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Baptism of Neophytes by Masaccio, 15th century, Brancacci Chapel, Florence.[1]
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In Christianity, baptism (from Greek baptizo: "immersing", "performing ablutions", i.e., "washing")[2] is the ritual act, with the use of water, by which a person is admitted to membership of the Christian Church.[3][4]
Jesus himself was baptized.[5] The usual form of baptism among the earliest Christians was for the candidate (or "baptizand") to be immersed totally or partially.[6][7][8][9][10] While John the Baptist's use of a deep river for his baptism suggests immersion,[11] pictorial and archaeological evidence of Christian baptism from the 3rd century onward indicates that the normal form was to have the candidate stand in water while water was poured over the upper body.[12][13][14][15] Other common forms of baptism now in use include pouring water three times on the forehead.
.Baptism was seen as in some sense necessary for salvation, until Huldrych Zwingli in the sixteenth century denied its necessity.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .Martyrdom was identified early in church history as "baptism by blood", enabling martyrs who had not been baptized by water to be saved.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as the 1995 agreement, the LDS Church has fulfilled and continues to fulfill its agreement by purging the names of holocaust victims who don't have a Mormon blood-relative, when ever they are found.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stipulating that those who are baptized into the LDS church can decline this baptism in the afterlife is worse than Medieval.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, the Catholic Church identified a baptism of desire, by which those preparing for baptism who die before actually receiving the sacrament are considered saved.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It isn't about being right or wrong- as I said before, everyone chooses their path and who am I to say a Catholic or a buddhist or a Pagan is wrong to follow that path.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I learned more about what actually goes on in the Mormon church from that website than from any deceitful missionaries who have talked to me.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
Some Christians, particularly Quakers and the Salvation Army, do not see baptism as necessary. Among those that do, differences can be found in the manner and mode of baptizing and in the understanding of the significance of the rite. .Most Christians baptize "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (following the Great Commission), but some baptize in Jesus' name only.^ About Joseph Smith, obviously the only thing you know about him was that he was a polygamist - but know nothing about this writings or the philosophical dilemmas he solved in Christianity, through the revelations he received from God the Father and Jesus Christ, through the power of the Holy Ghost.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Most Christians baptize infants,[18] many others do not. .Some insist on submersion or at least partial immersion of the person who is baptized, others consider that any form of washing by water is sufficient.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's also about a religious practice that not only offends others but directly and personally involves the deceased relatives of others who have a right to rest in peace."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From personal experience I know unless the person is a direct relative (e.g., grandparent, parent, sibling) you must obtain permission from other members of the family who are direct relatives.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The English word "baptism" has been used in reference to any ceremony, trial, or experience by which a person is initiated, purified, or given a name.[19] See Other initiation ceremonies below.

Contents

Meaning of the word in the New Testament

Catacombs of San Callisto: baptism in a third-century painting
.As Christians of different traditions dispute whether total immersion (submersion) is necessary for baptism, the precise meaning of the Greek word has become important for discussion.^ They really do have a strange idea of death and of the after-life, which is creatively different from all other Christian tradition.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And if the afterlife wasn't so important to the Judeo-Christian tradition, why are you doing this?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two loving parents and a stable home for children is far more important than whether or not the parents have different sets or equipment or not.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott gives the primary meaning of the word βαπτίζω (transliterated as "baptizô"), from which the English word "baptism" is derived, as "dip, plunge", but indicates, giving Luke 11:38 as an example, that another meaning is "perform ablutions".[2]

Usual meaning of the verb βαπτίζω

Although the Greek word βαπτίζω does not exclusively mean dip, plunge or immerse (at least partially), lexical sources note that this is the usual meaning of the word in both the Septuagint[20][21][22] and the New Testament.[23] .A related word, βάπτω, is also used in the New Testament, with the senses "dip" or "dye",[24][25][26][27] The dipping may be incomplete, as in dipping a morsel of bread in wine (Ruth 2:14).^ EMMA HERRING was born on 11 May 1836 in Sheffield, was baptised on 24 Jul 1836 in Sheffield, and was buried on 26 Jun 1837 in All Saints Church, Ecclesall, Sheffield.

^ WILMORE MEMMOTT was born on 26 May 1872 in Heeley, Sheffield, was baptised on 10 May 1874 in Heeley, Sheffield, died on 12 May 1874 in Heeley, Sheffield, at age 1, and was buried on 14 May 1874 in Heeley, Sheffield.

[28]
Representation of baptism in early Christian art.

Deviations from the above meaning

Two passages in the New Testament indicate that the word βαπτίζω, when applied to a person, did not always indicate submersion. The first is Luke 11:38[29] which tells how a Pharisee, at whose house Jesus ate, "was astonished to see that he did not first wash (ἐβαπτίσθη, aorist passive of βαπτίζω—literally, "be baptized") before dinner." This is the passage that Liddell and Scott cites as an instance of the use of βαπτίζω to mean perform ablutions. Jesus' omission of this action is similar to that of his disciples: "Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying, Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash (νίπτω) not their hands when they eat bread."[Mt 15:1-2] The other New Testament passage pointed to is: "The Pharisees…do not eat unless they wash (νίπτω, the ordinary word for washing) their hands thoroughly, observing the tradition of the elders; and when they come from the market place, they do not eat unless they wash themselves (literally, "baptize themselves"—βαπτίσωνται, passive or middle voice of βαπτίζω)".[Mk 7:3–4]
.Scholars of various denominations[30][31][32] claim that these two passages show that invited guests, or people returning from market, would not be expected to immerse themselves ("baptize themselves") totally in water but only to practise the partial immersion of dipping their hands in water or to pour water over them, as is the only form admitted by present Jewish custom.^ Or worse, would you have them separated from your "normal" Mormon society, which is a freak show to many people, and then would you have them punished, or maybe even put to death?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you alter original records to show that Jewish people were actually Mormons?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am totally offended that Mormons would baptize the dead of other religions.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[33]
.The lexicographical works of Zodhiates and Balz & Schneider also say that in the second of these two cases, Mark 7:4, the word βαπτίζω means that, after coming from the market, the Pharisees only immersed their hands in collected water, and so did not immerse themselves totally.^ Daniel ITLD wrote about Deity "working these things out," but what if Deity has a plan that in essence says He will not do for mankind what mankind can do for themselves--in fact the growth that brings is the very essence of the plan.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You wrote:"Daniel ITLD wrote about Deity "working these things out," but what if Deity has a plan that in essence says He will not do for mankind what mankind can do for themselves--in fact the growth that brings is the very essence of the plan."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .They understand the meaning of βαπτίζω to be the same as βάπτω, to dip or immerse,[35][36][37] a word used of the partial dipping of a morsel held in the hand into wine or of a finger into spilled blood.^ You just used EXACTLY the right word to describe what Mormons do to other relgiions; they seek to "PREEMPT" them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just because many people don't think of THAT use of their names as particularly intrusive because it's well-intended, doesn't mean that they would agree, if consulted.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are not going into your church and telling you to accept gay marriages, so by the same token you should not be sticking you head into theirs.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]

Derived nouns

Two nouns derived from βαπτίζω appear in the New Testament: βαπτισμός and βάπτισμα.
Βαπτισμός refers in Mark 7:4 to a water-rite for the purpose of purification, washing, cleansing, of dishes;[39][40] in the same verse and in Hebrews 9:10 to Levitical cleansings of vessels or of the body;[41] and in Hebrews 6:2 perhaps also to baptism, though there it may possibly refer to washing an inanimate object.[40] .In Colossians 2:12, inferior manuscripts have βάπτισμα, but the best have βαπτισμός, and this is the reading given in modern critical editions of the New Testament.^ Marcionites were dualists who thought the OT God was an inferior judgmental God who was replaced by a better, forgiving New Testament God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .This is the only New Testament instance in which βαπτισμός is clearly used of Christian baptism, rather than of a generic washing, but Hebrews 6:2 may also refer to baptism.,[40] When referring merely to the cleansing of instruments, βαπτισμός is equated with ῥαντισμός (sprinkling), found only in Hebrews 12:24 and 1Peter 1:2, a word used to indicate the symbolic cleansing by the Old Testament priest.^ If LDS posthumous baptisms were merely "symbolic" I'd feel much better.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Book of Mormon is patterned on the King James version of what Christians call the Old Testament.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Obnoxious because you think you can disreapect theri memories by imposing your own, may I say, rather screwed up version of christianity.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[43]
Βάπτισμα, which must not be confused with βαπτισμός,[43] is found only in writings by Christians.[39] In the New Testament, it appears at least 21 times:
  • 13 times with regard to the rite practised by John the Baptist;[44]
  • 3 times with reference to the specific Christian rite[45] (4 times if the use in some inferior manuscripts in Colossians 2:12 is counted);
  • 5 times in a metaphorical sense.[46]

History

.Baptism has been part of Christianity from the start, as shown by the many mentions in the Acts of the Apostles and the Pauline epistles.^ Corinthian 15:29 KJV. If these were being performed at the time of the apostle Paul, it would seem to me that they are part of Christian tradition.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church and many Protestant Churches do not regard Mormons as Christian, because the Mormon Church just appeared at their own starting point, and did not evolve from any previous formal tradiiton.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Christians consider Jesus to have instituted the sacrament of baptism. How explicit Jesus' intentions were and whether he envisioned a continuing, organized Church is a matter of dispute among scholars.[16]

Background in Jewish ritual

.Although the term "baptism" is not used to describe the Jewish rituals, the purification rites (or mikvah—ritual immersion) in Jewish laws and tradition have some similarity to baptism, and the two have been linked[47] In the Jewish Bible and other Jewish texts, immersion in water for ritual purification was established for restoration to a condition of "ritual purity" in specific circumstances.^ In my religion, there are historical, traditional and religious reasons why the idea of proxi-baptism is abhorrent, not the least the establishment of an actual record.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You just used EXACTLY the right word to describe what Mormons do to other relgiions; they seek to "PREEMPT" them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term baptism for the dead is specifically referred to in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 15:29.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, Jews who (according to the Law of Moses) became ritually defiled by contact with a corpse had to use the mikvah before being allowed to participate in the Holy Temple.^ It isn't about being right or wrong- as I said before, everyone chooses their path and who am I to say a Catholic or a buddhist or a Pagan is wrong to follow that path.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Participating in Temple ordinances is being a part of bring the blessings of the atonement of Jesus Christ to millions who did not receive the opportunity while living - THAT one of the sweetest joys of all.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, as I said before, Mormons are very intolerant, without even being aware of it; DrRock is a PERFECT example of this unconscious type of intolerance.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Immersion is required for converts to Judaism as part of their conversion. Immersion in the mikvah represents a change in status in regards to purification, restoration, and qualification for full religious participation in the life of the community, ensuring that the cleansed person will not impose uncleanness on property or its owners Num. 19 and Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Chagigah, p. 12). .This change of status by the mikvah could be obtained repeatedly, while Christian baptism, like circumcision, is, in the general view of Christians, unique and not repeatable.^ Try being a REAL Christian for a change, instead of scapegoating a minority that you personally do not like.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[48] .(Seventh-day Adventists, however, see baptism as repeatable if a believer comes to a new knowledge of Christianity, as in Acts 19:1-5.^ Relying on this misinformation to increase your knowledge of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is equivocal to asking a Christian Minister about Sukkot.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is also possible for a person who has fallen away from following Christ to make a new commitment via rebaptism.^ I carry some emotional baggage around this, as a descendant of Irish Catholics who risked their lives to follow Christ as they knew Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But then, I'm not a believer in a system which has taught me that my personal salvation requires that I make every possible effort to save others' souls, even over passionate objections.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

)[49]
John the Baptist adopted baptismal immersion as the central sacrament in his messianic movement.[50]

Baptism of Jesus

John the Baptist was a 1st-century mission preacher on the banks of the River Jordan.[51] According to Christian theology, he was selected by God to proclaim the first coming of the Christ. He baptized Jews for repentance in the River Jordan.[52]
At the start of his ministry, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist. .Many of the earliest followers of Jesus were other people who, like him, were baptized in the Jordan by John the Baptist.^ Marcedward1 said, "Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As I said before, it is the straight people like Dr. Rock who pick on and persecute gay people and not the other way around.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But respect means accepting me for who I am, and my history and if my religion says I don't believe in Jesus and will never want to be baptized, it is disrespectful to refuse to honor my beliefs.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]
Scholars broadly agree that the baptism of Jesus is one of the most authentic, or historically likely, events in the life of the historical Jesus. .Jesus and his earliest disciples accepted the validity of John's baptism, though Jesus himself detached the notion of repentance from baptism and promoted purity ethic in tension with rituals.^ "Baptism for the dead is akin to saying a prayer for the deceased and hoping that they will accept Jesus Christ's covenant in the afterlife, after they have been invited there."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism for the dead is akin to saying a prayer for the deceased and hoping that they will accept Jesus Christ's covenant in the afterlife, after they have been invited there.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] Early Christianity practiced a baptism of repentance which conferred the remission of sins. Christian baptism has its origin in the baptism of Jesus, in both a direct and historical sense.[55]
.The event raised the issue of Jesus' potential submission to John the Baptist and seemed contradictory to the Christian belief in the sinless nature of Jesus Christ.^ Relying on this misinformation to increase your knowledge of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is equivocal to asking a Christian Minister about Sukkot.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

John's baptism did not remit sin. It was only for repentance and to prepare the way for Christ (remission of sins is only by baptism into Jesus which was commanded by Christ himself after the resurrection). Attempts to address this theological difficulty are apparent in the earliest Christian writings, including the Gospels. For Mark, the baptism by John is the setting for the theophany, the revelation of Jesus' divine identity as the Son of God.[Mk 1:7-11] .Matthew shows John objecting to baptizing Jesus, an obvious superior, and only agreeing when overruled by Jesus[Mt 3:14-15] and omits Mark's reference to baptism for the forgiveness of sins.^ The term baptism for the dead is specifically referred to in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 15:29.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Luke emphasizes the subservience of John to Jesus while both are still in the womb[Lk 1:32-45] and omits the role of John in the baptism of Jesus. [3:18-21] The Gospel of John omits the episode.[56]
Early explanations for Jesus' baptism that have remained popular include Ignatius of Antioch's assertion that Jesus was baptized to purify the waters of baptism and Justin Martyr's explanation that Jesus was baptized in his role as the ideal example for everyone.[56]

Baptism by Jesus

The Gospel of John[Jn 3:22-30] [4:1-4] states that Jesus at an early stage led a mission of baptism that drew crowds. John 4:2, considered by many scholars to be a later editorial insertion,[57] denies that Jesus himself baptized and states that he did so only through his disciples.
Some prominent scholars conclude that Jesus did not baptize. Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz assert that Jesus did not baptize, detached the notion of repentance from baptism, recognized John's baptism, and put forward a purity ethic in tension with baptism.[54] .The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions also states that Jesus did not baptize as part of his ministry.^ But respect means accepting me for who I am, and my history and if my religion says I don't believe in Jesus and will never want to be baptized, it is disrespectful to refuse to honor my beliefs.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
E. P. Sanders omits John's account of Jesus' baptizing mission from his portrait of Jesus as a historical figure.[58]
.Robert W. Funk considers the account of Jesus' baptism ministry in John to have internal difficulties: that, for instance, it reports Jesus coming to Judea even though he is already in Jerusalem and thus in Judea.^ For the record, I am Protestant, and even though I think a posthumous baptism would have no effect on me, I would still object on symbolic grounds!
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] .John 3:22 actually speaks of Jesus and his disciples coming, not "εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν" (into Judea), but "εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν γῆν" (into the Judean countryside),[60] which some interpret as contrasted with Jerusalem, the scene of the encounter with Nicodemus described immediately before.^ A person's view of God, my view of God, does not come from my free choice, but is colored by all the human interpretations of God that I encounter, together with my own conscious thinking and wondering, and then analyzed by some mysteriously autonomic analyzing process that operates in my head.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[61] .According to the Jesus Seminar, the passage about Jesus "coming to Judea" (as they interpret "εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν γῆν") to lead a mission of baptism probably preserves no historical information (a "black" rating).^ The problem with gay people according to snobs like you, is that they have come out of the closet and found a voice.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are respecting no one by imposing a fake baptism on the dead- you are simply dishonoring them by ignoring who they were and what they wanted.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Baptism for the dead is akin to saying a prayer for the deceased and hoping that they will accept Jesus Christ's covenant in the afterlife, after they have been invited there."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[59]
.On the other hand, the Cambridge Companion to Jesus[62] takes a different view.^ Church leaders have asked members to treat other members with "civility, respect and love," despite their differing views.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to this source, Jesus accepted and made his own John the Baptist's message of repentance, forgiveness and baptism;[63] taking over from John, when the latter was imprisoned, he called for repentance and for baptism as a first step in accepting the imminent kingdom of God;[64] and the central place of baptism in his message is confirmed by the passage in John about Jesus baptizing.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And so believing in the reality of a physically existing God, Jesus, and angels who dwell in a physical place as real as the earth, with bodies as real as our own, they were then forced to question and then to answer the nature of the lives of these beings.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[65] .After John's execution, Jesus ceased baptizing, through he may have occasionally returned to the practice; accordingly, while baptism played an important part in Jesus' ministry before John's death and again among his followers after his resurrection, it had no such prominence in between.^ Allow me to correct myself; if your grandmother does not wish to be baptized, of course no-one should force her, either before or after death.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a world where we finally have learned what I call the “holy envy”, it’s a beautiful thing; I could think of myself as taking part in such an act [baptism for the dead], extending the blessings that have come to me in and through Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ conquered death - meaning death no longer, by itself, can separate souls from the blessings of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[66]
.New Testament scholar Raymond E. Brown, a specialist in the Johannine writings, considers that the parenthetic editorial remark of John 4:2 that Jesus baptized only through his disciples was intended to clarify or correct the twice repeated statement in the preceding verses that Jesus did baptize, and that the reason for its insertion may have been that the author considered the baptism that the disciples administered to be a continuation of the Baptist's work, not baptism in the Holy Spirit.^ In a world where we finally have learned what I call the “holy envy”, it’s a beautiful thing; I could think of myself as taking part in such an act [baptism for the dead], extending the blessings that have come to me in and through Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term baptism for the dead is specifically referred to in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 15:29.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About Joseph Smith, obviously the only thing you know about him was that he was a polygamist - but know nothing about this writings or the philosophical dilemmas he solved in Christianity, through the revelations he received from God the Father and Jesus Christ, through the power of the Holy Ghost.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[67]
Other New Testament scholars also accept the historical value of this passage in John. This is the view expressed by Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall.[68] Another states that there is "no a priori reason to reject the report of Jesus and his disciples' conducting a ministry of baptism for a time", and mentions that report as one of the items in John's account[3:22-26] "that are likely to be historical and ought to be given due weight".[69]
In his book on the relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth, Daniel S. Dapaah says that John's account "may be a snippet of historical tradition", and comments that the silence of the Synoptic Gospels does not mean that the information in John was invented, and that Mark's account also suggests that Jesus worked with John at first, before moving to Galilee.[70] Frederick J. Cwiekowski agrees that the account in John "gives the impression" that Jesus baptized.[71]
.The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible says that "though he [Christ] himself baptized not so many as his disciples; 'For he suffered them for an example, preferring one another.'^ Understanding is different from one person to another but when you say G-d, the concept is universal.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For my part I believe Joseph Smith suffered from several psychological and social diseases that led him to believe in polygamy and Moroni.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You said: "But through a series of meetings with the Angel Morni, Joseph Smith came into the possesion of "magic" translation stones, " .
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[72]
.The Gospel of John remarks, in John 3:32, that, though Jesus drew many people to his baptism, they still did not accept his testimony,[73] and the Jesus Seminar concludes, on the basis of Josephus's accounts, that John the Baptist likely had a larger presence in the public mind than Jesus.^ In that place, people still have the freedom to choose - to accept or reject it.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the record, I am Protestant, and even though I think a posthumous baptism would have no effect on me, I would still object on symbolic grounds!
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[52]

New Testament

.The New Testament includes several references to baptism as an important practice among early Christians and, while giving no actual account of its institution by Jesus, portrays him as giving instructions, after his resurrection, for his followers to perform the rite (see Great Commission).^ Weird practices like baptizing the dead makes religions no different than the early worshipers of Nana and Inana.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, the doctrine of vicarious ordinances for the dead is not new, or a made-up Mormon doctrine, but is actually a part of the "restoration of all things" spoken of in the Old and New Testaments by several prophets.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, you might say that posthumous baptism is just a harmless sacred rite that your religion compels you to practice.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[74] It also gives interpretations by the Apostle Paul and in the First Epistle of Peter of the significance of baptism.

Paul's epistles

The Apostle Paul wrote several influential letters in the AD 50s, later accepted as canonical. .For Paul, baptism effects and represents the believer's union with Christ, Christ's death, and his resurrection; cleanses one of sin; incorporates one into the Body of Christ, and makes one "drink of the Spirit."^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[1 Co 12:13][16] On the basis of Paul's writings, baptism was interpreted in the terms of the mystery religions.[75]

Gospel of Mark

Mark 1:1-11
This gospel, generally believed to be the first and to have been used as a basis for Matthew and Luke, begins with Jesus' baptism by John, who preached a baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. .John says of Jesus that he will baptize not with water but with the Holy Spirit.^ But respect means accepting me for who I am, and my history and if my religion says I don't believe in Jesus and will never want to be baptized, it is disrespectful to refuse to honor my beliefs.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.At Jesus' baptism, he hears God's voice proclaiming him to be his Son, and he sees the spirit like a dove descend on him.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in God's mercy and plan, he will not force anyone to become like him - we must choose.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.During Jesus' ministry, when James and John ask Jesus for seats of honor in the coming kingdom, Jesus likens his fate to a baptism and to a cup, the very baptism and cup in store for John and James (that is, martyrdom).^ The concept of baptism of dead bodies that are actually not present during the ceremony (and without the relatives supporting it) is very bizarre and macabre (picture Vincent Price).
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[76]
Mark 16:19-20
The traditional ending of Mark is thought to have been compiled early in the second century, and initially appended to the gospel by the middle of that century.[77] .It says that those who believe and are baptized will be saved.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So long as they don't try to inflict it on those who don't believe the same way, I don't care.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For those who believe so strongly in the afterlife, it is- as Mormons seem to- the practice is a deliberate slap in the face to other religions.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Mk 16:9-20]

Gospel of Matthew

Matthew 3:12-14; Matthew 28:18-20
Matthew includes a brief version of the baptism of Jesus.[Mt 3:12-14]
The Gospel of Matthew also includes the most famous version of the Great Commission.[28:18-20] Here, the resurrected Jesus appears to the apostles and commissions them to make disciples, baptize, and teach.[78] This commission reflects the program adopted by the infant Christian movement.[78]

Acts

.Acts of the Apostles, written c. 85–90,[79] states that about 3,000 people in Jerusalem were baptized in one day on Pentecost.^ This is an article about Mormons baptizing dead people, not whether gay couples are the end of civilization.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[2:41] .It further relates baptisms of men and women in Samaria,[8:12-13] of an Ethiopian eunuch,[8:36-40] of Saul of Tarsus,[9:18] [22:16] of the household of Cornelius,[10:47-48] of Lydia's household,[16:15] of the Philippi jailer's household,[16:33] of many Corinthians[18:8] and of certain Corinthians baptized by Paul personally.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term baptism for the dead is specifically referred to in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 15:29.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1 Corinthians 1:15, Paul defends the doctrine of the resurrection by (correctly) pointing out that if there is no resurrection, there would be no point to do baptisms for the dead: "Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

{{ |1Cor|1:14-16||1 Co 1:14-16}}
In Acts, the prerequisites of baptism are faith and repentance.[16] Acts associates baptism with receiving the Spirit, but the exact connection is not always the same.[16]
.Also in Acts, twelve individuals who had undergone John's baptism, and who consequently had yet to receive the Holy Spirit, were directed by Paul to be rebaptized, whereupon they received the Holy Spirit.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[19:1-7]
.Acts 2:38, Acts 10:48 and Acts 19:5 speak of baptism "in the name of Jesus" or "in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ", but whether this was a formula that was used has been questioned.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a world where we finally have learned what I call the “holy envy”, it’s a beautiful thing; I could think of myself as taking part in such an act [baptism for the dead], extending the blessings that have come to me in and through Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Baptism for the dead is akin to saying a prayer for the deceased and hoping that they will accept Jesus Christ's covenant in the afterlife, after they have been invited there."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]

Apostolic period

The Apostolic Age is the period from Jesus' life to the death of the last apostle c. 100 (see Beloved Disciple). .Most of the New Testament was written during this period, and the primary sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist were established.^ The term baptism for the dead is specifically referred to in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 15:29.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Protestants in particular value the church of the Apostolic Age as a witness to Jesus' true message, which they believe was subsequently corrupted during the Great Apostasy.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can't seem to accept that not everyone believes as you do, nor do they believe in Jesus.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If one person believes in Buddha, and another in Jesus, what difference if they both lead good lives and come to understand G-d in their respective ways?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Along with fasting, the practice of baptism may have entered Christian practice under the influence of former followers of John's.[52]
The Didache or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, an anonymous book of 16 short chapters, is probably the earliest known written instructions, outside of the Bible, for administering baptism. The first edition was written c. 60–80 AD.[80] The second, with insertions and additions, was written c. 100–150 AD.[80] This work, rediscovered in the 19th century, provides a unique look at Christianity in the Apostolic Age. In particular, it describes the two foundational sacraments of Christianity: the Eucharist and baptism. .It indicates a preference for baptizing by immersion in "living water" (i.e., running water seen as symbolic of life)[81] or, if that is unavailable, in still water, preferably at its natural temperature, but considers that, when there is not enough water for immersion, it is sufficient to pour water on the head.^ As if there aren't enough reasons for the living to argue, fuss and fight with each other about religion, now the dead are getting involved.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, there is a popular notion that homosexuals should be paired in marriage but it serves no natural purpose in the human species - in this life or the next.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[82][83][84][85][86]
In Matthew's (c. 80–85[79]) Great Commission, Christians are to baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.[78] Baptism has been in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit since at least the end of the 1st century.[16] In Acts (c. 90),[79] Christians baptize "in the name of Jesus"[Ac 19:5] though whether that meant a spoken formula has been questioned.[16]
.There is general agreement that the New Testament contains no positive evidence for infant baptism,[87][88] and the requirements made by the Didache on baptismal candidates are typically understood as precluding infant baptism.^ Yishai- Had you not made a rather snarky comment about Jews who were upset about the practice of proxi-baptism, not being confident in their identity there would be no issue.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is an untenable position - there are no laws in the UNited States that reflect your position.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term baptism for the dead is specifically referred to in the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 15:29.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[89][90][91]

