Barber's pole: Wikis

  
  

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Barber pole, ca. 1938., North Carolina Museum of History

A barber's pole is a type of sign used by barbers, most traditionally a pole with a helix of colored stripes (usually red, white, and blue).

Contents

Origin in hairdressing and surgery

Antique red and blue striped pole in Pottstown, Pennsylvania.

The origin of the barber pole is associated with the service of bloodletting.[1] During medieval times, barbers performed surgery on customers as well as tooth extractions. The original pole had a brass basin at the top (representing the vessel in which leeches were kept) and bottom (representing the basin which received the blood). The pole itself represents the staff that the patient gripped during the procedure to encourage blood flow.

At the Council of Tours in 1163, the clergy was banned from the practice of surgery[2]. From then, physicians were clearly separated from the surgeons and barbers. Later, the role of the barbers was defined by the College de Saint Come et Saint Damien, established by Jean Pitard in Paris circa 1210[3], as academic surgeons of the long robe and barber surgeons of the short robe.

The red and white stripes symbolize the bandages used during the procedure: red for the blood-stained and white for the clean bandages. Originally, these bandages were hung on the pole to dry after washing. As the bandages blew in the wind, they would twist together to form the spiral pattern similar to the stripes in the modern day barber pole. The barber pole became emblematic of the barber/surgeon's profession. Later the cloths were replaced by a painted wooden pole of red and white stripes.

After the formation of the United Barber Surgeon's Company in England, a statute required the barber to use a blue and white pole and the surgeon to use a red pole. In France, surgeons used a red pole with a basin attached to identify their offices. Blue often appears on poles in the United States, possibly as an homage to its national colours. Another more fanciful interpretation of these barber pole colours is that red represents arterial blood, blue is symbolic of venous blood, and white depicts the bandage.

Prior to 1950, there were four manufacturers of barber poles in the United States. In 1950, William Marvy of St. Paul, Minnesota,[3] started manufacturing barber poles. Marvy made his 50,000th barber pole in 1967, and, by 1996, over 74,000 had been produced. The William Marvy Company is now the sole manufacturer of barber poles in North America. In recent years, the sale of spinning barber poles has dropped considerably, since few barber shops are opening, and many jurisdictions prohibit moving signs.[1] Koken of St. Louis, MO manufactured Barber equipment such as chairs and assorted poles in the 19th Century.

Spinning barberpoles are supposed to be oriented so that the red (blood) will appear as if it was flowing down.

Use in Prostitution

In some parts of Asia, a red, white and blue barber pole is used as a symbol for a brothel. While prostitution is illegal in many parts of Asia, laws against it are often not enforced to the degree that all public solicitations for it are eliminated. The barber's pole is used as a euphemistic way of advertising a brothel, thus reducing the likelihood of police intervention.

In South Korea, barber's poles are used both for actual barbershops and for brothels.[4] Brothels disguised as barbershops, referred to as 이발소 (ilbalso) or 이용실 (iyongsil), are more likely to use two poles next to each other, often spinning in opposite directions, though the use of a single pole for the same reason is also quite common.[5] Actual barbershops, or 미용실 (miyongsil), are more likely to be hair salons; to avoid confusion, they will usually use a pole that shows a picture of a woman with flowing hair on it with the words "hair salon" written on the pole.

Other uses of the term

Aviation

The term "on the barber pole" is pilot jargon that refers to flying an aircraft at the maximum safe velocity. The Airspeed Indicator on aircraft capable of flying at altitude features a red/white striped needle resembling a barber pole. This needle displays the VMO (Maximum Operating Velocity) or - at altitude - the MMO (Mach Limit Maximum Operating Speed) of the aircraft. As the aircraft increases in altitude, and the air decreases in density and temperature, the speed of sound also decreases. Close to the speed of sound, an aircraft becomes susceptible to Mach buffet - shock waves produced by flying so close to the sound barrier. Thus - as the speed of sound decreases, so the maximum safe operating speed of the aircraft is reduced. The "barber pole" needle moves to indicate this speed. Flying "on the barber pole" therefore means to be flying the aircraft as fast as is safe to do so in the current conditions.[6]

Optical illusion

A spinning barber pole is the basis for the motion perception illusion, in which the stripes appear to be traveling down the length of the pole, rather than around it.

In an episode of Dragnet in the 1950s, Friday and Smith stand in front of a barber shop at one point. The shop has a double barber pole and the spirals turn outward, giving the illusion of an arch moving upward.

A barber pole motif has been used as a Daymark for lighthouses. See, e.g. White Shoal Light.

