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Barking is a noise most commonly produced by dogs. Woof is the most common representation in the English language for this sound (especially for large dogs), other than "bark." Other transliterations include the onomatopoeic ruff, arf, au au, yip (for small dogs), and bow-wow.

Contents

Why dogs bark

Although dogs are descended from the wolf, Canis lupus, their barking constitutes a significant difference from their parent species. Although wolves do bark (or more accurately, howl or bay), they do so only in specific situations. According to Coppinger and Feinstein, dogs bark in long, rhythmic stanzas but adult wolf barks tend to be brief and isolated.[1] Compared with wolves, dogs bark frequently and in many different situations.

It has been suggested that the reason for the difference lies in the dog's domestication by humans.[2] An increased tendency to bark could have been useful to humans to provide an early warning system. Domestication has altered the physical appearance of dogs. Dogs present a striking example of neoteny, the retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults. They are similar to young wolves in many of their mannerisms and physical features, such as large heads, flat faces, large eyes, submissiveness and vocalizing – all of which are exhibited in wolf puppies.

Individual dogs bark for a variety of reasons. They may bark to attract attention, to communicate a message, or to express excitement. Statistical analysis has revealed that barks can be divided into different subtypes based on context and that individual dogs can be identified by their barks. Disturbance barks tend to be harsh, low frequency, and unmodulated, whereas isolation and play barks tend to be tonal, higher frequency, and modulated. Barks are often accompanied by body movements as part of a broader package of dog communication.[citation needed]

Types of barking

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Warning bark

A warning will usually start out as a low, quiet, but ferociously noticeable growl before escalating into something of a howling bark. This type of reaction is most typically seen in domesticated animals in response to a perceived territorial intrusion. The dog may also bare its teeth if it feels immediately threatened.

Also most monkeys make this type of barking noise when communicating with other monkeys or to scare off larger animals.

Alarm barking

Labradors often give a warning bark in response to an unusual event that they feel needs attention, such as "Hey, a car pulled into the driveway!" or "The mail carrier is here!" or even "Hey, there's a cat on the window sill!" [3]

This kind of barking is known as 'alarm barking', and is common within a variety of breeds. It is a dog's attempt to be alert, attentive, and informative to its human "pack", as regarding unusual events.[citation needed] It does not signify aggression, and (although often associated with unusual noises intruding on the dog's 'territory') is not the same as territoriality type barking. It may take the form of just one or a few barks, or it may give rise to sustained barking until the dog sees that some action has been taken.

Alarm barking is more likely to arise when a dog can hear, but not see the source of, some noise. Examples of sounds which commonly cause alarm barking include doorbells, cars, noises from adjacent dwellings, and the like. It is a behavior that tends to develop with age and maturity, and also can be related to whether there are others around who might need to be informed of such events - often an alarm barker will remain quiet if alone and there is nobody to 'tell'.

Barking on command

A dog can be trained to bark when its owner gives a command, such as "Speak."

Playful bark

Some dogs will bark for a treat or when they are playing. Dogs will also bark when they like what they're playing.

Need Bark

Many dogs can self-develop actions that serve themselves if they need something. This is commonly done along with a form of action.[citation needed] Example, a dog may nudge its bowl and bark if it is hungry, or it may nudge its owner and bark if it wants some form attention such as petting.

Barking as nuisance

Bark control

Canine barking can be a nuisance to neighbours, and is a common problem dog owners or their neighbours may face. (Many dogs can bark at 100 dBA. Even at 16 metres away and with the dog outside a closed window, the noise level of a barking dog can be well over the level that causes psychological distress.[4]) Different kinds of barking often require different kinds of approach to reduction.[citation needed]

Common approaches are as follows:

