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Barrow
Ukpeagvik
—  City  —
Location in Alaska
Coordinates: 71°17′44″N 156°45′59″W / 71.29556°N 156.76639°W / 71.29556; -156.76639
Country United States
State Alaska
Borough North Slope
Government
 - Mayor Bobby Haracheck
Area
 - Total 21.3 sq mi (55.2 km2)
 - Land 18.4 sq mi (47.6 km2)
 - Water 2.9 sq mi (7.6 km2)
Elevation 10 ft (3 m)
Population (2008)[1]
 - Total 4,581
Time zone Alaska (AKST) (UTC-9)
 - Summer (DST) AKDT (UTC-8)
ZIP code 99723
Area code(s) 907
FIPS code 02-05200
Website www.cityofbarrow.org

Barrow (pronounced /ˈbæroʊ/) is a city in and the borough seat of the North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.[2][3] It is one of the northernmost cities in the world, and is the northernmost city in the United States, with nearby Point Barrow being the nation's northernmost point. The population was 4,683 at the 2000 census, with an estimated population of 3,982 in 2007.[1] It was named after Sir John Barrow.

Contents

Etymology

The city derived its name from Point Barrow, which was named by Frederick William Beechey in 1825 for Sir John Barrow of the British Admiralty. The location has been home to Native Inupiat Eskimo people for over 1,000 years under the name Ukpeagvik or "place where snowy owls are hunted".[4]

Geography

Barrow is located at 71°17′44″N 156°45′59″W / 71.29556°N 156.76639°W / 71.29556; -156.76639. It is the only US city on the continent of North America with an antipode on dry (though uninhabited) land. The antipode is in Antarctica at 71°17′44″S 23°14′1″E / 71.29556°S 23.23361°E / -71.29556; 23.23361. Barrow is roughly 1300 miles south of the North Pole.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21 sq mi (54 km2). 18 sq mi (47 km2) of it is land and 3 sq mi (8 km2) of it is water. The total area is 14% water. The predominant land type in Barrow is tundra, which sits on permafrost that is as much as 1,300 feet (400 m) in depth.[5]

Barrow is surrounded by the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska.

Climate

Icebow over Arctic ice in Barrow
Barrow sea ice, July 2006, 2007

Owing to its location 320 miles (515 km) north of the Arctic Circle, Barrow's climate is cold and dry and is classified as a polar climate. Winter weather can be extremely dangerous because of the combination of cold and wind, while summers are cool even at their warmest. Weather observations are available for Barrow dating back into the late 1800s.[6] Currently there is a National Weather Service (NWS) Office and a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring Lab in Barrow.

Despite the extreme northern location, temperatures at Barrow are moderated by the surrounding topography. With the Arctic Ocean on three sides, and flat tundra stretching some 200 miles (300 km) to the south there are no wind barriers and there are no protected valleys where dense cold air can settle or form temperature inversions in the lower atmosphere in the way that commonly happens in the Interior between the Brooks Range and the Alaska Range.[7]

Barrow experiences the lowest average temperatures in Alaska. While actual temperature extremes are rare, extremely low wind chill and "white out" conditions from blowing snow are very common.

Temperatures remain below freezing from early October through late May. The high daily temperature is above freezing on an average of only 109 days per year. There are freezing temperatures on an average of 324 days per year.[8][9] Freezing temperatures, and snowfall, can occur during any month of the year.[7]

Barrow is a desert, with an average of less than 5 in (127 mm) "equivalent rainfall" per year, which includes less than 30 in (76 cm) of snow.[8][10] (Since one inch of rain is approximately equal to twelve inches (305 mm) of snow).

The first snow (defined as snow that will not melt until next spring) generally falls during the first week of October, when temperatures cease to rise above freezing during the day. October is usually the month with the heaviest snowfall, with at least a trace of snow virtually every day and an average total accumulation of about 7 in (18 cm).[10] Snow can also fall in the summer.

