]. (The same name was also applied, at roughly the same time, to The Devil's Half-Acre, Pennsylvania). The arrival of Irish immigrants from nearby Canada beginning in the 1830s, and their competition with local yankees for jobs, sparked a deadly sectarian riot in 1833 which lasted days and had to be put down by militia. Realizing the need for a police force, the town incorporated as The City of Bangor in 1834.[11] Irish-Catholic and later Jewish immigrants eventually became established members of the community, along with many migrants from Atlantic Canada. Of 205 black citizens who lived in Bangor in 1910, over a third were originally from Canada.[12]

Bangor was a center of political agitation during the bloodless Aroostook War, a boundary dispute with Britain in 1838-39. Still wary of the British navy, which had brought violence to the Penobscot twice, local politicians caused the Federal government to build a huge granite fort, Fort Knox downriver from Bangor at Prospect, Maine from 1844 to 1864. It remains one of the region's most prominent landmarks, although it never fired a shot in anger.

Log boom in 1910

Many of the lumber barons built elaborate Greek Revival and Victorian houses that still stand on Broadway, West Broadway, and elsewhere around the city. Bangor is also noteworthy for its large number of substantial old churches, as well as its imposing canopy of shade trees. The city was so beautiful it was called "The Queen City of the East." The shorter Queen City appellation is still used by some local clubs, organizations, events and businesses.[13]

In addition to shipping lumber, 19th century Bangor was the leading producer of moccasins, shipping over 100,000 pairs a year by the 1880s.[14]

Slavery issue and the Civil War

Bangor was a center of anti-slavery politics in the years before the American Civil War, partly due to the influence of the Bangor Theological Seminary. The city had a chapter of the American Anti-Slavery Society with 105 members in 1837, and a parallel Female Anti-Slavery Society with 100 more. In 1841, the gubernatorial candidate of the anti-slavery Liberty Party received more votes in Bangor than in any city in Maine, though he lost by a wide margin to a less radical Bangorean, Edward Kent. U.S. Congressman Israel Washburn Jr. from neighboring Orono was instrumental in organizing 30 members of the U.S. House of Representatives to discuss forming the Republican Party, and was the first politician of that rank to use the term "Republican", in a speech at Bangor in June 2, 1854.[15]

That Hannibal Hamlin of neighboring Hampden became Lincoln's first Vice President, contributed to the strength of local anti-slavery feeling, at least among an educated elite. The city gradually became so hot for the Republican cause that on Aug. 17, 1861 the offices of the Democratic paper, the Bangor Daily Union, were ransacked by a mob, and the presses and other materials thrown into the street and burned. Editor Marcellus Emery was threatened with violence but escaped unharmed. He only resumed publishing after the war.[16]

Bangor and surrounding towns were heavily engaged in the American Civil War. The locally-mustered 2nd Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment ("The Bangor Regiment"), was the first to march out of the state in 1861, and played a prominent part in the First Battle of Bull Run. The 1st Maine Heavy Artillery Regiment, mustered in Bangor and commanded by a local merchant, lost more men than any Union regiment in the war (especially in a single ill-fated charge in the Second Battle of Petersburg, 1864). The 20th Maine Infantry Regiment commanded by Maj. Gen. Joshua Chamberlain from the neighboring town of Brewer gained fame for holding Little Round Top in the Battle of Gettysburg. Grant gave Chamberlain the honor of accepting the surrender of Lee's Army of Virginia. A bridge connecting Bangor with Brewer is named for Chamberlain, who was one of eight Civil War soldiers from Bangor or surrounding Penobscot County towns to receive the Medal of Honor.[17]

Bangor's main Civil War naval hero was Charles A. Boutelle, who accepted the surrender of the Confederate fleet after the Battle of Mobile Bay. A Bangor residential street is named for him. A number of Bangor ships were captured on the high seas by Confederate raiders in the Civil War, including the "Delphine", "James Littlefield", "Mary E. Thompson" and "Golden Rocket".[18]

The University of Maine (originally The Maine State College) was founded in the suburban town of Orono in 1868.

In the 1880s there was a local quarrel over the adoption of Eastern Standard Time because Bangor was so far east. Bangor even elected an anti-EST mayor (J.F. Snow), and the city had, for awhile, two times. Some people set their watches to EST, and some to 'local time'. The issue was finally settled by the state legislature, which made EST 'standard' across all of Maine.

Although Maine was the first "dry" state (i.e. the first to prohibit the sale of alcohol, with the passage of the "Maine law" in 1851), Bangor managed to remain "wet". The city had 142 saloons in 1890. A look-the-other-way attitude by local police and politicians (sustained by a system of bribery in the form of ritualized fine-payments known as "The Bangor Plan") allowed Bangor to flout the nation's most long-standing state prohibition law.[19]

Early twentieth century

Main Street in c. 1920

In 1900 Bangor was still shipping wooden spools to England and wooden fruit boxes to Italy. An average of 2,000 vessels called at Bangor each year. But its days as a lumber port were numbered, as the Maine woods began to be purchased by paper corporations, and large pulp and paper mills were erected in towns all along the Penobscot. The transition from lumber to paper was completed in the first quarter of the 20th century, though Bangor businesses continued to prosper by serving the paper industry.[20] Local capitalists also invested in a train route to Aroostook County in northern Maine (the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad), opening that area to settlement.

In 1909, Robert E. Peary, after leading the first expedition to reach the North Pole, returned by train to the United States from Canada, via Bangor, where he was treated to a reception and given an engraved silver cup. Peary's Arctic exploration ship, the Roosevelt, had been built just south of Bangor on Verona Island.

On April 30, 1911, embers from a hayshed near the Kenduskeag Stream ignited nearby buildings, sparking the Great Fire of 1911. The fire would destroy most of the downtown, forever changing the face of the city, but as in the case of the more famous Great Chicago Fire of 1871, Bangor rose again and prospered. Most of the present downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the 'Great Fire Historic District', while the portion that survived the fire is the 'West Market Square Historic District'.[13]

In 1913, the war of the "drys" (prohibitionists) on "wet" Bangor escalated when the Penobscot County Sheriff was impeached and removed by the Maine Legislature for not enforcing anti-liquor laws. His successor was asked to resign by the Governor the following year for the same reason, but refused. A third sheriff was removed by the Governor in 1918, but promptly re-nominated by the Democratic Party. Prohibitionist Carrie Nation had been forcibly expelled from the Bangor House hotel in 1902 after causing a disturbance.[21]

In 1915, a German agent, Werner Horn attempted to dynamite the international railroad bridge in Vanceboro but was captured and arraigned on federal charges in Bangor. Later that year, $100 million in British gold bullion was shipped by rail from Halifax to New York, over that same bridge and through Bangor, in order to pay war-related debts.[22]

The city was visited by the global Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918 and over a hundred died. This was the worst 'natural disaster' in Bangor's history.

In the fall of 1937, "public enemy" Al Brady and another member of his "Brady Gang" were killed in the bloodiest shootout in Maine's history. Federal agents ambushed Brady and his two accomplices on Bangor's Central Street after they had attempted to purchase guns and ammunition from Dakin's Sporting Goods downtown. Brady is buried in the public section of Mount Hope Cemetery, on the north side of Mount Hope Avenue.[23] Until recently Brady's grave was unmarked. A group of schoolchildren erected a wooden marker over his grave in the 1990s, which was replaced by a more permanent stone in 2007.[24]

Second World War and after

Old Post Office, now City Hall

During the Second World War, Bangor's Dow Airfield (later Dow Air Force Base) became a major embarkation point for U.S. Army Air Force planes flying to and returning from Europe. Photographs and obituaries of 112 servicemen from Bangor who gave their lives in the war are preserved in 'Book of Honor' at the Bangor Public Library. There was also a small POW Camp in Bangor for captured German soldiers, a satellite of the much larger Camp Houlton in northern Maine.

In November, 1944, two German spies who had been landed on the Maine coast by U-Boat hitched a ride to Bangor, where they boarded a train to New York. They were eventually arrested and tried after an extensive Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) manhunt.[25]

In the post-war period Dow Airfield became a Strategic Air Command Base, and was subsequently converted into the Bangor International Airport. Beginning in the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of international airline passengers, especially those on charter flights, cleared customs in Bangor as their planes refueled on the way from Europe to the interior of the United States or Mexico. The airport also became a major portal for returning troops in both the first and second Gulf Wars.

The destruction of downtown landmarks such as the old city hall and train station in the late 1960s Urban Renewal Program is now considered to have been a huge planning mistake, ushering a decline of the city center that was only accelerated by the construction of the Bangor Mall in 1978 and subsequent big box stores on the city's outskirts.[26] Downtown Bangor began to recover in the 1990s, however, with bookstores, cafe/restaurants, galleries, and museums filling once vacant storefronts. The recent re-development of the city's waterfront has also helped re-focus cultural life in the historic center.[27]

In 1992 Bangor was the launch site for the Chrysler Trans-Atlantic Challenge Balloon Race, which saw teams from five nations competing to reach Europe. The Belgians won, but the American team, blown off course, became the first to pilot a balloon from North America to Africa (it landed near Fez, Morocco), setting new endurance and distance records in the process.[28]

Also in 1992, a series of NASA scientific research flights carried out from Bangor, using a converted U-2 spy plane proved that the hole in the ozone layer had critically grown over the northern hemisphere, prompting an acceleration of the global phase-out of CFCs (the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol)

Geography

Eastern Trust Building (1912) in Great Fire of 1911 Historic District
Lower Main Street

Bangor is located at 44°48′13″N 68°46′13″W / 44.80361°N 68.77028°W / 44.80361; -68.77028 (44.803, -68.770).[29] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.7 square miles (90.0 km²), of which, 34.5 square miles (89.2 km²) of it is land and 0.3 square miles (0.8 km²) of it (0.86%) is water.

Geography has been both the city's prosperity, and a limiting factor in its growth. The Penobscot River watershed above Bangor is both extensive and heavily forested, yet was too far north to attract American settlers intent on farming. These same conditions made it ideal for lumbering, along with deep winter snows which allowed logs to be easily dragged from the woods by horse-teams. Carried to the Penobscot or its tributaries, logs could be floated downstream with the spring thaw to sawmills on waterfalls (water-power driving the sawblades) just above Bangor. The sawn lumber was then shipped from the city's docks, Bangor being at the head-of-tide (between the rapids and the ocean) to points anywhere in the world needing wood. The combination of forests and sheltered coves along the nearby Maine coast also fostered the development of a ship-building industry to service the lumber trade.[10]

Bangor had certain disadvantages compared to other East Coast ports, including its rival Portland, Maine. Being on a northern river, its port froze during the winter, and could not take the largest ocean-going ships. The comparative lack of settlement in the forested hinterland also gave it a comparatively small home market.[30]

Many of the same conditions that favored lumbering, however, were attractive to the pulp and paper industry, which took over the Penobscot watershed in the twentieth century. One large difference was transportation: the paper was shipped out, and the chemicals in, by railroad. The city began turning its back on the river as its train-yards became more important. The coming of the paper industry assured, however, that the Maine woods would remain unsettled for another century.[20]

Bangor's other geographic advantage, not realizable until the mid-twentieth century, was that it lay along the most direct air-route between the U.S. East Coast and Europe (the Great Circle Route). The construction of an air-field in the 1930s, and its continual expansion under military auspices through the 1960s, allowed the city to eventually take full advantage of this geographic gift. Having the Canadian border close-by also helped. Bangor was the last American airport before Europe, or the first American airport one encountered flying from Europe. The extension of air routes connecting Europe with the U.S. West Coast and the Caribbean in the 1970s-80s put Bangor very much in the middle as a refueling stop for charter aircraft. The subsequent development of longer-range jets began to reduce this advantage in the 1990s.[31]