  1. Attempting to understand, and if possible eliminate, the causes of barking.
  2. Using positive training methods to correct the behaviour. Dogs may bark from anxiety or stress, so punishment can often cause problems by reinforcing a cycle of bad behaviour. Positive approaches can include:
    • Repeated exposure to stimuli whilst calming the dog and persuading it to remain quiet.
    • Distraction as the stimulus happens, through treats, praise, or similar.
    • Reshaping via clicker training (a form of operant conditioning) or other means to obtain barking behaviour on command, and then shaping the control to gain command over silence.
  3. Seeking professional advice from local organizations, dog trainers, or veterinarians.
  4. Use of a mechanical device such as a bark collar. There are several types, all of which use a collar device that produces a response to barking that the dog notices:
    • Citrus spray ("citronella") - dogs as a rule do not like citrus. At the least, it is very noticeable and disrupts the pattern through surprise. These collars spray citrus around the dog's muzzle when it barks. (Sometimes these devices make a "hissing" noise before spraying, as an additional deterrent - see "escalation devices")
    • Sonic/ultrasonic (including vibration) - these collars produce a tone which humans may or may not be able to hear, in response to barking. Over time, the sound becomes annoying or distracting enough to deter barking.
    • Electrical - these collars produce a mild stinging or tingling sensation in response to a bark. It is important that such devices have a failsafe mechanism and shut off after a certain time, to prevent ongoing operation.
    • Combination and escalation devices - many sound and/or electrical collars have combination or escalation systems. A combination system is one that (for example) uses both sound and spray together. An escalation device is one that uses quiet sounds, or low levels of output, rising gradually until barking ceases. Escalation devices are effective since they "reward" the dog for stopping sooner by not having "all-or-nothing" action, so the dog can learn to react by stopping before much happens.

Note:

  • Different bark collars have been both praised, and criticised, and some are considered inhumane by various people and groups. Electrical devices especially come under criticism by people who consider them torturous and akin to electrocution. However most SPCAs agree[citation needed] that in a last resort even an electric collar is better than euthanasia if it comes to an ultimatum, for a stubborn dog that will not stop any other way. It is generally agreed that understanding the communication and retraining by reward is the most effective and most humane way.

Surgical debarking

The controversial surgical procedure known as 'debarking' is a veterinary procedure for modifying the voice box so that a barking dog will make a significantly reduced noise. It is considered a last resort by some owners, on the basis that it is better than euthanasia, seizure, or legal problems if the matter has proven incapable of being reliably corrected any other way.

Debarking is illegal in the UK and opposed by many animal welfare organizations.[citation needed]

Representation

Woof is the conventional representation in the English language of the barking of a dog. As with other examples of onomatopoeia or imitative sounds, other cultures "hear" the dog's barks differently and represent them in their own ways. Some of the equivalents of "woof" in other European and Asian languages are as follows:

Naturally "barkless" dog breeds

A dingo illustrated alongside a Hare Indian dog, two primitive dog breeds not known to frequently bark

Compared to most domestic dogs, the bark of a dingo is short and monosyllabic. During observations, the barking of Australian dingoes was shown to have a relatively small variability; sub-groups of bark types, common among domestic dogs, could not be found. Furthermore, only 5% of the observed vocalisations were made up of barking. Australian dingoes bark only in swooshing noises or in a mixture atonal/tonal. Also, barking is almost exclusively used for giving warnings. Warn-barking in a homotypical sequence and a kind of "warn-howling" in a heterotypical sequence has also been observed. The bark-howling starts with several barks and than fades into a rising and ebbing howl and is probably, similarly to coughing, used to warn the puppies and members of the pack. Additionally, dingoes emit a sort of "wailing" sound, which they mostly use when approaching a water hole, probably to warn already present dingoes.[5] According to the present state of knowledge, it is not possible to get Australian dingoes to bark more frequently by making them asosciate with other domestic dogs. However Alfred Brehm reported a dingo that completely learned the more "typical" form of barking and knew how to use it, while its brother did not.[6] Whether dingoes bark or bark-howl less frequently in general is not sure.[7]

The now extinct Hare Indian dog of northern Canada was not known to bark in its native homeland, though puppies born in Europe learned how to imitate the barking of other dogs.[8] When hurt or afraid, it howled like a wolf, and when curious, it made a sound described as a growl building up to a howl.[9]

The Basenji of central Africa produces an unusual yodel-like sound, due to its unusually shaped larynx.[10] This trait also gives the Basenji the nickname "Barkless Dog."[11]

Barking in other animals

Many animals communicate via various vocalizations. While there is not a precise, consistent and functional acoustic definition for barking, researchers may classify barks according to several criteria.[12] University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers identified volume, pitch, tonality, noise, abrupt onset and pulse duration are amongst the criteria that can be used to define a bark.[13]

Besides dogs and wolves, other canines like coyotes and jackals can bark. Their barks are quite similar to those of wolves and dogs. The bark of a dingo is short and monosyllabic.