Early Christianity

.Early Christian beliefs (Christianity practiced after the apostolic age) regarding baptism were variable.^ It is important to recognize that the practice of baptizing on behalf of the dead is not new--it was practiced by early Christians, and the Mormons have simply brought it back.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I can only attest to the extremity of your beliefs regarding proxi-baptism, which is abhorrent, and your views on gays- also abhorrent.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] In the most usual form of early Christian baptism, the candidate stood in water and water was poured over the upper body.[15] Baptism of the sick or dying usually used means other than even partial immersion and was still considered valid.[92] The theology of baptism attained precision in the 3rd and 4th centuries.[15]
While instruction was at first given after baptism, believers were given increasingly specific instructions before being baptized, especially in the face of heresies in the fourth century.[93] .By then, postponement of baptism had become general, and a large proportion of believers were merely catechumens (Constantine was not baptized until he was dying); but as baptisms of the children of Christians, using an adaptation of the rite intended for adults, became more common than baptisms of adult converts, the number of catechumens decreased.^ Donny and Marie were/are Mormons - They're in Salt Lake City - They claim to be Christian but Christians don't accept that - They have a Mormon center in Jerusalem that was to be used for missionizing until we protested (and yes, I live in Israel) - They believe that they can convert our dead ancestors, which is complete naarishkeit.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are doing more than offering a prayer- you are taking names and performing a ritual- baptism-, and associating it with them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French found that the rights of French children are more important than the rights or aspirations of French adults with unnatural sexual preferences.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[93]
As baptism was believed to forgive sins, the issue of sins committed after baptism arose. .Some insisted that apostasy, even under threat of death, and other grievous sins cut one off forever from the Church.^ I hate to be the one to break it to you but the minute you deny one group the rights every other American has ( under the constitution), you become a bigot.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's even funnier when people think some people think they have a some sort of right to stop other people from practicing their particular brand of voodoo.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

As indicated in the writings of Saint Cyprian, others favoured readmitting the "lapsi" easily. The rule that prevailed was that they were readmitted only after undergoing a period of penance that demonstrated sincere repentance.
What is now generally called the Nicene Creed, longer than the text adopted by the First Council of Nicaea of 325, and known also as the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed because of its adoption in that form by the First Council of Constantinople in 381, was probably the baptismal creed then in use in Constantinople, the venue of the 381 Council.[94]

Early Middle Ages

Infant baptism became common, alongside the developing theology of original sin, displacing the earlier common practice of delaying baptism until the deathbed.[15] .Against Pelagius, Augustine insisted that baptism was necessary for salvation even for virtuous people and for children.^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes cathedral (1549)

Middle Ages

The twelfth century saw the meaning of the word "sacrament" narrowed down and restricted to seven rites, among them that of baptism, while other symbolic rites came to be called "sacramentals".[95]
.In the period between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries, affusion became the usual manner of administering baptism in Western Europe, though immersion continued to be found in some places even as late as the sixteenth century.^ For the record, I am Protestant, and even though I think a posthumous baptism would have no effect on me, I would still object on symbolic grounds!
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[92] Throughout the Middle Ages, there was therefore considerable variation in the kind of facility required for baptism, from the baptismal pool large enough to immerse several adults simultaneously of the 13th century Baptistery at Pisa, to the half-metre deep basin in the 6th century baptistery of the old Cologne Cathedral.[96]
Both East and West considered washing with water and the Trinitarian baptismal formula necessary for administering the rite. Scholasticism referred to these two elements as the matter and the form of the sacrament, employing terms taken from the then prevailing Aristotelian philosophy. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, while teaching the necessity of both elements, nowhere uses these philosophical terms when speaking of any of the sacraments.[97]
Lutheranism
LutherRose.jpg
Luther's Seal
 Lutheranism portal

Reformation

Awaiting submersion baptism in the Jordan river
In the 16th century, Martin Luther considered baptism to be a sacrament. .For the Lutherans, baptism is a "means of grace" through which God creates and strengthens "saving faith" as the "washing of regeneration"[Titus 3:5] in which infants and adults are reborn.^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another commenter indicated thatt God should be able to arrange for fairness through supernatural means eventually.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How do you stand by and allow someone to proxi-baptize someone of another faith, and create a record of this baptism, yet cling to your own heritage?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Jn 3:3-7] .Since the creation of faith is exclusively God's work, it does not depend on the actions of the one baptized, whether infant or adult.^ Allow me to correct myself; if your grandmother does not wish to be baptized, of course no-one should force her, either before or after death.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since we will never be parents together, neither by birth nor adoption, does that mean that our marriage is not valid in the eyes of your god?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I really don't think you're qualified to comment matters of faith or God, since, in reality, you don't know anything about him/her/it, by your own admission.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even though baptized infants cannot articulate that faith, Lutherans believe that it is present all the same.^ I might well regretfully refrain from the practice, even though I believed that I was thereby doing greater harm.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not believe that all religious truths are the same, and I do not believe that "many paths lead to the summit of the mountain."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Catholic, I don't really want to be on their registry, even though I don't believe their registry has any worth outside this life whatsoever.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[98] Because it is faith alone that receives these divine gifts, Lutherans confess that baptism "works forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe this, as the words and promises of God declare."[99] In the special section on infant baptism in his Large Catechism, Luther argues that infant baptism is God-pleasing because persons so baptized were reborn and sanctified by the Holy Spirit.[100]
Swiss Reformer Huldrych Zwingli differed with the Lutherans by denying sacramental status of baptism. Zwingli identified baptism and the Lord's supper as sacraments, but in the sense of an initiatory ceremony.[16] His understanding of these sacraments as symbolic differentiated him from Luther.
.Anabaptists (a word that means "rebaptizers") rejected so thoroughly the tradition maintained by Lutherans as well as Catholics that they denied the validity of baptism outside their group.^ They don't know anything, and I mean ANYTHING. (Oh well, I have met one or two who were not totally clueless).
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, the Mormons are doing just that not only by the irritating prosletizing they do but also this bizarre baptism of the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just because many people don't think of THAT use of their names as particularly intrusive because it's well-intended, doesn't mean that they would agree, if consulted.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.They "rebaptized" converts on the grounds that one cannot be baptized without wishing it, and an infant, who does not understand what happens in a baptism ceremony and who has no knowledge of the concepts of Christianity, is not really baptized.^ The Mormon appeal to converts today as in the past, is for people who have only a partial and fragmented knowledge of their Christian tradition, and who are themselves, like the early church fathers, naive "folk-Christians" who do not really understand their own heritage, and for whom the extremely complex and complete Mormon theology is appealing.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the record, I am Protestant, and even though I think a posthumous baptism would have no effect on me, I would still object on symbolic grounds!
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If after she has talked to him he still intends to baptize her, it would be best for her or another family member to inform the church that she does not wish to be baptized.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

They saw as non-biblical the baptism of infants, who cannot confess their faith and who, not having yet committed any sins, are not in the same need of salvation. .Anabaptists and other Baptist groups do not consider that they rebaptize those who have been baptized as infants, since, in their view, infant baptism is without effect.^ By incorporating Jews, catholics and any others without their consent, into a baptismal database of a church they never attended and were never interested in, you destroy the truth, and the historical record.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So long as they don't try to inflict it on those who don't believe the same way, I don't care.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Amish, Restoration churches (Churches of Christ/ Christian Church), Hutterites, Baptists, Mennonites and other groups descend from this tradition.^ Some of the customs of the Mormon Church are politically hostile and intrusive to other groups.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They really do have a strange idea of death and of the after-life, which is creatively different from all other Christian tradition.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "I disagree with Christian Churches marrying gay men and women in their churches, and believe it is in direct violation with the Bible and is disrespectful to my own and 1000s of other Christians" .
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Pentecostal, charismatic and most non-denominational churches share this view as well.[4]

Modern practice

A baptism in the Roman Catholic Santa Cruz Parish, Chile, in 1991.
Today, baptism is most readily identified with Christianity, where it symbolizes the cleansing (remission) of sins, and the union of the believer with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection so that he may be called "saved" or "born again". Most Christian groups use water to baptize and agree that it is important, yet may strongly disagree with other groups regarding aspects of the rite such as:
  • Manner or method of baptism
  • Recipients of baptism
  • Meaning and effects of baptism

Mode and manner of baptism

Baptism of a child by affusion
A Christian baptism is administered in one of the following forms, performing the action either once or thrice:[101][102]

Aspersion

Aspersion is the sprinkling of water on the head.

Affusion

An affusion baptism, in the Santa Cruz Parish, 1991.
Affusion is the pouring of water over the head.

Immersion

The word "immersion" is derived from late Latin immersionem, a noun derived from the verb immergere (in- "into" + mergere "dip"). .In relation to baptism, some use it to refer to any form of dipping, whether the body is put completely under water or is only partly dipped in water; they thus speak of immersion as being either total or partial.^ They always come back to some form of "It's in the Bible."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm guessing that the Jewish bodies have not been consulted on whether or not they wished to renew their vows post mortem.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Others, of the Anabaptist tradition, use "immersion" to mean exclusively plunging someone entirely under the surface of the water (submersion).[103][104]. .The term "immersion" is also used of a form of baptism in which water is poured over someone standing in water, without submersion of the person.^ How do you stand by and allow someone to proxi-baptize someone of another faith, and create a record of this baptism, yet cling to your own heritage?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please explain to us, Mr. Waters, exactly how the Mormon practice of posthumous baptism interferes with deceased persons' right to "rest in peace."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[105][106] On these three meanings of the word "immersion", see Immersion baptism.
When "immersion" is used in opposition to "submersion",[107] it indicates the form of baptism in which the candidate stands or kneels in water and water is poured over the upper part of the body. .Immersion in this sense has been employed in West and East since at least the second century and is the form in which baptism is generally depicted in early Christian art.^ AGAINST baptism of the dead, a practice taught by Marcion, a second century heretic.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

In the West, this method of baptism began to be replaced by affusion baptism from around the 8th century, but it continues in use in Eastern Christianity.[105][106][108]

Submersion

Baptism by submersion in the Eastern Orthodox Church (Sophia Cathedral, 2005)
.The word Submersion comes from the late Latin (sub- "under, below" + mergere "plunge, dip")[109] and is also sometimes called "complete immersion". It is the form of baptism in which the water completely covers the candidate's body.^ My own baptism is the same for me - if I don't live the covenant - then baptism was just a quick dip in the water.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Submersion is practiced in the Orthodox and several other Eastern Churches (although immersion, as distinct from submersion, is now also common), as well as in the Ambrosian Rite. It is one of the methods provided in the Roman Rite of the baptism of infants. .The supposition that the term "immersion", used by historians when speaking of the usual practice of the early Christians,[84][85] referred to submersion has been challenged from the evidence of primitive pictorial representations and from measurements of surviving early baptismal fonts.^ It is important to recognize that the practice of baptizing on behalf of the dead is not new--it was practiced by early Christians, and the Mormons have simply brought it back.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[110] It is still frequently confused with immersion.
Baptism by submersion in a river
Baptists believe that "Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water. …It is an act of obedience symbolizing the believer's faith in a crucified, buried, and risen Saviour, the believer's death to sin, the burial of the old life, and the resurrection to walk in newness of life in Christ Jesus" [ellipsis retained from quoted text].[111] .Baptists, like most other Christians who believe in baptism by total immersion, read Biblical passages[112] to imply that the practice intentionally symbolizes burial and resurrection.^ It's also about a religious practice that not only offends others but directly and personally involves the deceased relatives of others who have a right to rest in peace."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They do it because they are told to do it by the top-down hierarchy, but basically, I believe, it is meaninglss to most Mormons who participate in it.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As I said before, it is the straight people like Dr. Rock who pick on and persecute gay people and not the other way around.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Especially when performed before onlookers, the total immersion ceremony depicts a burial (when the person being baptized is submerged under the water, as if buried), and a resurrection (when the person comes up out of the water, as if rising from the grave)—a "death" and a "burial" to an old way of life focused on sinning, and a "resurrection" to the start of a new life as a Christian focused on God.^ Try being a REAL Christian for a change, instead of scapegoating a minority that you personally do not like.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now when the subject of gay marriage comes up, straight people, especially homophobic Christian types do not laugh; now they tremble in fear.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such Christians typically believe that John 3:3-5 also supports this view, with its implication that water baptism symbolizes (but does not produce) a Christian being "born again" spiritually.^ Placing my name or anyone else's name in a public records database of Mormon baptisms does not constitute a symbolic gesture.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mormons do not believe in the traditional view of the transcendent world of "outside space and time" - such appeals to the primacy of consciousness, which is a philosophical error.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[113]
A submersion baptism in Community of Christ, in Las Terrazas Beach, Pichilemu, Chile.
.Baptism by submersion is also practiced by the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ),[114] although the faith does not suggest rebaptism of those who have undergone a different Christian baptism tradition.^ Why does mainstream Christianity not practice this?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The practice of LDS baptism for the dead does nothing to change that memory.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[115] .Baptism in Churches of Christ, which also have roots in the Restoration Movement, is performed only by bodily immersion.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[116]:p.107[117]:p.124 .This is based on their understanding of the meaning of the word baptizo as used in the New Testament, a belief that it more more closely conforms to the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus, and that historically immersion was the mode used in the first century, and that pouring and sprinkling later emerged as secondary modes when immersion was not possible.^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Christ conquered death - meaning death no longer, by itself, can separate souls from the blessings of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One evangelical church I used to attend had as its motto: "One more for Jesus."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[118][119]:p.139-140
Seventh-day Adventists believe that "Baptism symbolizes dying to self and coming alive in Jesus." They practice full immersion baptism.[120]
Latter-day Saints beliefs concerning baptism state "You are briefly immersed in water, as Jesus Christ was baptized. .Baptism by immersion is a sacred symbol of the death, burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, and it represents the end of your old life and the beginning of a new life as a disciple of Jesus Christ."^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Jesus Christ conquered death, death cannot separate those souls from God’s mercy.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] The Community of Christ also practices submersion for their baptisms.
.Jehovah's Witnesses teach "When a person is baptized, his whole body should be put under the water momentarily."^ If the Mormons want to posthumously baptize every person who ever lived, why should anybody else care?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[122]

Apparel

.Until the Middle Ages, most baptisms were performed with the candidates completely naked—as is evidenced by most of the early portrayals of baptism (some of which are shown in this article), and the early Church Fathers and other Christian writers.^ The practice was also criticized by St. John Chrysotom, an early church father.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the customs of the Mormon Church are politically hostile and intrusive to other groups.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Typical of these is Cyril of Jerusalem who wrote "On the Mysteries of Baptism" in the 4th Century (c. 350 A.D.):
.Do you not know, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into His death?^ Or worse, would you have them separated from your "normal" Mormon society, which is a freak show to many people, and then would you have them punished, or maybe even put to death?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You have no more right to baptize my dad as a mormon (a religion he had zero respect for) than I have to 'baptize' all the dead mormons back into the Catholic church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

etc.…for you are not under the Law, but under grace.
.
1. Therefore, I shall necessarily lay before you the sequel of yesterday's Lecture, that you may learn of what those things, which were done by you in the inner chamber, were symbolic.
^ Is that more important then all those other things you could be spending time doing?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Well, good Daniel, maybe you've learned a couple of things about nature, science and genetics.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, good Daniel, maybe you've learned a couple of things about nature, science and genetics.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]


.
2. As soon, then, as you entered, you put off your tunic; and this was an image of putting off the old man with his deeds.
^ You said: "putting together a coherent reason why gay people are not as good as you and your brethren."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You disrespect other faiths by imposing your own on those names, you blow off their families and put it down to it's just because we think other religions are wrong.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or worse, would you have them separated from your "normal" Mormon society, which is a freak show to many people, and then would you have them punished, or maybe even put to death?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Col 3:9] .Having stripped yourselves, you were naked; in this also imitating Christ, who was stripped naked on the Cross, and by His nakedness put off from Himself the principalities and powers, and openly triumphed over them on the tree.^ Again, you obviously know that this 'baptism' is just mumbo-jumbo, having no meaning or power in the real world.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are stripping the head of all they have left- the memory of who they were in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.For since the adverse powers made their lair in your members, you may no longer wear that old garment; I do not at all mean this visible one, but the old man, which waxes corrupt in the lusts of deceit.^ Have you no respect at all?"
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Have you no respect at all?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Face folks, no matter how old you religion is or what your religion is, it is all made up.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Eph 4:22] .May the soul which has once put him off, never again put him on, but say with the Spouse of Christ in the Song of Songs, I have put off my garment, how shall I put it on?^ You may as well rewrite history and now say Hitler was a buddhist and you've given him the choice of staying in the afterlife or coming back again (horrors!
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But respect means accepting me for who I am, and my history and if my religion says I don't believe in Jesus and will never want to be baptized, it is disrespectful to refuse to honor my beliefs.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Song of Sol 5:3] O wondrous thing! .You were naked in the sight of all, and were not ashamed; for truly ye bore the likeness of the first-formed Adam, who was naked in the garden, and was not ashamed.^ You may push all you like.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I conclude that that puts you all in the same position ethically as the Californians who so recently voted in favor of Proposition 8."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I conclude that that puts you all in the same position ethically as the Californians who so recently voted in favor of Proposition 8.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]


.
3. Then, when you were stripped, you were anointed with exorcised oil, from the very hairs of your head to your feet, and were made partakers of the good olive-tree, Jesus Christ.
^ You said: "putting together a coherent reason why gay people are not as good as you and your brethren."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hold your heads up high -- you did a great job on this most important cause.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have made a number of valid, very rational arguments but you can't seem to grasp them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]


.
4. After these things, you were led to the holy pool of Divine Baptism, as Christ was carried from the Cross to the Sepulchre which is before our eyes.
^ In a world where we finally have learned what I call the “holy envy”, it’s a beautiful thing; I could think of myself as taking part in such an act [baptism for the dead], extending the blessings that have come to me in and through Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that you do not like me to say these things, but it is for your own good; it is called "tuff luv."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

And each of you was asked, whether he believed in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and you made that saving confession, and descended three times into the water, and ascended again; here also hinting by a symbol at the three days burial of Christ.… And at the self-same moment you were both dying and being born;[123]
The symbolism is three-fold:
1. Baptism is considered to be a form of rebirth—"by water and the Spirit"[Jn 3:5]—the nakedness of baptism (the second birth) paralleled the condition of one's original birth. For example, St. John Chrysostom calls the baptism "λοχείαν", i.e., giving birth, and "new way of creation…from water and Spirit" ("to John" speech 25,2), and later elaborates:
."For nothing perceivable was handed over to us by Jesus; but with perceivable things, all of them however conceivable.^ Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ are powerful because they know all things, they know all laws, and they obey them, and all things (matter and energy) are subject them them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

This is also the way with the baptism; the gift of the water is done with a perceivable thing, but the things being conducted, i.e., the rebirth and renovation, are conceivable. .For, if you were without a body, He would hand over these bodiless gifts as naked [gifts] to you.^ So if you went ahead and dded them to the Mormon lists without their permission, I certainly have the right to say something, because you would have taken that away from them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you would explain any of this to a Mormon, they would look at you blankly, and without understanding; how could you not see the superiority of Mormonism?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.But because the soul is closely linked to the body, He hands over the perceivable ones to you with conceivable things " (Chrysostom to Matthew., speech 82, 4, c.^ On one hand you blather about the afterlife and allowing souls to accept Christ, on the other you pooh pooh it here by claiming it's not guaranteed, and its about the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are the one that is unnatural, against God, against society, against the natural order of things.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

390 A.D.)
2. The removal of clothing represented the "image of putting off the old man with his deeds" (as per Cyril, above), so the stripping of the body before for baptism represented taking off the trappings of sinful self, so that the "new man," which is given by Jesus, can be put on.
3. As St. Cyril again asserts above, as Adam and Eve in scripture and tradition were naked, innocent and unashamed in the Garden of Eden, nakedness during baptism was seen as a renewal of that innocence and state of original sinlessness. Other parallels can also be drawn, such as between the exposed condition of Christ during His crucifixion, and the crucifixion of the "old man" of the repentant sinner in preparation for baptism.
.Changing customs and concerns regarding modesty probably contributed to the practice of permitting or requiring the baptismal candidate to either retain their undergarments (as in many Renaissance paintings of baptism such as those by da Vinci, Tintoretto, Van Scorel, Masaccio, de Wit and others) and/or to wear, as is almost universally the practice today, baptismal robes.^ The practice of LDS baptism for the dead does nothing to change that memory.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sorry Marced, those are not valid reasons, and tolerance of religion requires that you be tolerant of my beliefs and my practices.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

These robes are most often white, symbolizing purity. .Some groups today allow any suitable clothes to be worn, such as trousers and a t-shirt—practical considerations include how easily the clothes will dry (denim is discouraged), and whether they will become see-through when wet.^ "Respecting another religion or their beliefs is allow them to practice their religion how they see fit.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Respecting another religion or their beliefs is allow them to practice their religion how they see fit.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't slam the door in their faces - I just answer it in the nude when I see white shirts, name tags, and bicycles through the peephole.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Meaning and effects of baptism

.There are differences in views about the effect of baptism for a Christian.^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some Christian groups assert baptism is a requirement for salvation and a sacrament, and speak of "baptismal regeneration". This view is shared by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, and by Churches formed early during the Protestant Reformation such as Lutheran and Anglican.^ Some of the customs of the Mormon Church are politically hostile and intrusive to other groups.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics, evangelicals, Protestants, Orthodox Jews, Muslims -- all supported Yes on 8.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Actually, the Catholic/Orthodox/Protestant understanding is that I Cor.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, Martin Luther said:
To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to "be saved". To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever.

