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Barbu Catargiu


In office
May 1862 – 20 June/8 June 1862
Preceded by none
Succeeded by Nicolae Creţulescu

Born 26 October 1807(1807-10-26)
Died 20 June/8 June 1862
Bucharest, Romania
Political party Conservative Party

Barbu Catargiu (26 October 1807–20 June [O.S. 8 June] 1862) was a conservative Romanian journalist and politician. He was the first Prime Minister of Romania in 1862 until he was assassinated on June 20 of that year. He was a staunch defender of the great estates of the boyars[1], and notably originated the Conservative doctrine that "feudalism in Romania had never existed"[2 ].

Contents

Early life

Catargiu was born October 26, 1807 to Stephen Catargiu, a political activist and Stanca Varescu. He lived abroad in Paris from 1825 to 1834, where he studied Law, History, and Philosophy. He returned to Wallachia for a short time, and was a member of the Obsteasca Assembly of Wallachia. An opponent of violence and armed revolution, he resumed his world travels during the Revolutions of 1848, working primarily as a journalist and making a documentary.

Political life

After his return to Romania, Catargiu entered political life as a firm Conservative. He believed that evolution, rather than violent revolution was the best way to modernize the Government, and would give the fledgling Romania the best chance at unity. He also advocated an Aristocratic Republic as the best form of governance, clearly believing in guarding the power of the boyars.

Catargiu was appointed to the position of Minister of Finances by Alexander John Cuza. He quickly gained acclaim for his oratorical skills, and became the focal point of the Conservative Party. He did very little to actually organize the Party, instead depending on his own charisma and ideals to give the party focus. Cuza, despite not agreeing with the Conservative doctrine and even seeing Catargiu as an adversary of sorts[3], recognized his abilities and the power of his followers and chose Catargiu as Prime Minister of the newly formed union between Wallachia and Moldavia.

On February 15, 1862, Catargiu was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Romania, ruling from Bucharest. As Prime Minister, Catargiu hoped to reorganize and simplify the administration. He formed four administrative divisions, two in what had been Wallachia and two in Moldavia. He placed the four divisions under the supervision of a Minister of the Interior, and unified the Financial and Judicial Departments under the central government. Arguably the most important act of his rule was his order to begin a railroad in Moldavia that would link the two provinces and greatly aided unification. He also continued his support for the "old order"[4] and claimed that large estates were historically sanctioned[2 ] and were solely the property of the boyars. He also clamped down on rioting in the cities, censored the press, and refused to allow large assemblies to meet. He denied the right of the people to meet on the Bucharest "Field of Liberty" to commemorate the Revolution of 1848, an act which garnered him much animosity.

Assassination

One week after the "Field of Liberty" Incident, on June 20, 1862, Catargiu was shot and killed at close range when leaving a Parliamentary meeting. The assassin was never apprehended, despite the efforts of the police force. The killing was the only political assassination of the century[5], and left the Conservative Party without a strong leader or sense of direction. They quickly lost power, as Catargiu was replaced by Nicolae Creţulescu, a much more progressive politician.

Despite Catargiu's relative unpopularity, his memory was celebrated by the Romanians. A statue of him was placed near the Metropolitan Tower, close to where he was killed. It stood until 1984.

References

  1. ^ Keith Hitchins, The Romanians 1774-1866 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), p. 302.
  2. ^ a b Marii︠a︡ Nikolaeva Todorova, Balkan Identities: Nation and Memory (New York: NYU Press, 2004), p. 289
  3. ^ Robert William Seton Watson, A History of the Roumanians, From Roman Times to the Completion of Unity (Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1963), p. 306.
  4. ^ Robert William Seton Watson, A History of the Roumanians, From Roman Times to the Completion of Unity (Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1963), p. 306.
  5. ^ Catagiu Family Tree

Further reading

  • Hitchins, Keith. 1996. The Romanians 1774-1866. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Jelavich, Barbara. 1984. Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National State 1821-1878. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Riker, T.W. 1971. The Making of Roumania. New York: Arno Press & The New York Times.
  • Seton Watson, Robert William. 1963. Hamden, Conn: Archon Books.
  • Todorova, Marii︠a︡ Nikolaeva. 2004. New York: NYU Press.

External links

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