There are also non-canine species with vocalizations that could be described as barking. Because the Muntjac's alarm call resembles a dog's bark, they are sometimes known as Barking Deer. Eared seals and sea lions are also known to bark. Prairie dogs employ a complex form of communication that involves barks and rhythmic chirps.[14] A wide variety of bird species produce vocalizations that include the canonical features of barking, especially when avoiding predators.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Coppinger R, Feinstein M: 'Hark! Hark! The dogs do bark...' and bark and hark. Smithsonian 21:119-128, 1991
  2. ^ Richard Murray and Helen Penridge. Dogs and Cats in the Urban Environment: A Handbook of Municipal Pet Management. Second edition, 2001, ch. 11.
  3. ^ Grenier, Roger. The Difficulty of Being a Dog. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30827-8. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WNYxoy38mD8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=%22Grenier%22+%22The+Difficulty+of+Being+a+Dog%22+&ots=5GRuj7kW8L&sig=aEsQ5fHLJPcAfoNumW7MH1YIoXg#PPP1,M1. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  4. ^ Richard Murray and Helen Penridge. Dogs in the Urban Environment. Chiron Media 1992, ISBN 0646071572, pp. 21–22.
  5. ^ Laurie Corbett (2004). "Dingo". Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. http://www.carnivoreconservation.org/files/actionplans/canids.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  6. ^ (in german) Brehms Tierleben. Leipzig, Wien: Bibliographisches Institut. 1900. pp. 82–85. 
  7. ^ Feddersen-Petersen, Dorit Urd (2008) (in german). Ausdrucksverhalten beim Hund. Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 978-3-440-09863-9. 
  8. ^ The Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society, Published, with the Sanction of the Council, Under the Superintendence of the Secretary and Vice-secretary of the Society, by Edward Turner Bennett, Zoological Society of London, William Harvey, Illustrated by John Jackson, William Harvey, G. B., S. S., Thomas Williams, Robert Edward Branston, George Thomas Wright. Published by Printed by C. Whittingham, 1830.
  9. ^ Fauna Boreali-americana, Or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions, Under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. By John Richardson, William Swainson, William Kirby, published by J. Murray, 1829.
  10. ^ Adapted from the book "Why Pandas Do Handstands," 2006, by Augustus Brown.
  11. ^ BCOA African Stock Project - 1945 Letter from Africa
  12. ^ Not Only Dogs, But Deer, Monkeys And Birds Bark To Deal With Conflict. Science Daily. 15 July 2009.
  13. ^ a b Lord, Kathryn., Feinstein, Mark., Coppinger, Raymond. Barking and mobbing. Behavioral Processes. 2009.
  14. ^ Walker, Matt. Burrowing US prairie dogs use complex language. BBC Earth News. 2 Feb. 2010.

External links


Barking is a noise most commonly produced by dogs. Woof is the most common representation in the English language for this sound (especially for large dogs), other than "bark." Other transliterations include the onomatopoeic ruff, arf, yip (for small dogs), and bow-wow, even though it does not accurately represent the sound of a common dog.

Contents

Why dogs bark

Although dogs are descended from the wolf, Canis lupus, their barking constitutes a significant difference from their parent species. Although wolves do bark (or more accurately,[weasel words] howl or bay), they do so only in specific situations. According to Coppinger and Feinstein, dogs bark in long, rhythmic stanzas but adult wolf barks tend to be brief and isolated.[1] Compared with wolves, dogs bark frequently and in many different situations.

It has been suggested that the reason for the difference lies in the dog's domestication by humans.[2] Dogs present a striking example of neoteny, the retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults. They are similar to young wolves in many of their mannerisms and physical features, such as large heads, flat faces, large eyes, submissiveness and vocalizing – all of which are exhibited in wolf puppies.