Luther's Large Catechism, 1529

.The Churches of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also espouse baptism as necessary for salvation.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) donated no money to the Yes on 8 campaign.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

For Roman Catholics, baptism by water is a sacrament of initiation into the life of children of God (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212-13). .It configures the person to Christ (CCC 1272), and obliges the Christian to share in the Church's apostolic and missionary activity (CCC 1270).^ Relying on this misinformation to increase your knowledge of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is equivocal to asking a Christian Minister about Sukkot.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Catholic Tradition holds that there are three types of baptism by which one can be saved: sacramental baptism (with water), baptism of desire (explicit or implicit desire to be part of the Church founded by Jesus Christ), and baptism of blood (martyrdom) (see topic below).^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism for the dead allows church members participate in extending the mercy of God to those who have passed on without an opportunity to hear and decide on the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a world where we finally have learned what I call the “holy envy”, it’s a beautiful thing; I could think of myself as taking part in such an act [baptism for the dead], extending the blessings that have come to me in and through Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

By contrast, most Reformed (Calvinist), evangelical, and fundamentalist Protestant groups recognize baptism as an act of obedience to and identification with Jesus as the Christ. .They say that baptism has no sacramental (saving) power, and only testifies outwardly to the invisible and internal operation of God's power, which is completely separate from the rite itself.^ Jesus Christ conquered death - meaning death no longer, by itself, can separate souls from the blessings of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Let everyone keep only the level of knowledge that they have, no growth allowed."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, the Mormons are doing just that not only by the irritating prosletizing they do but also this bizarre baptism of the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churches of Christ consistently teach that in baptism a believer surrenders his life in faith and obedience to God, and that God "by the merits of Christ's blood, cleanses one from sin and truly changes the state of the person from an alien to a citizen of God's kingdom.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism for the dead allows church members participate in extending the mercy of God to those who have passed on without an opportunity to hear and decide on the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Baptism is not a human work; it is the place where God does the work that only God can do."^ Placing my name or anyone else's name in a public records database of Mormon baptisms does not constitute a symbolic gesture.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And this God does not live up in the sky, nor in some sort of Heavenly Paradise, or Elysium, such as many people believe, but that God, a physical being, a personage, lives in a physical place much like the earth, only it is a perfected place, where every thing works perfectly, all of the time.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose of humanity and this life is to become like God - to learn his ways, and do what he does.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.66 Thus, they see baptism as a passive act of faith rather than a meritorious work; it "is a confession that a person has nothing to offer God."[125]:p.112

Baptism in most Christian traditions

The baptistry at St. Raphael's Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa. This particular font was expanded in 2005 to include a small pool to provide for immersion baptism of adults. Eight-sided font architectures are common symbology of the day of Christ's Resurrection: the "Eighth Day".
.The liturgy of baptism in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, and Methodist traditions makes clear reference to baptism as not only a symbolic burial and resurrection, but an actual supernatural transformation, one that draws parallels to the experience of Noah and the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea divided by Moses.^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Actually, the Catholic/Orthodox/Protestant understanding is that I Cor.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Thus, baptism is literally and symbolically not only cleansing, but also dying and rising again with Christ. .Catholics believe that baptism is necessary for the cleansing of the taint of original sin, and for that reason infant baptism is a common practice.^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The Eastern Churches (Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy) also baptize infants on the basis of texts, such as Matthew 19:14, which are interpreted as supporting full Church membership for children. In these traditions, baptism is immediately followed by Chrismation and Communion at the next Divine Liturgy, regardless of age. Orthodox likewise believe that baptism removes what they call the ancestral sin of Adam.[126] .Anglicans believe that Baptism is also the entry into the Church and therefore allows them access to all rights and responsibilities as full members, including the privilege to receive Holy Communion.^ No baptism into your church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Individual members of the church were encouraged to support the Yes on 8 efforts and, exercising their constitutional right to free speech, donated whatever they felt like donating.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You have no more right to baptize my dad as a mormon (a religion he had zero respect for) than I have to 'baptize' all the dead mormons back into the Catholic church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Most Anglicans agree that it also cleanses the taint of what in the West is called original sin, in the East ancestral sin.
Eastern Orthodox Christians usually insist on complete threefold immersion as both a symbol of death and rebirth into Christ, and as a washing away of sin. Latin Rite Catholics generally baptize by affusion (pouring); Eastern Catholics usually by submersion, or at least partial immersion. However, submersion is gaining in popularity within the Latin Catholic Church. In newer church sanctuaries, the baptismal font may be designed to expressly allow for baptism by immersion.[citation needed] Anglicans baptize by submersion, immersion, affusion or sprinkling.
.According to a tradition, evidence of which can be traced back to at latest about the year 200,[127] sponsors or godparents are present at baptism and vow to uphold the Christian education and life of the baptized.^ They really do have a strange idea of death and of the after-life, which is creatively different from all other Christian tradition.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important to recognize that the practice of baptizing on behalf of the dead is not new--it was practiced by early Christians, and the Mormons have simply brought it back.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Baptists argue that the Greek word βαπτίζω originally meant "to immerse". They interpret some Biblical passages concerning baptism as requiring submersion of the body in water. They also state that only submersion reflects the symbolic significance of being "buried" and "raised" with Christ.[Rom 6:3-4] .Baptist Churches baptize in the name of the Trinity—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.^ This is very different than taking the names of the dead, incorporating them into a Mormon church database and baptizing them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

However, they do not believe that baptism is necessary for salvation; but rather that it is an act of Christian obedience.
.Some "full gospel" charismatic churches such as Oneness Pentecostals baptize only in the name of Jesus Christ, citing Peter's preaching baptism in the name of Jesus as their authority.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our hope is that every person will accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, just like it is a hope and a prayer here on earth.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Ac 2:38] They also point to several historical sources that maintain that the early church always baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus until development of the Trinity Doctrine in the Second Century.[128][129]

Ecumenical statements

.In 1982 the World Council of Churches published the ecumenical paper Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry.^ If I choose to go to Hell, and not to accept your "charitable gesture," who will tell the LDS church back on earth that I want to be removed from the published LDS baptism rolls?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The preface of the document states:
.Those who know how widely the churches have differed in doctrine and practice on baptism, Eucharist and ministry, will appreciate the importance of the large measure of agreement registered here.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone who wants to know about this church, read my many comments, which Dr. Rock did not contradict, but also read his own shocking comments and judge for yourself.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When you are promkoting your anti-gay agenda, how do you know who, in your presence, you may be offending?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Virtually all the confessional traditions are included in the Commission's membership. That theologians of such widely different traditions should be able to speak so harmoniously about baptism, Eucharist and ministry is unprecedented in the modern ecumenical movement. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the Commission also includes among its full members theologians of the Catholic and other churches which do not belong to the World Council of Churches itself."[130]
A 1997 document, Becoming a Christian: The Ecumenical Implications of Our Common Baptism, gave the views of a commission of experts brought together under the aegis of the World Council of Churches. It states:
…according to .Acts 2:38, baptisms follow from Peter's preaching baptism in the name of Jesus and lead those baptized to the receiving of Christ's Spirit, the Holy Ghost, and life in the community: "They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers"[2:42] as well as to the distribution of goods to those in need.^ Your church claims to be making a decision to save their souls by baptizing them so they can accept Christ if they so wish.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have a feeling the names, which are continuously removed from the list, were placed there by converts, such as myself, because they are direct descendants of those deceased.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[2:45]
Those who heard, who were baptized and entered the community's life, were already made witnesses of and partakers in the promises of God for the last days: the forgiveness of sins through baptism in the name of Jesus and the outpouring of the Holy Ghost on all flesh.[Ac 2:38] Similarly, in what may well be a baptismal pattern, 1 Peter testifies that proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and teaching about new life[1 Pe 1:3-21] lead to purification and new birth.[1:22-23] This, in turn, is followed by eating and drinking God's food,[2:2-3] by participation in the life of the community—the royal priesthood, the new temple, the people of God[2:4-10]—and by further moral formation.[2:11ff] At the beginning of 1 Peter the writer sets this baptism in the context of obedience to Christ and sanctification by the Spirit.[1:2] .So baptism into Christ is seen as baptism into the Spirit.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

cf. .[1 Co 12:13] In the fourth gospel Jesus' discourse with Nicodemus indicates that birth by water and Spirit becomes the gracious means of entry into the place where God rules.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Jn 3:5][131]

Validity considerations by some Churches

Russian Orthodox priest greeting an infant and its godparents on the steps of the church at the beginning of the Sacred Mystery of Baptism.
Since the Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, Methodist and Lutheran Churches teach that baptism is a sacrament that has actual spiritual and salvific effects, certain key criteria must be complied with for it to be valid, i.e., to actually have those effects. .If these key criteria are met, violation of some rules regarding baptism, such as varying the authorized rite for the ceremony, renders the baptism illicit (contrary to the Church's laws) but still valid.^ First, it seems to me that the Church is doing all it can within the bounds of individual privacy and the law to urge members to not do these ordinances for Holocaust Survivors at the family request.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

One of the criteria for validity is use of the correct form of words. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that the use of the verb "baptize" is essential.[92] Catholics of Latin Rite, Anglicans and Methodists use the form "I baptize you…." Eastern Orthodox and some Eastern Catholics use the form "This servant of Christ is baptized…" or "This person is baptized by my hands…." These Churches generally recognize each other's form of baptism as valid.
Use of the Trinitarian formula "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" is also considered essential; thus these churches do not accept as valid baptisms of non-Trinitarian churches such as Oneness Pentecostals.
Another essential condition is use of water. A baptism in which some other liquid was used would not be considered valid.
Another requirement is that the celebrant intends to perform baptism. .This requirement entails merely the intention "to do what the Church does", not necessarily to have Christian faith, since it is not the person baptizing, but the Holy Spirit working through the sacrament, who produces the effects of the sacrament.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If after she has talked to him he still intends to baptize her, it would be best for her or another family member to inform the church that she does not wish to be baptized.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you believe in God, and if you are a Christian, you cannot believe that any person "set" on this earth, within the "setting" of their birth can be any more or less favored by God, merely by the "accident" of their birth.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Doubt about the faith of the baptizer is thus no ground for doubt about the validity of the baptism.
Some conditions expressly do not affect validity—for example, whether submersion, immersion, affusion or aspersion is used. However, if water is sprinkled, there is a danger that the water may not touch the skin of the unbaptized. If the water does not flow on the skin, there is no ablution and so no baptism.
If for a medical or other legitimate reason the water cannot be poured on the head, it may be poured over another principal part of the body, such as the chest. .In such case validity is uncertain and the person will be considered to be conditionally baptized – until such time as they can be baptized in the traditional manner later.^ Personally, I'm offended by the thought of re-baptizing the dead who proudly lived and died in the faith they knew and practiced; I feel it is disrespectful.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Corinthian 15:29 KJV. If these were being performed at the time of the apostle Paul, it would seem to me that they are part of Christian tradition.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mormons do not believe in the traditional view of the transcendent world of "outside space and time" - such appeals to the primacy of consciousness, which is a philosophical error.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

For many communions, validity is not affected if a single submersion or pouring is performed rather than a triple, but in Orthodoxy this is controversial.
.According to the Catholic Church, baptism imparts an indelible "seal" upon the soul of the baptized.^ If the LDS Church was baptizing everyone to remain Jewish or Catholic, would the ritual be unethical, harmful or illegal?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You have no more right to baptize my dad as a mormon (a religion he had zero respect for) than I have to 'baptize' all the dead mormons back into the Catholic church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your church claims to be making a decision to save their souls by baptizing them so they can accept Christ if they so wish.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Thus, once baptized, an individual cannot be baptized again. This teaching was affirmed against the Donatists who practiced rebaptism. Baptism is said to operate ex opere operato and is valid even if administered in heresy or schism.[15] Like holy orders, it confers a "character" on the recipient, who can never be re-baptized.[15]

Recognition of baptism by other denominations

.The Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, Presbyterian and Methodist Churches accept baptism performed by other denominations within this group as valid, subject to certain conditions, including the use of the Trinitarian formula.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the customs of the Mormon Church are politically hostile and intrusive to other groups.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is only possible to be baptized once, thus people with valid baptisms from other denominations may not be baptized again upon conversion or transfer.^ Marcedward1 said, "Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I agree, it's only meaning is to insult people of other faiths (or who are free from faith) and swell the appearaance of the number of mormons.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Such people are accepted upon making a profession of faith and, if they have not yet validly received the sacrament of confirmation or chrismation, by being confirmed. In some cases it can be difficult to decide if the original baptism was in fact valid; if there is doubt, conditional baptism is administered, with a formula on the lines of "If you are not yet baptized, I baptize you…."[132]
.In the still recent past, it was common practice in the Roman Catholic Church to baptize conditionally almost every convert from Protestantism because of a perceived difficulty in judging about the validity in any concrete case.^ Anyone who wants to know about this church, read my many comments, which Dr. Rock did not contradict, but also read his own shocking comments and judge for yourself.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If after she has talked to him he still intends to baptize her, it would be best for her or another family member to inform the church that she does not wish to be baptized.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church and many Protestant Churches do not regard Mormons as Christian, because the Mormon Church just appeared at their own starting point, and did not evolve from any previous formal tradiiton.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the case of the major Protestant Churches, agreements involving assurances about the manner in which they administer baptism has ended this practice, which sometimes continues for other groups of Protestant tradition.^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think this has not been done in a manner that gets a majority agreement.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think the Mormon Church is doing its very best to abide by the agreement it made about the Holocaust names.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Catholic Church has always recognized the validity of baptism in the Churches of Eastern Christianity, but it has explicitly denied the validity of the baptism conferred in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) donated no money to the Yes on 8 campaign.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Relying on this misinformation to increase your knowledge of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is equivocal to asking a Christian Minister about Sukkot.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[133]
.Practice in the Eastern Orthodox Church for converts from other communions is not uniform, but even a convert received without administration of baptism is considered to have his previous baptism retroactively filled with grace by whatever form is used to accept him, such as by chrismation or confession.^ Since he apparently (according to your statements) intends to perform a baptism even against her express wishes, this seems to be a family conflict, and the best resolution would be between him and her, not involving the church at all.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When do they concede that what they do affects others and when will they accept that whatever their reasoning or excuse, they don't get a free pass because its faith?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The exact procedure is dependent on local canons and is the subject of some controversy.[citation needed]
Oriental Orthodox Churches recognise the validity of baptisms performed within the Eastern Orthodox Communion. Some also recognise baptisms performed by Catholic Churches. Any supposed baptism not performed using the Trinitarian formula is considered invalid.[citation needed]
.In the eyes of the Catholic Church, all Orthodox Churches, Anglican and Lutheran Churches, the baptism conferred by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is invalid.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) donated no money to the Yes on 8 campaign.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[134] .An article published together with the official declaration to that effect gave reasons for that judgment, summed up in the following words: "The Baptism of the Catholic Church and that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints differ essentially, both for what concerns faith in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in whose name Baptism is conferred, and for what concerns the relationship to Christ who instituted it."^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) donated no money to the Yes on 8 campaign.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[135]
.The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints stresses that baptism must be administered by one having proper authority; consequently, the Church does not recognize the baptism of any other church as valid.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) donated no money to the Yes on 8 campaign.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[136]
.Jehovah's Witnesses do not recognise any other baptism occurring after 1914[137] as valid,[138] as they believe that they are now the one true church of Christ,[139] and that the rest of "Christendom" is false religion.^ By incorporating Jews, catholics and any others without their consent, into a baptismal database of a church they never attended and were never interested in, you destroy the truth, and the historical record.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one should feel forced, pushed, cooerced, threatened, even cajoled into believing or not believing a certain way about religion or any other topic in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[140]

Who may administer a baptism

A baptism administered by a U.S. Navy chaplain in Iraq
.There is debate among Christian churches as to who can administer baptism.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, a lot of information about the LDS church can be found there; I would recommend it as a resource for anyone who wants to learn about Mormons.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The examples given in the New Testament only show apostles and deacons administering baptism. .Ancient Christian churches interpret this as indicating that baptism should be performed by the clergy except in extremis, i.e., when the one being baptized is in immediate danger of death.^ Allow me to correct myself; if your grandmother does not wish to be baptized, of course no-one should force her, either before or after death.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians, Jews and Muslims wouldn't dream of 'baptizing after death'.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Allow me to correct myself; if your grandmother does not wish to be baptized, of course no-one should force her, either before or after death."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then anyone may baptize, provided, in the view of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the person who does the baptizing is a member of that Church, or, in the view of the Catholic Church, that the person, even if not baptized, intends to do what the Church does in administering the rite.^ If the Mormons want to posthumously baptize every person who ever lived, why should anybody else care?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you actually want to learn about the LDS church, as opposed to spewing libel, I suggest you contact a member, the missionaries, or someone else who actually knows something about it.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone who wants to know about this church, read my many comments, which Dr. Rock did not contradict, but also read his own shocking comments and judge for yourself.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many Protestant churches see no specific prohibition in the biblical examples and permit any believer to baptize another.^ If after she has talked to him he still intends to baptize her, it would be best for her or another family member to inform the church that she does not wish to be baptized.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church and many Protestant Churches do not regard Mormons as Christian, because the Mormon Church just appeared at their own starting point, and did not evolve from any previous formal tradiiton.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You have no more right to baptize my dad as a mormon (a religion he had zero respect for) than I have to 'baptize' all the dead mormons back into the Catholic church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Catholic Church the ordinary minister of baptism is a member of the clergy (bishop, priest or deacon),[141] but in normal circumstances only the Parish Priest of the person to be baptized, or someone authorized by the Parish Priest, may do so licitly[142] "If the ordinary minister is absent or impeded, a catechist or some other person deputed to this office by the local Ordinary, may lawfully confer baptism; indeed, in a case of necessity, any person who has the requisite intention may do so[141] By "a case of necessity" is meant imminent danger of death because of either illness or an external threat.^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the customs of the Mormon Church are politically hostile and intrusive to other groups.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

."The requisite intention" is, at the minimum level, the intention "to do what the Church does" through the rite of baptism.^ The LDS Church does not count "baptisms for the dead" on their current membership rolls.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why does the LDS Church teach that baptism for the dead is essential anyway?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Drrock wrote: "Why does the LDS Church teach that baptism for the dead is essential anyway?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

In the Eastern Catholic Churches, a deacon is not considered an ordinary minister. Administration of the sacrament is reserved, as in the Catholic Rite, to the Parish Priest. .But, "in case of necessity, baptism can be administered by a deacon or, in his absence or if he is impeded, by another cleric, a member of an institute of consecrated life, or by any other Christian faithful; even by the mother or father, if another person is not available who knows how to baptize."^ Homosexuals are incapable by nature of fulfilling the natural roles that function within the institution of marriage – because the institution of marriage IS, husband-wife-mother-father by design.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marcedward1 said, "Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[143]
The discipline of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East is similar to that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. .They require the baptizer, even in cases of necessity, to be of their own faith, on the grounds that a person cannot convey what he himself does not possess, in this case membership in the Church.^ They want to deny it, oppress it and, in the case of the Mormons, even torture their gays with electro-shock to "cure" them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marcedward1 said, "Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The LDS Church does not count "baptisms for the dead" on their current membership rolls.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[144] .The Latin Rite Catholic Church does not insist on this condition, considering that the effect of the sacrament, such as membership of the Church, is not produced by the person who baptizes, but by the Holy Spirit.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If after she has talked to him he still intends to baptize her, it would be best for her or another family member to inform the church that she does not wish to be baptized.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the LDS Church was baptizing everyone to remain Jewish or Catholic, would the ritual be unethical, harmful or illegal?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the Orthodox, while Baptism in extremis may be administered by a deacon or any lay-person, if the newly-baptized person survives, a priest must still perform the other prayers of the Rite of Baptism, and administer the Mystery of Chrismation.^ You are doing more than offering a prayer- you are taking names and performing a ritual- baptism-, and associating it with them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you'd like, you can say a prayer or perform a ritual that undoes the LDS baptism for the dead, if it will make you feel better?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From personal experience I know unless the person is a direct relative (e.g., grandparent, parent, sibling) you must obtain permission from other members of the family who are direct relatives.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The discipline of Anglicanism and Lutherans is similar to that of the Latin Rite Catholic Church. .For Methodists and many other Protestant denominations, too, the ordinary minister of baptism is a duly ordained or appointed minister of religion.^ And I am also aware of much Protestant hostility against Mormons, but I think that is just garden variety ill-will that all the many Protestant sects feel towards each other.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Newer movements of Protestant Evangelical churches, particularly non-denominational, have begun to allow those persons most instrumental in one's faith to baptize.^ Marcedward1 said, "Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Allow me to correct myself; if your grandmother does not wish to be baptized, of course no-one should force her, either before or after death.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the non-Mormon dead ones who got posthumously baptized?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, only a man who has been ordained to the Aaronic Priesthood holding the priesthood office of Priest or higher office in the Melchizedek Priesthood may administer baptism.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) donated no money to the Yes on 8 campaign.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[145]
A Jehovah's Witnesses baptism is performed by a "dedicated male" adherent.[146][147] .Only in extraordinary circumstances would a "dedicated" baptizer be unbaptized (see section Jehovah's Witnesses).^ And seeing as I am not the only one upset by this, you would think you have a clue.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Other Baptism traditions

Anabaptist baptism

A river baptism in North Carolina at the turn of the 20th century. Full-immersion (submersion) baptism continues to be a common practice in many African-American Christian congregations today.
Anabaptists ("re-baptizers") and Baptists promote adult baptism, or "believer's baptism." Baptism is seen as an act identifying one as having accepted Jesus Christ as Savior.
.Early Anabaptists were given that name because they re-baptized persons whom they felt had not been properly baptized, having received infant baptism, sprinkling, or baptism of any sort by another denomination.^ As a single straight person, I find extending any special privileges to people just because they're having sex with each other to be the most bizarre and unjust societal norms ever perpetrated by a majority on a minority.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the laws of justice, no one can enter heaven unless he/she has received the covenant of baptism.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Anabaptists perform baptisms indoors in a baptismal font, a swimming pool, or a bathtub, or outdoors in a creek or river. .Baptism memorializes the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus.^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Rom 6] .Baptism does not accomplish anything in itself, but is an outward personal sign or testimony that the person's sins have already been washed away by the cross of Christ.^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[148] It is considered a covenantal act, signifying entrance into the New Covenant of Christ.[149][148]

Baptist views

.For the main majority of all Baptists, Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.^ Gay marriage leads to 1000s of more families without mothers or fathers - this is an attack on the human family - all in the name of sexual preferences of adults.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Mt 28:19] .It is an act of obedience symbolizing the believer's faith in a crucified, buried, and risen Saviour, the believer's death to sin, the burial of the old life, and the resurrection to walk in newness of life in Christ Jesus.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Jesus Christ conquered death, death cannot separate those souls from God’s mercy.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is a testimony to the believer's faith in the final resurrection of the dead.^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[150]
Most Baptists believe that baptism in itself does not convey salvation or transformation, but is a sign of what has already happened in a spiritual sense to a new believer. .Since it is considered not to bestow "saving grace" or be salvific as such, Baptists consider it an "ordinance" rather than a "sacrament."^ Such is the philosophy and world view of gays and lesbians - appealing to their urges rather than the natural structure of the human family.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Being a church "ordinance"—a teaching of the Bible that Jesus intended his followers to observe,[4] it is prerequisite to the privileges of church membership and to the Lord's Supper (Baptists' preferred term for communion).[150]
.Baptism cannot be separated from one’s doctrine of Christ, since Christ himself was baptized and his redemptive work is depicted in baptism by immersion as a new relationship in Christ which all believers enjoy.^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Baptists also believe that baptism is an important way of professing one’s faith in Christ.^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Typically, adults, youth, or older children who understand the commitment of faith to Christ and wish to respond to God’s call are acceptable candidates for baptism.^ The commission was comprised of sociologists who studied the effects of the reforms on children and found that children’s rights are more important to the family than the sexual preferences of adults.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism for the dead allows church members participate in extending the mercy of God to those who have passed on without an opportunity to hear and decide on the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Baptists have been criticized because their rejection of infant baptism appears to have no place for children in an adult or believers’ church.^ No baptism into your church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But now, after multiple sincere explanations, and you continue to rage against the LDS Church because of its belief, you've given Mormons and others no reason not to believe that you're just a religious bigot.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead of baptizing young children and infants, Baptists prefer to dedicate children to the Lord in a public church service where the parents and the members of the church are called upon to live exemplary lives before children, and to teach them the ways of the Lord.^ If after she has talked to him he still intends to baptize her, it would be best for her or another family member to inform the church that she does not wish to be baptized.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Popes and bishops who have spent their lifetimes in service to the church do not want their names associated in any way with the Mormons.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You also admit that the only way homosexuals can imitate or mimic the structure of marriage (parents and children) is through the union of OPPOSITE SEXES – which is inherently a heterosexual union.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Water baptism is not an element in that service.[4] Baptists respond to this criticism by saying God's love extends to all, and explicitly children; that baptism is not in itself a sacrament, and so does not convey the salvation those critics consider children to be lacking; and that as baptism merely conveys an outward sign of the confession of faith, it is a pointless exercise until the person being baptized is mature enough to make an informed decision to make that confession.[4]

Churches of Christ

.Baptism in Churches of Christ is performed only by full bodily immersion,[116]:p.107[117]:p.124 based on the Koine Greek verb baptizo which is understood to mean to dip, immerse, submerge or plunge.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[118][119]:p.139[151]:p.313-314[152]:p.22[153]:p.45-46 .Submersion is seen as more closely conforming to the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus than other modes of baptism.^ I think Jesus was more concerned about that than my partner's vagina.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are doing more than offering a prayer- you are taking names and performing a ritual- baptism-, and associating it with them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[118][119]:p.140[151]:p.314-316 Churches of Christ argue that historically immersion was the mode used in the first century, and that pouring and sprinkling later emerged as secondary modes when immersion was not possible.[119]:p.140 Over time these secondary modes came to replace immersion.[119]:p.140 .Only those mentally capable of belief and repentance are baptized (i.e., infant baptism is not practiced because the New Testament has no precedent for it).^ Consequently, I have no choice but to reject the candidacy of any person who shares those beliefs.” .
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marcedward1 said, "Baptizing the dead of other religions into your religion is not only a slap in the face to those people, but it underlies the emptiness of your own faith."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the laws of justice, no one can enter heaven unless he/she has received the covenant of baptism.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[117]:p.124[118][151]:p.318-319[154]:p.195
.Churches of Christ have historically had the most conservative position on baptism among the various branches of the Restoration Movement, understanding baptism by immersion to be a necessary part of conversion.^ It is my thesis, based on my conversation with many Mormon missionaries, that most Mormons do not understand the theology of their own church, and the do not understand the underlying theological meaning behind most of their rituals, and they don't care to find out.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most churches take in the greater part of their income through donations.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.61 The most significant disagreements concerned the extent to which a correct understanding of the role of baptism is necessary for its validity.[124]:p.61 .David Lipscomb insisted that if a believer was baptized out of a desire to obey God, the baptism was valid, even if the individual did not fully understand the role baptism plays in salvation.^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I encourage all those who are upset by this practice or who do not fully understand it to seek the knowledge, as I did, directly from the source.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.61 Austin McGary contended that to be valid, the convert must also understand that baptism is for the forgiveness of sins.[124]:p.62 McGary's view became the prevailing one in the early 20th century, but the approach advocated by Lipscomb never totally disappeared.[124]:p.62 .More recently, the rise of the International Churches of Christ (who insisted on re-baptising anyone joining their movement) has caused some to reexamine the issue.^ JOHN HERRING was baptised on 11 Feb 1798 in St.Peter & Paul Church, Sheffield and was buried on 2 May 1881 in Christ Church, Gleadless, Sheffield.

^ FREDERICK HERRING was baptised on 14 Jan 1903 in Christ Church, Heeley, Sheffield.