On November 18 or 19 the sun goes down, and remains below the horizon for about 65 days until it re-appears, normally on January 22 or January 23. During the first half of the polar night there is a decreasing amount of twilight each day, and on the winter solstice, December 21 or December 22, civil twilight in Barrow lasts for a mere 3 hours.[10][11]

In addition to the low temperatures and months without sun, Barrow is also one of the cloudiest places on earth. Owing to the prevailing easterly winds off the Arctic Ocean, Barrow is completely overcast slightly more than 50% of the year and at least 70% overcast 62% of the time. Cloud types are mainly low stratus and fog, cumuli forms are rare. Peak cloudiness occurs in August and September when the ocean is open. Dense fog occurs an average of 65 days per year, mostly in the summer months. Ice fog is very common during the winter months, especially when the temperature drops below −30 °F (−34 °C).[12]

Serious cold weather usually begins in January, and February is generally the coldest month, averaging −16 °F (−27 °C). By March 1 the sun is up for 9 hours, the average temperature is 2 or 3 degrees warmer, and the winds are usually higher. April brings less extreme temperatures, with an average of about 0 °F (−18 °C), but on April 1 there are over 14 hours of sunlight. In May the temperatures are much warmer, averaging 20 °F (−7 °C). Beginning on May 11-12, the phenomenon known as the midnight sun occurs and the sun does not set for 82–83 days, until July 31-August 1. In June the average temperature rises above freezing, to 35 °F (2 °C), and average daily temperatures remain above freezing until mid-September.[10][11][13]

July is the warmest month of the year with an average high of 46 °F (8 °C) and an average low temperature of 34 °F (1 °C). Beginning in late July the Arctic Ocean is relatively ice-free, and remains so until late October.[10]

Variation of wind speed during the year is small, with the fall months being windiest. Extreme winds from 40–60 mph (60–100 km/h) have been recorded for all months.[7] The average winds are 12 mph (20 km/h), from the east.[8][9]

Climate data for Wiley Post-Will Rogers Memorial Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 36
(2)
36
(2)
34
(1)
38
(3)
47
(8)
72
(22)
79
(26)
76
(24)
62
(17)
41
(5)
35
(2)
32
(0)
79
(26)
Average high °F (°C) -7.8
(-22.1)
-9.9
(-23.3)
-7.3
(-21.8)
6.3
(-14.3)
24.9
(-3.9)
39.5
(4.2)
46.4
(8)
43.6
(6.4)
34.7
(1.5)
19.3
(-7.1)
4.6
(-15.2)
-4.8
(-20.4)
15.8
(-9)
Average low °F (°C) -19.7
(-28.7)
-22.1
(-30.1)
-20.1
(-28.9)
-7.5
(-21.9)
15.3
(-9.3)
30.4
(-0.9)
34.3
(1.3)
33.8
(1)
27.5
(-2.5)
9.8
(-12.3)
-6.5
(-21.4)
-16.5
(-26.9)
4.9
(-15.1)
Record low °F (°C) -53
(-47)
-52
(-47)
-52
(-47)
-38
(-39)
-19
(-28)
12
(-11)
25
(-4)
21
(-6)
1
(-17)
-27
(-33)
-38
(-39)
-51
(-46)
-53
(-47)
Precipitation inches (mm) 0.12
(3)
0.12
(3)
0.09
(2.3)
0.12
(3)
0.12
(3)
0.31
(7.9)
0.87
(22.1)
1.04
(26.4)
0.69
(17.5)
0.39
(9.9)
0.16
(4.1)
0.12
(3)
4.17
(105.9)
Source: NOAA[10] 2008-03-08

Demographics

Homes built on pilings.

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 4,683 people, 1,399 households, and 976 families residing in the city. The population density was 249.0 people per square mile (96.1/km²). There were 1,620 housing units at an average density of 88.1/sq mi (34.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 21.83% White, 1.00% Black or African American, 57.19% Native American, 9.41% Asian, 1.35% Pacific Islander, 0.70% from other races, and 8.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.34% of the population.

There were 1,399 households out of which 56.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.35 and the average family size was 4.80.

Shore ice off Barrow, June 2005

In the city the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 107.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $63,094.09, and the median income for a family was $68,223. Males had a median income of $51,959 versus $46,382 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,902. About 7.7% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under the age of 18 and 13.12% of those 65 and older.

Population of Barrow[15]
Year Population
1940 400
1960 1,300
1970 2,100
1980 2,200
1990 3,500
2000 4,683

As of March 3, 2009 the website www.cityofbarrow.org wrote of the population: "The largest city in the North Slope Borough, Barrow has 4,429 residents, of which approximately 61 percent are Iñupiat Eskimo."[16]

Economy

Barrow is the economic center of the North Slope Borough, the city's primary employer, and numerous businesses provide support services to oil field operations. State and federal agencies also provide employment. The midnight sun has attracted tourism and arts and crafts provide some cash income. Many residents rely upon subsistence food sources: whale, seal, polar bear, walrus, waterfowl, caribou and fish are harvested from the coast or nearby rivers and lakes.[17]

Transportation

Alaska Airlines 737-400 combi aircraft on Barrow Airport, December 2007. Note that it is twilight. Even though the sun does not rise in December, it gets close enough to the horizon to illuminate.