Computer science

In UI design, a barber pole like pattern is used in progress bars, when the wait time is indefinite. It is intended to be used like a throbber to tell the user that processing is continuing, although it is not known when the processing will complete.

Barber pole is also sometimes used to describe a text pattern where a line of text is rolled left or right one character on the line below. The CHARGEN service generates a form of this pattern. It is used to test RAM, hard disks and printers. A similar pattern is also used in secure erasure of media.

Web design/development

The term "Barber's Pole" has been used as a metaphor. It identifies a request by the client for something "flashy" or clever whether or not it actually adds value to the Web site. It is usually animated, confined to the masthead, and tied in with the logo or theme of the site simply to demonstrate technical grasp of the medium.

Space flight

Barberpole is a phrase used to describe the striped output of indicators used during the Apollo and Shuttle programs. Typically the indicator would show all grey or a grey and white striped pattern, known as barberpole, to allow the astronauts a quick visual reference of the status of the spacecraft systems. Various indicators in the Apollo Command Modules indicated barberpole when the corresponding system was inactive. Astronaut Jim Lovell can also be found describing system indications as 'barber poled' in the transcript of radio transmissions [4] during the Apollo 13 accident.

The phrase barberpole continues to be found in many subsystem descriptions in the Space Shuttle News Reference Manual[7], as well as the NASA/KSC Acronym List.[8].

Candy

The old-fashioned American stick candy is sometimes also referred to as "barber pole candy" due to its colorful, swirled appearance.

Booksellers

Red or rubric posts were sometimes used by booksellers in England prior to 1800. William Roberts reports in The Book Hunter in London, published by Eliot Stock in 1895, that certain 18th century bookshops in the Little Britain district of London sported such poles:

"A few years before Nichols published [in 1816] his ' Literary Anecdotes,' two booksellers used to sport their rubric posts close to each other here in Little Britain, and these rubric posts were once as much the type of a bookseller's shop as the pole is of a barber's...Sewell, Cornhill, and Kecket and De Hondt, Strand, were among the last to use these curious trade signs."

See also

References

Sources

Notes

  1. ^ a b "History of Barber Poles" page of Barberpolesdirect.com.
  2. ^ Template:Cite artile
  3. ^ Quesnay, François / Bellial des Vertus, François (1749.). Histoire de l'origine et des progrès de la chirurgie en France. Paris: Ganeau. pp. 41. http://www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/histmed/medica/page?20729&p=73.  
  4. ^ Moon, Katharine Hyung-Sun. Sex among allies: military prostitution in U.S.-Korea relations. p. 45[1] ISBN 0231106424
  5. ^ Trecker, Jamie. Love and Blood: At the World Cup with the Footballers, Fans, and Freaks. p. 13[2] ISBN 9780156030984
  6. ^ http://www.aviationshop.com.au/avfacts/sample_nav.htm
  7. ^ http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/technology/sts-newsref/stsref-toc.html
  8. ^ NASA/KSC Acronym List (under "BP")

External links


]]

A barber's pole is a type of sign used by barbers to signify the place or shop where the barber performs the craft or trade of barbering. The trade sign is, by a tradition dating back to the Middle Ages, a staff or pole with a helix of colored stripes (usually red, white, and blue in the United States; often red and white in other countries). The pole may be stationary or may revolve, often with the aid of an electric motor.[1][2]

A "barber's pole" with a helical stripe is a familiar sight, and is used as a secondary metaphor to describe objects in many other contexts. For example, if the shaft or tower of a lighthouse has been painted with a helical stripe as a daymark, the lighthouse could be described as having been painted in "barber's pole" colors.

Contents

Origin in barbering and surgery

The origin of the red and white barber pole is associated with the service of bloodletting and was historically a representation of bloody bandages wrapped around a pole.[2] During medieval times, barbers performed surgery on customers, as well as tooth extractions. The original pole had a brass wash basin at the top (representing the vessel in which leeches were kept) and bottom (representing the basin that received the blood). The pole itself represents the staff that the patient gripped during the procedure to encourage blood flow.

The red, white and blue format in the United States may be an homage to the colors of the flag.[2]

At the Council of Tours in 1163, the clergy was banned from the practice of surgery.[3] From then, physicians were clearly separated from the surgeons and barbers. Later, the role of the barbers was defined by the College de Saint Come et Saint Damien, established by Jean Pitard in Paris circa 1210,[4] as academic surgeons of the long robe and barber surgeons of the short robe.

The red and white stripes symbolize the bandages used during the procedure: red for the blood-stained and white for the clean bandages. Originally, these bandages were hung on the pole to dry after washing. As the bandages blew in the wind, they would twist together to form the spiral pattern similar to the stripes in the modern-day barber pole. The barber pole became emblematic of the barber/surgeon's profession. Later, the cloths were replaced by a painted wooden pole of red and white stripes.