^ I carry some emotional baggage around this, as a descendant of Irish Catholics who risked their lives to follow Christ as they knew Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.66
.Churches of Christ consistently teach that in baptism a believer surrenders his life in faith and obedience to God, and that God "by the merits of Christ's blood, cleanses one from sin and truly changes the state of the person from an alien to a citizen of God's kingdom.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism for the dead allows church members participate in extending the mercy of God to those who have passed on without an opportunity to hear and decide on the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Baptism is not a human work; it is the place where God does the work that only God can do."^ Placing my name or anyone else's name in a public records database of Mormon baptisms does not constitute a symbolic gesture.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And this God does not live up in the sky, nor in some sort of Heavenly Paradise, or Elysium, such as many people believe, but that God, a physical being, a personage, lives in a physical place much like the earth, only it is a perfected place, where every thing works perfectly, all of the time.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose of humanity and this life is to become like God - to learn his ways, and do what he does.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.66 Baptism is a passive act of faith rather than a meritorious work; it "is a confession that a person has nothing to offer God."[125]:p.112 .While Churches of Christ do not describe baptism as a "sacrament", their view of it can legitimately be described as "sacramental."^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.66[152]:p.186 .They see the power of baptism coming from God, who chose to use baptism as a vehicle, rather than from the water or the act itself,[152]:p.186 and understand baptism to be an integral part of the conversion process, rather than just a symbol of conversion.^ No, we are not ignoring who they were or what they wanted, because the baptism doesn't change them unless they accept the change.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They see that personal change comes from within, and the Savior helps enable that process because they do not have to "carry" their baggage from life's mistakes with them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the classic circular reasoning used by all religionists who can't accept that other people don't have the same views as they do.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[152]:p.184 A recent trend is to emphasize the transformational aspect of baptism: instead of describing it as just a legal requirement or sign of something that happened in the past, it is seen as "the event that places the believer 'into Christ' where God does the ongoing work of transformation."[124]:p.66 There is a minority that downplays the importance of baptism in order to avoid sectarianism, but the broader trend is to "reexamine the richness of the biblical teaching of baptism and to reinforce its central and essential place in Christianity."[124]:p.66
.Because of the belief that baptism is a necessary part of salvation, some Baptists hold that the Churches of Christ endorse the doctrine of baptismal regeneration.^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not obliged to tolerate -- or, worse, to respect -- your beliefs regarding women and minorities simply because your doctrines hold that any decision made by a dozen really old white guys is infallible.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[155] .However, members of the Churches of Christ reject this, arguing that since faith and repentance are necessary, and that the cleansing of sins is by the blood of Christ through the grace of God, baptism is not an inherently redeeming ritual.^ Since everyone will have the opportunity eventually, baptisn for the dead not a conflict or a competition in the minds of Church members, it's an act of service that allows us to reflect on our own baptism and conversion.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I really don't think you're qualified to comment matters of faith or God, since, in reality, you don't know anything about him/her/it, by your own admission.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[119]:p.133[155][156]:p.630,631 .Rather, their inclination is to point to the biblical passage in which Peter, analogizing baptism to Noah's flood, posits that "likewise baptism doth also now save us" but parenthetically clarifies that baptism is "not the putting away of the filth of the flesh but the response of a good conscience toward God" (1 Peter 3:21).^ I'm glad that His plan includes a way for us to help work toward that fairness in a concrete way now.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[157] One author from the churches of Christ describes the relationship between faith and baptism this way, "Faith is the reason why a person is a child of God; baptism is the time at which one is incorporated into Christ and so becomes a child of God" (italics are in the source).[154]:p.170 .Baptism is understood as a confessional expression of faith and repentance,[154]:p.179-182 rather than a "work" that earns salvation.^ As a person of faith who also happens to be a journalist, I tend to find the religious beliefs and practices of others intriguing and even enlightening rather than threatening or offensive.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[154]:p.170

Reformed and Covenant Theology view

Paedobaptist Covenant theologians see the administration of all the biblical covenants, including the New Covenant, as including a principle of familial, corporate inclusion or "generational succession". The biblical covenants between God and man include signs and seals that visibly represent the realities behind the covenants. These visible signs and symbols of God's covenant redemption are administered in a corporate manner (for instance, to households), not in an exclusively individualistic manner.
.Baptism is considered by the Reformed churches as the visible sign of entrance into the New Covenant and therefore may be administered individually to new believers making a public profession of faith.^ No baptism into your church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's rude, regardless of what someone may or may not have professed to believe while alive.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stipulating that those who are baptized into the LDS church can decline this baptism in the afterlife is worse than Medieval.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Paedobaptists further believe this extends corporately to the households of believers which typically would include children, or individually to children or infants of believing parents (see Infant baptism). In this view, baptism is thus seen as the functional replacement and sacramental equivalent of the Abrahamic rite of circumcision and symbolizes the internal cleansing from sin, among other things.

Catholic baptism

.In Catholic teaching, baptism plays an essential role in salvation.^ Why does the LDS Church teach that baptism for the dead is essential anyway?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Drrock wrote: "Why does the LDS Church teach that baptism for the dead is essential anyway?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[158] .This teaching dates back to the teachings and practices of first-century Christians, and the connection between salvation and baptism was not, on the whole, an item of major dispute until Martin Luther's teachings regarding grace.^ I welcome your coherent defenses that are superior to my own, in support of the LDS practice of poxi baptism, and the Institution of Marriage: the union between a man and woman.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important to recognize that the practice of baptizing on behalf of the dead is not new--it was practiced by early Christians, and the Mormons have simply brought it back.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AGAINST baptism of the dead, a practice taught by Marcion, a second century heretic.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "Baptism is necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament."^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism for the dead allows church members participate in extending the mercy of God to those who have passed on without an opportunity to hear and decide on the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Accordingly, a person who knowingly, willfully and unrepentantly rejects baptism has no hope of salvation.^ Consequently, I have no choice but to reject the candidacy of any person who shares those beliefs.” .
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

This teaching is based on Jesus' words in the Gospel according to John: "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God."[Jn 3:5]
Catholics are baptized in water, by submersion, immersion or infusion, in the name (singular) of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit[159]—not three gods, but one God subsisting in three Persons. While sharing in the one divine essence, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are distinct, not simply three "masks" or manifestations of one Person. .The faith of the Church and of the individual Christian is based on a relationship with these three Persons of the one God.^ First, it seems to me that the Church is doing all it can within the bounds of individual privacy and the law to urge members to not do these ordinances for Holocaust Survivors at the family request.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are my personal opinions and thoughts; any errors are mine and in no way reflect official church policy or doctrine.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you believe in God, and if you are a Christian, you cannot believe that any person "set" on this earth, within the "setting" of their birth can be any more or less favored by God, merely by the "accident" of their birth.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Adults can also be baptized, if they are not baptized already, through the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults.
It is claimed that Pope Stephen I, St. Ambrose, and Pope Nicholas I declared that baptisms in the name of "Jesus" only as well as in the name of "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" were valid. The correct interpretation of their words is disputed.[92] Current canonical law requires the Trinitarian formula and water for validity[158]
The Church recognizes two equivalents of baptism with water: "baptism of blood" and "baptism of desire". Baptism of blood is that undergone by unbaptized individuals who are martyred for the Faith, while baptism of desire generally applies to catechumens who die before they can be baptized. The Catechism of the Catholic Church describes these two forms:
.The Church has always held the firm conviction that those who suffer death for the sake of the faith without having received Baptism are baptized by their death for and with Christ.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Jesus Christ conquered death, death cannot separate those souls from God’s mercy.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

This Baptism of blood, like the desire for Baptism, brings about the fruits of Baptism without being a sacrament. (1258)
For catechumens who die before their Baptism, their explicit desire to receive it, together with repentance for their sins, and charity, assures them the salvation that they were not able to receive through the sacrament. (1259)
.Non-Christians who seek God with a sincere heart and, moved by grace, try to do God's will as they know it through the dictates of conscience can also be saved without water baptism; they are said to desire it implicitly.^ They were asked to stop this practice in 1995, and at that time they said they had done so, and then all of the half million names who they claim to have expunged from their lists have reemerged on that list recently.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They don't know anything, and I mean ANYTHING. (Oh well, I have met one or two who were not totally clueless).
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[160] As for unbaptized infants, the Church is unsure of their fate; "the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God" (Catechism, 1261).

Jehovah's Witnesses

Baptism is also practiced by Jehovah's Witnesses. .They believe it should be performed by complete immersion (submersion) only when one is old enough to understand the significance of it.^ The constant complaint of Mormons is that people speak about them without understanding who they are or what they believe.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So if there is that universal understanding, why should you care how they got to that?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly every religion claims an exclusive understanding about the nature of the afterlife, and none of those understandings should offend non-believers.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.They teach that water baptism is an outward symbol that one has made a complete, unreserved, and unconditional dedication through Jesus Christ to do the will of Jehovah God; for males and females, baptism constitutes ordination as a minister[161] Jehovah's Witnesses usually baptize converts at large conventions[162] rather than at the local Kingdom Halls.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the things followers of the Savior see in his teachings is that they don't have to view the world as if they are a victim.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

A candidate must request baptism some time before a planned baptismal event, since preparation is required to qualify.[163] .Congregation elders may only approve a candidate for baptism after he understands what is expected of a Christian associated with Jehovah's Witnesses and he demonstrates sincere dedication to the faith.^ "I don’t expect everyone who not of my faith to understand our ways.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don’t expect everyone who not of my faith to understand our ways.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you haven’t asked that question, you may still yet be in the dark when trying to understand LDS baptisms for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[164]
Before the actual baptism, the candidates must answer in the affirmative when presented with the following two oaths[165]:
.
  1. On the basis of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, have you repented of your sins and dedicated yourself to Jehovah to do his will?^ Jesus Christ conquered death - meaning death no longer, by itself, can separate souls from the blessings of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Does Jesus support you in your lying?
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Relying on this misinformation to increase your knowledge of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is equivocal to asking a Christian Minister about Sukkot.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]


  2. Do you understand that your dedication and baptism identify you as one of Jehovah's Witnesses in association with God's spirit-directed organization?
While baptisms may be performed simultaneously by different baptizers, the baptism of a typical Jehovah's Witness candidate is performed by one male minister."Normally only one male minister is needed to baptize someone".[166]
In practice, most baptisms among Jehovah's Witnesses are performed at scheduled assemblies and conventions by elders and ministerial servants, although smaller services without onlookers are considered Scriptural.[146] and the only baptizer requirement is that he should himself be a baptized male.[167][168] Unless the candidate is physically challenged or some other special situation exists, a particular candidate is immersed by only one baptizer. ."Jesus’ baptism, then, sets the pattern of total immersion in water, but it also suggests that one male servant of God should perform the baptism.^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, just as Jesus’ atonement was a vicarious or proxi work for the dead, the living, and future souls, he authorized his servants to perform a proxi work for those dead who did not receive authorized baptism while living.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[166] In circumstances of extended isolation, a qualified candidate's prayerful dedication and publicly stated intention to become baptized as soon as possible serve to identify the start of his or her life as a dedicated Christian, even if immersion itself must be delayed.[169] .In rare instances, an unbaptized man who has made a public dedication has performed the baptism of another who immediately reciprocated; Witnesses accept both baptisms as valid.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually everyone who ever lived will be identified and a proxy baptism performed.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I choose to go to Hell, and not to accept your "charitable gesture," who will tell the LDS church back on earth that I want to be removed from the published LDS baptism rolls?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[170] .Witnesses who had been baptized in the 1930s and 1940s by women ministers, such as in concentration camps, were rebaptized but retained the earlier as their baptism dates.^ Stipulating that those who are baptized into the LDS church can decline this baptism in the afterlife is worse than Medieval.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints say they are abiding by a 1995 agreement to limit the baptism of Jews who were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[146]

Mormonism

A Mormon baptism, circa the 1850s
In Mormonism, baptism has the main purpose of remitting the sins of the participant. .It is followed by confirmation, which inducts the person into membership in the church and constitutes a baptism with the Holy Spirit.^ No baptism into your church.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Catholic Church is going to get into politics despite the constitutional separation of church and state they should forfeit their tax free status and put their money where their mouth is.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Mormon baptism must be by full immersion, and by a precise ritualized prayer: if some part of the participant is not fully immersed, or the prayer was not recited verbatim, the ritual must be repeated.[171] It typically occurs in a baptismal font. In addition, Mormons do not believe a baptism is valid unless it is performed by a Mormon priest or someone of higher authority.[172] Authority is passed down through a form of apostolic succession. .All new converts the the faith must be baptized or re-baptized.^ Personally, I'm offended by the thought of re-baptizing the dead who proudly lived and died in the faith they knew and practiced; I feel it is disrespectful.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Baptism is seen as symbolic both of Jesus' death, burial and resurrection[173] and is also symbolic of the baptized individual discarding their "natural" self and donning a new identity as a disciple of Jesus.^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The astounding arrogance of the Mormons in appropriating new members from the death rolls of other faiths is exceeded only by their self-righteous indignation over the "offense" others might have taken.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Mormon theology, faith and repentance are prerequisites to baptism.^ "Baptism for the dead" is a central tenet of the Mormon faith.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ritual does not cleanse the participant of original sin, as Mormons do not believe the doctrine of original sin.^ They do it because they are told to do it by the top-down hierarchy, but basically, I believe, it is meaninglss to most Mormons who participate in it.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You said: "They do it because they are told to do it by the top-down hierarchy, but basically, I believe, it is meaninglss to most Mormons who participate in it."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Baptism must occur after an "age of accountability", defined in Mormon scripture as eight years old.[174] Mormonism rejects infant baptism.[175] .Mormon theology also countenances baptism for the dead in which deceased ancestors are baptized vicariously by the living.^ I don't know which is crazier, the concept of baptizing dead people or the living getting their shorts in a knot over the concept.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is an article about Mormons baptizing dead people, not whether gay couples are the end of civilization.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who cares if Mormons baptize your dead auntie?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

This generally occurs in mormon temples.[176]

Opposition to water baptism

Quakers and baptism

.Quakers (members of the Religious Society of Friends) do not believe in the baptism of either children or adults with water, rejecting all forms of outward sacraments in their religious life.^ DrS1, If you really respected all your friends who offered their prayers, you would also accept what they believe.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not believe that all religious truths are the same, and I do not believe that "many paths lead to the summit of the mountain."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It conducted a two year study of countries with gay marriage and found that the rights of Children were more important to society and the State, than the sexual preferences of adults.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Robert Barclay's Apology for the True Christian Divinity (a historic explanation of Quaker theology from the 17th century), explains Quakers' opposition to baptism with water thus:
"I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire".[Mt 3:11] Here John mentions two manners of baptizings and two different baptisms, the one with water, and the other with the Spirit, the one whereof he was the minister of, the other whereof Christ was the minister of: and such as were baptized with the first were not therefore baptized with the second: "I indeed baptize you, but he shall baptize you." Though in the present time they were baptized with the baptism of water, yet they were not as yet, but were to be, baptized with the baptism of Christ.

Robert Barclay, 1678

.Barclay argued that water baptism was only something that happened until the time of Christ, but that now, people are baptised inwardly by the spirit of Christ, and hence there is no need for the external sacrament of water baptism, which Quakers argue is meaningless.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And if you don't believe in evolution, there is no basis for judging what is or isn't natural, only factual.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If that is the case, then there's no need to write anyone's name in any sort of list, is there?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Salvation Army and baptism

.The Salvation Army does not practice water baptism, or indeed other outward sacraments.^ The practice of LDS baptism for the dead does nothing to change that memory.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please explain to us, Mr. Waters, exactly how the Mormon practice of posthumous baptism interferes with deceased persons' right to "rest in peace."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.William Booth and Catherine Booth, the founders of the Salvation Army, believed that many Christians had come to rely on the outward signs of spiritual grace rather than on grace itself, whereas what they believed was important was spiritual grace itself.^ Based on that, they also believe that every good, honest person who has ever lived will be in "heaven"--a place far better and with greater happiness than on this earth.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now when the subject of gay marriage comes up, straight people, especially homophobic Christian types do not laugh; now they tremble in fear.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, they did not engineer this excellent adventure to come and knock on your door; they are sent by their families, under instruction and orders of the church; many of them are unwilling, but pressured into fulfiliing what their familis perceive to be an important obligation.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, although the Salvation Army does not practice baptism, they are not opposed to baptism within other Christian denominations.^ Why does mainstream Christianity not practice this?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The practice of LDS baptism for the dead does nothing to change that memory.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They complain and complain about how they should be left alone, free to practice their religion, but they send our armies of missionaries to proselytize the world.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[178]

Hyperdispensationalism

.There are some Christians who carry dispensationalism to such an extreme that they accept only Paul's Epistles as applicable for the church today.^ There, they can accept it or reject it.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are humans with natural affection or attraction, there are some with bi-sexual attraction, and there are those with homosexual attraction.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course some of my impressions may be wrong; I did not make an intenseive study of the Mormon Church or anything; I only know about them what they, themselves, have tossed my way.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, they do not accept baptism or the Lord's Supper, since these are not found in the Prison Epistles.^ If they want to accept LDS baptism in the afterlife - it is their affair, not yours.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They found that these rights (of the children) were more important to society, INCLUDING when the child’s rights conflict with the parents’ lifestyle choices.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Baptism for the dead is akin to saying a prayer for the deceased and hoping that they will accept Jesus Christ's covenant in the afterlife, after they have been invited there."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

They also teach that Peter's gospel message was not the same as Paul's.[179] Hyperdispensationalists assert:
  • The great commission[Matthew 28:18-20] and its baptism is directed to early Jewish believers, not the Gentile believers of mid-Acts or later.
  • The baptism of Acts 2:36-38 is Peter's call for Israel to repent of complicity in the death of the Messiah; not as a Gospel announcement of atonement for sin, a later doctrine revealed by Paul.
.Water baptism found early in the Book of Acts is, according to this view, now supplanted by the one baptism[1 Cor 12:13] foretold by John the Baptist.^ REGISTERS OF ST.JOHN THE BAPTIST,HALESOWEN,WORCESTERSHIRE. BAPTISMS / MARRIAGES / BURIALS 1717-1727 NOW COMPLETE PARISH REGISTERS OF THE CHURCH OF ST.JOHN THE BAPTIST,HALESOWEN,WORCESTERSHIRE. Baptisms/Marriages/Burials 1717-1740.

[180] The one baptism for today, it is asserted, is the "baptism of the Holy Spirit".[Ac 11:15-16] This, "spirit" baptism, however, is unlikely given the texts and facts that the baptisms of the Eunuch[Ac 8:36] and the household of Cornelius[10:47-48] were explicitly in water. Further evidence points to the humanly administered Great Commission which was to last until the end of the world.[Mt 28:19-20] Therefore, the baptism the Ephesians underwent was water by context.[181] .Likewise, Holy Spirit Baptism is recorded as only occurring twice in all the book of Acts to selected individuals.^ Not only is this act presumptuous; it clearly reflects the vast superiority Mormons feel over all other mortals.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Ac 2:1-4] .[10:44-46] Finally, it is argued that only Jesus possessed the power to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with Fire which eliminates any mortal ever doing.^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Mt 3:11] [Lk 3:16]
.John answered, saying to all, "I indeed baptize you with water; but One mightier than I is coming, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to loose.^ So, from now on you'll just have to look the other way when you hear about Mormons baptizing for the dead - that is your ONLY legal remedy and the only one that agrees with your high standard that you impose on Mormons when it comes to gays and lesbians.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The expressed solution from my cousin was, indeed, "you should all just become Mormons and then this won't be a problem."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Try to baptize me after I die, and I'll come back and haunt you.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire"[Lk 3:16].
Many in this group also argue that John's promised baptism by fire is pending, referring to the destruction of the world by fire.[182]
.John, as he said "baptized with water", as did Jesus's disciples to the early, Jewish Christian church.^ The practice was also criticized by St. John Chrysotom, an early church father.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church and many Protestant Churches do not regard Mormons as Christian, because the Mormon Church just appeared at their own starting point, and did not evolve from any previous formal tradiiton.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the LDS Church was baptizing everyone to remain Jewish or Catholic, would the ritual be unethical, harmful or illegal?
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus himself never personally baptized with water, but did so through his disciples.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But respect means accepting me for who I am, and my history and if my religion says I don't believe in Jesus and will never want to be baptized, it is disrespectful to refuse to honor my beliefs.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[Jn 4:1-2] .Unlike Jesus' first Apostles, Paul, his Apostle to the Gentiles, was sent to preach rather than to baptize[1 Co 1:17] but did occasionally baptize, for instance in Corinth[1:14-16] and in Philippi,[Ac 16:13] in the same manner as they.^ And then, they go on to say what you did: "You have the same obligation to be tolerant of my beliefs, as I do of yours."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First you say they want to be the same, then you say they want to be different.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Corinthian 15:29 KJV. If these were being performed at the time of the apostle Paul, it would seem to me that they are part of Christian tradition.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

cf.[Mt 28:19] He also taught the spiritual significance of the submerging in baptism and how one contacts the atoning death of Christ in such.[Rom 6:4]
.Other Hyperdispensationalists believe that baptism was necessary only for a short period between Christ's ascension and mid-Acts.^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

The great commission [Mt 28:18-20] and its baptism was directed to early Jewish believers, not the Gentile believers of mid-Acts or later. Any Jew who believed did not receive salvation[Mk 16:16] [1 Pe 3:21] or the Holy Spirit[Ac 2:38] until they were baptized. This period ended with the calling of Paul.[9:17-18] Peter's reaction when the Gentiles received the Holy Spirit before baptism[10:44-48] is worthy of note.

Other initiation ceremonies

Many cultures practice or have practiced initiation rites, with or without the use of water, including the ancient Egyptian, the Hebraic/Jewish, the Babylonian, the Mayan, and the Norse cultures. The modern Japanese practice of Miyamairi is such as ceremony that does not use water. .In some, such evidence may be archaeological and descriptive in nature, rather than a modern practice.^ Such is the philosophy and world view of gays and lesbians - appealing to their urges rather than the natural structure of the human family.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a person of faith who also happens to be a journalist, I tend to find the religious beliefs and practices of others intriguing and even enlightening rather than threatening or offensive.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Mystery religion initiation rites

Apuleius, a second-century Roman writer, described an initiation into the mysteries of Isis:
.
Then, when the priest said the moment had come, he led me to the nearest baths, escorted by the faithful in a body, and there, after I had bathed in the usual way, having invoked the blessing of the gods he ceremoniously aspersed and purified me.^ I could have said, “go away, your ways are not my ways.” But, somehow I was blessed to recognize that these were their ways of saying we care about you.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any way, as I said before, it is coming; it is unstoppable; when it is banned in a state, then we must work all that much harder to lift the ban.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[183]
This initiation of Lucius, the character in Apuleius's story who had been turned into an ass and changed back by Isis into human form, into the successive degrees of the rites of the goddess was accomplished only after a significant period of study to demonstrate his loyalty and trustworthiness, akin to catechumenical practices in Christianity.[184]

Mandaean baptism

.Mandaeans, who abhor[citation needed] Jesus and Moses as false prophets, revere John the Baptist and practice frequent baptism, a rite therefore of purification, not of initiation.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, you might say that posthumous baptism is just a harmless sacred rite that your religion compels you to practice.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, just as Jesus’ atonement was a vicarious or proxi work for the dead, the living, and future souls, he authorized his servants to perform a proxi work for those dead who did not receive authorized baptism while living.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Sikh baptism ceremony

The Sikh initiation ceremony, which involves drinking, not washing, dates from 1699, when the religion's tenth leader (Guru Gobind Singh) initiated 5 followers of his faith and then was initiated himself by his followers. The Sikh baptism ceremony is called Amrit Sanchar or Khande di Pahul. The Sikh has taken Amrit once they have been initiated. .In Sikhism, the initiated Sikh is also called an Amritdhari literally meaning Amrit Taker or one who has Taken on Amrit.^ They don't know anything, and I mean ANYTHING. (Oh well, I have met one or two who were not totally clueless).
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Khande Di Pahul (Amrit ceremony) was initiated in the times of Guru Gobind Singh when Khalsa was inaugurated at Sri Anandpur Sahib on the day of Baisakhi in 1699. Guru Gobind Singh asked a gathering of Sikhs, who was prepared to die for God?^ They were asked to stop this practice in 1995, and at that time they said they had done so, and then all of the half million names who they claim to have expunged from their lists have reemerged on that list recently.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

At first, the people hesitated, and then one man stepped forward, and he was taken to a tent. After some time, Guru Gobind Singh came out of the tent, with blood dripping from his sword. He asked the same question again. After the next four volunteers were in the tent, he reappeared with the four, who were now all dressed like him. These five men came to be known as Panj Pyares or the Beloved Five. These five were initiated into the Khalsa by receiving Amrit. These five were Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Mukham Singh, Bhai Sahib Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh and Bhai Himmat Singh. Sikh men were then given the name "Singh" meaning "lion" and the women received the last name "Kaur" meaning "princess".
Filling an iron bowl with clean water, he kept stirring it with a two-edged sword (called a Khanda) while reciting over it five of the sacred texts or banisJapji, Jaap, Savaiyye, Benti Chaupai and Anand Sahib. The Guru’s wife, Mata Jito (also known as Mata Sahib Kaur), poured into the vessel sugar crystals, mingling sweetness with the alchemy of iron. The five Sikhs sat on the ground around the bowl reverently as the holy water was being churned to the recitation of the sacred verses.
With the recitation of the five banis completed, khande di pahul or amrit, the Nectar of Immortality, was ready for administration. Guru Gobind Singh gave the five Sikhs five palmsful each of it to drink.