A potential advantage that has always eluded the city is its location between the Canadian port city of Halifax and the rest of Canada (as well as New York). As early as the 1870s the city promoted a Halifax to New York railroad, via Bangor, as the quickest connection between North America and Europe (when combined with steamship service between Britain and Halifax). A European and North American Railway was actually opened through Bangor, with President Ulysses S. Grant officiating at the inauguration, but commerce never lived up to the potential. More recently attempts to capture traffic between Halifax and Montreal by constructing an East-West Highway through Maine have also come to naught. Most overland traffic between the two parts of Canada continues to travel north of Maine rather than across it.[31]

Climate data for Bangor, Maine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 27.6
(-2.4)
30.9
(-0.6)
40.2
(4.6)
52.6
(11.4)
65.4
(18.6)
74.4
(23.6)
79.6
(26.4)
78.1
(25.6)
69.1
(20.6)
57.3
(14.1)
44.8
(7.1)
33.1
(0.6)
54.4
(12.4)
Average low °F (°C) 8.3
(-13.2)
11.4
(-11.4)
22.1
(-5.5)
33.2
(0.7)
43.6
(6.4)
53.3
(11.8)
58.7
(14.8)
57.2
(14)
48.5
(9.2)
38.2
(3.4)
29.3
(-1.5)
15.8
(-9)
35.0
(1.7)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.34
(84.8)
2.54
(64.5)
3.44
(87.4)
3.32
(84.3)
3.40
(86.4)
3.41
(86.6)
3.24
(82.3)
2.99
(75.9)
3.39
(86.1)
3.48
(88.4)
3.69
(93.7)
3.33
(84.6)
39.57
(1,005.1)
Snowfall inches (mm) 17.7
(449.6)
15.6
(396.2)
12.4
(315)
4.6
(116.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3.5
(88.9)
13.7
(348)
67.6
(1,717)
Avg. snowy days 7.4 6.8 5.5 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.7 6.7 30.3
Avg. precipitation days 10.2 7.9 10.3 10.7 9.5 11.2 10.5 8.5 10.5 10.4 9.9 10.6 120.2
Source: NCDC [32] March 2010

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1820 1,221
1830 2,867 134.8%
1840 8,627 200.9%
1850 14,432 67.3%
1860 16,407 13.7%
1870 18,289 11.5%
1880 16,856 −7.8%
1890 19,103 13.3%
1900 21,850 14.4%
1910 24,803 13.5%
1920 25,978 4.7%
1930 28,749 10.7%
1940 29,822 3.7%
1950 31,558 5.8%
1960 38,912 23.3%
1970 33,168 −14.8%
1980 31,643 −4.6%
1990 33,181 4.9%
2000 31,473 −5.1%
Est. 2008 31,756 0.9%
sources:[33]
Downtown Bangor

As of the census[34] of 2000, there were 31,473 people, 13,713 households, and 7,185 families residing in the city. The population density was 913.7 people per square mile (352.7/km²). There were 14,587 housing units at an average density of 423.5/sq mi (163.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.96% White, 1.02% African American, 0.98% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, and 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.05% of the population.

Of Bangor's 13,713 households, 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.6% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.81.

Exchange Street

21.3% of Bangor's population was under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.

The median household income in the city was $29,740, and the median income for a family was $42,047. Males had a median income of $32,314 versus $23,759 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,295. About 11.9% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.9% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over.

As of 2007, the population of the Bangor Metropolitan Area (which includes Penobscot and parts of Waldo and Hancock Counties) is 147,180, indicating a 1.56 growth rate since 2000, almost all of it accounted for by Bangor. Metro Bangor had a higher percentage of people with high school degrees than the national average (85% compared to 76.5%) and a slightly higher number of graduate degree holders (7.55% compared to 7.16%). It had much higher no. of physicians per capita (291 vs. 170), because of the presence of two large hospitals.[35]

Cultural institutions

Bangor Public Library Dome

The Bangor Public Library, founded in 1883, traces its beginnings to 1830 and seven books in a simple footlocker. It now has a collection of over 500,000 volumes, and regularly records one of the highest circulation rates in the country.[36]

The University of Maine Museum of Art, located in Norumbega Hall in downtown Bangor, has a permanent collection of over 6500 pieces, including works by Berenice Abbott, Marsden Hartley, Winslow Homer, John Marin, Carl Sprinchorn, and Andrew Wyeth.[37] The Maine Discovery Museum, a major children's museum founded in 2001 in the former Freese's Department Store. The Bangor Museum and Center for History in addition to its exhibit space maintains the historic Thomas A. Hill House.[38] The Bangor Police Department boasts a police museum with some items dating to the 1700s. There is a Fire Museum at the former State Street Fire Station.

Bangor Opera House

There are several performing arts venues and groups in the Bangor area. The Bangor Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1896, is the oldest continually operating symphony orchestra in the United States.[39] The Bangor Band, founded in 1859 and performing continually since then, gives free weekly concerts in the city's parks during the summer, and counts among its past conductors noted march composer Robert B. Hall. The Penobscot Theatre Company, founded in 1973, is a professional theater company based in the historic Bangor Opera House.[40] The Maine Center for the Arts, located at the nearby University of Maine, hosts a wide variety of touring performing artists and events. River City Cinema hosts a free outdoor summer film festival in downtown Bangor.[41]

The University of Maine, the flagship campus of the University of Maine System is located 9 miles from Bangor in the town of Orono, and adds significantly to the city's cultural life. There is also a vocationally-oriented University College of Bangor, associated with the University of Maine at Augusta. Bangor's Husson University, founded in 1898, enrolls approximately 2500 students a year in a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs. Beal College, also in Bangor, is a small institution oriented toward career training. The Bangor Theological Seminary, founded in 1814, is the only accredited graduate school of religion in northern New England.

Bangor has a sister city relationship with nearby Saint John, New Brunswick.

Architecture

West Market Square

Bangor has a fascinating, mostly 19th-century cityscape, and sections of the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The city has also had a municipal Historic Preservation Commission since the early 1980s.[13]

The Thomas Hill Standpipe, a huge elegant shingle style structure, is visible from most parts of the city. Also prominent are the spires of the Hammond St. Congregational and Unitarian churches, built from similar designs by the Boston architectural firm Towle and Foster, and that of St. John's Catholic Church constructed around the same time. The Bangor House Hotel, now converted to apartments, is the only survivor among a series of "Palace Hotels" designed by Boston architect Isaiah Rogers which were the first of their kind in the United States.[42] Bangor also boasts the country's second oldest garden cemetery, the Mt. Hope Cemetery, designed by Charles G. Bryant.[13]

Richard Upjohn, British-born architect and early promoter of the Gothic Revival, received some of his first commissions in Bangor, including the Isaac Farrar House (1833), Samuel Farrar House (1836), Thomas A. Hill House (presently owned by the Bangor Historical Society), and St. John's Church (Episcopal, 1836–39). The later was designed just prior to his most famous commission, Trinity Church in New York City. Upjohn was a founding member of the American Institute of Architects and its first president (1857–76).[43]

St. John's Catholic Church with Thomas Hill Standpipe in distance

Other local landmarks include the Bangor Public Library by Peabody and Stearns; All Soul's Congregational Church by Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson; the Wheelwright Block by Benjamin S. Deane; and The Eastern Maine Insane Hospital by John Calvin Stevens.[44] Bangor also contains many impressive Greek Revival. Victorian, and Colonial Revival houses, some of which are also listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The most photographed is the William Arnold House of 1856, Bangor's largest Italianate style mansion and home to author Stephen King. Its wrought-iron fence with bat and spider web motif is King's own addition.[13]

The bow-plate of the battleship USS Maine, whose destruction in Havana, Cuba presaged the start of the Spanish-American War, survives on a granite memorial by Charles Eugene Tefft in Davenport Park.

In the category "roadside architecture", Bangor has a huge, famous fiberglass-over-metal statue of mythical lumberman Paul Bunyan by Normand Martin (1959) and one of only two Howard Johnson's restaurants left in the country.

Public art

Sculpture "Continuity of Community" (1969) in West Market Square
Peirce Memorial

There are three large bronze statues in downtown Bangor by Brewer sculptor Charles Eugene Tefft, including the Luther H. Peirce Memorial, commemorating the Penobscot River Log-Drivers, a statue of Hannibal Hamlin at Kenduskeag Mall, and an image of "Lady Victory" at Norumbega Parkway.

The abstract aluminum sculpture "Continuity of Community" (1969) in West Market Square is by the Castine sculptor Clark Battle Fitz-Gerald (1917–2004) whose works also stand at Coventry Cathedral, Independence Hall, and Columbia University

The U.S. Post Office in Bangor contains the three-part mural "Autumn Expansion" (1980) by noted artist Yvonne Jacquette.

A large bronze commemorating the 2nd Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment (1962) by Wisconsin sculptor Owen Vernon Shaffer stands at the entrance to Mt. Hope Cemetery

Public safety

Engine and Hose Co. No. 5 (now Fire Museum)

Ironically, this city associated with the novels of Stephen King is among the safest in the United States. Its crime rate is the second lowest among American metropolitan areas of comparable size.[45]

Beginning 19 January 2007 the city has banned smoking in automobiles if children under 18 are present. Offenders can be fined $50 under the ordinance. According to the New York Times, Bangor is "believed to be the first city to outlaw smoking in cars with children."[46]

Government and Schools

Bangor has had a Council-Manager form of government since 1931, with a nine-member City Council. Three city councilors are elected to three-year terms each year. Although Bangor has no "Mayor", the Chair of the City Council is often informally referred to as the City's Mayor.

In 1996, Bangor's City Council was the first in North America to unanimously approve a resolution opposing the sale of sweat-shop produced clothing in local stores.

Bangor and Augusta have together produced the largest number of Governors of Maine (nine each, including two non-consecutive terms by Edward Kent).[47] This list includes the present governor, Democrat John Baldacci, and the last Republican governor, John McKernan. A number of others were born or lived in suburban towns such as Brewer, Hampden, and Orono.

Bangor has two major secondary schools, the publicly run Bangor High School and the private John Bapst Memorial High School. There are also two public middle schools, and an extensive elementary school system.

Events

The Bangor State fair, held starting the last Friday of each July, for more than 150 years, is one of the country's oldest fairs, featuring agricultural exhibits, carnival attractions, and live performances.

In 2002, 2003, and 2004, Bangor was the host of the National Folk Festival. In August 2005, the newly created American Folk Festival began as an annual event on the city's waterfront. The annual Bangor Book Festival brings Maine-based writers together at the Bangor Public Library and other venues.

The Kenduskeag Stream Canoe Race, a celebrated white-water event which begins just north of Bangor in the town of Kenduskeag, has been held annually for the last 40 years. Bangor also hosts an annual Soapbox Derby race, and a Paul Bunyon marathon.

Media

The Bangor region has a large number of media outlets for an area its size. The city has an unbroken history of newspaper publishing extending from 1815. Almost 30 dailies, weeklies, and monthlies had been launched there by the end of the Civil War .[16]

Bangor Daily News building

The Bangor Daily News was founded in the late nineteenth century, and is one of the few remaining family-owned newspapers left in the United States. Bangor Metro, founded in 2005, is the area's glossy business, lifestyle, and opinion magazine. The alternative/lifestyle weekly The Maine Edge also publishes in the city.

Bangor has more than a dozen radio stations and seven television stations, including WLBZ 2 (NBC), WABI 5 (CBS), WVII 7 (ABC), WBGR 33, and WFVX 22 (Fox). WMEB 12, licensed to nearby Orono, is the area's PBS member station. Radio stations in the city include WKIT-FM and WZON, owned by Zone Radio Corporation, a company owned by Bangor resident novelist Stephen King. WHSN is a non-commercial alternative rock station licensed to Bangor and run and operated by staff and students at the New England School of Communications located on the campus of Husson College. Several other stations in the market are owned by Blueberry Broadcasting and Cumulus Media.