After the formation of the United Barber Surgeon's Company in England, a statute required the barber to use a blue and white pole and the surgeon to use a red pole. In France, surgeons used a red pole with a basin attached to identify their offices. Blue often appears on poles in the United States, possibly as an homage to its national colours. Another more fanciful interpretation of these barber pole colours is that red represents arterial blood, blue is symbolic of venous blood, and white depicts the bandage.

Prior to 1950, there were four manufacturers of barber poles in the United States. In 1950, William Marvy of St. Paul, Minnesota, started manufacturing barber poles. Marvy made his 50,000th barber pole in 1967, and, by 1996, over 74,000 had been produced. The William Marvy Company is now the sole manufacturer of barber poles in North America, and sells only 500 per year (compared to 5,100 in the 1960s).[5] In recent years, the sale of spinning barber poles has dropped considerably, since few barber shops are opening, and many jurisdictions prohibit moving signs. Koken of St. Louis, Missouri, manufactured barber equipment such as chairs and assorted poles in the 19th Century.

As early as 1905, use of the poles was reported to be "diminishing" in the United States.[6]

There are locales where use of barber poles on barber shops is required by local ordinance.[7]

Spinning barber poles are supposed to be oriented so that the red (blood) will appear as if it was flowing down.

Use in prostitution

In some parts of Asia, a red, white and blue barber pole is used as a symbol for a brothel. While prostitution is illegal in many parts of Asia, laws against it are often not enforced to the degree that all public solicitations for it are eliminated. The barber's pole is used as a euphemistic way of advertising a brothel, thus reducing the likelihood of police intervention.

In South Korea, barber's poles are used both for actual barbershops and for brothels.[8] Brothels disguised as barbershops, referred to as 이발소 (ilbalso) or 이용실 (iyongsil), are more likely to use two poles next to each other, often spinning in opposite directions, though the use of a single pole for the same reason is also quite common.[9] Actual barbershops, or 미용실 (miyongsil), are more likely to be hair salons; to avoid confusion, they will usually use a pole that shows a picture of a woman with flowing hair on it with the words hair salon written on the pole.

Optical illusion

File:Barber-pole-01.gif
A software rendering of a spinning barber pole

See Barberpole illusion.

A spinning barber pole is the basis for the motion perception optical illusion, in which the stripes appear to be traveling down or up the length of the pole,[10] rather than around it.[11]

As one psychological expert noted, while making a metaphor to an Auditory illusion:

The counterclockwise motion of the diagonal stripes (rightward, from the normal view of the pole) moves each stripe out of view in the same way that an apparent fundamental quiets itself during its ascent, while the emergence of a new stripe resembles the rise of a new fundamental. The cylinder as a whole resembles the amplitude envelope of the ST because it does not change in height. The barber's pole appears to rise infinitely because visible portions of the stripes rise in the visual field, but the stripe at any given height is actually making a 360° rotation.
[11]

Other uses of the term

Animal husbandry

Haemonchus contortus, or "Barber's pole worm", is the parasitic nematode responsible for anemia, bottle jaw, and death of infected sheep and goats, mainly during summer months in warm, humid climates.[12][13]

Aviation and Space flight

The term on the barber pole is pilot jargon that refers to flying an aircraft at the maximum safe velocity. The Airspeed Indicator on aircraft capable of flying at altitude features a red/white striped needle resembling a barber pole. This needle displays the VMO (Maximum Operating Velocity) or—at altitude—the MMO (Mach Limit Maximum Operating Speed) of the aircraft. As the aircraft increases in altitude and the air decreases in density and temperature, the speed of sound also decreases. Close to the speed of sound, an aircraft becomes susceptible to buffeting caused by shock waves produced by flying at transonic speeds. Thus, as the speed of sound decreases, so the maximum safe operating speed of the aircraft is reduced. The "barber pole" needle moves to indicate this speed. Flying "on the barber pole" therefore means to be flying the aircraft as fast as is safe to do so in the current conditions.[14]

Barberpole is a phrase used to describe the striped output of indicators used during the Apollo and Shuttle programs. Typically the indicator would show all grey or a grey and white striped pattern, known as barberpole, to allow the astronauts a quick visual reference of the status of the spacecraft systems. Various indicators in the Apollo Command Modules indicated barberpole when the corresponding system was inactive. Astronaut Jim Lovell can also be found describing system indications as "barber poled" in the transcript of radio transmissions [1] during the Apollo 13 accident.