Ritual washing in Islam

.Islam requires a sort of washing called Ghusul[185] (Arabic word means washing), similar to Judaic practices mentioned above, which should include the washing of the whole body in special order or immersion of the whole body (submersion), in a river for instance.^ A highly educated Harvard professor calls this practice "beautiful", "generous, and "should not be ridiculed or spoken badly of".
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I should mention that although Judaism unlike Islam and Christianity is not conversionistic, a growing minority of us think we need to have at it.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think the jewish community should come up with a special rite to baptise dead mormons into the jewish faith in order to provide the dead with the maximum choice to pick their means of salvation.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

This Ghusul is not required for an adult when adopting Islam, but must be performed after each sexual intercourse or a wet dream or a menstrual flow so that they may resume their five daily prayers. Also is required to be done for dead bodies. The notion that prayers must be invoked to ask God for forgiveness from impure thoughts and actions is incorrect; it is only desirable.[citation needed]
.Such Ghusul is very different from practices in other religions.^ For those who believe so strongly in the afterlife, it is- as Mormons seem to- the practice is a deliberate slap in the face to other religions.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But you also know that you converted to a religion that has very different ideas than Judaism, and in many ways is its antithesis.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And I am not a Mormon and think the practice described is at the least misguided, and at the most, an insult to other religions.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

A person performs it alone privately, whenever it is indicated or desired.[citation needed]
Apart from this, washing before daily prayers is essential and is called Wudu. .Muslims believe no one should approach God in prayer, before first asking God to forgive them their sins.^ Allow me to correct myself; if your grandmother does not wish to be baptized, of course no-one should force her, either before or after death.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The answer to your question is one that Mormons have invented, without having any reason at all for believing that baptism of the dead has any meaning for God.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one should feel forced, pushed, cooerced, threatened, even cajoled into believing or not believing a certain way about religion or any other topic in life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

Formal prayers are offered five times per day. While washing, one prays to God asking for forgiveness of the sins committed throughout the day, whether intentional or unintentional. .This is a Muslim's way of reminding him/herself that the goal of this life is to please God, and to pray to attain His forgiveness and grace.^ The purpose of humanity and this life is to become like God - to learn his ways, and do what he does.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Christian baptism is challenged in the Quran in the verse: "Our religion is the Baptism of Allah; And who can baptize better than Allah? And it is He Whom we worship". It means that belief in the monotheism of God in Islam is merely sufficient for entering in the fold of faith and does not require a ritual form of baptism.[186]

Gnostic Catholicism and Thelema

The Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, or Gnostic Catholic Church (the ecclesiastical arm of Ordo Templi Orientis), offers its Rite of Baptism to any person at least 11 years old.[187] The ceremony is performed before a Gnostic Mass and represents a symbolic birth into the Thelemic community.[188]

Comparative summary

Comparative Summary of Baptisms of Denominations of Christian Influence.[189][190][191] (This section does not give a complete listing of denominations, and therefore, it only mentions a fraction of the churches practicing "believer's baptism".)
Denomination Beliefs about baptism Type of baptism Baptize infants? Baptism regenerates / gives spiritual life Standard
Anglican Communion "Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be not christened, but it is also a sign of Regeneration or New-Birth, whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into the Church; the promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed; Faith is confirmed, and Grace increased by virtue of prayer unto God."[190] By submersion, immersion, pouring, or sprinkling. Yes (in most sub-denominations) Yes (in most sub-denominations) Trinity
Apostolic Brethren Necessary for salvation because it conveys spiritual rebirth. By submersion only. Also stress the necessity of a “second” Baptism of a special outpouring from the Holy Spirit.[192] Yes Yes Jesus[193]
Baptists A divine ordinance, a symbolic ritual, a mechanism for publicly declaring one's faith, and a sign of having already been saved, but not necessary for salvation. See Baptist— Believer's Baptism. By submersion only. No No Trinity
Christadelphians Baptism is essential for the salvation of a believer..[194] It is only effective if somebody believes the true gospel message before they are baptized.^ For the dead, after they accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, cannot be baptized for themselves because they are not in the body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I remain unconvinced of your accusations - so far, you have only said, "Stop baptizing for the dead, because 1) I don't like it, and 2) I don't believe as you do."
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If my dead Jewish relatives wanted to be baptized, they would have done it before they died.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[195] .Baptism is an external symbol of an internal change in the believer: it represents a death to an old, sinful way of life, and the start of a new life as a Christian, summed up as the repentance of the believer — it therefore leads to forgiveness from God, who forgives people who repent.^ Therefore, LDS baptism for the dead is performed to provide the saving ordinances for those who accept it in the world of spirits.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So long as they don't try to inflict it on those who don't believe the same way, I don't care.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[196] .Although someone is only baptized once, a believer must live by the principles of their baptism (i.e.,death to sin, and a new life following Jesus) throughout their life.^ Because of this truth, the only complaint that one could have about LDS proxi baptism is that he/she doesn’t believe in it or an after life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As was correctly pointed out earlier, baptism must be performed by a live person with a physical body.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the antithesis of what you believe, and what you're doing is really a way of saying it doesn't matter who you are or what you believe, or how you lived your life.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[197]
By submersion only[198] No[198] Yes The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (although Christadelphians do not believe in the Nicean trinity)
Disciples of Christ Baptism is an outward and public sign of God's grace made manifest in the individual. In submersion, one symbolically experiences dying with Christ, and then rises with Him.[199] Usually by submersion No No Trinity
Churches of Christ .Churches of Christ have historically had the most conservative position on baptism among the various branches of the Restoration Movement, understanding baptism by immersion to be a necessary part of conversion.^ It is my thesis, based on my conversation with many Mormon missionaries, that most Mormons do not understand the theology of their own church, and the do not understand the underlying theological meaning behind most of their rituals, and they don't care to find out.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most churches take in the greater part of their income through donations.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]:p.61
By immersion only[116]:p.107[117]:p.124[118] No[117]:p.124[118][151]:p.318-319[154]:p.195 .Because of the belief that baptism is a necessary part of salvation, some Baptists hold that the Churches of Christ endorse the doctrine of baptismal regeneration.^ It's not the beliefs of the LDS church in the case of posthumous baptisms that are harmful to others.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not obliged to tolerate -- or, worse, to respect -- your beliefs regarding women and minorities simply because your doctrines hold that any decision made by a dozen really old white guys is infallible.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[155] .However, members of the Churches of Christ reject this, arguing that since faith and repentance are necessary, and that the cleansing of sins is by the blood of Christ through the grace of God, baptism is not an inherently redeeming ritual.^ Since everyone will have the opportunity eventually, baptisn for the dead not a conflict or a competition in the minds of Church members, it's an act of service that allows us to reflect on our own baptism and conversion.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proxi baptism is just a ritual that represents a covenant with Christ in the LDS faith - it doesn't guarantee anything.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I really don't think you're qualified to comment matters of faith or God, since, in reality, you don't know anything about him/her/it, by your own admission.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[119]:p.133[155][156]:p.630,631 .Baptism is understood as a confessional expression of faith and repentance,[154]:p.179-182 rather than a "work" that earns salvation.^ As a person of faith who also happens to be a journalist, I tend to find the religious beliefs and practices of others intriguing and even enlightening rather than threatening or offensive.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[154]:p.170
Trinity
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints An ordinance essential to enter the Celestial Kingdom of Heaven and preparatory for receiving the Gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. By immersion performed by a person holding proper priesthood authority.[200] No (at least 8 years old) Yes Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost (The LDS church doesn't believe in the Nicean trinity, but rather in the Godhead)[201]
Eastern Orthodox Church / Oriental Orthodox Church / Eastern Catholic The old man dies the "New Man" is born free from the stain of ancestral sin. A new name is given. All previous commitments and sins are null and void.[citation needed] By 3-fold submersion or immersion (other forms only in emergency, must be corrected by priest if possible).[citation needed] Yes. Chrismation (i.e., Confirmation) and Holy Communion follow immediately.[citation needed] Yes Trinity
Jehovah’s Witnesses Baptism is necessary for salvation as part of the entire baptismal arrangement: as an expression of obedience to Jesus' command (Matthew 28:19-20), as a public symbol of the saving faith in the ransom sacrifice of Jesus Christ (Romans 10:10), and as an indication of repentance from dead works and the dedication of one's life to Jehovah. (1 Peter 2:21) However, baptism does not guarantee salvation.[202] By submersion only; typical candidates are baptized at district and circuit conventions.[203] No No Jesus
Denomination (continued) Beliefs about baptism Type of baptism Baptize infants? Baptism regenerates / gives spiritual life Standard
Lutherans Baptism is a miraculous Sacrament through which God creates and/or strengthens the gift of faith in a person's heart. ."Although we do not claim to understand how this happens or how it is possible, we believe (because of what the Bible says about baptism) that when an infant is baptized, God creates faith in the heart of that infant."^ After death, LDS believe that the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ continues in the world of spirits, where the souls created by God, await the resurrection and the final judgment.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judaism, Catholicism and every other faith distinctly shows this because they understand that change happens and you grow to meet new challenges.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could even start claiming that the people we baptize for the dead are accepting those baptism – and there is one thing you can do about it, accept complain.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[204]
By sprinkling or pouring.[205][206] Yes[207][208] Yes[208] Trinity
Methodists (Arminians, Wesleyans) The Sacrament of initiation into Christ's holy Church whereby one is incorporated into God's mighty acts of salvation and given new birth through water and the spirit. Baptism washes away sin and clothes one in the righteousness of Christ. By sprinkling, pouring, immersion or submersion.[citation needed] Yes May vary Trinity
Trinitarian Pentecostals and various "Holiness" groups, Christian Missionary Alliance, Assemblies of God Water Baptism is an ordinance, a symbolic ritual used to witness to having accepted Christ as personal Savior.[citation needed] By submersion. Also stress the necessity of a “second” Baptism of a special outpouring from the Holy Spirit.[209] No Varies Trinity
Oneness Pentecostals Necessary for Salvation By submersion only No Yes Jesus name
Presbyterian and most Reformed churches A sacrament, a symbolic ritual, and a seal of the adult believer’s present faith. It is an outward sign of an inward grace.[citation needed] By sprinkling, pouring, immersion or submersion[citation needed] Yes, to indicate membership in the New Covenant.[citation needed] No Trinity
Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) Only an external symbol that is no longer to be practiced.[citation needed] Do not believe in Baptism of water, but only in an inward, ongoing purification of the human spirit in a life of discipline led by the Holy Spirit.[citation needed]
Revivalism A necessary step for salvation. By submersion, with the expectation of receiving the Holy Spirit. No Yes Trinity
Roman Catholic Church "Necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament"[17] Usually by pouring in the West, by submersion or immersion in the East; sprinkling admitted only if the water then flows on the head.[210][211] Yes Yes Trinity
Seventh-day Adventists Not stated as the prerequisite to salvation, but a prerequisite for the admission to the church. It symbolizes death to sin and new birth in Jesus Christ.[212]"It affirms joining the family of God and sets on apart for a life of ministry."[212] By submersion.[213] No No Trinity
United Church of Christ (Evangelical and Reformed Churches and the Congregational Christian Churches) One of two sacraments. Baptism is an outward sign of God's inward grace. It may or may not be necessary for membership in a local congregation. However, it is a common practice for both infants and adults.[citation needed] By sprinkling, pouring, immersion or submersion.[citation needed] Yes, to indicate membership in the New Covenant.[citation needed] No Trinity
Anabaptist Baptism is considered by the majority of Anabaptist Churches (anabaptist means to baptize again) to be essential to Christian faith but not to salvation. It is considered a biblical ordinance along with communion, feet washing, the holy kiss, the Christian woman's head covering, anointing with oil, and marriage. The Anabaptists also have stood historically against the practice of infant baptism. The Anabaptists stood firmly against infant baptism in a time when the Church and State were one and when people were made a citizen through baptism into the officially sanctioned Church (Reformed or Catholic). Belief and repentance are believed to precede and follow baptism.[citation needed] By pouring, immersion or submersion.[citation needed] No No Trinity

Non-religious initiations

Although even the use of water is often absent, the term baptism is also used for various initiations as rite of passage to a walk of secular life.
  • In the Brazilian martial art capoeira, an annual promotion ceremony is held, known as a batizado (literally "baptism"). For practitioners participating in their first batizado, it is traditional to receive their Capoeira names at that time, as a mark that they have been received in the community of Capoeiristas. The name is often given by the senior instructor or other senior students, and is largely determined by an individual way they perform a movement, how they look, or something else unique to the individual. Their Capoeira name is often used as a nom de guerre within Capoeira circles, a tradition which dates back to when practicing Capoeira was illegal in Brazil.[citation needed]

Baptism of objects

Christening of USS Dewey
.The word "baptism" or "christening" is sometimes used to describe the inauguration of certain objects for use.^ You just used EXACTLY the right word to describe what Mormons do to other relgiions; they seek to "PREEMPT" them.
  • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

  • The name Baptism of Bells has been given to the blessing of (musical, especially church) bells, at least in France, since the eleventh century. .It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop, before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within; a fuming censer is placed under it and the bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell, put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer.
  • Baptism of Ships: at least since the time of the Crusades, rituals have contained a blessing for ships.^ You are doing more than offering a prayer- you are taking names and performing a ritual- baptism-, and associating it with them.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you'd like, you can say a prayer or perform a ritual that undoes the LDS baptism for the dead, if it will make you feel better?
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The energy in places occupied primarily by Mormons is so oppressive and dense that it can cause depression within minutes of entering the bubble protected world they live in.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in. The ship is usually sprinkled with holy water.[92]