Sport and recreation

Bangor Auditorium

The Eastern Maine High school basketball Tournament is held each February at the Bangor Auditorium drawing fans from central, eastern and northern Maine. The nearby University of Maine fields major college sports teams in football, ice hockey, baseball, and men's and women's basketball. Bangor has also been home to two minor league baseball teams in the past decade: the Bangor Blue Ox (1996–1997) and the Bangor Lumberjacks (2003–2004). Both were affiliated with the Northeast League that existed under that name from 1995-1998.

Bangor High School sports teams are traditionally strong competitors. In the state "class A" division of both baseball and basketball, Bangor holds the record for number of combined champion and runner-up placements. In football they share that record with South Portland. Both the boy's and the girl's swim teams have also tallied the most state-wide wins.

Kenduskeag Stream

Bangor Raceway offers live harness racing and features an off-track betting center. Also, nearby Hollywood Slots operated by Penn National Gaming is Maine's first slot machine gambling center. In 2007, construction began on a $131 million casino complex in Bangor that houses, among other things, a gaming floor featuring approximately 1,000 slot machines, a seven-story hotel, and a four-level parking garage. The controversial new racino opened in the summer of 2008. Maine is one of few states where racinos are legal, and the one in Bangor is expected to change the city's tourism profile.

Every August (since 2002) Bangor has been home to the Senior League World Series.

Bangor has also been of historical importance to professional wrestling. Vince McMahon promoted his very first wrestling event in Bangor in 1979. In 1985, the WWC Universal Heavyweight Championship changed hands for the first time outside of Puerto Rico in Bangor at an IWCCW show.[48]

The Bangor City Forest and other nearby parks, forests and waterways support a wide variety of outdoor activities including hiking, sailing, canoeing, hunting, fishing, skiing, and snowmobiling.

The Penobscot has always been the premier salmon-fishing river in Maine, and the Bangor Salmon Pool traditionally sent the first fish caught to the President of the United States. Low fish stocks resulted in a ban on salmon fishing in 1999-2006 but the wild salmon population (and the sport) is slowly recovering. The Penobscot River Restoration Project is presently working to help the fish population by removing certain dams north of Bangor.[49]

In 2009, due to the help of fighter Marcus Davis, Mixed Martial Arts was sanctioned in the state.

Transportation

Bangor is located along I-95, U.S. 1, US 2, and State Route 15. I-395 branches from I-95 and runs to the east. Three major bridges, Joshua Chamberlain Bridge(US Route 1a), Penobscot River Bridge(SR-15) and the Veterans Remembrace Bridge(I-395) connect Bangor to its neighbor Brewer.

Five major airlines offer over 60 flights a day to and from Bangor International Airport, giving the city non-stop service to Boston, Newark, Philadelphia, Detroit, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Orlando, and seasonal non-stop service to New York's LaGuardia Airport and Minneapolis. Most of the major car rental companies have desks at the airport.

Ferry service from nearby Bar Harbor connects the area with the Canadian province of Nova Scotia

Daily bus service provided by six companies connects Bangor with nearly all large surrounding towns and cities in Maine, as well as with Boston; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; and St. John, New Brunswick.

Public transportation within Bangor and to adjacent towns such as Orono is offered by the BAT Community Connector system. There is also a seasonal (summer) shuttle between Bangor and Bar Harbor.

Military installations

Although Dow Air Force Base has been the city-owned Bangor International Airport since 1969, the US military and the Maine Air National Guard continue to house units there and share the runway. These include the 101st Air Refueling Wing of the United States Air Force (USAF) and its 132nd Air Refueling Squadron, which mostly fly KC-135 tanker planes. The 132nd, which has been based in Bangor since 1947, and calls itself “The Mainiacs”, was a fighter squadron until 1976.

In 1990, the USAF East Coast Radar System (ECRS) Operation Center was activated in Bangor with over 400 personnel. The center controlled the Over-The-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) radar system, whose transmitter was in Moscow, Maine, and receiver in coastal Columbia Falls. Designed and built by General Electric, and incorporating 28 Digital Equipment VAX computers housed in Bangor, it was the most powerful radar in the world, capable of monitoring virtually the entire North Atlantic, from Iceland to the Caribbean. A similar system on the West Coast was built but never activated. With the end of the Cold War, the facility's mission of guarding against a Soviet air attack became superfluous, and though it briefly turned its attention toward drug interdiction, the system was decommissioned in 1997 as an expensive Cold War relic.[50]

In 1960-64, Bangor had a similar experience as one of a dozen BOMARC anti-aircraft missile bases. Abandoned by the Air Force four years after construction, the fortified concrete missile bunkers long survived as ghostly landmarks, and a deactivated BOMARC missile was briefly mounted, statue-like, next to Paul Bunyan at Bass Park.

Famous and notable Bangorians

Statesmen

Cohen and President Clinton at The Pentagon, September 1997.

Bangor is the hometown of Hannibal Hamlin, who served as Abraham Lincoln's first Vice President, and was a strong opponent of slavery. His statue stands in a downtown park, and his house is on the National Register of Historic Places. His daughter and son were present in Ford's Theatre the night Lincoln was shot. Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury, William P. Fessenden, practiced law in Bangor in the early 1830s.[51]

William Cohen, former U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of Defense under President Bill Clinton, is a Bangor native. A local middle school is named in his honor. Current U.S. Senator Susan Collins lives in Bangor.

Sixteen citizens of Bangor have served as U.S. Congressmen: Francis Carr (1812–13); James Carr (1815–17); William D. Williamson (1821–23); Gorham Parks (1833–37); Elisha Hunt Allen (1841–43); Charles Stetson (1849–51); John A. Peters (1822–1904); Samuel F. Hersey (1873–75); Harris M. Plaisted (1875–77); George W. Ladd (1879–1883); Charles A. Boutelle (1882–1901); Donald F. Snow (1929–1933); John G. Utterback (1933–35); Frank Fellows (1941–51); John R. McKernan (1983–87); and John Baldacci (1995–2003). Four of them (Williamson, Plaisted, McKernan, and Baldacci) became Governors of Maine. Boutelle was Chairman of the House Committee on Naval Affairs during the building of the Great White Fleet. Hersey willed his estate to the City of Bangor, which used it to found the Bangor Public Library in 1883. Snow was sentenced to two years in prison for embezzlement in 1935, but was pardoned a few months later.

Ten U.S. Congressmen from other states were either born in Bangor or formerly lived there, namely Abner Taylor (Illinois), Orrin Larrabee Miller (Kansas), Donald C. McRuer (California), Mark Trafton (Massachusetts), Daniel T. Jewett (Missouri), Alpheus Felch (Michigan), and Loren Fletcher, Solomon Comstock, William D. Washburn, and Frederick Stevens (all Minnesota). Dorilus Morrison, the first mayor of Minneapolis, was a Bangor lumber merchant in the 1840s.[52]

The vice presidential candidate of the Green Party in the 2004 election, Patricia LaMarche was raised in Bangor. The first African-American elected to the Maine State Legislature was Bangor-born Gerald E. Talbot, who served 1972-78.

Bangor elected the only member of the Spiritualist religion known to have achieved state-wide office in the United States: attorney Mark Alton Barwise, who served in the Maine House of Representatives, and then the Maine State Senate, in 1921-26. Barwise was a trustee (and senior counsel) of the National Spiritualist Association and Curator of its Bureau of Phenomenal Evidence. He also wrote prolifically on Spiritualism.[2]

Writers

Stephen King's house.

The most famous Bangor resident is undoubtedly Stephen King, the author best known for his horror-themed stories, novels, and movies. His wife, Tabitha Spruce-King, is also a writer, as are sons Joseph Hillstrom King (aka Joe Hill) and Owen King. The family donates a substantial amount of money to local libraries and hospitals and have funded a baseball stadium, Mansfield Stadium (home to the Senior League World Series), and the Beth Pancoe Aquatic Center, both on the grounds of Hayford Park, for the citizens (especially the children) of the city. King's fictional town, Derry, Maine, shares many points of correspondence with Bangor — the rivers, the Paul Bunyan Statue, the Thomas Hill Standpipe, the hospital — but is always referred to as separate from Bangor. King also features Bangor in many of his stories, such as The Langoliers and Storm of the Century. King owns radio stations WKIT, WZON, and WZON-FM.

Hayford Peirce, the science-fiction writer and nephew of Waldo Peirce, is likewise a Bangor native. Other contemporary authors from Bangor include novelists Don J. Snyder, Christina Baker Kline, Barbara Goldscheider, Henry Garfield, Christopher Willard, and Mameve Medwed; poets Terry Godbey, Sarah Ruth Jacobs, David Baker, and Annaliese Jakimides; and children's book authors Susan Lubner and Bruce McMillan.

Bangor had strong links to Transcendentalism through Frederick Henry Hedge, minister of the Congregational Church there in the 1830s. His circle, which included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, met as "Hedge's Club" or the Transcendental Club whenever Hedge returned to his native Cambridge, Massachusetts. Emerson had previously lectured in Bangor and Hedge took the position here on his advice.[53] Thoreau visited Bangor a number of times (his aunt and cousins also lived here) and describes the city in his book The Maine Woods.

Pulitzer Prize winning playwright Owen Davis (1874–1956) lived in Bangor until he was 15, and his prize-winning play Icebound (1923) is set in neighboring Veazie. Davis wrote between 200 and 300 plays, as well as radio and film scripts, and two autobiographies. He was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and was president of the Author's League of America and the American Dramatist's Guild.[54]

Christine Goutiere Weston (1904–1989), author of ten novels, more than thirty short stories, and two non-fiction books (about Ceylon and Afghanistan), lived the latter part of her life in Bangor. She had been born in India and much of her fiction was set there.[55]

Katya Alpert Gilden (1919–1991) of Bangor co-authored with her husband Bert Gilden the best-selling 1965 novel Hurry Sundown, which became an Otto Preminger film in 1967.

Blanche Willis Howard, a best-selling late nineteenth century novelist, was born and raised in Bangor. She eventually moved to Stuttgart, Germany and married the court physician to King Charles I of Württemberg, thus becoming the Baroness von Teuffel.

Eugene T. Sawyer, the "Prince of Dime Novelists", was born and raised in Bangor. In a 1902 interview, he claimed to have authored 75 examples of that genre, mostly for the Nick Carter series, once producing a 60,000 word novel in two days. His major innovation was to "begin the plot with the first word", i.e. "We will have the money, or she shall die!"[56]

Bangor-born Henry Payson Dowst (1872–1921) was a novelist and short-story writer, and saw a number of his stories made into silent films. One was The Dancin' Fool (1920) starring Wallace Reid. He spent his later life in a New York advertising agency, but was buried in Bangor.

Ruel Perley Smith (1869–1937), born in Bangor, was the author of the Rival Campers series of boy's book in the early 20th century. His regular job was as Night and Sunday Editor of the New York World newspaper.[57] Like Smith, Frederick H. Costello (1851–1921) was a nationally-successful writer of adventure novels for young adults, who for 30 years held a day-job as local (Bangor) manager of the R.G. Dunn credit reporting company.

Artists

Artist Waldo Peirce (left), with brother and art-historian Hayford Peirce (right) and wives, before a night at the Bangor Opera in the 1930s. Courtesy of Hayford Peirce Jr.

The painter and bohemian Waldo Peirce, confidante of Ernest Hemingway, was from a prominent Bangor family.

Portrait painter Jeremiah Pearson Hardy (1800–1887), who apprenticed under Samuel F.B. Morse, lived and worked in Bangor for most of his career, sustained largely by the patronage of lumber barons.[58] His children Anna Eliza Hardy and Francis Willard Hardy, and sister Mary Ann Hardy, were also part of a 19th century circle of Bangor painters. Other members of this circle included Florence Whitney Jennison and Isabel Graham Eaton, who was also an author.[59]

Walter Franklin Lansil studied first under Hardy, and then at the Academie Julian in Paris. He established a studio in Boston and became a celebrated landscape and marine artist. His brother Wilbur H. Lansil, a noted painter of rural landscapes, accompanied him to Boston.

