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basic helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domain
Basic helix loop helix.png
Basic-helix-loop-helix structural motif of ARNT. Two α-helices (blue) are connected by a short loop (red).[1]
Identifiers
Symbol bHLH
Pfam PF00010
InterPro IPR001092
PROSITE PDOC00038
SCOP 1mdy

A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) is a protein structural motif that characterizes a family of transcription factors.[2][3][4]

Contents

Structure

The motif is characterized by two α-helices connected by a loop. In general, transcription factors including this domain are dimeric, each with one helix containing basic amino acid residues that facilitate DNA binding.[5] In general, one helix is smaller, and, due to the flexibility of the loop, allows dimerization by folding and packing against another helix. The larger helix typically contains the DNA-binding regions. bHLH proteins typically bind to a consensus sequence called an E-box, CANNTG.[6] The canonical E-box is CACGTG (palindromic), however some bHLH transcription factors bind to non-palindromic sequences, which are often similar to the E-box.

Examples

Examples of transcription factors containing a bHLH include:

bHLH transcription factors are often important in development or cell activity. BMAL1-Clock is a core transcription complex in the molecular circadian clock. Other genes, like c-Myc and HIF-1, have been linked to cancer due to their effects on cell growth and metabolism.

Regulation

Since many bHLH transcription factors are heterodimeric, their activity is often highly regulated by the dimerization of the subunits. One subunit's expression or availability is often controlled, whereas the other subunit is constituitively expressed. Many of the known regulatory proteins, such as the Drosophila extramacrochaetae protein, have the helix-loop-helix structure but lack the basic region, making them unable to bind to DNA on their own. They are, however, able to form heterodimers with proteins that have the bHLH structure, and inactivate their abilities as transcription factors.[7]

History

  • 1989: Murre et al. could show that dimers of various bHLH proteins bind to a short DNA motif (later called E-Box).[8] This E-box consists of the DNA sequence CANNTG, where N can be any nucleotide.[6]

Human proteins with helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domain

AHR; AHRR; ARNT; ARNT2; ARNTL; ARNTL2; ASCL1; ASCL2; ASCL3; ASCL4; ATOH1; ATOH7; ATOH8; BHLHB2; BHLHB3; BHLHB4; BHLHB5; BHLHB8; CLOCK; EPAS1; FERD3L; FIGLA; HAND1; HAND2; HES1; HES2; HES3; HES4; HES5; HES6; HES7; HEY1; HEY2; HIF1A; ID1; ID2; ID3; ID4; KIAA2018; LYL1; MASH1; MATH2; MAX; MESP1; MESP2; MIST1; MITF; MLX; MLXIP; MLXIPL; MNT; MSC; MSGN1; MXD1; MXD3; MXD4; MXI1; MYC; MYCL1; MYCL2; MYCN; MYF5; MYF6; MYOD1; MYOG; NCOA1; NCOA3; NEUROD1; NEUROD2; NEUROD4; NEUROD6; NEUROG1; NEUROG2; NEUROG3; NHLH1; NHLH2; NPAS1; NPAS2; NPAS3; OAF1; OLIG1; OLIG2; OLIG3; PTF1A; SCL; SCXB; SIM1; SIM2; SOHLH1; SOHLH2; SREBF1; SREBF2; TAL1; TAL2; TCF12; TCF15; TCF21; TCF3; TCF4; TCFL5; TFAP4; TFE3; TFEB; TFEC; TWIST1; TWIST2; USF1; USF2;

References

  1. ^ PDB 1x0o; Card PB, Erbel PJ, Gardner KH (October 2005). "Structural basis of ARNT PAS-B dimerization: use of a common beta-sheet interface for hetero- and homodimerization". J. Mol. Biol. 353 (3): 664–77. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.08.043. PMID 16181639.  
  2. ^ Murre C, Bain G, van Dijk MA, Engel I, Furnari BA, Massari ME, Matthews JR, Quong MW, Rivera RR, Stuiver MH (June 1994). "Structure and function of helix-loop-helix proteins". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1218 (2): 129–35. PMID 8018712. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0167-4781(94)90001-9.  
  3. ^ Littlewood TD, Evan GI (1995). "Transcription factors 2: helix-loop-helix". Protein Profile 2 (6): 621–702. PMID 7553065.  
  4. ^ Massari ME, Murre C (January 2000). "Helix-loop-helix proteins: regulators of transcription in eucaryotic organisms". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (2): 429–40. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.2.429-440.2000. PMID 10611221. PMC 85097. http://mcb.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10611221.  
  5. ^ Lawrence Zipursky; Arnold Berk; Monty Krieger; Darnell, James E.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Kaiser, Chris; Matthew P Scott; Matsudaira, Paul T.. McGill Lodish 5E Package - Molecular Cell Biology & McGill Activation Code. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8635-4.  
  6. ^ a b Chaudhary J, Skinner MK (1999). "Basic helix-loop-helix proteins can act at the E-box within the serum response element of the c-fos promoter to influence hormone-induced promoter activation in Sertoli cells". Mol. Endocrinol. 13 (5): 774–86. doi:10.1210/me.13.5.774. PMID 10319327.  
  7. ^ Cabrera CV, Alonso MC, Huikeshoven H (1994). "Regulation of scute function by extramacrochaete in vitro and in vivo". Development 120 (12): 3595–603. PMID 7821225.  
  8. ^ Murre C, McCaw PS, Vaessin H, et al. (1989). "Interactions between heterologous helix-loop-helix proteins generate complexes that bind specifically to a common DNA sequence". Cell 58 (3): 537–44. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90434-0. PMID 2503252.  

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