Some believe that these characteristics were deliberately selected soon after domestication. There may have been a number of reasons for this. For instance, an overgrown puppy would very likely have been seen as a more engaging companion than a more mature but less amusing pet, as well as being less aggressive. More prosaically, an increased tendency to bark could have been useful to humans to provide an early warning system. Dogs may have been used to alert their owners that another unfamiliar band of humans or a predatory animal was in the area.

Individual dogs bark for a variety of reasons. They may bark to attract attention, to communicate a message, or to express excitement. Dog barks do not constitute an information-rich message in the same fashion as human speech, but they do nonetheless constitute more than mere noise. Statistical analysis has revealed that barks can be divided into different subtypes based on context and that individual dogs can be identified by their barks. Disturbance barks tend to be harsh, low frequency, and unmodulated, whereas isolation and play barks tend to be tonal, higher frequency, and modulated. Barks are often accompanied by body movements as part of a broader package of dog communication.Template:Fact

Types of barking

Warning bark

A warning will usually start out as a low, quiet, but ferociously noticeable growl before escalating into something of a howling bark. This type of reaction is most typically seen in domesticated animals in response to a perceived territorial intrusion. The dog may also bare its teeth if it feels immediately threatened.

Alarm barking

Labradors often give a warning bark in response to an unusual event that they feel needs your attention, such as "Hey, a car pulled into the driveway!" or "The mail carrier is here!" or even "Hey, there's a cat on the window sill!" [3]

This kind of barking is known as 'alarm barking', and is common within a variety of breeds. It is a dog's attempt to be alert, attentive, and informative to his human "pack", as regarding unusual events. It does not signify aggression, and (although often associated with unusual noises intruding on the dog's 'territory') is not the same as territoriality type barking. It may take the form of just one or a few barks, or it may give rise to sustained barking until the dog sees that some action has been taken.

Alarm barking is more likely to arise when a dog can hear, but not see the source of, some noise. Examples of sounds which commonly cause alarm barking include doorbells, cars, noises from adjacent dwellings, and the like. It is a behavior that tends to develop with age and maturity, and also can be related to whether there are others around who might need to be informed of such events - often an alarm barker will remain quiet if alone and there is nobody to 'tell'.

Barking at the dog owner's request

A dog can be trained to bark when its owner gives a command, such as "Speak."

Playful bark

Many dogs will bark for a treat or when they are playing; it is not, however, always friendly.Template:Fact

Barking as nuisance

Bark control

Canine barking can be a big nuisance to neighbors, and is a common problem dog owners or their neighbors may face. (Many dogs can bark at 100 dBA. Even at 16 metres away and with the dog outside a closed window, the noise level of a barking dog can be well over the level that causes psychological distress.[4]) Different kinds of barking often require different kinds of approach to reduction.

Common approaches are as follows:

  1. Attempt to understand the cause. Know what triggers the barking. Treat any causes which can be treated.
  2. Use positive training methods to correct the behavior. Dogs are more likely to bark from anxiety or stress, than otherwise, so punishment can often cause problems by reinforcing a cycle of bad behavior. Instead consider:
    • Repeated exposure - to strangers or telephone rings (the "stimulus"), whilst you calm the dog and persuade it to remain quiet
    • Distraction - as the stimulus happens, offer treats, give praise, do something to take the dog's mind off it or an alternate preferred behavior.
    • Reshaping - use clicker training (a form of operant conditioning) or other means to obtain barking behavior on command, and then shape that control to give you control over silence too.
  3. Seek professional advice. For example this advice on barking from the UK Department for the Environment (DEFRA), or a dog trainer, or vet.
  4. Use a mechanical device such as a bark collar. There are several types, all of which use a collar device that produces a response to barking that the dog notices:
    • Citrus spray ("citronella") - dogs as a rule do not like citrus. At the least, it is very noticeable and disrupts the pattern through surprise. These collars spray citrus around the dog's muzzle when he/she barks. (Sometimes these devices make a "hissing" noise before spraying, as an additional deterrent - see "escalation devices")
    • Sonic/ultrasonic (including vibration) - these collars produce a tone which humans may or may not be able to hear, in response to barking. Over time, the sound becomes annoying or distracting enough to deter barking.
    • Electrical - these collars produce a mild stinging or tingling sensation in response to a bark. It is important that such devices have a failsafe mechanism and shut off after a certain time, to prevent ongoing operation.
    • Combination and escalation devices - many sound and/or electrical collars have combination or escalation systems. A combination system is one that (for example) uses both sound and spray together. An escalation device is one that uses quiet sounds, or low levels of output, rising gradually until barking ceases. Escalation devices are effective since they "reward" the dog for stopping sooner by not having "all-or-nothing" action, so the dog can learn to react by stopping before much happens.