Endnotes

  1. ^ Note that this is an image of baptism by immersion in the sense explained below, distinct from baptism by submersion beneath the water. This mode of baptism continues in the East except for infants, but in the West it had dropped almost completely out of use by the 15th century, and the artist may have chosen an archaic form for this depiction of baptism by St Peter.
  2. ^ a b Liddell, Henry George; Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie (1940). "βαπτίζω". A Greek-English Lexicon. Medford, Massachusetts: Tufts University. ISBN 0-19-864226-1. http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:4:114.lsj. 
  3. ^ Ascol, Thomas. "Troubling Waters of Baptism." Founders Ministries. Web: Baptism and Membership
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Brackney, William H. "Doing Baptism Baptist Style: Believer's Baptism." Baptist History and Heritage Society. July 29, 2009. Online: http://www.baptisthistory.org/pamphlets/baptism.htm
  5. ^ Matthew 3:16, Mark 1:9-10, Luke 3:21
  6. ^ Schaff, Philip (2009). "Baptism". History of the Christian Church, Volume I: Apostolic Christianity. A.D. 1-100.. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/hcc1.i.IX.54.html. "The usual form of baptism was immersion…. But sprinkling, also, or copious pouring rather, was practised at an early day with sick and dying persons, and in all such cases where total or partial immersion was impracticable" 
  7. ^ Fanning, W. (1907). "Baptism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York City: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02258b.htm. "The most ancient form usually employed was unquestionably immersion". 
  8. ^ "Roman Catholicism: Baptism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/507284/Roman-Catholicism/43691/Baptism. "Two points of controversy still exist in modern times. One is baptism by pouring or sprinkling water on the head rather than by immersion of the entire body, even though immersion was probably the biblical and early Christian rite" 
  9. ^ Collins, Adela Yarbro (1995). "The Origin of Christian Baptism". in Maxwell E. Johnson. Living Water, Sealing Spirit: Readings on Christian Initiation. Collegeville Township, Stearns County, Minnesota: Liturgical Press. pp. 35–57. ISBN 0-8146-6140-8. OCLC 31610445. http://books.google.com/books?id=dWx4GGR3jusC&pg=PA35. "The baptism of John did have certain similarities to the ritual washings at Qumran: both involved withdrawal to the desert to await the lord; both were linked to an ascetic lifestyle; both included total immersion in water; and both had an eschatological context" 
  10. ^ Dau, W. H. T. (1979). "Baptism". in Geoffrey W. Bromiley. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 416. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6. OCLC 50333603. http://books.google.com/books?id=wo8csizDv0gC&pg=PA410. "It is to be noted that for pouring another word ‘’(ekcheo)’’ is used, clearly showing that baptizo does not mean pour. …There is thus no doubt that early in the 2nd century some Christians felt baptism was so important that, 'when the real baptism (immersion) could not be performed because of lack of water, a token pouring might be used in its place" 
  11. ^ France, R. T. (2007). The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 109. ISBN 0-8028-2501-X. OCLC 122701585. "The fact that he chose a permanent and deep river suggests that more than a token quantity of water was needed, and both the preposition 'in' (the Jordan) and the basic meaning of the verb 'baptize' probably indicate immersion. In v. 16 Matthew will speak of Jesus 'coming up out of the water.' The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus' head may therefore be based on later Christian practice" 
  12. ^ Warfield, Benjamin Breckinridge. "The Archæology of the Mode of Baptism". http://www.lgmarshall.org/Warfield/warfield_modebaptism.html. "We may then probably assume that normal patristic baptism was by a trine immersion upon a standing catechumen, and that this immersion was completed either by lowering the candidate's head beneath the water, or (possibly more commonly) by raising the water over his head and pouring it upon it" 
  13. ^ While in some places and in certain circumstances total immersion very likely was practiced, all the evidence (and there is much more) points to baptism in most cases by partial immersion, or affusion (dunking of the head or pouring water over the head, typically when the baptizand was standing in the baptismal pool). Here the words of St. John Chrysostom might be noted: "It is as in a tomb that we immerse our heads in the water… then when we lift our heads back the new man comes forth" (On John 25.2, PG 59:151). In a word, while early Christians were very attentive to symbolism relating to baptism (cf. the funerary shape of the baptistry building; the steps, typically three, for descending and rising from the font; the iconography relating to regeneration, etc.), they show few signs of preoccupation with total immersion. (Father John Erickson in St Vladimir's Theological Quarterly, 41, 77 (1997), quoted in The Byzantine Forum)
  14. ^ McGuckin, John Anthony (2004). "Baptism". The Westminster handbook to patristic theology. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 41–44. ISBN 0-664-22396-6. OCLC 52858567. http://books.google.com/books?id=u4i8jv0b7IkC&pg=PA41. "Eastern tradition strongly defended the practice of three-fold immersion under the waters, but Latin practice increasingly came to use a sprinkling of water on the head (also mentioned in Didache 7 if there was not sufficient water for immersion.)" 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Bowker, John (1999). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866242-4. OCLC 60181672. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cross, Frank Leslie; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "Baptism". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 151–154. ISBN 0-19-280290-9. OCLC 58998735. 
  17. ^ a b c "The Necessity of Baptism". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican Publishing House. 1993. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3M.HTM. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  18. ^ For instance, the Roman Catholic Church: 1,100,000,000; the Eastern Orthodox Church: 225,000,000; most of the 77,000,000 members of the Anglican Communion; Lutherans and others (Religious Bodies of the World with at Least 1 Million Adherents; Major Denominational Families of Christianity). See also Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-1995
  19. ^ Joseph P. Pickett, ed (2000). "baptism". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-82517-2. http://www.bartleby.com/61/62/B0066200.html. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  20. ^ 'In the Sept.: 2 Kgs. 5:13, 14 we have loúō (3068), to bathe and baptízomai. See also 28, 40;&version=TNIV; Lev. 11:25, 28, 40, where plúnō (4150), to wash clothes by dipping, and loúō (3068), to bathe are used. In 19;&version=TNIV; Num. 19:18, 19, báphō, to dip, and plúnō, to wash by dipping are used', Zodhiates, S. (2000, c1992, c1993). The Complete Word Study Dictionary : New Testament (electronic ed.) (G908). Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
  21. ^ 'In the LXX βάπτειν (βαπτίζειν occurs only at 4 Βασ. 5:14) as a rendering of טָבַל, “to dip,” is used for the dipping of the morsel in wine at Ru. 2:14, of feet in the river at Jos. 3:15, of the finger in blood in the Torah of sacrifices at Lv. 4:6, 17 etc., of the dipping of unsanctified vessels in water in the laws of purification at Lv. 11:32 (בא hiph)', Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (1:535). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
  22. ^ 'Ex 12,22; Lv 4,6.17; 9,9; 11,32 to immerse sth in sth [τι εἴς τι] Lv 9,9; id. [τι ἔν τινι] Dt 33,24; id. [τι ἀπό τινος] Ex 12,22; to plunge or to dip sb in sth [τινα ἔν τινι] Jb 9,31', Lust, J., Eynikel, E., & Hauspie, K. (2003). A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint : Revised Edition. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart.
  23. ^ 'In Mark 7:3, the phrase “wash their hands” is the translation of níptō (3538), to wash part of the body such as the hands. In Mark 7:4 the verb wash in “except they wash” is baptízomai, to immerse. This indicates that the washing of the hands was done by immersing them in collected water. See Luke 11:38 which refers to washing one’s hands before the meal, with the use of baptízomai, to have the hands baptized.', Zodhiates, S. (2000, c1992, c1993). The Complete Word Study Dictionary : New Testament (electronic ed.) (G907). Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
  24. ^ 'The NT uses βάπτω only in the literal sense, in Lk 16:24; Jn 13:26 for “to dip in,” and in Rev. 19:13 for “to dye”.', Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (1:530). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
  25. ^ ' to dip something in a liquid, dip, dip in J 13:26', Zodhiates, S. (2000, c1992, c1993). The complete word study dictionary : New Testament (electronic ed.) (G907). Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
  26. ^ 'βάπτω fut. βάψω; 1aor. ἔβαψα; pf. pass. ptc. βεβαμμένος; (1) dip in or under, immerse in a liquid (LU 16.24); (2) as coloring cloth dip into dye, dye (RV 19.13)', Friberg, T., Friberg, B., & Miller, N. F. (2000). Vol. 4: Analytical lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Baker's Greek New Testament library (87). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.
  27. ^ '970 βάπτω (baptō): vb.; ≡ DBLHebr 3188; Str 911; TDNT 1.529—LN 47.11 dip in (Lk 16:24; Jn 13:26(2×); Rev 19:13+)', Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Greek (New Testament) (electronic ed.) (DBLG 970). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
  28. ^ Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (1:535). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
  29. ^ Luke 11:38
  30. ^ A. A. Hodge,Outlines of Theology 1992 ISBN 0851511600, 9780851511603 quoted in Bremmer, Michael (September 7, 2001). "The Mode of Baptism". Archived from the original on January 26, 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20020126072506/http://mbrem.com/baptism/aabap.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  31. ^ Naumann, Bertram (2006). "The Sacrament of Baptism". in Paul Naumann. Learn From Me. Church of the Lutheran Confession. http://www.clclutheran.org/lfm/lfm12.pdf. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  32. ^ Brom, Robert H. (August 10, 2004). "Baptism: Immersion Only?". Catholic Answers. http://www.catholic.com/library/Baptism_Immersion_Only.asp. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  33. ^ Drachman, Bernard; Kaufmann Kohler. "Ablution". in Cyrus Adler. Jewish Encyclopedia. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?letter=A&artid=338. 
  34. ^ 'Washing or ablution was frequently by immersion, indicated by either baptízō or níptō (3538), to wash. In Mark 7:3, the phrase “wash their hands” is the translation of níptō (3538), to wash part of the body such as the hands. In Mark 7:4 the verb wash in “except they wash” is baptízomai, to immerse. This indicates that the washing of the hands was done by immersing them in collected water.', Zodhiates, S. (2000, c1992, c1993). The Complete Word Study Dictionary : New Testament (electronic ed.) (G908). Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
  35. ^ 'Mark 7:4 [v.l. in v. 8]; here βαπτίσωνται appears in place of ῥαντίσωνται in Koine D Θ pl, giving βαπτίζω the meaning of βάπτω', Balz, H. R., & Schneider, G. (1990-c1993). Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament. Translation of: Exegetisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament. (1:195). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans.
  36. ^ 'Βάπτω dip, immerse', Balz, H. R., & Schneider, G. (1990-c1993). Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament. Translation of: Exegetisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament. (1:195). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans.
  37. ^ 'βάπτω; ἐμβάπτω: to dip an object in a liquid—‘to dip in.’', Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996, c1989). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: Based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition.) (1:522). New York: United Bible societies.
  38. ^ "In the LXX βάπτειν…is used for the dipping of the morsel in wine at Ju. 2:14, …of the finger in blood in the Torah of sacrifices at Lv. 4:6, 17 etc.", Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (1:535). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
  39. ^ a b Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, (3rd ed.) (165). Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  40. ^ a b c Friberg, T., Friberg, B., & Miller, N. F. (2000). Vol. 4: Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Baker's Greek New Testament Library (87). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.
  41. ^ Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.) (electronic ed.) (1:545). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
  42. ^ See http://www.bibelwissenschaft.de/online-bibeln/novum-testamentum-graece-na-27/lesen-im-bibeltext/bibelstelle/Kol%202/cache/d3cb350c68/#v12 Nestle-Aland 27th (latest) edition.
  43. ^ a b Zodhiates, S. (2000, c1992, c1993). The Complete Word Study Dictionary : New Testament (electronic ed.) (G908). Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.
  44. ^ Matthew 3:7, Matthew 21:25; Mark 1:4, Mark 11:30; Luke 3:3, Luke 7:29, Luke 20:4; Acts 1:22, Acts 10:37, Acts 13:24, Acts 18:25, Acts 19:3-4)
  45. ^ Romans 6:4, Ephesians 4:5, 1Peter 3:21
  46. ^ Matthew 20:22-23, Mark 10:38-39, Luke 12:50
  47. ^ Stoltz, Eric (2005). "A Christian Glossary: Baptism". The Abraham Project. http://www.theabrahamproject.com/resources/glossary-christian.html. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  48. ^ Pongratz-Lippitt, Christa (May 5, 2007). "Churches mutually recognise baptisms". The Tablet. http://www.thetablet.co.uk/article/9737. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  49. ^ SDA Church Manual, 2005, pp. 42-3
  50. ^ sacrament (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/515366/sacrament
  51. ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "John the Baptist". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280290-9. OCLC 58998735. 
  52. ^ a b c Funk, Robert W. (1998). "John the Baptist". The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. p. 268. ISBN 0-06-062978-9. OCLC 37854370. 
  53. ^ Chadwick, Henry (2001). "John Baptist". The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-19-924695-5. OCLC 191826204. 
  54. ^ a b Theissen, Gerd; Annette Merz (1998). The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 209, 377. ISBN 0-8006-3122-6. OCLC 38590348. 
  55. ^ Lichtenberger, Herman (1999). "Syncretistic Features in Jewish and Jewish-Christian Baptism Movements". in James D. G. Dunn. Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 87. ISBN 0-8028-4498-7. OCLC 40433122. http://books.google.com/books?id=9zCh9SBb6Y8C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA85,M1. Retrieved January 19, 2009. 
  56. ^ a b Dapaah, Daniel S. (2005). The relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth: a critical study. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America. pp. 86–88. ISBN 0-7618-3109-6. OCLC 60342941. 
  57. ^ See, e.g., the summary of such opinions by Raymond E. Brown, The Gospel according to John (i-xii): Introduction, translation, and notes (2nd ed.), in The Anchor Bible, Volume 29 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966), pp. 164-165, 188-189.
  58. ^ Sanders, E. P. (1993). The Historical Figure of Jesus. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9059-7. OCLC 30112315. 
  59. ^ a b Funk, Robert W. (1998). "John". The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. pp. 365–440. ISBN 0-06-062978-9. OCLC 37854370. 
  60. ^ Colin G. Kruse, The Gospel according to John: an Introduction and Commentary (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004), p. 119
  61. ^ Dapaah, Daniel S. The Relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth: A Critical Study. University Press of America, 2005, p. 98
  62. ^ [Markus Bockmuel (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Jesus (Cambridge University Press 2001 ISBN 9780521796781), p. 27
  63. ^ Tomson, Peter J. (2001). "Jesus and His Judaism". in Markus Bockmuehl. The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-521-79678-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=vSehrtQpcYcC&pg=PA25. 
  64. ^ Cambridge Companion, p. 40
  65. ^ Cambridge Companion, p. 30
  66. ^ Chilton, Bruce (2001). "Friends and enemies". in Markus Bockmuehl. The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 75. ISBN 0-521-79678-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=vSehrtQpcYcC&pg=PA25. 
  67. ^ Raymond Edward Brown, The Gospel and Epistles of John: a Concise Commentary, p. 3,
  68. ^ Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. InterVarsity Press, 1992, p. 375: "Simply because information is found only in John is no reason to discard it as of no historical value … Scholars consider it probable, for example, that Jesus' ministry lasted two to three years (as John implies), that he was in and out of Jerusalem (as the other Gospels hint, e.g., Luke 13:34, that some of his disciples were first disciples of John the Baptist, [Lk 1:35-37] and that Jesus and his disciples conducted a ministry of baptism."
  69. ^ Dwight Moody Smith|Smith, D. Moody, R. Alan Culpepper, C. Clifton Black. Exploring the Gospel of John: In Honor of D. Moody Smith. Westminster John Knox Press, 1996, p. 28: "There are items only in John that are likely to be historical and ought to be given due weight. Jesus' first disciples may once have been followers of the Baptist (cf. John 1:35-42)"
  70. ^ Daniel S. Dapaah, The Relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth: A Critical Study (University Press of America, 2005): "We propose to defend the historicity of this piece of Johannine material. We shall argue that the Johannine evidence of Jesus' baptizing activity may be a snippet of historical tradition, as there is no discernible theological agenda behind that piece of information. Moreover, the synoptists' silence may be explained, among others, by the supposition that the Evangelists were embarrassed by the event and that reference to the rite was unnecessary in a baptizing church" (p. 7). "The absence of Jesus' baptizing ministry in the synoptic Gospels does not mean that the Johannine detail is not authentic, neither does it suggest that the synoptists invented the story that John was out of action when Jesus arived on the scene.(Mark 1:14 and par) The Marcan tradition, for example, which is chronologically earlier than the Fourth Gospel, suggests that Jesus was so close to John that Jesus moved to Galilee to embark on an independent ministry when John was imprisoned. It appears that John and Jesus initially worked together, an event which the Fourth Evangelist makes explicit" (p. 98).
  71. ^ The Beginnings of the Church (Paulist Press 1988), pp. 55: "This text from the fourth gospel gives the impression that when John was no longer at Bethany (Jn 3:23; cf. 1:28) Jesus— accompanied by former disciples of John—— was himself in the Jordan area conducting a ministry of baptism. When Jesus left the area of Judea and began his ministry in Galilee he evidently abandoned his baptizing ministry and concentrated on preaching and teaching."
  72. ^ Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, St. John Chapter 4
  73. ^ Dapaah, Daniel S. The Relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth: A Critical Study. University Press of America, 2005, p. 97
  74. ^ Baptism. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 21, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/52311/Baptism
  75. ^ Sacrament. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 21, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/515366/sacrament
  76. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "John" pp. 302-310.
  77. ^ May, Herbert Gordon; Bruce Metzger (1977). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1213–1239. ISBN 0-19-528348-1. OCLC 3145429. 
  78. ^ a b c Funk, Robert W. (1998). "Matthew". The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. pp. 129–270. ISBN 0-06-062978-9. OCLC 37854370. 
  79. ^ a b c Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible: A Reader's Introduction. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing Company. pp. 266–268. ISBN 0-87484-696-X. OCLC 12042593. 
  80. ^ a b Funk, Robert Walter; Roy W. Hoover (1993). "Stages in the Development of Early Christian Tradition". The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus : New Translation and Commentary. New York City: Macmillan Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 0-02-541949-8. OCLC 28421734. 
  81. ^ Strang, Veronica (1997). "Water in the Church". The Meaning of Water. Berg Publishers. p. 91. ISBN 1-85973-753-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=A2KNb4x8O6UC&pg=PA90. "Fonts and baptisteries were constructed with taps and channels to ensure that they were supplied with moving water,which, as Schmemann points out, is symbolically crucial: 'The early Christian prescription is to baptize in living water. This is not merely a technical term denoting running water as distinct from standing water… it is this understanding that determined the form and theology of the baptismal font… The characteristic feature of the "baptistery" was that water was carried into it by a conduit, thus remaining "living water".'" 
  82. ^ "(7:1) Concerning baptism, baptize this way: Having first said all these things, baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living water. (7:2) But if you have no living water, baptize into other water; and if you cannot do so in cold water, do so in warm. (7:3) But if you have neither, pour out water three times upon the head into the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit." Didache, chapter 7.
  83. ^ Metzger, Marcel (1997). "The Order of Baptism in the Didache". History of the Liturgy: The Major Stages. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 0-8146-2433-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=z6V2wb2ckPcC&pg=PA25. "The Didache recognizes the superior value of running water for the baptismal immersion but does not impose it as a necessary condition… The regulations of the Didache also forsee the case in which immersion is impossible for lack of water and prescribe baptism by pouring water three times on the candidate's head." 
  84. ^ a b Lacoste, Jean-Yves (2005). Encyclopedia of Christian Theology: G – O. Milton Park: Routledge. p. 1607. ISBN 0-5795-8250-8. "According to the Didache (1st century), baptism should be done by a triple immersion in running water." 
  85. ^ a b Meeks, Wayne A. (2006). "Baptism: ritual of initiation". in Margaret Mary Mitchell and Frances Margaret Young. The Cambridge History of Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 160–161. ISBN 0-521-81239-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=6UTfmw_zStsC&pg=PA160. "The Didache, representing practice perhaps as early as the beginning of the second century, probably in Syria, also assumes immersion to be normal, but it allows that if sufficient water for immersion is not at hand, water may be poured three times over the head (7:3)." 
  86. ^ Dau, W. H. T. (1995). "Baptism". in Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A – D. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 419. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=BW_1mt4oebQC&pg=PA410. "This seems to say that to baptize by immersion was the practice recommended for general use, but that the mode of affusion was also valid and enjoined on occasions". 
  87. ^ Dau, W. H. T. (1995). "Baptism". in Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A – D. Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 417. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=BW_1mt4oebQC&pg=PA410. "It is frankly admitted by paedo-baptist scholars that the NT gives no warrant for infant baptism". 
  88. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (1985). "baptizo". in Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich. Theological dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 94. ISBN 0-8028-2404-8. OCLC 11840605. http://books.google.com/books?id=ltZBUW_F9ogC&pg=PA92. "Infant baptism, which cannot be supported from NT examples…" 
  89. ^ Miller, Randolph A. (2002). A Historical and Theological Look at the Doctrine of Christian Baptism. iUniverse. p. 140. ISBN 9780595215317. "It is often maintained that the Didache, a very early second-century document describing the practices of the first-century church, including baptism, knows nothing of infant baptism and excludes the possibility of it in the early church because of the fasting and confession of the candidate mentioned in the text." 
  90. ^ Williams, J. Rodman (1996). Renewal Theology: Systematic Theology from a Charismatic Perspective. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. p. 236. ISBN 9780310209140. OCLC 36621651. "For example, the Didache has a section on baptism (as we have seen) that concludes with this statement: 'And before the baptism, let the one baptizing and the one who is to be baptized fast. …Also, you must instruct the one who is to be baptized to fast for one or two days beforehand' (The Apostolic Fathers 7:4). Obviously none of this is applicable to infants" 
  91. ^ Wiley, Tatha (2002). Original sin: origins, developments, contemporary meanings. New York City: Paulist Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-8091-4128-0. OCLC 50404061. "The Didache’s assumption of adult baptism offers evidence that its author did not suppose human beings were in need of divine forgiveness from birth" 
  92. ^ a b c d e Fanning, William (1907). "Baptism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York City: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02258b.htm. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  93. ^ a b catechumen. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/99350/catechumen
  94. ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "Nicene Creed". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280290-9. OCLC 58998735. 
  95. ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "Sacrament". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280290-9. OCLC 58998735. 
  96. ^ Ristow, Sebastian (2005). "Baptismal Font from the Cologne Baptistery". Cologne Cathedral. http://www.koelner-dom.de/17216.html?&L=1. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  97. ^ The words "matter" and "form" are not found in the index, nor do they appear in the definition of the sacraments given in section 1131. A search of the electronic form of the book finds no instance of the word "matter", and finds "form" only in the section 1434, headed "The Many Forms of Penance in Christian Life", which is not about the sacraments.
  98. ^ "Baptism and Its Purpose". Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod. http://www.lcms.org/pages/internal.asp?NavID=2607. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  99. ^ Luther, Martin (2009) [1529]. "The Sacrament of Holy Baptism". Luther's Small Catechism. http://www.bookofconcord.org/smallcatechism.html#baptism. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  100. ^ Luther, Martin (2009) [1529]. "Of Infant Baptism". Luther's Large Catechism. http://www.bookofconcord.org/largecatechism/6_baptism.html. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  101. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley, David B. Barrett, The encyclopedia of Christianity (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999 ISBN 0802824137), p. 562
  102. ^ Didache, chapter 7: "Pour out water three times upon the head".
  103. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=immersion
  104. ^ John Piper, ed. "1689 Baptist Catechism". http://www.desiringgod.org/AboutUs/OurDistinctives/ABaptistCatechism/. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  105. ^ a b Cross, Frank Leslie; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "Immersion". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 827. ISBN 0-19-280290-9. OCLC 58998735. 
  106. ^ a b Study published on the website of Pinehurst United Methodist Church
  107. ^ In scientific contexts the two words are often understood as mutually exclusive. Examples are found in mathematics (see Ralph Abraham, Jerrold E. Marsden, Tudor S. Ra iu, Manifolds, Tensor Analysis, and Applications, p. 196 and Klaus Fritzsche, Hans Grauert, From Holomorphic Functions to Complex Manifolds, p.168), in medicine (Effect of immersion, submersion, and scuba diving on heart rate variability), and language learning (Immersion in a Second Language in School).
  108. ^ [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02274a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia, article Baptismal Font
  109. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/submerge
  110. ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "Submersion". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 1563. ISBN 0-19-280290-9. OCLC 58998735. , p. 1563; cf. Wilson, Louis Charles (1895). The History of Sprinkling. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing. OCLC 4759559. 
  111. ^ Official Website of the Southern Baptist Convention Basic Beliefs, subheading "Baptism & the Lord's Supper". Retrieved 2009–04–08.
  112. ^ such as Colossians 2:12–13 and Romans 6:2–13
  113. ^ William H. Brackney. "Believer's Baptism." Baptist History and Heritage Society.June 18, 2009. http://www.baptisthistory.org/pamphlets/baptism.htm
  114. ^ Disciples.org, copyrighted Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Baptism, retrieved 2009–04–08, "Just as the baptism represents the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ, it symbolizes the death and burial of the old self of the repentant believer, and the joyous birth of a brand new being in Christ."
  115. ^ Disciples.org The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ): A Reformed North American Mainstream Moderate Denomination, retrieved 2009–04–08, "Our traditions of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are ecumenical. While practicing believer’s immersion, most congregations affirm the baptisms of other churches."
  116. ^ a b c Stuart M. Matlins, Arthur J. Magida, J. Magida, How to Be a Perfect Stranger: A Guide to Etiquette in Other People's Religious Ceremonies, Wood Lake Publishing Inc., 1999, ISBN 1896836283, 9781896836287, 426 pages, Chapter 6— Churches of Christ
  117. ^ a b c d e Ron Rhodes, The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations, Harvest House Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0-7369-1289-4
  118. ^ a b c d e f Batsell Barrett Baxter, Who are the churches of Christ and what do they believe in? Available on-line in a Archive copy at the Internet Archive, and here, here and here
  119. ^ a b c d e f g Tom J. Nettles, Richard L. Pratt, Jr., John H. Armstrong, Robert Kolb, Understanding Four Views on Baptism, Zondervan, 2007, ISBN 0310262674, 9780310262671, 222 pages
  120. ^ "About Adventists." St. Louis Unified School. June 18, 2009. http://slus.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=66&Itemid=82
  121. ^ Official Web site of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Basic Beliefs, subheading "Baptism and Confirmation". Retrieved 2009–04–08.
  122. ^ Brochure: "Jehovah's Witnesses—Who Are They? What Do They Believe?", p. 13 [1]
  123. ^ Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lecture 20 (On the Mysteries. II. of Baptism) Romans 6:3-14 http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310120.htm
  124. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0802838987, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Baptism
  125. ^ a b Harold Hazelip, Gary Holloway, Randall J. Harris, Mark C. Black, Theology Matters: In Honor of Harold Hazelip: Answers for the Church Today, College Press, 1998, ISBN 0899008135, 9780899008134, 368 pages
  126. ^ Nicodemos the Hagiorite. "Concerning Thoughts". Exomologetarion. http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/exo_thoughts.aspx. 
  127. ^ Tertullian. "Of the Persons to Whom, and the Time When, Baptism is to Be Administered". in Philip Schaff. Ante-Nicene Fathers. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf03.vi.iii.xviii.html. 
  128. ^ "Baptism in Jesus' Name". Apostolic Network. http://www.apostolic.net/biblicalstudies/name.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  129. ^ "Water Baptism in Jesus' Name is Essential unto Salvation". http://www.apostolic-voice.org/tracts/water_baptism.htm. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  130. ^ "Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry—Faith and Order Paper No. 111". World Council of Churches. 1982. http://www.oikoumene.org/en/resources/documents/wcc-commissions/faith-and-order-commission/i-unity-the-church-and-its-mission/baptism-eucharist-and-ministry-faith-and-order-paper-no-111-the-lima-text/baptism-eucharist-and-ministry.html#c10471. Retrieved March 1, 2009. 
  131. ^ "Becoming a Christian: The Ecumenical Implications of Our Common Baptism". World Council of Churches. 1997. http://www.oikoumene.org/index.php?id=2672. Retrieved May 13, 2007. 
  132. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 869; cf. New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law By John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J., pp. 1057-1059.
  133. ^ "Response of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". Vatican.va. June 5, 2001. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20010605_battesimo_mormoni_en.html. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  134. ^ Declaration of June 5, 2001 by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
  135. ^ "The Question Of The Validity Of Baptism Conferred In The Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter". Ewtn.com. August 1, 2001. http://www.ewtn.com/library/Theology/MORMBAP1.HTM. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  136. ^ "Topic Definition: Baptism". Lds.org. http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=bbd508f54922d010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&index=2&sourceId=1af539b439c98010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  137. ^ "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, May 1, 1959, p. 288, "Thus, when Christ was enthroned as King A.D. 1914 it was not necessary for all true Christians to be rebaptized in recognition of his ruling position."
  138. ^ "Jehovah’s Witnesses Endure for His Sovereign Godship", The Watchtower, September 15, 1966, p. 560, "In the decades of restoration since 1919, right-hearted clergymen of various religious sects in different parts of the earth have repentantly accepted the priesthood services of the anointed remnant of Job-like ones by becoming rebaptized and ordained as true ministers of Jehovah."
  139. ^ "True Christianity Is Flourishing", The Watchtower, March 1, 2004, p. 7 As retrieved April 9, 2009, "While Christendom's theologians, missionaries, and churchgoers continue to grapple with the gathering storm of controversy in their churches, true Christianity is flourishing worldwide. Indeed, true Christians…invite you to join Jehovah's Witnesses in united Christian worship of the only true God, Jehovah."
  140. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses— Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, publ Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 31: How Chosen and Led by God", p. 706, "Clearly, when the time of the end began in 1914, none of the churches of Christendom were measuring up to these Bible standards for the one true Christian congregation. What, though, about the Bible Students, as Jehovah’s Witnesses were then known?"
  141. ^ a b "The Minister of Baptism". Code of Canon Law. Vatican Publishing House. 1983. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/_P2W.HTM. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  142. ^ "Parishes, Pastors, and Parochial Vicars". Code of Canon Law. Vatican Publishing House. 1983. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P1U.HTM. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  143. ^ "Canon 677". Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. 1990. http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG1199/__PIT.HTM. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  144. ^ Ware, Kallistos (1964). The Orthodox Church. New York City: Penguin Books. p. 285. 
  145. ^ "Aaronic Priesthood", Priesthood and Auxiliary Leaders’ Guidebook, © 1992, 2001 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc., As Retrieved September 16, 2009, "Brethren who hold the Aaronic Priesthood have authority to perform certain priesthood ordinances. Priests may perform baptisms"
  146. ^ a b c "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, August 1, 1973, page 480, "In connection with baptism, it may also be noted that a baptism may be performed by a dedicated male even though no other human witnesses are present."
  147. ^ "The General Priesthood Today", The Watchtower, March 1, 1963, page 147, "Because he is a minister, any competent male member is called on to perform funerals, baptisms and weddings, and to conduct the service in annual commemoration of the Lord’s death."
  148. ^ a b London Baptist Confession of 1644. Web: [http://www.spurgeon.org/~phil/creeds/bc1644.htm London Baptist Confession of 1644. 29 Dec 2009
  149. ^ Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-12; Romans 6
  150. ^ a b "The Baptist Faith and Message," Southern Baptist Convention. Adopted, June 14, 2000. Accessed July 29, 2009: http://www.sbc.net/bfm/bfm2000.asp#vii
  151. ^ a b c d V. E. Howard, What Is the Church of Christ? 4th Edition (Revised) Central Printers & Publishers, West Monroe, Louisiana, 1971
  152. ^ a b c d Rees Bryant, Baptism, Why Wait?: Faith's Response in Conversion, College Press, 1999, ISBN 0899008585, 9780899008585, 224 pages
  153. ^ Edward C. Wharton, The Church of Christ: The Distinctive Nature of the New Testament Church, Gospel Advocate Co., 1997, ISBN 0-89225-464-5
  154. ^ a b c d e f g Everett Ferguson, The Church of Christ: A Biblical Ecclesiology for Today, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0802841899, 9780802841896, 443 pages
  155. ^ a b c d Douglas A. Foster, "Churches of Christ and Baptism: An Historical and Theological Overview," Restoration Quarterly, Volume 43/Number 2 (2001)
  156. ^ a b Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0802838987, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Regeneration
  157. ^ KJV, italics inserted.
  158. ^ a b "Code of Canon Law, canon 849". Intratext.com. May 4, 2007. http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0017/_P2T.HTM. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  159. ^ Ordo initiationis christanae adultorum, editio typica, Vatican City, Typis polyglottis vaticanis, 1972, pg 92, cf Lateran IV De Fide Catholica, DS 802, cf Florence, Decretum pro Armeniis, DS , 1317.
  160. ^ cf. Catechism, 1260
  161. ^ Jet magazine, Aug 4, 1955, page 26 Online.
  162. ^ Organized to Do Jehovah's Will, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, page 215, "Baptisms are usually performed at assemblies and conventions of Jehovah’s Witnesses."
  163. ^ Organized to Do Jehovah's Will, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, page 182.
  164. ^ Organized to Do Jehovah's Will, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, page 217-218.
  165. ^ Watchtower June 1, 1985
  166. ^ a b "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, November 15, 1986, page 31
  167. ^ The Watchtower, May 15, 1970, page 309.
  168. ^ "The General Priesthood Today", The Watchtower, March 1, 1963, page 147
  169. ^ "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, August 1, 1973, pages 479-480
  170. ^ "Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands", 1987 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 71
  171. ^ Duties and Blessings of the Priesthood: Basic Manual for Priesthood Holders, Part B: Performing Priesthood Ordinances, §Baptism.
  172. ^ See, e.g., Guide to the Scriptures: Baptism, Baptize, §Proper authority.
  173. ^ See, e.g., Bible Dictionary: Baptism, ¶2.
  174. ^ See Doctrine and Covenants 68:25, 27.
  175. ^ See Book of Mormon, Moroni 8:4-23.
  176. ^ http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=bbd508f54922d010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=1ec52f2324d98010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____ Baptisms for the Dead
  177. ^ "Apology, Proposition 12". Qhpress.org. http://www.qhpress.org/texts/barclay/apology/prop12.html. Retrieved July 28, 2009. 
  178. ^ "Why does The Salvation Army not baptise or hold communion?". The Salvation Army. February 28, 1987. http://www1.salvationarmy.org.uk/uki/www_uki.nsf/vw-print/C28E39B2CA06E8F98025708A003D9FAC?openDocument. Retrieved July 28, 2009. 
  179. ^ Havard, David M.. "Are We Hyper-Dispensationalists?". Berean Bible Society. http://www.bereanbiblesociety.org/articles/1011392439.html. Retrieved January 19, 2009. 
  180. ^ Luke 3:16, John 1:33, Matt 3:11Acts 1:5
  181. ^ Ephesians 5:26; Acts 19:1-5
  182. ^ Matthew 3:12, Luke 3:17, [2]
  183. ^ Apuleius (1998). "11.23.1". The golden ass, or, Metamorphoses. trans. E. J. Kenney. New York City: Penguin Books. pp. 208–209. ISBN 0-14-043590-5. OCLC 41174027. http://books.google.com/books?id=EF44Zv5yFUcC&pg=PA208. 
  184. ^ Hartman, Lars (1997). Into the Name of the Lord Jesus: Baptism in the Early Church. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. p. 4. ISBN 0-567-08589-9. OCLC 38189287. 
  185. ^ Siddique Katiya. "Cleanliness in Islam, abulation wadu Seven pre-requisites of Prayer". As-sidq.org. http://www.as-sidq.org/ghusul.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  186. ^ Sura 2:138
  187. ^ "US Grand Lodge, OTO: Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica". Oto-usa.org. March 19, 1933. http://www.oto-usa.org/egc.html. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  188. ^ "Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica: Baptism: Adult". Hermetic.com. http://www.hermetic.com/sabazius/bapadult.htm. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  189. ^ Good News. Issue 3. St Louis, MO. 2003. p 18-19
  190. ^ a b "The Thirty-Nine Articles". Anglicans Online. April 15, 2007. http://anglicansonline.org/basics/thirty-nine_articles.html. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  191. ^ "The Baptist Faith & Message". Southern Baptist Convention. June 14, 2000. http://www.sbc.net/bfm/bfm2000.asp. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  192. ^ Huston, David A. (2003). "Speaking in Tongues in the Church: A Look at the Purpose of Spiritual Utterances". Rosh Pinnah Publications. http://www.gloriouschurch.com/html/Speaking-In-Tongues-In-The-Church.asp. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  193. ^ Huston, David A. (2003). "Questions and Answers about The Doctrine of the Oneness of God". Rosh Pinnah Publications. http://www.gloriouschurch.com/html/Oneness-Questions-And-Answers.asp. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  194. ^ "Baptism". http://thechristadelphians.org/htm/pamphletz/p0004m.htm. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  195. ^ "Baptism". Bible Q & A. 2001. http://www.christadelphia.org/pamphlet/p_bibleqa.htm#20. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  196. ^ Levin, David. "Forgiveness". http://www.god-so-loved-the-world.org/english/levin_forgiveness.htm. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  197. ^ Norris, Alfred (November 12, 2006). "His Cross and Yours". http://www.god-so-loved-the-world.org/english/norris_hiscrossandyours.htm. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  198. ^ a b Morgan, Tecwyn (2006). "What Exactly is Christian Baptism?". Understand the Bible for Yourself. Christadelphian Bible Mission. http://www.god-so-loved-the-world.org/english/morgan_utb14_what_exactly_is_christian_baptism.pdf. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  199. ^ "Why does the church of Christ baptize only by immersion?" Web: [http://www.church-of-christ.org/who.html#baptism Why does the church of Christ baptize only by immersion?
  200. ^ "Topic Definition— Baptism". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2008. http://lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=bbd508f54922d010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=1af539b439c98010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  201. ^ See Guide to the Scriptures: God, Godhead for a more thorough Latter-day Saint explanation of the Godhead with scripture references.
  202. ^ Worship the Only True God, published by Jehovah's Witnesses (2002, 2006), "Chapter 12: The Meaning of Your Baptism", p. 118, "It would be a mistake to conclude that baptism is in itself a guarantee of salvation. It has value only if a person has truly dedicated himself to Jehovah through Jesus Christ and thereafter carries out God’s will, being faithful to the end."
  203. ^ "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, May 1, 1979, p. 31, "The Bible shows that baptism by complete immersion is very important. So even when unusual steps are necessary because of a person’s condition, he should be baptized if at all possible. …In modern times Jehovah’s Witnesses have arranged for baptisms at conventions. [However], fully valid baptisms have even been performed locally in large home bathtubs. …Of course, it might be that in some extreme case baptism would seem absolutely impossible for the time being. Then we trust that our merciful heavenly Father will understand".
  204. ^ LCMS Baptism Regeneration, Retrieved 18 December 2009
  205. ^ ELCA Baptism Methods, Retrieved 18 December 2009
  206. ^ LCMS Baptism Methods, Retrieved 18 December 2009
  207. ^ ELCA Infant Baptism views, Retrieved 18 December 2009
  208. ^ a b LCMS Infant Baptism views, Retrieved 18 December 2009
  209. ^ http://ag.org/top/Beliefs/Statement_of_Fundamental_Truths/sft_full.cfm
  210. ^ Scott Hahn, Leon J. Suprenant, Catholic for a Reason: Scripture and the Mystery of the Family of God (Emmaus Road Publishing, 1998 ISBN 0966322304, 9780966322309), p. 135.
  211. ^ Paul Haffner, The Sacramental Mystery (Gracewing Publishing, 1999 ISBN 0852444761, 9780852444764), p. 36.
  212. ^ a b Seventh-day Adventist Minister's Handbook, ed. Ministerial Association, The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists (Silver Spring,Marylend, 1997), 199.
  213. ^ Seventh-day Adventist Church Manual: Revised 2005 17th Edition, ed. The Secretariat of General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists (Hagerstown, Marylend: Review and Herald, 2005), 30.

See also

Related articles and subjects

People and ritual objects

Resources

  • Jungkuntz, Richard (1968). The Gospel of Baptism. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House. OCLC 444126. 
  • Kolb, Robert W. (1997). .Make Disciples, baptizing: God's gift of new life and Christian witness.^ God offers the dead an opportunity to hear and accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, if they did not receive a personal witness of it, while in life.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is important to recognize that the practice of baptizing on behalf of the dead is not new--it was practiced by early Christians, and the Mormons have simply brought it back.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    St. Louis: Concordia Seminary. ISBN 0-911770-66-6. OCLC 41473438.
     