Frederic Porter Vinton (1846–1911) left Bangor at age 14 for Boston, where he became that city's most sought-after portrait painter - producing over 300 canvases - and one of the original members of The Boston School. He studied in Munich and with Leon Bonnat in Paris, as well as with William Morris Hunt.

Painter Helena Wood Smith (1865–1914), a member of the artists' colony at Carmel-by-the-Sea, California was murdered there by her lover, Japanese photographer George Kodani. She was the sister of novelist Ruel Perley Smith[60]

Show-business people

Bangor is the birthplace of comedian/actor Charles Rocket (1949–2005), who was a cast member on Saturday Night Live, and appeared in more than eighty other television shows and films, including Touched by an Angel, Miami Vice, and Star Trek: Voyager.

Sportscaster Gary Thorne was also born here and once served as an assistant district attorney in the city.

Actor Wayne Maunder, who played George Armstrong Custer in the series Custer on ABC in 1967, and co-starred with Andrew Duggan, James Stacy, and Paul Brinegar on CBS's Lancer western series, was reared in Bangor though born in New Brunswick, Canada.

Actress Stephanie Niznik of the television series Everwood and the film Star Trek: Insurrection was also reared in Bangor.[61]

Character actor Everett Glass (1891–1966) was born in Bangor. He appeared in more than seventy films and television shows from the 1940s through the 1960s, including Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956) and episodes of Superman, Lassie, and Perry Mason.[62]

Bangorian Leonard Horn (1926–1975) directed episodes of twenty-nine prime-time television series and a number of made-for-TV movies between 1959 and 1975, including Mission: Impossible, Mannix, It Takes a Thief, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, The Outer Limits, and Lost in Space.[63]

Bangor-born actor Ralph Sipperly (ca.1890-1928) appeared in ten films between 1923 and 1932, most of them silent, including the Academy Award winning Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans.[64]

Comedian Ed Wynn once ran out of money in Bangor and took a job playing piano in a brothel.[65]

Actress Myrna Fahey (1933–1973), who was born in nearby Carmel, is buried at Mt. Pleasant Cemetery in Bangor. From the 1950s to the 1970s she appeared in more than forty films and television shows, including House of Usher (1960) where she co-starred with Vincent Price, and episodes of such series as Zorro, Gunsmoke, Bonanza, Perry Mason, Batman, and The Time Tunnel. She dated Joe DiMaggio after his divorce from Marilyn Monroe.[66] Stage actor Richard Golden (1854–1909), born in nearby Bucksport and called by one turn-of-the-century theatre critic "the best character actor in America" is buried at Bangor's Mount Hope Cemetery[67]

Bangor-born Guy Nicolucci was on the writing team from the TV show Late Night with Conan O'Brian which won an Emmy in 2007. Niccolucci also wrote for The Daily Show.[68]

Eric Saindon of Bangor was visual effects supervisor for the films King Kong and Night at the Museum, and a key member of the visual effects team of I, Robot and The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. He is a three-time winner of the Visual Effects Society Award.[69] A second visual effects man from Bangor, Christopher Mills, has contributed to such films as Evan Almighty, The Golden Compass, and Night at the Museum[70]

George Shea and Richard Shea, the brothers who cofounded the IFOCE (aka Major League Eating) and who produce and host IFOCE events that air on ESPN, Spike and other networks, attended junior high school and high school in Bangor.

Comedian Bob Marley, born and raised in Bangor, has appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, and Late Night with Conan O'Brien as well as Comedy Central and huge cult film "The Boondock Saints".

Pro-Wrestler/Adult Film Star, Chad Vargas calls Bangor his hometown.

Singers, musicians and song-writers

Singer/songwriter Howie Day, who recorded the hit Collide, was born in Bangor, and got his start playing local clubs. Country singer Dick Curless, who recorded the 1965 hit Tombstone Every Mile, also lived there.

George Frederick Root (1820–95), a noted American Civil War era composer of songs such as The Battle Cry of Freedom, lived in Bangor before becoming a successful music publisher in Chicago.

The celebrated composer (and collector of folk songs) Norman Cazden, who was a victim of McCarthyism in the 1950s, taught at the nearby University of Maine from 1969 and died in Bangor in 1980.

Paul T. White (1895–1973), composer, professor of music at the University of Rochester, and conductor of the Rochester Civic Orchestra (1953–1965) was born in Bangor, as was Rudolph Ringwall, associate conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra (1934–56). Berlin-born Werner Torkanowsky, director of the New Orleans Symphony Orchestra, came to Bangor in 1981 to direct the Bangor Symphony and did so until his death in 1992.

Kay Gardner (1941–2002), flutist and pioneering composer of 'healing music' lived and died in Bangor.

Athletes

Bangor is the home of Philadelphia Phillies hitter Matt Stairs (though Stairs is a native of New Brunswick, Canada). Major League baseball player Matt Kinney of the Minnesota Twins, Milwaukee Brewers, Kansas City Royals and now Japan's Seibu Lions is also a native, as is Jon DiSalvatore, of the National Hockey League (now with the Minnesota Wild). Fictional character Julie "The Cat" Gaffney (played by actress Colombe Jacobsen) from the Mighty Ducks movies grew up in Bangor, according to a voice-over biography in D2: The Mighty Ducks.

Former Major League baseball players born in Bangor include Bobby Messenger (1901–1964) of the Chicago White Sox and St. Louis Browns; Jack Sharrott (1869–1927) of the New York Giants and Philadelphia Phillies; and Pat O'Connell (1861–1943) of the Baltimore Orioles.

Former National Basketball Association player Jeff Turner of the New Jersey Nets and Orlando Magic was born in Bangor. He also won a gold medal at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games as a member of the U.S. Basketball Team.

Former National Football League player Al Harris (b. 1956) of the Chicago Bears and Philadelphia Eagles comes from Bangor.

Toronto Blue Jays bench coach Brian Butterfield was born in Bangor, as was Clemson University baseball coach Jack Leggett and Ohio Wesleyan University football coach Mike Hollway. Jerry "The Hammer" Smith, former Bangor boxer, is Chief of Ushers at Fenway Park (home of the Red Sox in Boston).

Professional Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) Fighter Marcus Davis and his Team Irish currently call Bangor their home.

Kevin Mahaney of Bangor won a silver medal in sailing at the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games, and went on to reach the finals of the America's Cup trials with his Bangor-based PACT-95 team.[71]

Cross-country biking champion Adam Craig was born in Bangor and grew up in nearby Corinth, Maine. He was a member of the U.S. Biking Team at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

Jack McAuliffe, World Lightweight Boxing Champion in the 1880s-90s and known as "The Napoleon of the Ring", learned to fight growing up as a child in a tough Bangor neighborhood. He retired with an unbeaten record. Another local boxer, Michael Daley, became Lightweight Boxing Champion of New England, but was arrested in Bangor in 1903, along with George La Blanche, the former Middleweight Champion of the World, for robbing a man at a local hotel.

In the 1890s, Harry Orman Robinson of Bangor was Head Coach of the University of Texas football team, the Texas Longhorns, and before that the University of Missouri team, the Missouri Tigers.

Norman Cahners of Bangor qualified for the 1936 Olympic Team trials in track & field, but boycotted the event with Harvard track team-mate Milton Green, because the games were to take place in Nazi Germany. Cahners and Green were Jewish. Cahners is a member of the Harvard Varsity Athletic Club Hall of Fame[3]. He went on to build one of the largest publishing empires in America.[72]

Karen Colburn of Bangor was Girl's National Free-Style Ski Champion in 1975.

Scholars

The "Father of American Sociology", Albion Woodbury Small, attended grade-school in Bangor. He was the first American professor of sociology, founder of the first dept. of sociology (at the University of Chicago), edited the discipline's first American journal, and was President of the American Sociological Society (1912–13).[73]

Edith Lesley, founder of Lesley University in Massachusetts, grew up in Bangor.

University of Maine psychologist Doris Allen (1901–2002), who was born in nearby Old Town, and practiced at the Bangor Mental Health Institute in the 1970s, was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Children's International Summer Villages. She was also President of the International Council of Psychologists.[74]

William Witherle Lawrence (1876–1958) of Bangor became a Professor of English at Columbia University and a ground-breaking scholar of Beowulf and the works of Chaucer and Shakespeare. He was awarded the Royal Order of Vasa with the rank of knight by the King of Sweden. Charles Huntington Whitman (1873–1937) of Bangor was Chair of the English Dept. at Rutgers University for 27 years, and a noted scholar of Edmund Spenser.

John Irwin Hutchinson (1967-1935) of Bangor became a noted Professor of Mathematics at Cornell University, and Vice President of the American Mathematical Society.

Robert Winslow Gordon of Bangor became the first Director of the Archives of the American Folk Song at the Library of Congress. In the 1910s-1930s he was arguably the leading authority on this genre of music, personally recorded nearly a thousand folk songs and transcribing the lyrics of 10,000 more.

Hayford Peirce Sr., father of the science fiction author and brother of painter Waldo Peirce, was a noted scholar of Byzantine Art.

William D. Williamson, a Brown University-educated Bangor lawyer who became the second Governor of Maine, was also the state's first historian, producing a two-volume History of the State of Maine as early as 1832. It remained the standard reference throughout the 19th century.[9] Historian of Japan Gregory Clancey, winner of the 2007 Sidney Edelstein Prize for his book "Earthquake Nation", was born in Bangor. He is Assistant Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at the National University of Singapore

Bangor-born Egyptologist Sarah Parcak of the University of Alabama was the first member of her discipline to experiment with satellite imaging, and was able to locate 132 undiscovered ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. An earlier archaeologist from Bangor, Henry Williamson Haynes, also did field-work in Egypt.

William Otis Sawtelle (1874–1939), who was born in Bangor and taught at Bangor High School, later became a professor of physics at Haverford College and an amateur historian and naturalist. The William Otis Sawtelle Archives and Research Center at Acadia National Park houses his collection among many others.

Soldiers and sailors

Charles Boutelle

Maj. Gen. Joshua Chamberlain, a hero of the Battle of Gettysburg who also accepted the surrender of General Lee's Army at Appomattox, was born in the neighboring city of Brewer but studied at the Bangor Theological Seminary. The bridge connecting the two cities is named for him. Chamberlain, a professor at Bowdoin College when the war began, and later its president, could read seven foreign languages. He was also elected Governor of Maine, as was another Civil War general from Bangor, Harris Merrill Plaisted. Cyrus Hamlin, who commanded a regiment of African-American troops, and Charles Hamlin, both sons of Vice President Hannibal Hamlin, also became generals in the Civil War. Other Bangorians who achieved a general's rank in the same conflict included Edward Hatch, who commanded the cavalry division of Grant's Army of the Tennessee; Augustus B. Farnham, Chief of Staff of the Third Division, who was severely wounded; Charles W. Roberts; George Varney; John F. Appleton, and Daniel White. Col. Daniel Chaplin, who died in battle, was posthumously made a Maj. General. Naval Lt. Charles A. Boutelle accepted the surrender of the Confederate fleet after the Battle of Mobile Bay, where he commanded an ironclad.

Charles Albert Whittier (d. 1908), who was born in Bangor but became a wealthy merchant in Boston and New York, volunteered for the Spanish-American War and was made a Brigadier General for his part in the capture of Manila. He subsequently became Collector of Customs in the Philippine capital. His daughter Susan married Prince Sergei Beloselsky-Belozersky, son of the aide-de-camp to the Tsar of Russia, and a second daughter, Polly Whittier, won the silver medal in women's golf at the 1900 Paris Olympics.[75]

Vice Adm. Carl Frederick Holden of Bangor began World War II as executive officer of the battleship USS Pennsylvania during the attack on Pearl Harbor. He became the first captain of the battleship USS New Jersey, and ended the war as a Rear Adm. commanding Cruiser Division Pacific. He was on the deck of the USS Missouri to witness the Japanese surrender in 1945.