The roads in Barrow are unpaved, and no roads connect the city to the rest of Alaska.[18] Barrow is served by passenger jet service at the Wiley Post-Will Rogers Memorial Airport from Anchorage and Fairbanks. New Service between Fairbanks and Anchorage began from Era Aviation on June 1, 2009. Freight arrives by air cargo year round and by ocean-going marine barges during the annual summer sealift.[19]

Barrow also serves as the regional transportation center for the North Slope Borough's Arctic Coastal villages. Multiple jet aircraft daily, with service from Deadhorse (Prudhoe Bay), Fairbanks and Anchorage, provide mail, cargo, and passenger services, which connect with smaller single and twin engine general aviation aircraft that provide regular service to other villages, from Kaktovik in the east to Point Hope in the west.[17] The town is also served by several radio taxi services, most utilizing small four-wheel drive vehicles.

History

Sod house remains in Barrow

In the Inupiaq language the location of Barrow is called Ukpeagvik, which means "the place where we hunt Snowy Owls".

Archaeological sites in the area indicate the Inupiat lived around Barrow as far back as AD 500. Some remains of 16 dwelling mounds from the Birnirk culture of about AD 800 are still in evidence today on the shore of the Arctic Ocean. Their position on a slight rise above the high water mark places them in danger of being lost to erosion within a short time.

Royal Navy officers were in the area to explore and map the Arctic coastline of North America. The United States Army established a meteorological and magnetic research station at Barrow in 1881, and the Cape Smythe Whaling and Trading Station was established in 1893.

In 1888 a Presbyterian church was built at Barrow, and in 1901 a United States Post Office was opened.

In 1935 the famous humorist Will Rogers and pilot Wiley Post made an unplanned stop at Walakpa Bay 15 mi (24 km) south of Barrow while enroute to Barrow. As they took off again their plane stalled and plunged into a river, killing them both. Now called the Rogers-Post Site, there are two monuments at the site, another is located in Barrow and the airport is named after them.

Alaska Airlines Terminal at Barrow airport

Barrow was incorporated as a 1st Class City in 1958.

Residents of the North Slope cast the lone vote in opposition to passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, which passed in December 1971. In 1972, the North Slope Borough was established. The borough, with millions of dollars in new revenues, created sanitation, water and electrical utilities, roads, fire departments, and health and educational services in Barrow and the villages of the North Slope.

In 1986, the North Slope Borough created the North Slope Higher Education Center, which later became Ilisagvik College, which is now an accredited two-year college dedicated to providing an education based on the Inupiat culture and the needs of the North Slope Borough.

The Tuzzy Consortium Library, in the Inupiat Heritage Center, serves the communities of the North Slope Borough and functions as the academic library for Ilisagvik College. The library was named after Evelyn Tuzroyluk Higbee.

Barrow, like many communities in Alaska, has enacted a "damp" law prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages, but allows for import, possession and consumption.[8]

In 1988, Barrow became the center of a worldwide media attention when three California Gray Whales became trapped in the ice offshore.[20] After a two week rescue effort, two of the whales were ultimately freed by a Soviet icebreaker.[21] Journalist Tom Rose details the rescue, and the media frenzy which accompanied it, in his 1989 book Freeing The Whales.[22] A movie based on the rescue is currently under development at Warner Brothers, scheduled for a 2012 release.[23][24]

Media

KBRW (AM)/KBRW-FM[25] radio station broadcasts in Barrow on 680 kHz AM and 91.9 MHz FM. KBRW is also broadcast via FM repeaters in all of the North Slope Borough villages, from Kaktovik to Point Hope.

The Arctic Sounder[26] is a newspaper published weekly by Alaska Newspapers, Inc., covers news of interest to the North Slope Borough, which includes Barrow, and the Northwest Arctic Borough which includes Kotzebue, in northwestern Alaska.