  • Scaer, David P. (1999). Baptism. St. Louis: The Luther Academy. OCLC 41004868. 
  • Schlink, Edmund (1972). The Doctrine of Baptism. St. Louis, Mo: Concordia Publishing House. ISBN 0-570-03726-3. OCLC 228096375. 
  • Stookey, Laurence Hull (1982). .Baptism, Christ's act in the church.^ As a Jewish convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, I have a somewhat unique perspective on baptism for the dead.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    Nashville, Tenn: Abingdon. ISBN 0-687-02364-5. OCLC 7924841.
     
  • Willimon, William H. (1980). .Remember who you are: baptism, a model for Christian life.^ There are hundreds or perhaps thousands of personal stories of people who are just as clear-headed as you are who have seen spirits (some related to them, some not) who have asked them to do their baptism for them.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You are actively seeking the names of those you know did not want to be christian in life, and putting them on your rolls, bring them into your church.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I know animals who are better christians than you are.
    • Under God: Mormons, Jews Contend for Souls of Dead - David Waters 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    Nashville: Upper Room. ISBN 0-8358-0399-6. OCLC 6485882.
     
  • Linderman, Jim (2009). Take Me to the Water: Immersion Baptism in Vintage Music and Photography 1890-1950. Atlanta: Dust to Digital. ISBN 978-0-9817342-1-7. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BAPTISM. The Gr. words .13arTCaµos and f367rTC6µa (both of which occur in the New Testament) signify " ceremonial washing," from the verb (3air-T4"w, the shorter form meaning " dip " without ritual significance (e.g.^ TCaµos and f367rTC6µa (both of which occur in the New Testament) signify " ceremonial washing," from the verb ( 3 air -T4"w, the shorter form meaning " dip " without ritual significance (e.g.

^ New Testament) of ceremonial ablution.
  • Christian Baptism, what the Bible teaches. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC acharlie.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the New Testament and the Church Fathers of the 2nd century make it clear that the gift of salvation belongs to children, however.
  • Baptism (Christianity) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the finger in water, a robe in blood). .That a ritual washing away of sin characterized other religions than the Christian, the Fathers of the church were aware, and Tertullian notices, in his tract On Baptism (ch.^ It is necessary to wash away our sins.

^ You will notice Ananias said, "wash away thy sins."

^ Baptism is God’s promise to us to wash away our sins.
  • Baptism Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mtolivet.org [Source type: General]

v.), that the votaries of Isis and Mithras were initiated per lavacrum, " through a font," and that in the Ludi Apollinares et Eleusinii, i.e. the mysteries of Apollo and Eleusis, men were baptized (tinguntur, Tertullian's favourite word for baptism), and, what is more, baptized, as they presumed to think, " unto regeneration and exemption from the guilt of their perjuries." " Among the ancients," he adds, " anyone who had stained himself with homicide went in search of waters that could purge him of his guilt." The texts of the New Testament relating to Christian baptism, given roughly in chronological order, are the following: - A.D. 55-60, Rom. vi. 3, 4; I Cor. i. 12-17, vi. II, X. I-4, xii. 13, xv. 29; Gal. iii. 27.
A.D. 60-65, Col. ii. 11, 12; Eph. iv. 5, v. 26.
A.D. 60-70, Mark x. 3 8, 39.
A.D. 80-90, Acts i. 5, ii. 38-41, viii. 16, 1 7, x. 44-4 8, xix. 1-7, xxii. 16; I Pet. iii. 20, 21; Heb. x. 22.
.A.D. 90-100, John iii.^ A.D. 90-100, John iii .

^ A.D. 90-100, John i .

3-8, iii. 22, iii. 26, iv. I, 2.
Uncertain, Matt. xxviii. .18-20; Mark xvi.^ Several other passages indicate such a meaning: (Matthew 10:41; Matthew 18:5,20; Mark 16:17; Luke 10:17; John 14:26) .

^ Are Matthew 28:18-20 and Mark 16:15,16 Genuine?
  • NETBible: Baptism (Lutheran Doctrine) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (See Matthew, 21: 25; Mark, 11: 30; Luke, 7: 29; 20: 4; Acts, 1: 22; 10: 37; 18: 25; 19: 3, etc.
  • CSEC -- Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.endtime.org [Source type: Original source]

16.
.The baptism of John is mentioned in the following: - A.D. 60-70, Mark i.^ Mark the Ascetic explains the Mystery of Baptism in the following words: "By baptism you have put on Christ, and you have the strength and weapons to subdue (sinful) thoughts ...

^ Mark 1:4, “John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.” Also, if we are to understand this verse to mean that baptism is necessary for salvation, then we must also understand that repentance is necessary.
  • Baptism Verses with responses | Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.carm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist preparing to immerse Jesus, the following account is from Mark 1:1-11 .

I-I I.
.A.D. 80-90, Matt.^ A.D. 80-90, Matt.

iii. 1-16.; Luke iii. 1-22, vii. .29, 30; Acts i.^ (See Matthew, 21: 25; Mark, 11: 30; Luke, 7: 29; 20: 4; Acts, 1: 22; 10: 37; 18: 25; 19: 3, etc.
  • CSEC -- Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.endtime.org [Source type: Original source]

22, X. 37, xiii. 24, xviii. 25, xix. 3, 4.
.A.D. 90-100, John i.^ A.D. 90-100, John iii .

^ A.D. 90-100, John i .

25-33, iii. 23, x. 40.
.It is best to defer the question of the origin of Christian baptism until the history of the rite in the centuries which followed has been sketched, for we know more clearly what baptism became after the year Ioo than what it was before.^ It is best to defer the question of the origin of Christian baptism until the history of the rite in the centuries which followed has been sketched, for we know more clearly what baptism became after the year Ioo than what it was before.

^ It wasn't until the 16th century that Christians began to question the legitimacy of infant baptism.
  • DeYoung, Restless, and Reformed: Why I Baptize Babies 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.revkevindeyoung.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We can no more be saved before baptism than we can before believing.
  • Baptism - Purpose: Essential Condition or Sign of Salvation? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gospelway.com [Source type: Original source]

And that method on which a great scholar 1 insisted when studying the old Persian religion is doubly to be insisted on in the study of the history of baptism and the cognate institution, the eucharist, namely, to avoid equally " the narrowness of mind which clings to matters of fact without rising to their cause and connecting them with the series of associated phenomena, and the wild and uncontrolled spirit of comparison, which, by comparing everything, confounds everything." Our earliest detailed accounts of baptism are in the Teaching of the Apostles (c.90-120) and in Justin Martyr.
.The Teaching has the following: I. Now concerning baptism, thus baptize ye: having spoken beforehand all these things, baptize into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit; in living water.^ For the law of baptizing has been imposed , and the formula prescribed: Go, He says, teach the nations , baptizing them into the name of the Father , and of the Son , and of the Holy Spirit .
  • CHURCH FATHERS: On Baptism (Tertullian) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark 1:8 “I baptized you in water; But He shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit.” .

^ Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
  • What does the Bible say about baptism? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.twopaths.com [Source type: Original source]

.2. But if thou hast not living water, baptize into other water; if thou canst not in cold, in warm.^ So you can get baptized into water, but then again there are other things you can get baptized into.
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bcbsr.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, if you have no running water, baptize in any other; and if you cannot in cold water, then in warm.

^ If you have no living water, then baptize in other water, and if you are not able in cold, then in warm.
  • Baptism Examined 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spreadinglight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • What Early Christians believed about BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.3. But if thou hast not either, pour water upon the head thrice, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.^ That is, they stood in water and then had water poured on their head.
  • Baptism, by Francis Schaeffer 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fivesolas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
  • What does the Bible say about baptism? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.twopaths.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They receive the washing in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  • Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? Yes! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bibleprobe.com [Source type: Original source]

.4. Now before the baptism, let him that is baptizing and him that is being baptized fast, and any others who can; but thou biddest him who is being baptized to fast one or two days before.^ One teaches 'baptism before salvation', while the other teaches 'salvation before baptism.'
  • Christian Baptism, what the Bible teaches. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC acharlie.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And you should instruct the one being baptized to fast one or two days before."
  • Silly Daddy Comics: Silly Daddy on Baptizing Babies 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC joechiappetta.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Command the one who is to be baptized to fast beforehand for one or two days.
  • Orthodox Baptism - Thoughts on the Holy Mystery 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.The " things spoken beforehand " are the moral precepts known as the two ways, the one of life and the other of death, with which the tract begins.^ The " things spoken beforehand " are the moral precepts known as the two ways, the one of life and the other of death, with which the tract begins.

^ There are two ways, one of life and one of death, but a great difference between the two ways.
  • Didache. The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (translation Roberts-Donaldson). 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.earlychristianwritings.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the one doing the speaking must be willing to submit what he has spoken to the judgment of others, particularly those with experience in spiritual manifestations.
  • Speaking in Tongues in the Church A Look at the Purpose of Spiritual Utterances 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC gloriouschurch.com [Source type: Original source]

This body of moral teaching is older than the rest of the tract, and may go back to the year A.D. 80.
.Justin thus describes the rite in ch.^ Justin thus describes the rite in ch.

^ Late in the 2nd century Tertullian describes the rite of baptism in his treatise On the Resurrection of the Flesh, thus: 1.

lxi. of his first .Apology, (c. 140): 1 James Darmesteter, in " Introd.^ James Darmesteter , in " Introd.

to the;Vendidad," in the .Sacred Books of the East. I will also relate the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God when we had been made new through Christ.^ Then through Christ, God gives it to us.
  • The Wonderful Ordinance of Water Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC cgg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I will also relate the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God when we had been made new through Christ .

^ I will also relate the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God when we had been made new through Christ; lest, if we omit this, we seem to be unfair in the explanation we are making.
  • Orthodox Baptism - Thoughts on the Holy Mystery 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

.As many as are persuaded and believe that what we teach and say is true, and undertake to be able to live accordingly, are instructed to pray and entreat God with fasting, for the remission of their sins that are past, we praying and fasting with them.^ The baptisands are instructed to pray and fast for the remission of the sins that are past , the Christians praying and fasting with them.
  • Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? Yes! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bibleprobe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "As many as are persuaded and believe that what we teach and say is true, ...
  • The Pristine Faith Restoration Society - Baptism Index 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pfrs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "As many as are persuaded and believe that what we [Christians] teach and say is true, and undertake to be able to live accordingly .
  • The Necessity of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated.^ Then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated.
  • Baptism - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Orthodox Baptism - Thoughts on the Holy Mystery 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]
  • What Early Christians believed about BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then we bring them to a place where there is water, and they are regenerated in the same manner in which we ourselves were regenerated.
  • What Early Christians believed about BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are then taken to a place where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner as we have been regenerated.
  • Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? Yes! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bibleprobe.com [Source type: Original source]

For in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water." In the sequel Justin adds: " There is pronounced over him who chooses to be born again, and has repented of his sins, the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe, he who leads to the laver the person that is to be washed calling Him by this name alone. .For no one can utter the name of the ineffable God, and this washing is called Illumination (Gr.^ For no one can utter the name of the ineffable God, and this washing is called Illumination (Gr.

^ God - not by works, so that no one can boast."

^ But God never stopped knocking on the door, and one day when I had fallen so far down that no other voice could reach me, I heard God clearly.

.cwrca,u6s), because they who learn these things are illuminated in their understandings.^ To me these are the same thing, they are one in the same.
  • BAPTISM - NECESSARY FOR SALVATION? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bcmmin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For something this presents a problem because they do not understand the importance of baptism nor in the need to identify with God's uncompromised truth.
  • What Does the Bible Say About Baptism? - AN OUTLINE OF BIBLICAL BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible-truth.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is any practicing Catholic who can help them during their period of the catechumenate when they are studying and learning the faith as well as a role model and someone to assist them as they grown in the faith after baptism.
  • can a Catholic baptize me in a Greek Orthodox church? - Catholic Answers Forums 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

And in the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and in the name of the Holy Ghost, who through the prophets foretold all things about Jesus, he who is illuminated is washed." In ch. xiv. of the .dialogue with Trypho, Justin asserts, as against Jewish rites of ablution, that Christian baptism alone can purify those who have repented.^ Baptism is commanded for those who repent of their sins and believe in Christ.
  • New Testament Baptism | Brethren Revival Fellowship 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brfwitness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christian baptism cannot include those who cannot repent.
  • Baptism and the Early Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who die without Baptism .
  • The Sacrament of Baptism in the Catholic Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.beginningcatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

." This," he says, " is the water of life.^ This," he says, " is the water of life.

^ As you come up out of the water, I will say, “Raised to walk in newness of life in Christ Jesus.” .
  • Owens - Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sermonoutlines.org [Source type: Original source]

.But the cisterns which you have dug for yourselves are broken and profitless to you.^ But the cisterns which you have dug for yourselves are broken and profitless to you.

.For what is the use of that baptism which cleanses the flesh and body alone ?^ For what is the use of that baptism which cleanses the flesh and body alone ?

^ As the “Body of Christ” in the world, baptism commissions us to use our gifts to strengthen the church and to transform the world.
  • United Methodists and Baptism - What we Believe 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.temeculaumc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without the regenerative cleansing of baptism, we will not be One Body with God.

.Baptize the soul from wrath, from envy and from hatred; and, lo!^ Baptize the soul from wrath, from envy and from hatred; and, lo!

^ When unrepentant souls came to John to be baptized, he was harsh: O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
  • Speaking in Tongues, Holy Ghost Baptism, Pentecostal Gospel Materials! Tract #66, Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isaiah58.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When someunrepentat souls dared to come to John to be baptized, the man of God was harsh: O Generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath ot come?
  • Baptism in Water | Christian Faith Site 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.christian-faith.com [Source type: Original source]

the body is pure." In ch. xliii. of the same dialogue Justin remarks that " those who have approached God through Jesus Christ have received a circumcision, not carnal, but spiritual, after the manner of Enoch." In after ages baptism was regularly called illumination. .Late in the 2nd century Tertullian describes the rite of baptism in his treatise On the Resurrection of the Flesh, thus: 1. The flesh is washed, that the soul may be freed from stain.^ Thus ends the Rite of Baptism.

^ Late in the 2nd century Tertullian describes the rite of baptism in his treatise On the Resurrection of the Flesh, thus: 1.

^ In the same century Tertullian described baptism as "a sprinkling with any kind of water."
  • Transporter Info Services 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.transporter.com [Source type: Original source]

.2. The flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated.^ The flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated.

^ The flesh is overshadowed with imposition of hands, that the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit.

^ "And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office."

3. The flesh is sealed (i.e. signed with the cross), that the soul also may be protected.
.4. The flesh is overshadowed with imposition of hands, that the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit.^ The flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated.

^ The flesh is overshadowed with imposition of hands, that the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit.

^ Into Your hands Dear Lord I commend my body, mind, soul and spirit.
  • Circle of Prayer - The Sacrament of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.circleofprayer.com [Source type: Original source]

.5. The flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul also may be filled and sated with God.^ The flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul also may be filled and sated with God.

^ The flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated.

^ In Him you were also circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ, buried with Him in baptism, in which you also were raised with Him through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead.
  • Baptism � An Old Testament Doctrine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelighthouse.com [Source type: Original source]

.6. He also mentions elsewhere that the neophytes, after baptism, were given a draught of milk and honey.^ He also mentions elsewhere that the neophytes, after baptism, were given a draught of milk and honey .

^ That the reception of the Eucharist still followed the baptism is clear from several passages; after this the newly baptized, clothed in white garments, join in prayer with the "brethren," and milk and honey are given them.
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

.(The candidate for baptism, we further learn from his tract On Baptism, prepared himself by prayer, fasting and keeping of vigils.^ (The candidate for baptism, we further learn from his tract On Baptism, prepared himself by prayer , fasting and keeping of vigils.

^ In his baptism he prepares himself for death, the ultimate expression of nonpower, for the people with whom he identifies, and makes the identification complete.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/txh/bapjesus.htm 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the date of baptism has been set, candidates are often prepared by robing in a white robe (this is quite significant among Russian Baptists) and led into the water one at a time.
  • Doing Baptism Baptist Style:  Believer's Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.baptisthistory.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Before stepping into the font, which both sexes did quite naked, the neophytes had to renounce the devil, his pomps and angels.^ Before stepping into the font, which both sexes did quite naked, the neophytes had to renounce the devil , his pomps and angels.

^ AD Tertullian "When we are about to enter the water--no, just a little before--in the church and under the hand of the bishop, we solemnly profess that we renounce the devil and his pomps and his angels.
  • What Early Christians believed about BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find it quite insulting that to Catholics, children must be initiated into the faith as an infant, before they have a chance to exercise their own free will.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Baptism & Christening 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Baptisms were usually conferred at Easter and in the season of Pentecost which ensued, and by the bishop or by priests and deacons commissioned by him.^ The ordinary minister of Baptism is the bishop, the priest, and the deacon.
  • Domestic-Church.Com: Sacramental: Guidebook for Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.domestic-church.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deacons, however, were only allowed to baptize by commission of a bishop or priest.
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ordinary minister of Baptism is a priest or a deacon.
  • The Sacrament of Baptism in the Catholic Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.beginningcatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such are the leading features of the rite in Tertullian, and they reappear in the 4th century in the rites of all the orthodox churches of East and West; Tertullian testifies that the Marcionites observed the particulars numbered one to six, which must therefore go back at least to the year 150. About the year 300, those desirous of being baptized were (a) admitted to the catechumenate, giving in their names to the bishop.^ Don't think, "Oh, I must go back and get baptized again.
  • His By Grace--"John Piper 4 Part Series on Baptism" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gracesermons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The one being baptized then says: `I believe.'
  • What Early Christians believed about BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you go to heaven by being baptized?

.(b) They were subjected to a scrutiny and prepared, as to-day in the western churches the young are prepared for confirmation.^ They were subjected to a scrutiny and prepared, as to-day in the western churches the young are prepared for confirmation .

^ During the early days of the church, new believers often were baptized in the presence of unbelievers knowing they might suffer persecution for their act of devotion.
  • Baptism Info - Grace Community Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gcc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Alice’s mother and sisters decided to become members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Alice was only six and too young to be baptized with the rest of her family.
  • LDS.org - Primary Chapter Detail - Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lds.org [Source type: Original source]

.The catechetic course included instruction in monotheism, in the folly of polytheism, in the Christian scheme of salvation, &c.^ The catechetic course included instruction in monotheism, in the folly of polytheism, in the Christian scheme of salvation, &c.

^ All churches baptize believers coming from other religions or from unbelief who accept the Christian faith and participate in catechetical instruction.
  • Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.oikoumene.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is usually related to a course of instruction to ensure that children understand what Christians believe, and perhaps, to ensure that they do in fact believe it.

.(c) They were again and again exorcized, in order to rid them of the lingering taint of the worship of demons.^ They were again and again exorcized, in order to rid them of the lingering taint of the worship of demons.

^ It is not surprising therefore that sound instruments were exorcized of demons who likely lived within them in order to make them suitable for a money-making religion : .
  • WinRSSunSanta 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

.(d) Some days or even weeks beforehand they had the creed recited to them.^ Some days or even weeks beforehand they had the creed recited to them.

^ Then they begged him to stay on there for some days."
  • Who has the authority to baptize 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.answers2prayer.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If a child got sick before their baptism and their parents were frightened the child may die, the child must be baptized even if they are a day old.
  • The Sacrament of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.copticchurch.net [Source type: Original source]

.They might not write it down, but learned it by heart and had to repeat it just before baptism.^ They might not write it down, but learned it by heart and had to repeat it just before baptism.

^ Neither Jesus nor His disciples laid down any rules about how baptism was to be done, nor did they provide much interpretation of its spiritual significance.
  • What does the Bible say about baptism? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.twopaths.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She said she ran down and told them she had just turned eight years old, and they baptized her.
  • Genealogy Articles : When was Great Grandpa Baptized 11 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.heirlines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This rite was called in the West the traditio and redditio of the symbol.^ This rite was called in the West the traditio and redditio of the symbol .

.The Lord's Prayer was communicated with similar solemnity in the West (traditio precis). The creed given in Rome was the so-called Apostles' Creed, originally compiled as we now have it to exclude Marcionites.^ The creed given in Rome was the so-called Apostles' Creed, originally compiled as we now have it to exclude Marcionites.

^ The communication to the candidates of the Creed and Lord's Prayer was a solemn rite.

^ The Lord's Prayer was communicated with similar solemnity in the West ( traditio precis).

.In the East various other symbols were used.^ In the East various other symbols were used.

^ There were originally two essential constituents in the outward rite—the one water, used as the symbol of purity; the other immersion with the consequent emersion, as the symbol of burial and resurrection.
  • Baptism by G.D.B. Peppers 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shilohonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here, pouring symbolizes the death of Jesus, just as sprinkling represents it in other places and immersion could be used to represent it in yet other passages.

.(e) There followed an act of unction, made in the East with the oil of the catechumens blessed only by the priest, in the West with the priest's saliva applied to the lips and ears.^ There followed an act of unction , made in the East with the oil of the catechumens blessed only by the priest , in the West with the priest's saliva applied to the lips and ears.

^ The priest makes the sign of the cross in the water with the oil three times and anoints the person who is to be baptized on their brow, their breast, their ears, their hands, their feet and their back.

^ In the Orthodox Church, the rite for the admission to the catechumenate, consisting of exorcisms, the renunciation of Satan and profession of faith, is followed by the rite of Baptism proper, in which water and oil are blessed, the candidate is anointed with oil, immersed three times in water, and clothed with a white garment.
  • Baptism – Dictionary definition of Baptism | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The latter was accompanied by the following formula: " Effeta, that is, be thou opened unto odour of sweetness.^ The latter was accompanied by the following formula: " Effeta, that is, be thou opened unto odour of sweetness.

^ Priest: Ephpheta, that is to say, Be opened, for an odour of sweetness.

.But do thou flee, 0 Devil, for the judgment of God is at hand."^ But do thou flee, 0 Devil, for the judgment of God is at hand."

^ Be thou, devil, begone; for the judgement of God shall draw near.

(f) Renunciation of Satan. .The catechumens turned to the west in pronouncing this; then turning to the east they recited the creed.^ The catechumens turned to the west in pronouncing this; then turning to the east they recited the creed.

^ Some people say, when the mother turns from the West to the East, she must change her child from her left arm to her right arm, hence this means that she will raise her left hand during the confession for Christ and the reciting of the Orthodox Creed.
  • The Sacrament of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.copticchurch.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There followed an act of unction , made in the East with the oil of the catechumens blessed only by the priest , in the West with the priest's saliva applied to the lips and ears.

.(g) They stepped into the font, but were not usually immersed, and the priest recited the baptismal formula over them as he poured water, generally thrice, over their heads.^ When Jewish priests were dedicated water was poured upon their heads and they were anointed with oil.
  • Why Baptize by Pouring by W. A. Swift 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.imarc.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ As he pours the water, the priest says these words (or the words of a conditional Baptism): .

^ [If not done earlier, the water may be poured into the font at this time.
  • Service for Baptism (1991) - Christian Reformed Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.crcna.org [Source type: Original source]

.(h) They were anointed all over with chrism or scented oil, the priest reciting an appropriate formula.^ When anointing with the Holy Chrism, the Priest says: .

^ The priest makes the sign of the cross in the water with the oil three times and anoints the person who is to be baptized on their brow, their breast, their ears, their hands, their feet and their back.

^ No longer able to preside over all baptisms, bishops of the Western Church had priests administer Baptism and First Eucharist but reserved to themselves the anointing with oil portion of the initiation ceremony in order to retain personal involvement with everyone's initiation.
  • Immaculate Conception Church, Clarksville, TN - Infant Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic-forum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deacons anointed the males, deaconesses the females.^ Deacons anointed the males, deaconesses the females.

^ He then takes the bottle of oil to anoint the children (males then females) as follows : .
  • The Sacrament of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.copticchurch.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, there arent any Jews or Greeks, slaves or freemen, males or females, because youre all one in the Anointed One, Jesus.

.(i) They put on white garments and often baptismal wreaths or chaplets as well.^ The white garment is put on the child.
  • Domestic-Church.Com: Sacramental: Guidebook for Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.domestic-church.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The white garment represents putting on Christ.

^ They put on white garments and often baptismal wreaths or chaplets as well.

.In some churches they had worn cowls during the catechumenate, in sign of repentance of their sins.^ By repentance they acknowledged their sin to God.
  • P�gina principal 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC goin2hven.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some churches they had worn cowls during the catechumenate, in sign of repentance of their sins.

^ It is any practicing Catholic who can help them during their period of the catechumenate when they are studying and learning the faith as well as a role model and someone to assist them as they grown in the faith after baptism.
  • can a Catholic baptize me in a Greek Orthodox church? - Catholic Answers Forums 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

.(j) They received the sign of the cross on the brow; the bishop usually dipped his thumb in the chrism and said: " In name of Father, Son and Holy Ghost, peace be with thee."^ I baptize you/thee in the name of the Father; In the name of the Son; and in the name of the Holy Spirit; Amen.
  • BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christian baptism is the immersion of a believer in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

^ What is plain is that a person is to be baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

.In laying his hands on their heads the bishop in many places, especially in the West, called down upon them the sevenfold spirit.^ In laying his hands on their heads the bishop in many places, especially in the West, called down upon them the sevenfold spirit.

^ The Priest lays his right hand upon the head of the child and prays: .
  • The Service of Holy Baptism — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC goarch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But if you have neither, pour out water three times upon the head into the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit ."
  • Baptism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]

.(k) The first communion followed, with milk and honey added.^ Following this analogy, the first chapter will expound the three sacraments of Christian initiation; the second , the sacraments of healing; and the third, the sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful.
  • USCCB - Catechism of the Catholic Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following this analogy, the first chapter will expound the three sacraments of Christian initiation; the second, the sacraments of healing; and the third, the sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful.
  • CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: Original source]

.(1) Usually the water in the font was exorcized, blessed and chrism poured into it, just before the catechumen entered it, (m) Easter was the usual season of baptism, but in the East Epiphany was equally favoured.^ Usually the water in the font was exorcized, blessed and chrism poured into it, just before the catechumen entered it, (m) Easter was the usual season of baptism, but in the East Epiphany was equally favoured.