The phrase barberpole continues to be found in many subsystem descriptions in the Space Shuttle News Reference Manual,[15] as well as the NASA/KSC Acronym List.[16]

During World War I and World War II, the pattern has also been used as an insignia for aircraft identification.[17] Spad XIIIs of the 94th Aero Squadron USAS in early 1919 used variations on Barber pole patterns including: 'Barber Pole' of Lt Dudley 'Red' Outcault; S.16546 ' Flag Bus' of Captain Reed Chambers; and 'Rising Sun' of Lt John Jeffers.[18]

Booksellers

Red or rubric posts were sometimes used by booksellers in England prior to 1800. William Roberts reports in The Book Hunter in London, published by Eliot Stock in 1895, that certain 18th-century bookshops in the Little Britain district of London sported such poles:

"A few years before Nichols published [in 1816] his Literary Anecdotes, two booksellers used to sport their rubric posts close to each other here in Little Britain, and these rubric posts were once as much the type of a bookseller's shop as the pole is of a barber's...Sewell, Cornhill, and Kecket and De Hondt, Strand, were among the last to use these curious trade signs."

Canadian Naval Group

The famous Barber Pole Group was originally a group of 120 Flower-class corvettes built in Canada during World War II, and charged primarily with protecting freighter convoys. The original group was Escort Group C-3, but other groups borrowed the motif, so all ships that have that funnel are not necessarily of that group. This group of ships, with its red and white barber pole stripes painted on the funnel, is still represented in the current Canadian navy. The HMCS Sackville is the last remaining Flower-class corvette.[19][20][21]

Candy

The old-fashioned American stick candy is sometimes also referred to as "barber pole candy" due to its colorful, swirled appearance. See also, Candy cane. "Candy stripe" is a generic description of the candy cane color scheme.

Computer science

In UI design, a barber pole-like pattern is used in progress bars when the wait time is indefinite. It is intended to be used like a throbber to tell the user that processing is continuing, although it is not known when the processing will complete.

Barber pole is also sometimes used to describe a text pattern where a line of text is rolled left or right one character on the line below. The CHARGEN service generates a form of this pattern. It is used to test RAM, hard disks and printers. A similar pattern is also used in secure erasure of media. This may be pictured as:

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWX
CDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY
DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Daymarks as a navigational aid

A barber pole motif has been used as a daymark and navigational aid for lighthouses. See, e.g. White Shoal Light, which is the only "barber pole" lighthouse in the United States.[22][23] However, black and white helical daymarks do appear on other lights, such as Cape Hatteras Light[24] and St. Augustine Light.

Electronics

The strength and direction of magnetic field and electrical currents can be measured using a "magnetoresistive barber-pole sensor" (also called a "hermetic proximity sensor"), and its performance can be depicted using a mathematical formula.[25] Such a sensor interleaves a series of permanent magnet strips with a series of magnetoresistive strips. The "conductive barberpole strips are canted across the sensor and connect one magnetoresistive strip, over a permanent magnet strip, to another magnetoresistive strip." This is said to provide a "uniform magnetic field throughout the sensor" thereby enhancing its resistance to external magnetic fields.[26] The technology is used in wireless sensor networks which “have gathered a lot of attention as an important research domain” and were “deployed in many applications, e.g., navigation, military, ambient intelligence, medical, and industrial tasks. Context-based processing and services, in particular location-context, are of key interest .. .”[27]

Gambling

The phrase barber pole is derisive jargon in craps, and refers to the commingling of "gaming cheques of different denominations." Wagers that combine different denominations are "supposed to be stacked with the highest denomination at the bottom."[28][29]

Hockey

The National Hockey League's Montreal Canadiens had a barber pole or "barber shop" design jersey for the year 1912-1913.[30][31][32]

Music (acoustic illusion)

See Shepard tone and Deutsch tritone paradox.

Parachuting

The Screaming Eagles 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Command Parachute Demonstration Team, which operates out of Fort Campbell, Kentucky, executes a ‘barber pole maneuver’ during demonstrations.[33] Another parachuting use of the term is to describe having a mess of lines tangled “behind your head and you have to cut away your main chute and pull your reserve.”[34]

