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Barry Marshall
Born 30 September 1951 (1951-09-30) (age 58)
Kalgoorlie, Western Australia
Citizenship Australian
Fields Medicine: Microbiology
Institutions University of Western Australia
University of Virginia[1]
Known for Helicobacter pylori
Notable awards 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology

Barry James Marshall, AC, FRS, FAA (born 30 September 1951) is an Australian physician, Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine, and Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. Marshall is well-known for proving that bacteria Helicobacter pylori are the cause of most Peptic Ulcer, reversing decades of medical doctrine which held that ulcers were caused by stress, spicy foods, and too much acid.

Contents

Early years

Marshall was born in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia and lived in Kalgoorlie and Carnarvon until moving to Perth at seven. His father held various jobs, and his mother was a nurse. He is the eldest of four siblings. He attended High School at Newman College and the University of Western Australia, where he received a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in 1975. He married his wife Adrienne in 1972 and has four children.[2][3] [4]

Life and research

In 1979 Marshall was appointed as a Registrar in Medicine at the Royal Perth Hospital. He met Robin Warren, a pathologist interested in gastritis, during internal medicine fellowship training at Royal Perth Hospital in 1981. Together, the pair studied the presence of spiral bacteria in association with gastritis. The following year (1982), they performed the initial culture of H. pylori and developed their hypothesis related to the bacterial cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer.[2] It has been claimed that the H. pylori theory was ridiculed by the establishment scientists and doctors, who did not believe that any bacteria could live in the acidic stomach. Marshall has been quoted as saying in 1998 that "Everyone was against me, but I knew I was right".[5] On the other hand, it has also been argued that medical researchers showed a proper degree of skepticism until the H. pylori hypothesis could be proved.[6]

After failed attempts to infect piglets in 1984, Marshall drank a petri-dish of the bacteria and soon developed gastritis with achlorhydria. Symptoms included vague stomach discomfort, nausea, vomiting and halitosis. On the 14th day of the infection, biopsies of Marshall's stomach did not reveal any bacteria, so spontaneous eradication may have occurred. However, on the insistence of his wife, he did take antibiotics immediately after that endoscopy so there was no way of double-checking the negative result. Interestingly, he did not develop antibodies to H.pylori, suggesting that innate immunity can sometimes eradicate acute H.pylori infection. His illness and recovery, based on a culture of organisms extracted from a patient, fulfilled Koch's postulates for H. pylori and gastritis, but not for peptic ulcer. This experiment was published in 1985 in the Medical Journal of Australia[7] and is among the most cited articles from the journal.[8]

After this work at Fremantle Hospital, Marshall did research at Royal Perth Hospital (1985-86) and at the University of Virginia, USA (1986-Present), before returning to Australia while remaining on the faculty of the University of Virginia.[1] He held a Burnet Fellowship at the University of Western Australia from 1998-2003[9] and continues research related to H. pylori and runs the H.pylori Research Laboratory at UWA.[10]

In 2007 he accepted a part-time appointment at the Pennsylvania State University.[11] As of 2009, he is not affiliated with Penn State.

Awards and honours

In 2005, the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Dr. Marshall and his long-time collaborator Dr. Warren "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease".[12]

Marshall also received the Warren Alpert Prize in 1994, the Australian Medical Association Award in 1995, Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research in 1995 and the Gairdner Foundation International Award in 1996, the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize in 1997, the Dr A.H. Heineken Prize for Medicine in 1998, the Florey Medal in 1998, the Buchanan Medal of the Royal Society in 1998, Benjamin Franklin Medal for Life Sciences in 1999, the Keio Medical Science Prize in 2002 and the Australian Centenary Medal in 2003.[13]

He was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia in 2007.[14]

He was awarded the honorarica Doctor of Science by the University of Oxford in 2009. [15]

Notes

  1. ^ a b "U.Va. Top News Daily". Virginia.edu. 2005-10-04. http://www.virginia.edu/topnews/10_04_2005/marshall_barry.html. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  2. ^ a b Barry, Marshall (2005). "Autobiography". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/marshall-autobio.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  3. ^ In 1972 he was also a state yo-yo champion.
  4. ^ "Sydney Morning Herald Features Barry Marshall Helicobacter pylori". Vianet.net.au. 1997-08-02. http://www.vianet.net.au/~bjmrshll/features2.html. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  5. ^ "Barry Marshall Interview, H. Pylori and the Making of a Myth". Academy of Achievement. 23 May 1998. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/printmember/mar1int-1. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  6. ^ Atwood, Kimball C. (November 2004). "Bacteria, Ulcers, and Ostracism?". Skeptical Inquirer. http://www.csicop.org/si/show/bacteria_ulcers_and_ostracism_h._pylori_and_the_making_of_a_myth. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  7. ^ "Medical Journal of Australia". Mja.com.au. http://www.mja.com.au/. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  8. ^ Van Der Weyden, Martin B; Ruth M Armstrong and Ann T Gregory (2005). "The 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". Medical Journal of Australia (Medical Journal of Australia) 183 (11/12): 612–614. http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/183_11_051205/van11000_fm.html#0_i1091639. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  9. ^ "Professor Barry Marshall". University of Western Australia. 28 July 2006. http://www.postgraduate.uwa.edu.au/home/prospective/heroes/marshall. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  10. ^ Marshall, Barry (26 August 2002). "Helicobacter pylori Research Laboratory". University of Western Australia. http://www.hpylori.com.au. Retrieved 2007-01-28.  His home page and various links can also be found there.
  11. ^ "Nobel laureate Marshall joins Penn State faculty". Penn State Live. 2007-09-06. http://live.psu.edu/story/25683. Retrieved 2007-09-06. 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. 2005. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/illpres/. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  13. ^ "Curriculum Vitae". Nobel Foundation. 2005. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/marshall-cv.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  14. ^ "It's an Honour". Government of Australia. 26 January 2007. http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/honour_roll/search.cfm?aus_award_id=1133678&search_type=quick&showInd=true. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  15. ^ "Encaenia 2009". University of Oxford. 24 June, 2009. http://www.ox.ac.uk/media/news_stories/2009/090624.html. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 