Lieutenant Frank Bostrom won the Distinguished Flying Cross for piloting the bomber which rescued Gen. Douglas MacArthur, his staff, and family, from the Philippines in 1942, flying them to Australia over Japanese-occupied territory.

Lt. Gen. Donald Norton Yates of Bangor helped select June 6, 1944 as the date for D-Day, the Allied invasion of Europe, in his capacity as chief meteorologist on General Dwight D. Eisenhower's staff. He chose well - it turned out to be the only day that month the invasion could have been successfully launched - and was subsequently decorated by three governments. He went on to become the chief meteorologist of the U.S. Air Force, Commander of the Air Force Missile Test Center at Patrick Air Force Base in Florida, and retired as Deputy Director of Defence Research and Engineering in the Pentagon.[76]

Other Bangorians who have risen to flag rank in the armed services include Lt. Gen. Walter F. Ulmer, former Commandant of Cadets at West Point and commander of the III Corps and Fort Hood; Rear Adm. George Adams Bright, surgeon and Medical Director of the Naval Hospital in Washington, D.C.; and Maj. Gen. Elmer P. Yates, an early proponent of nuclear power in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Molly Kool (1916–2009) the first registered female sea captain in North America, spent the last years of her life in Bangor.

Astronauts

Two future astronauts were among the pilots stationed at Bangor's Dow Air Force Base in the 1950s. Robert A. Rushworth of Madison, Maine, and a graduate of the University of Maine in nearby Orono, was at Dow in 1951-53. He was one of 9 test pilots initially selected to be astronauts in 1958, and undertook a record number of rocket research flights (34) in the X-15, then the world's fastest and highest-flying winged aircraft. James A. McDivitt, a fighter pilot at Dow in 1953-54, became the command pilot of the NASA spacecraft Gemini 4 in 1965. This space mission was the first in which an American astronaut (Edward Higgins White) conducted a space-walk. McDivitt took the famous photographs of that event. He was later commander of the Apollo 9 mission, which first tested the lunar module, and subsequently became Manager of the Apollo space program itself.

Inventors

Commercial Chewing gum was invented in Bangor in 1848 by John B. Curtis, who marketed his product as "State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum".[77] He later opened a successful gum factory in Portland, Maine

L.B. Davies of Augusta, Maine, who came to work as a millwright in Bangor when he was 17, and subsequently joined the crew of a local steamboat, ended up in Ohio. There he invented the cow-catcher. He never patented it, nor made a cent from its widespread use.[78]

Walter K. Foster patented the first American pencil sharpener in 1855, and subsequently manufactured them in Bangor for an international market. A local competitor, Joseph W. Strange, patented, made, and sold his own version from 1857.[4] Strange also invented improved calipers, scales, and many other devices.[79]

Bangor's Hinkley & Egery Ironworks (later Union Ironworks) was a local center for invention in the 19th and early 20th centuries. A new type of steam engine built there, named the "Endeavor", won a Gold Medal at the New York Crystal Palace Exhibition of the American Institute in 1856. The firm won a diploma for a shingle-making machine the following year.[80] In the 1920s, Union Iron Works engineer Don A. Sargent invented the first automotive snow plow. Sargent patented the device and the firm manufactured it for a national market.[81]

Bangor-born physicist Hobart C. Dickinson invented the guarded hot plate, an improved calorimeter, and other important testing devices while working at the National Bureau of Standards. He was also on the design team of the Liberty aircraft engine during World War I and designed and built the first altitude chamber to test full-sized aircraft. After the war he founded the research lab of the Society of Automotive Engineers and later became that organization's president.[82]

The MOS 6502 Microprocessor, designed by Chuck Peddle in 1975

Col. Paul E. Watson of Bangor, chief engineer of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, headed the team that built the army's first long-range radar in 1936-37. This was the radar deployed in Hawaii at the time of the Pearl Harbor Attack. The Army's radar laboratory was named "Watson Laboratories" after his death, and became the kernal of the present USAF Rome Laboratory.[83]

Chuck Peddle, who developed the MOS 6502 microprocessor in 1975, was born in Bangor in 1937.

Architects and engineers

Maine's first architect, Charles G. Bryant (1803–1858), lived and practiced in Bangor in the 1830s and designed Mt. Hope Cemetery, the second garden cemetery in the United States. Bryant later moved to Texas (Galveston) and became the first architect in that state, where, joining the Texas Rangers, he was eventually killed and scalped by Apache Indians.[11] Other prominent Bangor architects, many of whose buildings survive in the city and nearby towns, included Calvin Ryder, Benjamin S. Deane, George W. Orff, C. Parker Crowell, and Wilfred E. Mansur.[13] The modern architect Eaton Tarbell has also strongly influenced Bangor's cityscape.

Edward Austin Kent (1854–1912) became a leading architect in Buffalo, New York and three-time president of the American Institute of Architects. He went down on the Titanic in 1912.[84]

Bangorian Charles Davis Jameson, an engineer who taught at MIT, subsequently went to China and became Chief Consulting Engineer and Architect to the Imperial Chinese Government (1895–1918). He planned important hydraulics projects and witnessed the Boxer Rebellion

Another hydraulic engineer from Bangor, Hiram Francis Mills (1836–1920), headed the Lawrence Experiment Station, which was the first in America to develop a practical method of treating wastewater. Mills' work stopped a typhoid fever epidemic in Massachusetts, and he was subsequently christened "The Father of American Sanitary Engineering".[5]

Although not strictly an engineer, Bangor lawyer Francis Clergue, born in neighboring Brewer oversaw one of the most ambitious engineering projects in North America, the development of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Ontario as a major hydropower and industrial center in the 1890s-1900s. Before that Clergue had organized the Bangor Street Railway (the first electric railway in Maine) and the Bangor Waterworks, and had tried and failed to build a railroad across Persia and a waterworks in its capital, Tehran.[85]

Prominent Chicago architect Ernest Alton Gunsfeld was a draftsman at Dow Field in Bangor during the Korean War.

Physicians

Elliott Carr Cutler (1888–1947), son of a Bangor lumber merchant[86], became Chairman of the Dept. of Surgery at Harvard Medical School and a pioneer in cardiac surgery, inventing a number of important techniques and publishing over 200 papers. He was elected President of the American Surgical Association, and later became surgeon-in-chief at Brigham Hospital in Boston. During the Second World War he was Chief Surgical Consultant in the European Theatre of Operations with the rank of Brigadier General. Another Bangor-born Harvard Medical School professor, Frederick T. Lord, was a pioneer in the use of serum to treat pneumonia, and was elected President of the American Association of Thoracic Surgery.

Charlotte Blake Brown (1846–1904) of Bangor was a pioneering female physician who co-founded what became Children's Hospital of San Francisco in 1878, with an all-female staff and board of directors. In 1880 she also founded the first nursing school in the American West. Children's Hospital merged with another institution to become California Pacific Medical Center in 1991.

Dr. Harrison J. Hunt of Bangor was surgeon on the Crocker Land Expedition to the Arctic in 1913-1917, and the first to return to civilization with news of his fellow explorers, who had been trapped in the ice for four years. Hunt escaped after a grueling four-month dog-sled journey accompanied by six Inuit. He spent the rest of his career working at the Eastern Maine Hospital in Bangor, and authored the book North to the Horizon: Arctic Doctor and Hunter, 1913-1917 (Camden, Me: 1930). He is credited with finding the major biological specimens returned by the expedition - eggs of the Red Knot, which established its migration pattern between Europe and northern Greenland.[87]

Judges

Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Melville Weston Fuller (who served 1888-1910) read law in Bangor with his two uncles after graduating from Bowdoin College in 1853. He was admitted to the bar in Bangor in 1855. His brother Henry Weld Fuller, who was a Bangor druggist in the 1850s, later moved to Chicago and became President of the American Pharmaceutical Association.[88] One of Fuller's uncles, Bangor attorney George Melville Weston, wrote books and essays opposing slavery, and eventually became the Librarian of the Senate.

Edward Kent Jr., son of Bangor Mayor, Maine Governor, and Maine Supreme Judicial Court Justice Edward Kent, was appointed by his Harvard classmate Theodore Roosevelt as Chief Justice of the Arizona Territory Supreme Court, 1902-1912. He is noted for a landmark ruling on water rights (the Kent Decree of 1910)

Bangor lawyer John Appleton (1804–1891) was Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court from 1862 to 1883. A disciple of Jeremy Bentham, his was the first U.S. court to rule that the accused could testify in criminal trials (1864), an innovation that only became Federal law in 1878.[89]

They married well

Bettina Brown Gorton, the wife of Australian Prime Minister Sir John Gorton (who served 1968-71) was from Bangor and graduated from Bangor High School. She was the only wife of an Australian Prime Minister to have been foreign-born until Annita van Iersel, wife of Paul Keating (who served 1991-96). She became Lady Gorton when her husband was knighted in 1977.

Marie Jennings Reid Parkhurst, a Washington socialite and wife of Bangor politician Frederic Hale Parkhurst, who lived for a time on West Broadway, divorced him and married (in 1901) an Italian Prince she had met in Bar Harbor. As Princess Rospigliosi, Reid created headlines through the 1910s as she attempted to have her previous marriage to Protestant Parkhurst annulled by the Pope. Parkhurst eventually became Governor of Maine. Reid's son Girolamo became the 9th Prince Rospigliosi, and caused his own sensation by eloping with American oil heiress Marian Snowden in 1931.[90]

Elizabeth Muzzy of Bangor married William Drew Washburn, U.S. Congressman and Senator from Minnesota, a co-founder of the Pillbury-Washburn Flour Mills, which eventually became the Pillsbury Company. Three of her brothers-in-law were also U.S. Congressmen, including Israel Washburn, who represented Bangor at the time of the American Civil War, and Cadwallader Washburn, who founded General Mills, the company which would eventually absorb Pillsbury.

Ella Nye (1851–1931) of Bangor married Alva Adams, the first Governor of Colorado. Their son Alva B. Adams became a U.S. Senator from the same state.

Beer baroness and conservative political donor Holland "Holly" Hanson Coors (1920–2009) was born in Bangor. The ex-wife of Joseph Coors, Colorado brewer and founder of the Heritage Foundation, Holly Coors sat on that organization's board of trustees.

Diplomats

Patrick Duddy of Bangor is the U.S. Ambassador to Venezuela. He was temporarily expelled from the country in 2008 by President Hugo Chavez in a dispute over an alleged American coup plot.

Other diplomats who were born or lived in Bangor include Robert Newbegin II, U.S. Ambassador to Honduras (1958) and Haiti (1960–61); Charles Stetson Wilson, U.S. Ambassador to Bulgaria (1921–28); Romania (1928), and Yugoslavia (1933); William Pennell Snow, U.S. Ambassador to Burma (1959) and Paraguay (1961–67); Chester E. Norris, U.S. Ambassador to Equatorial Guinea (1988–91); Albert G. Jewett, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires to Peru (1845–47);Gorham Parks, U.S. Consul in Rio de Janeiro (1845–49); Wyman Bradbury Seavy Moor, U.S. Consul-General to Canada (1857–61); and Aaron Young, Jr., U.S. Consul in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (1863–73), who was formerly Maine's State Botanist and Secretary of the Bangor Natural History Society. Hannibal Hamlin, Lincoln's Vice President and Bangor politician, served as U.S. Ambassador to Spain later in his career.

While former Maine Governor Edward Kent was U.S. Consul in Rio de Janeiro 1849-53, he lost two of his three children to yellow fever. His wife died the year they returned to Bangor, and his surviving child soon after.