Note:

  • Different bark collars have been both praised, and criticised, and some are considered inhumane by various people and groups. Electrical devices especially come under criticism by people who consider them torturous and akin to electrocution. However most SPCAs agree that in a last resort even an electric collar is better than euthanasia if it comes to an ultimatum, for a stubborn dog that will not stop any other way. It is generally agreed that understanding the communication and retraining by reward is the most effective and most humane way.
  • The use of self-contained ultrasonic bark deterrent devices is one of the few means a person may have to deter barking by another person's dog which they do not have control over. (In such circumstances though it is always best to speak directly with the dog's owner first)

Surgical debarking

The controversial surgical procedure known as 'debarking' is a veterinary procedure for modifying the voice box so that a barking dog will make a significantly reduced noise. It is considered a last resort by some owners, on the basis that it is better than euthanasia, seizure, or legal problems if the matter has proven incapable of being reliably corrected any other way.

Debarking is illegal in the UK and opposed by many animal welfare bodiesTemplate:Fact

Representation

Woof is the conventional representation in the English language of the barking of a dog. As with other examples of onomatopoeia or imitative sounds, other cultures "hear" the dog's barks differently and represent them in their own ways. Some of the equivalents of "woof" in other European and Asian languages are as follows:

  • English - woof, woof; ruff, ruff; arf, arf (large dogs and also the sound of sea lions); yip, yip (small dogs); bow-wow
  • Afrikaans - blaf, blaf woef, woef keff, keff (small dogs)
  • Albanian - ham, ham
  • Arabic - hau, hau; how how (هو هو)
  • Armenian - haf, haf
  • Basque - au-au, txau-txau (small dogs), zaunk-zaunk (large dogs) and jau-jau (old dogs)
  • Balinese - kong, kong
  • Bangali - wuff, wuff; hav, hav
  • Bulgarian - bau-bau (бау-бау); jaff, jaff (джаф-джаф)
  • Catalan - bau, bau
  • Chinese, Cantonese - wow, wow (汪汪)
  • Chinese, Mandarin - wang, wang
  • Croatian - vau, vau
  • Czech - haf, haf
  • Danish - vov, vov
  • Dutch - waf, waf; woef, woef (phonetically equivalent to woof woof)
  • Esperanto - boj, boj
  • Estonian - auh, auh
  • Finnish - hau, hau; vuh, vuh
  • French - Waouh, Wouf, Wouaf-Waf
  • German - wuff, wuff; wau, wau
  • Greek - ghav, ghav (γαβ γαβ)
  • Hebrew - hav, hav
  • Hindi - bho, bho
  • Hungarian - vau, vau
  • Icelandic - voff, voff
  • Indonesian - guk, guk
  • Irish - amh-amh
  • Italian - bau, bau
  • Japanese - wan, wan (ワンワン)
  • Korean - meong, meong (멍멍, pronounced [mʌŋmʌŋ])
  • Latvian - vau, vau
  • Lithuanian - au, au
  • Norwegian - voff, voff
  • Persian - vogh, vogh
  • Polish - hau, hau
  • Portuguese - au, au; ão-ão (nasal diphthong); béu-béu (toddler language); cain-cain (whining)
  • Romanian - ham, ham or hau, hau
  • Russian - gav, gav (гав-гав); tyav, tyav (тяв-тяв, small dogs)
  • Serbian - av, av
  • Sinhala - සිංහල - baw,waw
  • Slovak - haf, haf or hau, hau
  • Slovenian - hov, hov
  • Spanish - guau-guau; gua,gua or jau, jau
  • Swedish - voff, voff; vov, vov
  • Tagalog - aw, aw; baw, waw
  • Thai - hoang, hoang
  • Turkish - hav, hav
  • Ukrainian - гав гав, hau hau; дзяв дзяв, dzyau dzyau (small dog)
  • Vietnamese - gâu gâu; ẳng ẳng
  • Welsh - wff, wff

