Base on balls: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rashad Eldridge of the Oklahoma Redhawks walks to first base after drawing a base on balls.

A base on balls (BB) is credited to a batter and against a pitcher in baseball statistics when a batter receives four pitches that the umpire calls balls. It is better known as a walk. The base on balls is defined in Section 2.00 of baseball's Official Rules,[1] and further detail is given in 6.08(a).[2] It is called a "walk" because the batter is then entitled to walk to first base, or more specifically (as defined in the rules of baseball) he is "entitled to first base without liability to be put out." However, the term "base on balls" is used in official context because it is considered a faux pas for a professional player to walk to first base (as opposed to physically running), and also to distinguish from the other manners in which a batter can be awarded first base without liability to be put out (e.g., hit by pitch, catcher's interference).

A batter who draws a base on balls is commonly said to have been "walked" by the pitcher. When the batter is walked, runners advance one base without liability to be put out only if forced to vacate their base to allow the batter to take first base. If a batter draws a walk with the bases loaded, all preceding runners are forced to advance, including the runner on third base who is forced to home plate to score a run, and the batter is credited with an RBI per rule 10.04.[3]

Receiving a base on balls does not count as a hit or an at bat for a batter but does count as a time on base and a plate appearance. Therefore, a base on balls does not increase nor decrease a player's batting average, but it does increase his on-base percentage.[4]

A hit by pitch is not counted statistically as a walk, though the effect is the same, with the batter receiving a free pass to first base.


Intentional base on balls

A subset of the base on balls, an intentional base on balls (IBB) or intentional walk is when the pitcher deliberately pitches the ball away from the batter in order to issue a base on balls. As with any other walk, an intentional walk entitles the batter to first base without liability to be put out, and entitles any runners to advance if forced. Intentional walks are a strategic defensive maneuver, usually done to bypass one hitter for one the defensive team believes is less likely to initiate a run-scoring play (e.g., a home run, sacrifice fly, or RBI base hit), or to set up a double play or force out situation for the next batter. They do carry an inherent risk, however, as they give the offensive team another runner on base, without any effort on their part, who could potentially score a run.

Mark Hendrickson of the Florida Marlins intentionally walking the Atlanta Braves' Yunel Escobar in 2008. Note the Florida catcher, Mike Rabelo, in a standing position behind the opposite batter's box to receive the pitch

An intentional walk is signaled by the catcher standing and extending one arm to the side away from the batter. The pitcher then pitches the ball to that side several feet outside from home plate, usually outside the reach of the batter. A ball pitched in this manner is called an intentional ball and counts as a ball in the pitcher's pitch count. In order to count as an intentional ball, the ball must be legally pitched, i.e., the pitcher's foot must be on the pitcher's rubber, the catcher must be in the catcher's box, and the batter must be in the batter's box appearing ready to take a pitch at the time the ball is thrown. An intentional walk may be signaled at any time during the batter's turn at the plate; in these cases only enough additional intentional balls need to be thrown to bring the total to four. Only walks issued by the catcher signaling as described above are recorded as intentional walks (see below); walks issued without the catcher signaling – even if the pitches are intentionally thrown outside of the strike zone – are not recorded as intentional.

Another risk taken by the defensive team in issuing a base on balls is that since intentional balls must be pitched in a legal manner, they can legally become wild pitches or passed balls. Likewise, a baserunner can attempt to steal a base, or the batter can choose to swing at an intentional ball; however, these rarely occur since taking these risks is rarely more beneficial to the offensive team than allowing the walk. In the Major Leagues, the most recent example of a swing at an intentional ball resulting in a hit occurred during a June 22, 2006 game between the Florida Marlins and the Baltimore Orioles. In the top of the 10th inning, with a runner on second base, Baltimore pitcher Todd Williams was signaled to intentionally walk the Marlins' Miguel Cabrera. Noticing that the intentional ball came in too close to the plate, Cabrera swung at the ball, resulting in a base hit and a run scored for Florida.[5]

Though intentional walks are recorded as such in the records of the official scorer, they are combined with standard, non-intentional walks when calculating a player's on-base percentage, and were only given a separate column with a player's statistics since 1955.

Batters, on occasion, have been given intentional walks with the bases loaded (effectively giving the offensive team a risk-free run), although this occurs very infrequently.[6]

A common nickname for the intentional walk is four-finger salute, since most managers call for an intentional walk by holding up four fingers. Outside the professional leagues, such as in high school or college baseball, the manager may simply request to the plate umpire to let the batter go to first instead of having the pitcher waste four outside pitches.

Barry Bonds is the all time record holder with 688 intentional bases on balls (as of the start of the 2008 season). The next most is Hank Aaron with 293.

Major League Baseball leaders


Top 100 MLB leaders in base on balls (walks)
through October 8, 2009


All-time rank Player Base on balls
10 Jim Thome 1,619
19 Gary Sheffield 1,475
32 Chipper Jones 1,343
38 Ken Griffey, Jr. 1,303
40 Manny Ramirez 1,283
45 Jason Giambi 1,262


Rank Player Year Base on balls
1 Barry Bonds 2004 232
2 Barry Bonds 2002 198
3 Barry Bonds 2001 177
4 Babe Ruth 1923 170
5 Mark McGwire 1998 162
Ted Williams 1947 162
Ted Williams 1949 162
8 Ted Williams 1946 156
9 Barry Bonds 1996 151
Eddie Yost 1956 151

See also related lists


  1. ^ rule 2.00
  2. ^ rule 6.00
  3. ^ rule 10.00
  4. ^ In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits. The result was skyrocketed batting averages, including some near .500, and the experiment was abandoned the following season. Current record books do not count walks in 1887 as hits.
  5. ^ "Marlins' Cabrera spoils intentional walk in win". 2006-06-22. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  6. ^ Holtzman, Jerome (May 2000). Free Pass—Players who were intentionally walked with bases loaded - Brief Article. Baseball Digest. Retrieved on 2009-05-13.

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