Bangor politician Elisha Hunt Allen served as U.S. Consul to the Kingdom of Hawaii 1850-56, and then joined the Hawaiian government as Chancellor and Chief Justice 1857-76. In that capacity he accompanied King Kalakaua on his first and only trip to the United States in 1874. Allen returned to Washington as Ambassador of the Kingdom of Hawaii to the United States, and died on the job during a White House diplomatic reception in 1883.

Journalists

Joseph W. Grigg of Bangor was the Chief European Correspondent for United Press International for 25 years. He was the only American reporter in Berlin at both the beginning and end of the Second World War, and one of the first in Warsaw after its fall to the Nazis. He was briefly interred in Germany when America entered the war. He was among the first to report on the Nazi murder of Jews in Eastern Europe, and later covered the trial of Adolf Eichmann.[91]

Margherita Arlina Hamm, who spent part of her childhood in Bangor, was a pioneering female journalist who covered the Sino-Japanese War and Spanish-American War for New York newspapers, sometimes from the front lines. She was also a prolific author of popular non-fiction books. A suffragette, she was nonetheless a defender of American imperialism, chairing the pro-war "Woman's Congress of Patriotism and Independence" and writing an heroic biography of Admiral George Dewey .[92]

Ralph W. 'Bud' Leavitt Jr. was a longtime columnist and editor for The Bangor Daily News. Born in Old Town, Maine, Leavitt became a cub reporter at The Bangor Daily Commercial at age 17 in 1934. Following the Second World War, Leavitt signed on with The News, where he filed, during the course of his career, 13,104 columns devoted to the outdoors, and where he served for many years as executive sports editor. Leavitt also hosted two long-running TV shows about the outdoors on Maine television.

Clergymen and missionaries

The Bangor Theological Seminary produced a number of influential ministers, missionaries, and scholars in the 19th century. The seminary's first professor and director, Jehudi Ashmun later led a group of 32 freed slaves to the American Colonization Society's African colony in Liberia in 1822, and is considered one of the founders of that nation.[93] Cyrus Hamlin, who graduated from the seminary in 1837, was the founder and first president of Robert College in Istanbul, Turkey, and later president of Middlebury College (1880–85) in Vermont.[94] His friend and classmate Elkanah Walker left Bangor in 1838 to become one of the first missionaries (or American settlers) in the Oregon Territory. His son Cyrus Hamlin Walker was the first child born of American settlers west of the Rocky Mountains to live to adulthood.[95]

Seminarian Daniel Dole (1808–78) left Bangor in 1839 to establish one of the earliest Protestant missions in Hawaii, and ended up founding a local dynasty. His son Sanford Dole led the successful coup d'etat against the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893, becoming the only President of the Republic of Hawaii and, later, the first American territorial governor. Daniel's nephew James Drummond Dole became the "Pineapple King".[96]

Another seminary graduate, Edwin Pond Parker (1836–1920), became a member of Mark Twain's literary circle in Hartford, Connecticut, and inspired him to write The Prince and the Pauper. Parker himself wrote or arranged over 200 hymns, and was the first Congregational minister in the Northeast to celebrate Christmas. He was also the father-in-law of writer and bohemian Dorothy Parker.[97]

Father John Bapst (1815–1887) a Swiss-born member of the Jesuit order, was sent to Old Town, Maine in the late 1840s to minister to the Catholic Penobscot tribe. Soon he was conducting a roving ministry to 33 Maine towns, largely as a result of Irish-Catholic immigration. In 1851 he was embroiled in a religious controversy over grammar school education in Ellsworth, Maine, and was brutalized, robbed, and tarred and feathered by a Protestant mob, inspired by the Know-Nothing Party, which was popular in coastal Maine. He fled to Bangor, where a large Irish-Catholic community was gathering, and where members of the local elite presented him with a new watch, his previous one having been stolen in Ellsworth. Bapst stayed in Bangor until 1859, overseeing the construction of the large brick St. John's Catholic Church in 1855.[98] He left in 1860 to become the first rector of Boston College. Later he became superintendent of the Jesuit order in New York and Canada, and died in Baltimore, Maryland. The present John Bapst Memorial High School in Bangor, formerly Catholic but now non-sectarian, is named for him.[99]

Bangor Methodist Minister Benjamin Franklin Tefft became president of Genesee College in New York (the nucleus of the later Syracuse University), and, in 1862, U.S. Consul in Stockholm and acting Minister (Ambassador) to Sweden[100] Congregational minister and Bangor Theological Seminary professor John Russell Herrick later became president of Pacific University in Oregon (1880–83), and the University of South Dakota (1885–87). Rev. Charles Carroll Everett, pastor of the Bangor Unitarian Church 1859-69, later became a noted philosopher of religion and dean of the Harvard Divinity School.

Bangor-born carpenter Joseph W. Coolidge became an early Mormon church Elder under Joseph Smith in Nauvoo, Illinois, where he also built Smith's House. When Smith was killed by a mob, Coolidge became administrator of his estate. He refused to follow Brigham Young and most of the church to Utah, however, settling instead in Glenwood, Iowa.[101] Likewise, Josephine Curtis Woodbury of Bangor was one of the earliest proponents of Christian Science but later published books debunking that religion, and prosecuted a lawsuit against the church's founder, Mary Baker Eddy. Woodbury attempted to establish her own religious sect based on the "immaculate conception" of her illegitimate son, whom she named 'Prince of Peace'.[102]

Rev. Dana W. Bartlett of Bangor moved to Los Angeles, California in 1896, founded a settlement house (the Bethlehem Institute) and became a major figure in the local progressive and City Beautiful movements. He is an honoree in the California Social Work Hall of Distinction.

Two Bangor-born Episcopal Bishops took pro-active positions on the Civil Rights struggle in the 1950s/60s. Norman Burdett Nash was Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts, and Gerald Francis Burrill of the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago. Bangor-born Edward C. O'Leary was Bishop of the Catholic Diocese of Maine in the 1970s-80s.

Spirit mediums

Joseph Osgood Barrett (1823–1898), born in Bangor, was a Universalist minister who became a prominent spiritualist and spirit medium in Illinois and Wisconsin. He was also a lecturer and author of books on spiritualism, and editor of the Chicago-based newspaper The Spiritual Republic. He became known as an advocate of women's rights with the publication of his book Social Freedom; Marriage: As It Is and As It Should Be in 1873.[103]

Civil servants

William Hammatt Davis of Bangor, brother of playwright Owen Davis, served as Chairman of the War Labor Board under Franklin Roosevelt, where his job was keeping industrial peace between management and labor. He was appointed US Economic Stabilizer at the end of the war. He also helped draft the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) of 1935, which gave labor unions the right to organize.

Artemus E. Weatherbee (d. 1995) of Bangor was an Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1959–70) and thereafter U.S. Director of the Asian Development Bank with the rank of Ambassador.

Jay Stone of Bangor was Chief Clerk of the War Department in the 1920s.

Bangor-born Portland lawyer Ralph Lancaster served as Independent Counsel investigating corruption charges against Clinton Administration Secretary of Labor Alexis Herman.

Politicos

Bangor-born Joseph Homan Manley, a protege and close associate of presidential candidate James G. Blaine, was Chairman of the National Executive Committee of the Republican Party in the 1890s, and Maine's "political boss".

Former State Senator from Bangor Marion E. Martin founded what is now the National Federation of Republican Women in 1937 and was Assistant Chairman of the Republican National Committee.[104]

Bangor-born Boston lawyer Paul P. Brountas was National Chairman of the Committee to Elect Michael S. Dukakis President of the United States in 1987-88. He was also the Democratic candidate's closest advisor. Brountas had previously been an aide and advisor to presidential hopeful Edmund Muskie.

Survivors

David Thibodeau, one of only 9 survivors of the Branch Davidian conflagration in Waco, Texas, is from Bangor. He wrote a book about the experience.

Bangor in popular culture

Books and plays

Bangor or its alter ego Derry are the fictional settings for so many novels and stories by Stephen King that the city has become the capital of Transylmainia, a gothic horror-scape King invented largely by himself (with some help from the 1960s television show Dark Shadows).

Bangor is the home of the protagonist in John Guare's famous play Landscape of the Body. In Henry James' short story A Bundle of Letters, Miranda Hope from Bangor is a tourist in Paris. Billy Barry, the fictional hero in Horace Porter's Young Aeroplane Scouts novel series of 1916-19, is also from Bangor, as is Edward Wozny, the protagonist in Lew Grossman's 2004 novel Codex, and Sir Kevin Dean de Courtney MacNair in Hayford Peirce's time-travel novel Napoleon Disentimed. The character Teresa Bruckham is a horror novelist from Bangor in Lily Strange's novel Lost Beneath the Surface. The character Dr. Benjamin Northcote is Bangor's city coroner, and part of the crime-fighting team in Kathy Lynn Emerson's Diana Spaulding Mystery series.

Bangor is the setting for Christina Baker Kline's 1999 novel Desire Lines. The 1988 novel Pink Chimneys by Ardeana Hamlin Knowles, is set in 19th century Bangor. Owen Davis' Pulitzer Prize winning 1923 play Icebound is set in neighboring Veazie. Bangor is also one location in the 1992 novel Prussian Blue by Tom Hyman.

A "frolicsome night place" in Bangor called "The Sea Hag" figures incidentally in the Tennessee Williams short-story Sabbatha and Solitude. In Rudyard Kipling's and Wolcott Balestier's The Naulahka: A Story of East and West, a family of missionaries in India hails from Bangor (and even has their maple syrup delivered from home).

Henry David Thoreau's The Maine Woods includes this passages describing Bangor: "Like a star at the edge of the night, still hewing the forests of which it is built, already overflowing with the luxuries and refinements of Europe, and sending its vessels to Spain, to England, to the West Indies for its groceries"

In John Steinbeck's Travels with Charley, he learns an important lesson in a little restaurant just outside of Bangor.

Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale begins with the discovery of a footlocker full of cassette tapes in the ruins of what was once Bangor, a prominent way-station on "The Underground Femaleroad" in the dystopic Republic of Gilead.

Poems

Robert Lowell's Flying from Bangor to Rio 1957 was written at the poet's summer house in nearby Castine, Maine about the experience of seeing off his friend, the poet Elizabeth Bishop at the Bangor Airport.[105]

Songs

Bangor is mentioned in King of the Road, a country song by Roger Miller. The line goes "Third boxcar, midnight train. Destination: Bangor, Maine." Southbound Train by Travis Tritt has a similar reference. This formula — using rhyming Maine and train, and Bangor as an edge destination — first appeared in the popular 1871 song Riding Down From Bangor (or Riding Up From Bangor) by Louis Shreve Osborne. The lyric goes: "Riding down from Bangor in an eastern train, after six weeks of hunting in the woods of Maine".[106] It was recorded in Britain and South Africa, though never in the United States.[107] George Orwell wrote about the song in his 1946 essay Riding Down from Bangor. As a child, he remembered, "my picture of nineteenth-century America was given greater precision by a song which is still fairly well known and which can be found (I think) in the Scottish Student's Song Book."[108] The most recent play on this formula was a song by Garrison Keillor, sung on his radio show Prairie Home Companion on May 3, 2008, which went "Bangor Maine, Bangor Maine; Take a boat or ride the train; Take a slicker, it might rain; In Bangor, Maine"[109]

A fatal accident on the Bangor and Piscataquis Railroad between Bangor and Old Town in 1848 is the subject of the earliest known railroad song, Henry Sawyer.[107]

Bangor is named in the North American version of I've Been Everywhere by Lucky Starr. How 'bout them Cowgirls by George Strait includes the line "I've crisscrossed down to Key Biscayne, and Chi-town via Bangor, Maine."

The Rooftops of Bangor by the Minneapolis indie group The God Damn Doo Wop Band was inspired by a line in a love letter to member Katie (Kat) Naden.