Weather

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, barber pole is a slang term used by weather and storm spotters to describe "a thunderstorm updraft with a visual appearance including cloud striations that are curved in a manner similar to the stripes of a barber pole. The structure typically is most pronounced on the leading edge of the updraft, while drier air from the rear flank downdraft often erodes the clouds on the trailing side of the updraft."[35]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Your dictionary, Barber Pole
  2. ^ a b c Smith, Kate. Why Barber Poles are Red and White Sensational color.
  3. ^ Sir Arthur Salusbury MacNalty (1 December 1945). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Renaissance and its influence on English medicine, surgery and public health"]. British Medical Journal (London). 
  4. ^ Histoire de l'origine et des progrès de la chirurgie en France. Paris: Ganeau. 1749.. pp. 41. http://www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/histmed/medica/page?20729&p=73. 
  5. ^ Last of their kind: From barber poles to limburger cheese, these 5 companies are the last left in America making iconic products now in their twilight. CNNMoney.com.
  6. ^ Tunis, Edwisn. Colonial craftsmen and the beginnings of American industry p. 42. Cleveland and New York: World Publishing, 1905), p. 42. at Google books.
  7. ^ Aicardi, Robert (July 19, 2010) Vandals literally rip off barber pole in Braintree (GateHouse News Service)
  8. ^ Moon, Katharine Hyung-Sun. Sex among allies: military prostitution in U.S.-Korea relations. p. 45 ISBN 0-231-10642-4
  9. ^ Trecker, Jamie. Love and Blood: At the World Cup with the Footballers, Fans, and Freaks. p. 13 ISBN 978-0-15-603098-4
  10. ^ Barber Pole Illusion at sandlotscience.com. with a useful demonstration.
  11. ^ a b Massaro, Dominic W., editor University of California, Santa Cruz. (Spring 2007) Book Reviews. What Are Musical Paradox and Illusion? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Vol. 120, No. 1, pp. 123–170, 124, 132.
  12. ^ Burke, Joan, Research Animal Scientist. Management of Barber pole Worm in Sheep and Goats in the Southern U.S. USDA, ARS, Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Center, Booneville, AR.>
  13. ^ Sheep 101, Diseases.
  14. ^ http://www.aviationshop.com.au/avfacts/sample_nav.htm
  15. ^ NSTS 1988 News Reference Manual
  16. ^ NASA/KSC Acronym List (under "BP")
  17. ^ Photographs of World War II Eighth Air Force USAAF fighter aircraft with "barber pole" tails.
  18. ^ Pearson, Bob. The "Showbirds" of Spad XIIIs of the 94th Aero Squadron USAS, Model Airplane gallery.
  19. ^ HMCS Sackville: The Last Remaining Flower, Canadian Navy Memorial Trust.
  20. ^ HMCS Sackville.
  21. ^ A Hundred Years of Naval Service Captured in Ice (February 17, 2010) Ottawa Start.
  22. ^ Wobser, David, Boatnerd.com, White Shoal Light.
  23. ^ Michigan Lighthouse Conservancy, White Shoal Lighthouse.
  24. ^ Buxton, North Carolina - America's Tallest Lighthouse - Climb It. Roadside America
  25. ^ S. Tuman'skia and M. Stabrowskia (March 12, 1985) The optimization and design of magnetoresistive barber-pole sensors, Warsaw Technical University, ul. Koszykowa 75, PL 00-661 Warsaw Poland.
  26. ^ Barberpole MR sensor having interleaved permanent magnet and magnetoresistive segments United States Patent 5737156. at freepatentsonline.com.
  27. ^ Carrella, Stefano; Iswandy, Kuncup; Lutz, Kai; König, Andreas. (05/18/2010-05/19/2010) Localization of Low-Power Wireless Sensor Nodes Based on AMR-Sensors in Industrial and AmI Applications, Proceedings: Sensoren und Messsysteme 2010; Conference: Vorträge der 15. ITG/GMA-Fachtagung Town: Nürnberg (Institute of Integrated Sensor Systems) University of Kaiserslautern Germany.
  28. ^ Craps Jargon, Slang, Dialect, Lingo at dicedealer.com
  29. ^ Craps dictionary.
  30. ^ Montreal Canadiens jersey photograph.
  31. ^ Montreal Canadiens historical jerseys.
  32. ^ Montreal Canadiens, Our History, 1912-1913 seasons.
  33. ^ 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Command Parachute Demonstration Team "Screaming Eagles" at globalsecurity.org.
  34. ^ Scott Royce E. "Bo". Jump School at Fort Benning (originally published in a column called DUSTOFF in the July - August 1988 Issue of the Screaming Eagle Magazine)
  35. ^ NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS SR-145 A COMPREHENSIVE GLOSSARY OF WEATHER TERMS FOR STORM SPOTTERS NOAA/NWS/WFO Norman
  36. ^ Also available as Andrews, William, The Sign of the Barber's Pole: Studies in Hirsute History (Illustrated Edition) (Dodo Press) William Andrews (Dodo Press, 2009) 98 pages. Lethe Press Paperback 108 pages ISBN 978-1-59021-081-9

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