References

External links


Simple English

Barry Marshall
File:Barry
Barry Marshall
Born30 September 1951 (1951-09-30) (age 59)
Kalgoorlie, Western Australia
CitizenshipAustralian
Known forHelicobacter pylori

Barry James Marshall, AC, FRS, FAA (born 30 September 1951) is an Australian doctor and winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. Marshall is well-known for proving that bacteria Helicobacter pylori are the cause of most stomach ulcers. This changed years of medical belief which said that ulcers were caused by stress, spicy foods, and too much acid. He has recently taken a part-time position at the Pennsylvania State University.[1]

Contents

Early years

Marshall was born in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. He lived in Kalgoorlie and Carnarvon until moving to Perth at the age of seven. He went to high school at Newman College, Perth. At the University of Western Australia, he studied medicine and surgery. He married his wife, Adrienne, in 1972.[2] In 1972 he was also the Western Australian state yo-yo champion.[2]

Life and research

In 1979 Marshall became a Registrar in Medicine at the Royal Perth Hospital. At the hospital he met Robin Warren, a pathologist who was interested in gastritis. They were both training in internal medicine at Royal Perth Hospital in 1981. Together they looked at spiral bacteria in gastritis. In 1982 they grew a culture of H. pylori. They worked on their idea that there was a bacterial cause of peptic ulcer and stomach cancer.[2] Their idea was laughed at by scientists and doctors who did not believe that any bacteria could live in the acidic stomach. Marshall said that "Everyone was against me, but I knew I was right".[3] Other doctors said they wouldn't believe it until the H. pylori idea could be proved.[4]

Marshall and Warren tried to give the bacteria to piglets in 1984, but it did not work. Marshall drank some of the bacteria and soon developed gastritis with achlorhydria. He had stomach discomfort, nausea, vomiting and bad smelling breath. On the 14th day of the infection, biopsies of Marshall's stomach did not show any bacteria. His body may have got rid of the bacteria without help. His wife made him take antibiotics immediately so there was no way of checking the negative result again. He did not develop antibodies to H.pylori. This means that natural immunity can sometimes get rid of H.pylori infection. His illness and recovery, showed the link between H. pylori and gastritis, but not for peptic ulcer. This experiment was published in 1985 in the Medical Journal of Australia[5] and is among the most cited articles from the journal.[6]

After this work at Fremantle Hospital, Marshall did research at Royal Perth Hospital (1985-86) and at the University of Virginia, USA (1986-1996), before going back to Australia. He held a Burnet Fellowship at the University of Western Australia from 1998-2003.[7] He is still looking at H. pylori and runs the H.pylori Research Laboratory at UWA.[8]

Awards and honours

In 2005, the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm gave the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Dr. Marshall and Dr. Warren for finding the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its part in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.[9]

Marshall was given other awards including[10]:

  • Warren Alpert Prize in 1994
  • Australian Medical Association Award in 1995
  • Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research in 1995
  • Gairdner Foundation International Award in 1996
  • Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize in 1997
  • Dr A.H. Heineken Prize for Medicine in 1998
  • Florey Medal in 1998
  • Buchanan Medal of the Royal Society in 1998
  • Benjamin Franklin Medal for Life Sciences in 1999
  • Keio Medical Science Prize in 2002
  • Australian Centenary Medal in 2001.[11]

He was made a Companion of the Order of Australia in 2007.[12]

Notes

  1. "Nobel laureate Marshall joins Penn State faculty". Penn State Live. 2007-09-06. http://live.psu.edu/story/25683. Retrieved 2007-09-06. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Barry, Marshall (2005). "Autobiography". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/marshall-autobio.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  3. "Barry Marshall Interview, H. Pylori and the Making of a Myth". Academy of Achievement. 23 May 1998. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/printmember/mar1int-1. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  4. Atwood, Kimball C. (November 2004). "Bacteria, Ulcers, and Ostracism?". Skeptical Inquirer. http://www.csicop.org/si/2004-11/bacteria.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  5. Medical Journal of Australia
  6. Van Der Weyden, Martin B; Ruth M Armstrong and Ann T Gregory (2005). "The 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". Medical Journal of Australia (Medical Journal of Australia) 183 (11/12): 612–614. http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/183_11_051205/van11000_fm.html#0_i1091639. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  7. "Professor Barry Marshall". University of Western Australia. 28 July 2006. http://www.postgraduate.uwa.edu.au/home/prospective/heroes/marshall. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  8. Marshall, Barry (26 August 2002). "Helicobacter pylori Research Laboratory". University of Western Australia. http://www.hpylori.com.au. Retrieved 2007-01-28.  His home page and various links can also be found there.
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. 2005. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/illpres/. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  10. "Curriculum Vitae". Nobel Foundation. 2005. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/marshall-cv.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  11. "It's an Honour - Honours - Search Australian Honours". itsanhonour.gov.au. http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/honour_roll/search.cfm?aus_award_id=1126238&search_type=simple&showInd=true. Retrieved 26 September 2010. 
  12. "It's an Honour". Government of Australia. 26 January 2007. http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/honour_roll/search.cfm?aus_award_id=1133678&search_type=quick&showInd=true. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 

References

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