Old Town native Patty Griffin mentions a "bus that's going to Bangor" in the first line of her autobiographical song Burgundy Shoes from her 2007 Grammy Award-nominated album Children Running Through.

The song Band of Brothers by Dierks Bentley also mentions Bangor. The lyrics go "From the bars of San Diego to the county fair way up in Bangor, Maine".

Film and television

Several movie versions of Stephen King's stories have been filmed in and around Bangor. The Langoliers, mentioned above, was set and filmed in part at Bangor International Airport. Pet Cemetery and Graveyard Shift include scenes filmed at Mt. Hope Cemetery and The Bangor Water Works. Creepshow 2 includes scenes filmed in Bangor, Brewer and nearby Dexter, Maine. In the 1996 film Thinner King himself plays a character named "Dr. Bangor". The 1984 movie Firestarter, based on a King novel, held its world premiere at the Bangor Cinema, with King, Drew Barrymore and Dino de Laurentis in attendance.

The 1946 film The Strange Woman starring Hedy Lamarr, and based on the novel by Ben Ames Williams is set in early 19th century Bangor.

The fictional town of Collinsport, Maine, the setting for 1960s gothic TV soap opera Dark Shadows, was 50 miles from Bangor, according to the script of the first episode. The equally fictional "Bangor Pine Hotel" was a location in two first-season scenes. Likewise, The Dead Zone, a series based on the Stephen King novel, takes place in a fictional suburb of Bangor called Cleaves Mills.

The title character in the 2004 TV movie Celeste in the City was from Bangor.

In 1987 The Late Show with David Letterman conducted an on-air campaign to get Bangor to watch Dave, after discovering he had unusually low ratings there. He even resorted to reading random names from the local phonebook.

The Canadian television series Trailer Park Boys featured a train convention in Bangor on the season 7 episode "Friends of the Road".

Comic books

MODOK, as drawn by Eric Powell

MODOK, the villainous Marvel Comics character, was created from the benign lab technician George Tarleton, a native of Bangor. The GI Joe character Sneak Peak is also from Bangor, along with Crystal Ball's mother. The location of DC Comics second "Dial H for Hero" series is a suburb of Bangor.

Sport

A skillful competitor in the sport of birling (log-rolling) has traditionally been known as a Bangor Tiger. This was the name given Penobscot river-drivers in the nineteenth century.

Food

Chocolate (Bangor) Brownies

The earliest documented recipe for chocolate brownies referred to them as Bangor Brownies. Fanny Farmer invented "brownies" in her 1896 cookbook, but these were molasses-flavored, had a nut on top, and were baked in individual pans. The first recipe for what we'd recognize today as chocolate brownies was published in the Boston Daily Globe on 2 April 1905, pg. 34 and read:

BANGOR BROWNIES. Cream 1/2 cup butter, add 2 eggs, 1 cup sugar, 2 squares of chocolate (melted), 1/2 cup broken walnuts meats, 1/2 cup flour. Spread thin in buttered pans. Bake in moderate oven, and cut before cold.[110]

The 1907 Lowney's Cook Book, published by the Walter Lowney Chocolate Co., contained two chocolate brownie recipes. The one with extra chocolate, and baked in a pan, it also called "Bangor Brownies". The use of the term in printed recipes continued into the 1950s.[111]

The Appledore Cookbook of 1872 included a recipe for "Bangor Cake", repeated in the Woman's Suffragette Cookbook of 1886, and others as late as 1916.

Two varieties of plum, the "Mclaughlin" and the "Penobscot", were first identified in the garden of John Mclaughlin of Bangor in 1846, and publicized the same year in A. J. Downing's The Horticulturalist.[112] The Mclaughlin had become the most prominent American-cultivated plum by the 1850s, surpassing all others in its "rich and luscious flavor" according to the Magazine of Horticulture.[113] Both continue to be grown throughout North America and Europe.

Ships

The first ocean-going iron-hulled steamship in the U.S. was named The Bangor. She was built by the Harlan and Hollingsworth firm of Wilmington, Delaware in 1844, and was intended to take passengers between Bangor and Boston. On her second voyage, however, in 1845, she burned to the waterline off Castine. She was rebuilt at Bath, returned briefly to her earlier route, but was soon purchased by the U.S. government for use in the Mexican-American War..[114]

An earlier steamship named Bangor had been built in 1833 for the Boston & Bangor Steamship Co. by Bell & Brown of New York. She was in service till 1842, when she was bought by a Turkish company, renamed the "Sudaver", and used as a ferry in Istanbul (then Constantinople).

A four-masted schooner named The Bangor was also built in Eureka, California, in 1891. The City of Bangor was an Eastern Steamship Co. steamer, built 1894 in East Boston, that connected Bangor and Boston on a daily run in the early twentieth century. The Tacoma class frigate USS Bangor (PF-16), launched in 1943, escorted North Atlantic convoys during World War II.

Business

Two businesses listed on the New York Stock Exchange have used 'Bangor' in their names. The Bangor and Aroostook Railroad, which operated between 1891 and 2003 was founded by local capitalists and originally had its offices in Bangor. In 1964 it merged with the Boston-owned but Cuba-based Punta Alegre Sugar Corp., forming Bangor Punta Alegre Sugar or after 1967 just Bangor Punta. On the advice of BP Director and former president of the B&A Curtis Hutchins, the railroad was sold in 1969, but Bangor Punta, managed by Hungarian-American financier Nicolas Salgo (who also built the Watergate complex in Washington), and with Bangorean Hutchins still on the board, became a classic 1960s conglomerate, accumulating such diverse holdings as the arms-maker Smith and Wesson, Piper Aircraft, and a number of yacht-makers. It was on the Fortune 500 List for most of its existence. Salgo was bought out in 1974 and the corporation dissolved in 1984.[115]

Accidents and natural disasters

The Great Fire of 1911 was Bangor’s most spectacular catastrophe, but other natural disasters and accidents have occurred there, often with greater loss of life (only two were killed in the Great Fire). The most recurrent problem, besides fire, was the formation of ice dams causing spring floods on the Penobscot River, a situation that's resolved itself with warmer winters. The only destructive flood since the 1930s (in 1976) was caused by a storm at sea. Notable incidents include:

1832: A cholera epidemic in St. John, New Brunswick (part of the Second cholera pandemic) sent as many as 800 poor Irish immigrants walking to Bangor. This was the beginning of Maine's first substantial Irish-Catholic community. Competition with yankees for jobs would cause a riot and resulting fire in 1833.[11]

1846: The “Great Freshet”, or spring flood, was the most destructive of the 19th century, carrying away the Penobscot River covered bridge, two bridges over the Kenduskeag Stream, and inundating a hundred shops and many houses. Its cause was the sudden release of a massive, 4-mile-long ice dam. There were no casualties.[116]

1849-50: The Second cholera pandemic reached Bangor itself, killing 20-30 within the first week.[117] 112 had died by Oct, 1849 [118]

1854: The schooner Manhattan of Bangor was lost in a gale off New Jersey. There was a single survivor.[119]

1856: A large fire destroyed at least 10 downtown businesses and 8 houses, as well as the sherriff's office.[120]

1856: The brig William H. Safford of Bangor was cut through by ice while anchored in the East River at New York, and 8 of 10 aboard drown, including the captain, his wife, and 2 children.[121]

1858: The floor of an auction store in Bangor gave way, sending 200 men, women, and children into the building's cellar. Many were injured but none killed.[122]

1860: The brig Mary Pierce, sailing with lumber from Bangor to New Haven, was lost in a storm off Cape Cod with 6 crew and a child. One sailor survived.

1860: The brig H.N. Jenkins of Bangor, bound for Havana, Cuba, was demasted in a storm and the captain the 3 crew killed. 2 were rescued by a passing whaler.[123]

1869: The West Market Square fire, from which arose The Phoenix Block (the present Charles Inn). The fire destroyed 10 business blocks and cut off telegraphic communication [124]

1869: The Black Island Railroad Bridge north of Old Town, Maine collapsed under the weight of a Bangor and Piscataquis Railroad train, killing 3 crew and injuring 7-8 others.[125]

1869: The schooners Susan Duncan and Susan Hicks of Bangor, both carrying lumber, were lost with all hands in a storm off Cape Cod.[126]

1871: A bridge in Hampden collapsed under the weight of a Maine Central Railroad train approaching Bangor, killing 2 and injuring 50.[127]

1872: Another large downtown fire, on Main St., killed 1 and injured 7.[128] The Adams-Pickering Block (architect George W. Orff) replaced the burned section.

1872: A smallpox epidemic closed local schools.

1882: A tornado blew the steeple off the Universalist Church, the roof off the County Courthouse, and sent hundreds of chimneys into the street.[129]

1889: Forest fires in surrounding towns enveloped Bangor in smoke.

1892: Another tornado overturned the launch Annie in the Penobscot River drowning 8 passengers.[130]

1895: Another Penobscot flood[131]

1896: The barkentine Thomas J. Stewart of Bangor was lost at sea in a hurricane with all hands (11 men) somewhere between New York and Boston[132] The ship was named after one of Bangor's principle entrepreneurs, the owner of a large fleet of ocean-going vessels.

1898: A Maine Central Railroad train crashed near Orono killing 2 and fatally injuring 4. The president of the railroad and his wife were also on board in a private car, but escaped injury. Train Wrecked in Maine

1898: The steamer Pentagoet of the Manhattan Line was lost in a gale between New York City and Bangor with all 16 hands.[133] In the same storm, two schooners sailing from Bangor to Fall River, Massachusetts loaded with lumber, the William Slater and Oriole were similarly lost with no survivors.[134]

1899: The collapse of a gangway between a train and a waiting ferry at Mount Desert sent 200 members of a Bangor excursion party into the water, drowning 20.

1900: The schooner Ada Herbert sailing from Gloucester, Massachusetts to Bangor was lost with all four crew.[135]

1901: A powerful storm caused the Penobscot to flood, carrying 8,000 logs from Bangor into Penobscot Bay, where they menaced shipping.[136]

1902: Another great spring flood, caused by an ice dam, detached the middle section of the Penobscot River railroad bridge from its foundations and sent it crashing through the wooden covered pedestrian bridge down-stream, cutting all connections with Brewer.[137]

1903: The Bangor-based schooner Willie L. Newton turned turtle (upside down) in a storm off Connecticut, with loss of all hands (7 men).

1907: The sloop Ruth E. Cummack capsized in Penobscot Bay, drowning 6 young men, 5 of them from Bangor.[138]

1908: Forest fires burned in surrounding towns. 1,000 men fought them within a 35-mile radius of Bangor.

1908: Bangor's first automobile accident claimed the life of 10-year-old Freddie O'Conner, who ran in front of a chauffer-driven Pope Hartford which was running down State Street without its lights at dusk.[139]

1911: The Great Fire of 1911

1911: A head-on collision of two trains north of Bangor, in Grindstone, killed 15, including 5 members of the Presque Isle Brass Band.[140]

1911: In Bangor's first automobile accident fatal to the driver, artist Emma Webb was killed and her two passengers injured in a collision with an electric street-railroad car.[141]

1914: The Bangor Opera House burned down, and two firemen were killed by a collapsing wall. A third was badly injured, and three others less seriously.[142]

1918: The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, which was global in scope, struck over a thousand Bangoreans and killed more than a hundred. This was the worst 'natural disaster' in the city's history.

1923: The Penobscot flooded again.

1928: Tiger-tamer Mabel Stark while performing in the John Robinson Circus in Bangor, was attacked by two of her tigers and severely mauled in front of a large crowd. She survived, and went on to survive 17 more tiger attacks, though none as bad as the one in Bangor.

1936: For the last time, an ice dam on the Penobscot caused serious flooding in Bangor.