^ [If not done earlier, the water may be poured into the font at this time.
  • Service for Baptism (1991) - Christian Reformed Church 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.crcna.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The water in the baptismal font is heated for all baptisms.

.Pentecost was sometimes chosen.^ Pentecost was sometimes chosen.

.We hear of all three feasts being habitually chosen in Jerusalem early in the 4th century, but fifty years later baptisms seem to have been almost confined to Easter.^ As a matter of fact, from evidence from the Catacombs before 200, it would seem probable that effusion, pouring, could have been the most common mode of baptism in the early church.
  • Baptism, by Francis Schaeffer 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fivesolas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among other reasons, the multiplication of infant baptisms all through the year, the increase of rural parishes, and the growth of dioceses often prevented the bishop from being present at all baptismal celebrations.
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catscans.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French ship launchings and christenings in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were accompanied by unique rites closely resembling marriage and baptismal ceremonies.
  • Christening, Launching, and Commissioning 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The preparatory fasts of the catechumens must have helped to establish the Lenten fast, if indeed they were not its origin.^ It is any practicing Catholic who can help them during their period of the catechumenate when they are studying and learning the faith as well as a role model and someone to assist them as they grown in the faith after baptism.
  • can a Catholic baptize me in a Greek Orthodox church? - Catholic Answers Forums 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

^ The Reformers were convinced that children must be baptized in order to be saved; for on account of original sin they also need pardoning and renovating grace.
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, if one is going to establish a source of origin for Christian baptism, it must be from Judaism.
  • POCM Jesus Christ baptism pagan mystery religion initiation ceremony copycat sacrament 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pocm.info [Source type: Original source]

.Certain features of baptism as used during the earlier centuries must now be noticed.^ Certain features of baptism as used during the earlier centuries must now be noticed.

^ The earliest baptism rituals were very simple, but became much elaborated during the 3rd century.
  • Baptism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rite of Baptism as codified by the reformers after the Council of Trent was an adapted and abridged version of this earlier fuller process, now addressed to the needs of infant baptism.
  • The Great Mystery of Baptism: Its Theology and Celebration 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC stfrancisa2.com [Source type: Original source]

.They are the following: - (i) Use of fonts; (2) Status of baptizer; (3) Immersion, submersion or aspersion; (4) Exorcism; (5) Baptismal formula and trine immersion; (6) The age of baptism; (7) Confirmation; (8) Disciplina arcani; (9) Regeneration; (10) Relation to repentance; (11) Baptism for the dead; (12) Use of the name; (13) Origin of the institution; (14) Analogous rites in other religions.^ Variously described as yeoman (11) , gentleman (12) , husbandman (13) , and innholder (14) .

^ The Cathars of the middle ages discarded water baptism altogether as being a Jewish rite, but retained the laying on of hands with the traditio precis as sufficient initiation.

^ Others say that parents don't have authority over the baby in relation to the obligation to made belong to the Church by baptism.
  • SHOULD YOU GET YOUR BABY BAPTISED 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.religionislies.com [Source type: Original source]

1. Fonts. - .The New Testament, the Didache, Justin, Tertullian and other early sources do not enjoin the use of a font, and contemplate in general the use of running or living water.^ The New Testament, the Didache, Justin, Tertullian and other early sources do not enjoin the use of a font, and contemplate in general the use of running or living water.

^ He has used it to cleanse, to generate new life.

^ The New Testament has no clear instructions on how to physically administer the water of baptism.
  • Baptism - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was a Jewish rule that in ablutions the water should run over and away from the parts of the body washed.^ The washing away refers to water baptism.

^ It was a Jewish rule that in ablutions the water should run over and away from the parts of the body washed.

^ Washing was usually done by pouring water over parts of the body, as in foot washing and hand washing.

.In acts of martyrdom, as late as the age of Decius, we read of baptisms in rivers, in lakes and in the sea.^ In acts of martyrdom, as late as the age of Decius, we read of baptisms in rivers, in lakes and in the sea.

^ We read about this in Acts (8:14-17 and 19:2-6): the Apostle Paul met some disciples in Ephesus who had received only the baptism of John.

^ Read together with Acts 2:38, baptism is for those who are aware of and sorry for their sins which they have committed.
  • New Testament Baptism | Brethren Revival Fellowship 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brfwitness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In exceptional cases it sufficed for a martyr to be sprinkled with his own blood.^ In exceptional cases it sufficed for a martyr to be sprinkled with his own blood.

^ The first is: "The case of an infidel converted in a heathen land, where it is impossible to get baptism"; and the second: "The case of a martyr baptized as it is called, in his own blood; but in all other cases, whether of young or old, the necessity is absolute."

^ In the Old Testament sacrificial system, blood from each of the animal sacrifices was sprinkled on the altar, and, in certain cases, on the people.

.But a martyr's death in itself was enough.^ But a martyr's death in itself was enough.

.Nearchus (c. 2 50) quieted the scruples of his unbaptized friend Polyeuctes, when on the scaffold he asked if it were possible to attain salvation without baptism, with this answer: " Behold, we see the Lord, when they brought to Him the blind that they might be healed, had nothing to say to them about the holy mystery, nor did He ask them if they:had been baptized; but this only, whether they came to Him with true faith.^ Some say that Paul was not sent to baptize, and this is true; but his followers did the baptizing.
  • A Bible Study Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC parentalguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For more about baptism and chrismation, see: .
  • Orthodox Baptism - Thoughts on the Holy Mystery 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.orthodox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Jesus asked James and John if they would be able to be baptized with the baptism with which he was to be baptized, he was asking about their commitment to be crucified with him (See Lk.
  • DOES BAPTIZE REALLY MEAN TO IMMERSE ? 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.freedomsring.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wherefore He asked them, Do ye believe that I am able to do this thing ?^ Wherefore, although the Church be a witness and a keeper of Holy Writ, yet, as it ought not to decree any thing against the same, so besides the same ought it not to enforce any thing to be believed for necessity of Salvation.
  • Anglicans Online | The Thirty-Nine Articles 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC anglicansonline.org [Source type: Original source]

." Tertullian (c. 200) writes (de Bapt. iv.^ Some of the early Fathers, as Tertullian (De Bapt., i) and St. Augustine (Adv.
  • Baptism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tertullian (De Bapt., c.
  • Baptism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So Tertullian ( de Bapt.

) thus: ." It makes no difference whether one is washed in the sea or in a pool, in a river or spring, in a lake or a ditch.^ It makes no difference whether one is washed in the sea or in a pool , in a river or spring, in a lake or a ditch.

^ "He shall not be reckoned among the perfect; he shall neither be purified by atonement, nor cleansed by purifying waters, nor sanctified by seas and rivers, nor washed clean with any ablution.

^ And accordingly it makes no difference whether a man be washed in a sea or a pool, a stream or a fount, a lake or a trough; nor is there any distinction between those whom John baptized in the Jordan and those whom Peter baptized in the Tiber, unless withal the eunuch whom Philip baptized in the midst of his journeys with chance water, derived (therefrom) more or less of salvation than others .
  • CHURCH FATHERS: On Baptism (Tertullian) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Nor can we distinguish between those whom John baptized (tinxit) in the Jordan and those whom Peter baptized in the Tiber." The custom of baptizing in the rivers when they are annually blessed at Epiphany, the feast of the Lord's baptism, still survives in. .Armenia and in the East generally.^ Armenia and in the East generally.

.Those of the Armenians and Syrians who have retained adult baptism use rivers alone at any time of year.^ Was not baptism used before that time?
  • Fisher's Question 94 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC reformed.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those of the Armenians and Syrians who have retained adult baptism use rivers alone at any time of year.

^ What if those who exclusively favor adult baptism were interrogated?
  • Infant Baptism — Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC goarch.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Baptising Children 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.songsforyahweh.com [Source type: Original source]

.The church of Tyre described by Eusebius (H.E. x.^ The church of Tyre described by Eusebius (H.E. x.

4) seems to have had a font, and the church order of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem (c. 311-335), orders the font to be placed in the same building as the altar, behind it and on the right hand; but the same order lays down that a font is not essential in cases of illness for " the Holy Spirit is not hindered by want of a vessel." 2. Status of Baptizer. - Ignatius (Smyrn. viii.) wrote that it is not lawful to baptize or hold an agape (Lord's Supper) without the bishop. .So Tertullian (de Bapt. xvii.^ Some of the early Fathers, as Tertullian (De Bapt., i) and St. Augustine (Adv.
  • Baptism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tertullian (De Bapt., c.
  • Baptism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

) reserves the right of admitting to baptism and of conferring it to the .summus sacerdos or bishop, Cyprian (Epist. lxxiii.^ Cyprian goes so far as to say that a priest ( sacerdos ) "must" ( oportet ) "purify and hallow" the water ( Epist., lxx, 1).
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

7) to bishops and priests. .Later canons continued this restriction; and although in outlying parts of Christendom deacons claimed the right, the official churches accorded it to presbyters alone and none but bishops could perform the confirmation or seal.^ Although the church claims that the enrollment of these dead souls is only for genealogical research, it clearly is intended to bestow benefits on its subjects as well.
  • Christopher Brauchli: Baptizing Hitler's Ghost 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early Church, following the Lord in the waters of baptism was the official, public pronouncement that a person was a believer in Christ and was part of that wonderful movement called Christianity.
  • Grace Church - Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC atgrace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet Michel claims that the Church has not made reasonable efforts to prevent the submission of Holocaust victims' names and the performance of proxy baptismal ordinances on their behalf.

.In the Montanist churches women baptized, and of this there are traces in the earliest church and in the Caucasus.^ There is nothing higher, and there is no need to be baptized all over again as is often done in the churches.
  • Yahweh's Assembly in Yahshua - Why Be Baptized Into the Name of Yahshua? 11 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.yaiy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When a person is baptized, there should be no other roadblocks to them becoming members, and then also there should be no hesitation in the church discipline process.
  • Pulpit Magazine » Blog Archive » When to Baptize Your Kids 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.sfpulpit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There should, ideally, be one male and one female for this task, both baptized Catholics who are in good standing with the Church and who've reached the age of sixteen.

.Thus St Thekla baptized herself in her own blood, and St Nino, the female evangelist of Georgia, baptized king Mirian (see " Life of Nino," Studia Biblica, 1903).^ Thus St Thekla baptized herself in her own blood, and St Nino, the female evangelist of Georgia , baptized king Mirian (see " Life of Nino," Studia Biblica, 1903).

^ You see, Paul makes it clear to us, that the master teacher must personally baptize you into his own name.
  • Christ Sent Me Not to Baptize - 1 Corinthians 1:17 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.piney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others, as St. Jerome and St. Maximus, appear to assume that Christ baptized John on this occasion and thus instituted the sacrament.
  • Baptism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

.In cases of imminent death a layman or a woman could baptize, and in the case of new-born children it is often necessary.^ It may be that parents have returned to the church, or have put off baptizing their children; it could be a variety of reason which has called them to become baptized Catholic Christians.
  • St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, Mankato, MN : Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC stjohnscatholicchurch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In case of necessity, however, not only a priest or deacon, but even a layman or woman, nay, even a pagan or heretic can baptize, provided he observes the form used by the Church, and intends to perform what the Church performs.
  • Baptism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Often it would take the threat of illness and death to convince Christian parents to baptize a childsuch was almost the case with Augustine (born but not baptized in 354), though he recovered and his mother, Monica, failed to follow through with the rite.

Table of contents

3. Immersion or Aspersion

.The Didache bids us " pour water on the head," and Christian pictures and sculptures ranging from the 1st to the 10th century represent the baptizand as standing in the water, while the baptizer pours water from his hand or from a bowl over his head.^ That is, they stood in water and then had water poured on their head.
  • Baptism, by Francis Schaeffer 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fivesolas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Didache bids us " pour water on the head," and Christian pictures and sculptures ranging from the 1st to the 10th century represent the baptizand as standing in the water, while the baptizer pours water from his hand or from a bowl over his head.

^ Paul was baptizing Publius, pouring water upon his head.
  • Why Baptize by Pouring by W. A. Swift 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.imarc.cc [Source type: Original source]

.Even if we allow for the difficulty of representing complete submersion in art, it is nevertheless clear that it was not insisted on; nor were the earliest fonts, to judge from the ruins of them, large and deep enough for such an usage.^ These pools may be swimming pools, large fonts, even lakes and rivers.
  • St. John Lutheran--About Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stjohnlutheran.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Baptismal font is not spacious enough to contain an adult, it is possible to provide a large container big enough to make it possible to completely immerse the person according to the Baptismal Rite by immersion.
  • The Sacrament of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.copticchurch.net [Source type: Original source]

.The earliest literary notices of baptism are far from conclusive in favour of submersion, and are often to be regarded as merely rhetorical.^ The earliest literary notices of baptism are far from conclusive in favour of submersion, and are often to be regarded as merely rhetorical.

^ Believing is something we must DO; repenting is something we must DO (and often a very hard thing to do); but baptism is something DONE TO US. It is merely submitting in faith to the working of God in our lives.

^ Then he merely speaks of baptism in so far as the dispensation of it is subordinate to the fiction of teaching.
  • Institutes of the Christian Religion, 4:16 on Infant baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.apuritansmind.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rubrics of the MSS., it is true, enjoin total immersion, but it only came into general vogue in the 7th century, " when the growing rarity of adult baptism made the Gr.^ Baptism was only by full immersion.
  • Biblical Baptism - A Confession of Repentance and Faith. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biblelight.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is immersion the only proper mode of baptism?

^ The rubrics of the MSS., it is true, enjoin total immersion, but it only came into general vogue in the 7th century, " when the growing rarity of adult baptism made the Gr.

word .(/3a7rTico) patient of an interpretation that suited that of infants only."^ Tico) patient of an interpretation that suited that of infants only."

1 The
Key of Truth, the manual of the old Armenian Baptists, archaically prescribes that the penitent admitted into the church shall advance on his knees into the middle of the water and that the elect one or bishop shall then pour water over his head.

4. Exorcism

.The Didache and Justin merely prescribe fasting, the use of which was to hurry the exit of evil spirits who, in choosing a nidus or tenement, preferred a well-fed body to an emaciated one, according to the belief embodied in the interpolated saying of Matt.^ The Didache and Justin merely prescribe fasting, the use of which was to hurry the exit of evil spirits who, in choosing a nidus or tenement , preferred a well-fed body to an emaciated one, according to the belief embodied in the interpolated saying of Matt.

^ See to it that no one takes you captive by philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the world, and not according to Christ.
  • What Is Baptism, and How Important Is It? :: Desiring God Christian Resource Library 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.desiringgod.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Testament, the Didache, Justin, Tertullian and other early sources do not enjoin the use of a font, and contemplate in general the use of running or living water.

xvii. .21: " This kind (of demon) goeth not forth except by prayer and fasting."^ This kind (of demon) goeth not forth except by prayer and fasting."

^ Saul and Barnabas equally are separated for a certain missionary work by imposition of hands with prayer and fasting, and are so sent forth by the Holy Ghost.

.The exorcisms tended to become longer and longer, the later the rite.^ The exorcisms tended to become longer and longer, the later the rite.

.The English prayer-book excludes them, as it also excludes the renunciation of the devil and all his angels, his pomps and works.^ Therefore this single word (He that believeth) effects this much that it excludes and repels all works which we can do, in the opinion that we obtain and merit salvation by them.
  • The Large Catechism - Book of Concord 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bookofconcord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Priest : Do you renounce Satan, and all his works, and all his angels, and all his service, and all his pride?

^ Parents and godparents profess the Faith and renounce sin and the devil with all his works and empty promises in behalf of those children .
  • Domestic-Church.Com: Sacramental: Guidebook for Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.domestic-church.com [Source type: Original source]

.These elements were old, but scarcely primitive; and the archaic rite of the
Key of Truth (see PAULICIANs) is without them.^ These elements were old, but scarcely primitive; and the archaic rite of the Key of Truth (see PAULICIANs) is without them.

^ The Key of Truth, the manual of the old Armenian Baptists , archaically prescribes that the penitent admitted into the church shall advance on his knees into the middle of the water and that the elect one or bishop shall then pour water over his head.

^ If you are honest with yourself, you will see the truth in the 2,000 year old Catholic position.

.Basil, in his work
On the Holy Spirit, confesses his ignorance of how these and other features of his baptismal rite had originated.^ Basil , in his work On the Holy Spirit, confesses his ignorance of how these and other features of his baptismal rite had originated.

^ The Holy Spirit and water are required for baptism.

^ For by baptism the Holy Spirit is received...
  • What Early Christians believed about BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bible.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He instances the blessing of the water of baptism, of the oil of anointing and of the baptizand himself, the use of anointing him with oil, trine immersion, the formal renunciation of Satan and his angels.^ Why baptism by immersion in water?
  • LDS FAQ: The LDS Doctrine of Baptism (Mormon Baptism) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.jefflindsay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Water baptism may use immersion, pouring or sprinkling.

^ He instances the blessing of the water of baptism, of the oil of anointing and of the baptizand himself, the use of anointing him with oil, trine immersion, the formal renunciation of Satan and his angels.

All these features, he says, had been handed down in an unpublished and unspoken teaching, in a silent and sacramental tradition.

5. The Baptismal Formala

.The trinitarian formula and trine immersion were not uniformly used from the beginning, nor did they always go together.^ They did not go out of the prison.
  • Why Baptize by Pouring by W. A. Swift 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.imarc.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Did they go into the river?

^ The trinitarian formula and trine immersion were not uniformly used from the beginning, nor did they always go together.

.The Teaching of the Apostles, indeed, prescribes baptism in the name of Father, Son and Holy Ghost, but on the next page speaks of those who have been baptized into the name of the Lord - the normal formula of the New Testament.^ For the law of baptizing has been imposed , and the formula prescribed: Go, He says, teach the nations , baptizing them into the name of the Father , and of the Son , and of the Holy Spirit .
  • CHURCH FATHERS: On Baptism (Tertullian) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."
  • Fisher's Question 94 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC reformed.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What is it to be baptised by the command and authority of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost?
  • Fisher's Question 94 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC reformed.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the 3rd century baptism in the name of Christ was still so widespread that Pope Stephen, in opposition to Cyprian of Carthage, declared it to be valid.^ In the 3rd century baptism in the name of Christ was still so widespread that Pope Stephen , in opposition to Cyprian of Carthage , declared it to be valid.

^ In spite of some obvious cultural and social differences between the first-century church and today’s church, the requirement for congregational inclusion should still be believer’s baptism.
  • Owens - Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sermonoutlines.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism then in the name or through the name or into the name of Christ placed the believer under the influence and tutelage of Christ's personality , as before he was in popular estimation under the influence of stars and horoscope.

.From Pope Zachariah (Ep. x.^ From Pope Zachariah ( Ep.

) we learn that the .Celtic missionaries in baptizing omitted one or more persons of the Trinity, and this was one of the reasons why the church of Rome anathematized 1 Rogers' essay on Baptism and Christian Archaeology in Studia Biblica, vol.^ What if baptism is not a good sacrament, one that makes a person good or more inclined to be good?
  • SHOULD YOU GET YOUR BABY BAPTISED 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.religionislies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why He gave us ONE Church.

^ That is the reason why infants too are baptized.

v.
them; .Pope Nicholas, however (858-867), in the Responsa ad consulta Bulgarorum, allowed baptism to be valid tantum in nomine Christi, as in the Acts.^ Similarly, baptism is related to religious liberty and soul freedom as an entirely voluntary act that allows a person to profess personal faith.
  • Doing Baptism Baptist Style:  Believer's Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.baptisthistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aug 2008 at 12:10 am Robert I understand the logical, rational, human concern over validating a child’s faith before baptism; however, if we teach that: .
  • Pulpit Magazine » Blog Archive » When to Baptize Your Kids 11 September 2009 22:36 UTC www.sfpulpit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immersion is the only catholic act of baptism, the only one whose validity is recognized semper et ubique et ab omnibus.
  • Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

.Basil, in his work On the Holy Spirit just mentioned, condemns " baptism into the Lord alone " as insufficient.^ Basil, in his work On the Holy Spirit just mentioned, condemns " baptism into the Lord alone " as insufficient.

^ Again and again, in connection with water baptism, the baptism with the Holy Spirit is mentioned.

^ The Holy Spirit and water are required for baptism.

.Baptism " into the death of Christ " is often specified by the Armenian fathers as that which alone was essential.^ Baptism portrays our death in the death of Christ.
  • His By Grace--"John Piper 4 Part Series on Baptism" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gracesermons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In baptism, we are identifying with Christs death and resurrection.
  • A Bible Study Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC parentalguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism into the body of Christ is nonnegotiable.
  • Direction: Mennonite Brethren Theology of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.directionjournal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ursinus, an African monk (in Gennad.^ Ursinus, an African monk (in Gennad.

de Scr. Eccl. xxvii.), .Hilary (de Synodis, lxxxv.^ Hilary ( de Synodis, lxxxv.

), the .synod of Nemours (A.D. 1284), also asserted that baptism into the name of Christ alone was valid.^ Baptism is in the name of Jesus Christ, not into the name of a local church or denomination.
  • Baptism in Water | Christian Faith Site 20 September 2009 3:59 UTC www.christian-faith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism into the body of Christ is nonnegotiable.
  • Direction: Mennonite Brethren Theology of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.directionjournal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor is there a noted Paedobaptist commentator, or controversialist, whom we remember, who does not interpret baptism into the name of Father, Son, and Spirit, baptism into Christ , or into Moses, as involving a profession and consecration; which interpretation necessarily excludes infants.
  • His By Grace--"Baptism ~Charles H. Spurgeon" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gracesermons.com [Source type: Original source]

.The formula of Rome is, " I baptize thee in the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit."^ For the law of baptizing has been imposed , and the formula prescribed: Go, He says, teach the nations , baptizing them into the name of the Father , and of the Son , and of the Holy Spirit .
  • CHURCH FATHERS: On Baptism (Tertullian) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus baptizes him/her with the Holy Spirit .
  • Baptism � An Old Testament Doctrine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelighthouse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I baptize you/thee in the name of the Father; In the name of the Son; and in the name of the Holy Spirit; Amen.
  • BAPTISM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the East, " so-and-s6, the servant of God, is baptized," &c.^ In the East, " so-and-s6, the servant of God, is baptized," &c.

^ Such a person should then proceed to be baptized just as soon as a true servant of God can become available to perform it.
  • What Do You Mean Water Baptism? 11 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.thercg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The servant of God N. is baptized, in the name of the Father.

The Greeks add Amen after each person, and conclude with the words, " Now and ever and to aeons of aeons, amen." We first find in Tertullian trine immersion explained from the triple invocation, Nam nec semel, sed ter, ad singula nomina in personas singulas tinguimur: " Not once, but thrice, for the several names, into the several persons, are we dipped" (adv. Prax. xxvi.). And Jerome says: " We are thrice plunged, that the one sacrament of the Trinity may be shown forth." On the other hand, in numerous fathers of East and West, e.g. Leo of Rome, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, Theophylactus, Cyril of Jerusalem and others, trine immersion was regarded as being symbolic of the three days' entombment of Christ; and in the Armenian baptismal rubric this interpretation is enjoined, as also in an epistle of Macarius of Jerusalem addressed to the Armenians (c. 330). .In Armenian writers this interpretation is further associated with the idea of baptism into the death of Christ.^ Baptism into the body of Christ is nonnegotiable.
  • Direction: Mennonite Brethren Theology of Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.directionjournal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also the statement in Romans that baptism into Christ is a baptism into His death.

^ Baptism portrays our death in the death of Christ.
  • His By Grace--"John Piper 4 Part Series on Baptism" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gracesermons.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trine immersion then, as to the origin of which Basil confesses his ignorance, must be older than either of the rival explanations.^ Trine immersion then, as to the origin of which Basil confesses his ignorance, must be older than either of the rival explanations.

^ Basil , in his work On the Holy Spirit, confesses his ignorance of how these and other features of his baptismal rite had originated.

^ We must look at infant baptism in the light of initiation into the Body of Christ more so than the cleansing of Original Sin.
  • St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, Mankato, MN : Baptism 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC stjohnscatholicchurch.com [Source type: Original source]

.These are clearly aetiological, and invented to explain an existing custom, which the church had adopted from its pagan medium.^ These are clearly aetiological, and invented to explain an existing custom, which the church had adopted from its pagan medium.

^ Although the church claims that the enrollment of these dead souls is only for genealogical research, it clearly is intended to bestow benefits on its subjects as well.
  • Christopher Brauchli: Baptizing Hitler's Ghost 18 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite Calvin and others, the overwhelming consensus of interpreters still agrees with the ancient church and with Luther in explaining both these texts of baptism.
  • NETBible: Baptism (Lutheran Doctrine) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

For pagan lustrations were normally threefold; thus Virgil writes (Aen. vi. 229): Ter socios Pura circumtulit unda. Ovid (Met. vii. 189 and Fasti, iv. 315), Persius (ii. 16) and Horace (Ep. i. i. 37) similarly speak of trine lustrations; and on the last mentioned passage the scholiast Acro remarks: " He uses the words thrice purely, because people in expiating their sins, plunge themselves in thrice." Such examples of the ancient usage encounter us everywhere in Greek and Latin antiquity.
6. Age of Baptism. - In the oldest Greek, Armenian, Syrian and other rites of baptism, a service of giving a Christian (i.e. non-pagan) name, or of sealing a child on its eighth day, is found. According to it the priest, either at the door of the church or at the home, blessed the infant, sealed it (this not in Armenia) with the sign of the cross on its forehead, and prayed that in due season (EV rcacp(u 606-y) or at the proper time (Armenian) it may enter the holy Catholic church. .This rite announces itself as the analogue of Christ's circumcision.^ This rite announces itself as the analogue of Christ's circumcision.

^ Answer: it is not the New Testament rite of baptism; it is the New Testament spiritual event of the circumcision of Christ cutting away "the [old sinful] body of the flesh."
  • His By Grace--"John Piper 4 Part Series on Baptism" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.gracesermons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ INFANT BAPTISM IN THE ROOM OF CIRCUMCISION           Circumcision was the initiatory rite into the visible church before Christ came.
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