Naturally "barkless" dog breeds

[[File:|thumb|A dingo illustrated alongside a Hare Indian dog, two primitive dog breeds not known to frequently bark]] Compared to most other domestic dogs, the bark of a dingo is short and monosyllabic. During observations, the barking of Australian dingoes revealed itself to have a relatively small variability and sub-gropus of barking, like among other domestic dogs, could not be found. Furthermore, only 5% of the observed vocalisations were made up of barking. Australian dingoes bark only in swooshing noises or in a mixture atonal/tonal. Also, barking is almost exclusively used for giving warnings. Warn-barking in a homotypical sequence and a kind of "warn-howling" in a heterotypical sequence has also been observed. The bark-howling starts with several barks and than fades into a rising and ebbing howl and is probably, similarly to coughing, used to warn the puppies and members of the pack. Additionally, dingoes emit a sort of "wailing" sound, which they mostly use when approaching a water hole, probably to warn already present dingoes.[5] According to the present state of knowledge, it is not possible to get Australian dingoes to bark more frequently by making them asosciate with other domestic dogs. However Alfred Brehm reported a dingo who completely learned the more "typical" form of barking and knew how to use it, while its brother did not.[6] Whether dingoes bark or bark-howl less frequently in general is not sure.[7]

The now extinct Hare Indian dog of northern Canada was not known to bark in its native homeland, though puppies born in Europe learned how to imitate the barking of other dogs.[8] When hurt or afraid, it howled like a wolf, and when curious, it made a sound described as a growl building up to a howl.[9]

The Basenji of central Africa produces an unusual yodel-like sound, due to its unusually shaped larynx.[10] This trait also gives the Basenji the nickname "Barkless Dog."[11]

Barking in other animals

Besides dogs and wolves, other canines like coyotes and jackals can bark. Their barks are quite similar to that of wolves and dogs.

There are also non-canine species that bark, but sound different than the "woof" barks of dogs.

See also

References

  1. Coppinger R, Feinstein M: 'Hark! Hark! The dogs do bark...' and bark and hark. Smithsonian 21:119-128, 1991
  2. Richard Murray and Helen Penridge. Dogs and Cats in the Urban Environment: A Handbook of Municipal Pet Management. Second edition, 2001, ch. 11.
  3. Grenier, Roger. The Difficulty of Being a Dog. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30827-8. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WNYxoy38mD8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=%22Grenier%22+%22The+Difficulty+of+Being+a+Dog%22+&ots=5GRuj7kW8L&sig=aEsQ5fHLJPcAfoNumW7MH1YIoXg#PPP1,M1. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. Template:Page number
  4. Richard Murray and Helen Penridge. Dogs in the Urban Environment. Chiron Media 1992, ISBN 0646071572, pp. 21–22.
  5. Laurie Corbett (2004). "Dingo". Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. http://www.carnivoreconservation.org/files/actionplans/canids.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-04-08. 
  6. (in german) Brehms Tierleben. Leipzig, Wien: Bibliographisches Institut. 1900. pp. 82–85. 
  7. Feddersen-Petersen, Dorit Urd (2008) (in german). Ausdrucksverhalten beim Hund. Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 978-3-440-09863-9. 
  8. The Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society, Published, with the Sanction of the Council, Under the Superintendence of the Secretary and Vice-secretary of the Society, by Edward Turner Bennett, Zoological Society of London, William Harvey, Illustrated by John Jackson, William Harvey, G. B., S. S., Thomas Williams, Robert Edward Branston, George Thomas Wright. Published by Printed by C. Whittingham, 1830.
  9. Fauna Boreali-americana, Or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions, Under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. By John Richardson, William Swainson, William Kirby, published by J. Murray, 1829.
  10. Adapted from the book "Why Pandas Do Handstands," 2006, by Augustus Brown.
  11. BCOA African Stock Project - 1945 Letter from Africa

External links

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