1939: A truck carrying dynamite from Bangor through Holden, Maine was blown to bits, killing 6.[143]

1941: First fatal crash of a military aircraft in Maine, when a B-18 Bolo Bomber stationed at Bangor Army Airfield went down in nearby Springfield, Maine, killing all 4 crew. Between 1941 and 1971, there would be 14 additional fatal crashes of military aircraft based in Bangor, 3 within city limits and the rest in small towns or wilderness areas between the north woods and the coast.[144]

1976: A coastal Northeaster, known as The Groundhog Day gale of 1976 caused a surge up the Penobscot River, resulting in a flash flood downtown which covered 200 cars and closed both bridges to Brewer. No one was injured but it caused $2 million in property damage.

1984: The 740 ft. tall WVII TV antenna and 550 ft. tall WABI-TV antenna both collapsed under ice, knocking seven TV and radio stations off the air.

1998: The North American Ice Storm of 1998. Bangor was among a few metropolitan areas in the United States affected by this freakish storm, which was a major natural disaster for Canada. Electricity was knocked out for more than a week in some areas as all trees, utility poles, and other objects were coated with a glistening layer of ice.[145]

Neighborhoods

Broadway

West Broadway / Whitney Park

Fairmount

Judson Heights

Bangor Gardens

Little City

Chapin Park (Tree Streets)

Capehart

Old Capehart

References

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  58. ^ Matthew Baigell, Dictionary of American Artists and Peter Falk, Who was Who in American Art
  59. ^ Diane Vastne and Pauline Kaiser, eds., The Hardy Connection: Bangor Women Artists, 1830-1960 (Bangor: Bangor Historical Society, 1992)
  60. ^ "Artist Reported Murdered was a Former Bangor Girl", Lewiston Daily Sun, Aug. 24, 1914
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  72. ^ New York Times obituary of Norman L. Cahners, Mar. 18, 1986
  73. ^ Thomas W. Goodspeed, "Albion Woodbury Small", The American Journal of Sociology 32:1 (July 1926)
  74. ^ Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie and Joy Dorothy Harvey, Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science (Taylor & Francis, 2000), p. 25
  75. ^ "Army Officers Promoted", New York Times, Aug. 28, 1898, p. 2
  76. ^ Air Force Link Biographies: Donald Norton Yates Retrieved June 1, 2008
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  78. ^ New York Times, Nov. 18, 1886
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  80. ^ Annual Report of the American Institute of the City of New York (1856), p. 178
  81. ^ The American City Magazine, v. 35 (July-Dec. 1926), p. 149
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  83. ^ Development of Radar SCR-270Arthur L. Vieweger & Albert S. White. Retrieved June 1, 2008
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  85. ^ Francis Hector Clergue: The Personality Retrieved June 29, 2008
  86. ^ His father was George Chalmers Cutler and his brother, Robert Cutler, was the first U.S. National Security Advisor (see Robert Cutler, No Time for Rest [Boston: Little Brown, 1966], pp. 1-18). For his connection to the Carr family of Bangor see Francis Carr
  87. ^ New York Times, June 21, 1917, p. 6; Pittsburgh Press, Sept. 23, 1917
  88. ^ The obituary of Henry Weld Fuller in New York Times, June 29, 1892, p. 5, mentions that he was married to Sarah R. Ladd of Bangor, the sister of Bangor druggist and U.S. Congressman George W. Ladd
  89. ^ William Twining, Rethinking Evidence: Expository Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 55
  90. ^ New York Times, July 9, 1902; Sept. 7, 1902; Oct. 6, 1902; Mar. 11, 1903; Mar. 22, 1905; May 23, 1905; Sept. 29, 1907; June 18, 1911; Nov. 26, 1911; Jan. 14, 1912; May 24, 1912; July 14, 1912; Sept. 28, 1913
  91. ^ Joe Grigg's WWII Experiences Retrieved 20 January 2008
  92. ^ Wayne Reilly, "What's a Woman to Do?" Bangor Daily News, Mar. 1, 2008
  93. ^ Frederick Freeman, A Plea for Africa (1837), p. 226; American Education Society, American Quarterly Register (1842), pp. 29-30.
  94. ^ Carl Max Kartepeter, The Ottoman Turks: Nomad Kingdom to World Empire (Istanbul, 1991) pp. 229-246
  95. ^ http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/walkerdescription.html Washington State University Archives: Special Collections: The Walker Library, accessed 25 Jan. 2008
  96. ^ Paul T. Burlin, Imperial Maine and Hawaii: Interpretive Essays in the History of 19th-Century American Expansionism (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006)
  97. ^ Everett Emerson, Mark Twain: A Literary Life, p. 121; Robert Tine, "Introduction", The Prince and the Pauper (NY: Spark Educational Publishing, 2004), p. xvii; Kenneth W. Osbeck, 101 More Hymn Stories, p. 26
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  102. ^ Willa Cather, The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science (Lincoln: U. of Nebraska Press, 1993), p. 428)
  103. ^ John B. Buescher, The Other Side of Salvation: Spiritualism and the 19th Century Religious Experience (Boston: Skinner House, 2004)
  104. ^ Obit. New York Times, Jan. 11, 1987
  105. ^ Jeffrey Gray, "Fear of Flying: Robert Lowell and Travel" in Papers on Language and Literature (Winter 2005)
  106. ^ "Riding Down from Bangor". http://ghostwolf.dyndns.org/words/authors/O/OsborneLouisShreve/verse/misc/bangor.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  107. ^ a b Norm Cohen, Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folksongs (U. of Illinois Press, 2000) pp. 52-53; xxi
  108. ^ George Orwell, "Riding Down From Bangor" in Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays (Harcourt Brace, 1950)
  109. ^ "Bangor, Maine (song)". http://prairiehome.publicradio.org/programs/2008/05/03/scripts/bangor.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  110. ^ [www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/chocolate_brownie The Big Apple (April 11, 2007)]. Retrieved May 20, 2008, gathers on one site various (and conflicting) quotations regarding the origin of the chocolate brownie. The recipe here, however, from the same website (and verified independently through the Google newspaper archive search engine) constitutes the earliest documented example
  111. ^ The last documented newspaper use of the term is in the Fitchburg (Mass.) Sentinel on Aug. 9, 1952
  112. ^ See The New England Farmer (1857), pp. 321, 357; The Horticulturalist (v. 1), 1846, pp. 195-96
  113. ^ [C.M. Hovey, The Fruits of America v. 2 (Boston: Hovey & Co., 1856), p. 47, reprint of article from Magazine of Horticulture, v. 15, 9. 456]
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  116. ^ Best description is in John S. Springer, Forest Life and Forest Trees (NY: Harper Bros., 1851) pp. 210-220
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  118. ^ The Public Ledger (Newfoundland), Oct. 2, 1849, p. 2
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  120. ^ New York Times, "The Bangor Fires", July 1, 1856, p. 1
  121. ^ New York Times, Feb. 5, 1856, p. 4
  122. ^ New York Times, Mar. 29, 1858
  123. ^ New York Times, May 9, 1860
  124. ^ Hartford Weekly Times, Jan. 9, 1869, p. 1
  125. ^ Fearful Railroad Accident New York Times, Sept. 2, 1869, p. 1
  126. ^ Barnstable (Mass.) Patriot, May 25, 1869
  127. ^ New York Times, Aug. 10, 1871
  128. ^ The Bangor Fire New York Times, Oct. 13, 1872
  129. ^ Storms of Great Severity; A Tornado at BangorNew York Times, Aug, 16, 1882, p. 1
  130. ^ Eight Persons Drown: A Steam Launch Upset by the Wind at BangorNew York Times June 15, 1892, p. 1
  131. ^ Chicago Tribune, Feb. 9, 1895
  132. ^ New York Times, Sept. 26, 1896; Ibid Oct. 14, 1896
  133. ^ New York Times, Nov. 30, 1898
  134. ^ New York Times, Dec. 4, 1898, p. 2
  135. ^ Boston Daily Globe, Sept. 3, 1900
  136. ^ New York Times, Dec. 17, 1901; Ibid Dec. 22, 1901
  137. ^ New York Times, Mar. 21, 1902
  138. ^ New York Times, July 10, 1907
  139. ^ Wayne Reilly, "Bangor's First Auto Fatality Claimed Life of Boy, 10", Bangor Daily News, June 2, 2008
  140. ^ New York Times, July 29, 1911
  141. ^ New York Times, Sept. 4, 19ii
  142. ^ "Firemen Killed in Bangor", Boston Evening Transcript, Jan. 15, 1914, p. 5
  143. ^ New York Times, Aug. 27, 1939
  144. ^ State of Maine Military Aircraft Crash List. Retrieved February 4, 2008
  145. ^ The Ice Storm of 1998 Retrieved June 20, 2008

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BANGOR, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Penobscot county, Maine, U.S.A., at the confluence of the Kenduskeag stream with the Penobscot river, and at the head of navigation on the Penobscot, about 60 m. from the ocean, and about 75 m. N.E. of Augusta. Pop. (1890) 19,103; (1900) 21,850, of whom 3726 were foreign-born and 176 were negroes; (1906 estimate) 23,500. A bridge (about 1300 ft. long) across the Penobscot connects Bangor with Brewer (pop. in 1900, 4835). Bangor is served directly by the Maine Central railway, several important branches radiating from the city, and by the Eastern Steamship line; the Maine Central connects near the city with the Bangor & Aroostook railway (whose general offices are here) and with the Washington County railway. The business portion of the city lies on both sides of the Kenduskeag and for about 3 m. along the W. bank of the Penobscot, which is here quite low, while many fine residences are on the hillsides farther back. Bangor is the seat of three state institutions - the Eastern Maine general hospital, the Eastern Maine insane hospital and the law school of the University of Maine - and of the Bangor Theological Seminary (Congregational), incorporated in 1814, opened at Hampden in 1816, removed to Bangor in 1819, and empowered in 1905 to confer degrees in divinity. The city has several public parks, a public library and various charitable institutions, among which are a children's home, a home for aged men, a home fort aged women and a deaconesses' home. Among the principal buildings are the county court house, the Federal building, the city hall and the opera house. The Eastern Maine Music Festival is held in Bangor in October of each year. The rise of the tide here to a height of 17 ft. makes the Penobscot navigable for large vessels; the Kenduskeag furnishes good water-power; and the city is the trade centre for an extensive agricultural district. The Eastern Maine State Fair is held here annually. Bangor is one of the largest lumber depots in the United States, and also ships considerable quantities of ice. The city's foreign trade is of some importance; in 1907 the imports were valued at $2,720,594, and the exports at $1,272,247. Bangor has various manufactures, the most important of which (other than those dependent upon lumber) are boots and shoes (including moccasins); among others are trunks, valises, saws, stoves, ranges and furnaces, edge tools and cant dogs, saw-mill machinery, brick, clothing, cigars, flour and dairy products. In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $3,408,355. The municipality owns and operates the water-works (the water-supply being drawn from the Penobscot by the Holly system) and an electric-lighting plant; there is also a large electric plant for generation of electricity for power and for commercial lighting, and in Bangor and the vicinity there were in 1908 about 60 m. of electric street-railway.

Bangor has been identified by some antiquarians as the site of the mythical city of Norumbega, and it was reported in 1656 that Fort Norombega, built by the French, was standing here; but the authentic history of Bangor begins in 1769 when the first settlers came. The settlement was at first called Conduskeag and for a short time was locally known as Sunbury. In 1791 the town was incorporated, and through the influence of the Rev. Seth Noble, the first pastor, the name was changed to Bangor, the name of one of his favourite hymn-tunes. During the war of 1812 a British force occupied Bangor for several days (in September 1814), destroying vessels and cargoes. Bangor was chartered as a city in 1834. In 1836 a railway from Bangor to Old Town was completed; this was the first railway in the state; Bangor had, also, the first electric street-railway in Maine (1889), and one of the first iron steamships built in America ran to this port and was named "Bangor."


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Simple English

Bangor is the 3rd-largest city in Maine. In 2000, the city had 31,473 people.








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