Sports teams

Artificial turf field of Barrow Whalers football team

On August 19, 2006 the Barrow Whalers of Barrow High School[27] played the first official football game in the Arctic against Delta Junction High School.[28] Barrow recorded its first win two weeks later; the coaches and players celebrated the historic win by jumping into the Arctic Ocean, just 100 yd (91 m) from the makeshift dirt field.

On August 17, 2007 the Whalers football team played their first game of the season on their new artificial turf field. The historic game, attended by former Chicago Bears player Dick Butkus, was the first live Internet broadcast of a sporting event in the United States from north of the Arctic Circle.[29]

Depictions in popular culture

Barrow is the setting for a series of horror comic books entitled 30 Days of Night. The stories center on vampires who take advantage of the more than a month of darkness that takes place annually in the town to engage in a killing spree. A film, named after and based upon the comic, was released on October 19, 2007.

Special events

  • Kivgiq, The Messenger Feast. In more recent times this has been held almost every year, but "officially" is held every two or three years in late January or early February, and is called at the discretion of the North Slope Borough Mayor. Kivgiq is an international event which attracts visitors from around the Arctic Circle.
  • Piuraagiaqta, The Spring Festival. Held in mid-April and includes many outdoor activities.
  • Nalukataq, The Blanket Toss Celebration. Held on multiple days beginning in the third week of June to celebrate each successful spring whale hunt.
  • July 4, Independence Day. In Barrow this is time for Eskimo games, such as the two-foot high kick and ear pull, with the winners going on to compete at the World Eskimo Indian Olympics.
  • Fall whaling. Generally happens during the second week of October.
  • Qitik, Eskimo Games. Also known as Christmas Games, are from December 26 through January 1.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Alaska". United States Census Bureau. 2008-07-10. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-02.csv. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ Stephen Fry. (2008-11-16). Stephen Fry in America. [Documentary]. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Corporation. 
  4. ^ About Barrow - The Community
  5. ^ "TECHNOLOGY STATUS ASSESSMENT" (PDF). http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/Hydrates/reports/MH42962_TechStatAssess.pdf. 
  6. ^ Current weather data available from the NOAA
  7. ^ a b c "Summary about Barrow NWS Station". http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Stations/Arctic/Barrow.html. 
  8. ^ a b c d ""State of Alaska Community Database Online"". http://www.dced.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CF_BLOCK.htm. 
  9. ^ a b ""Coastal Pilot 9, 25th Edition, 2007"" (PDF). "NOAA". http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/NSD/Cp9/CP9-25ed-Ch09_9.pdf. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Weather Data, 1971-2000". http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=pafg. 
  11. ^ a b "Daylight and darkness". http://www.alaska.com/about/weather/story/4481284p-4773632c.html. 
  12. ^ Maykut and Church, Gary A. and Phil E. (1973). Journal of Applied Meteorology. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington. pp. 620–621. doi:isbn =. 
  13. ^ "NOAA Sunset/Sunrise". http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/astronomical.php?wfo=pafg. 
  14. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  15. ^ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA - ALASKA : urban population
  16. ^ www.cityofbarrow.org
  17. ^ a b "State of Alaska Community Database". http://www.dced.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/CF_BLOCK.cfm. 
  18. ^ http://www.astresystems.com/barrow/
  19. ^ "City of Barrow Web Page". http://www.cityofbarrow.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5&Itemid=8. 
  20. ^ Mauer, Richard (1988-10-18). "Unlikely Allies Rush to Free 3 Whales". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE4DF153DF93BA25753C1A96E948260. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  21. ^ Mauer, Richard (10-29-1988). "Whales Break Free". Anchorage Daily News. http://www.adn.com/242/story/786008.html. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  22. ^ Rose, TOM. "Freeing The Whales - How the Media Created the World's Greatest Non-Event". http://www.highnorth.no/Library/MediaWatch/fr-th-wh.htm. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  23. ^ Dent, Mark (May 7th, 2009). "May 7: Barrow whale rescue movie...". Anchorage Daily News. http://www.adn.com/news/alaska/newsreader/story/786889.html. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  24. ^ The listing for the film, Everybody Loves Whales on IMDb.
  25. ^ KBRW AM/FM
  26. ^ Arctic Sounder
  27. ^ Barrow High School
  28. ^ Playing in Barrow is all kinds of cool to Delta
  29. ^ Broadcast to make history

External links

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Simple English

Barrow is a city in Alaska. It is the northernmost city of the United States of America.


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