Basque Chilean: Wikis

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Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque-ChileanChile
chileno-vasco
Francisco "Chaleco" López 1.jpg Kenita Larraín.jpg Catalina Palacios.jpg Manuel José Ossandón Irarrázabal.jpg
Notable Basque Chileans: Francisco "Chaleco" López, Kenita Larraín, Catalina Palacios, Manuel José Ossandón Irarrázabal
Total population
1,600,000 - 4,500,000
10% to 27% of Chile's Population
Regions with significant populations
Santiago, Viña del Mar, Valparaiso, Punta Arenas, Concepcion.
Languages

Chilean Spanish, Euskera (Basque), French

Religion

Roman Catholicism

Related ethnic groups

Basque people, Basque diaspora, Spanish people, French people

Many Basques arrived in Chile in the 16th,17th,18th and 19th century from their homeland in northern Spain (see Basque Provinces) and parts of southwestern France, as conquistadors, soldiers, sailors, merchants, priests and labourers. Due to their traditional hard work and entrepreneurship, many of them rose to the top of the social scale and intermarried into the Chilean elites formed by Basques, giving birth to the new Basque-Chilean aristocracy in Chile. This union is the basis of the Chilean elite of today. But also, they immensely contributed to the ethnic make up of the bulk of the Chilean population. Many years after the first waves of settlers, thousands of Basque refugees fleeing Spanish Civil War in 1939 also settled and have many descendants in the country and have even intermarried with Spanish ethnic groups other than Castilians, and other European ethnic groups. An estimated range of Basque-Chileans from 10% (1,600,000) to as high as 27% (4,500,000).[1][2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

To describe the Basque-Chilean relationship, we cite Miguel de Unamuno, who said: "There are at least two things that clearly can be attributed to the Basques : the Society of Jesus and the Republic of Chile."[9]

Contents

History

The Basque presence in Chile began in the conquista period, for in the armies of the first colonizers came a contingent important soldiers from the Basque Provinces and from Navarra. In the 16th century, of the 157 Peninsular families that settled in Chile, 39 had Basque surnames. This number progressively grew, as reflected in the number of governors of Basque origin.

Forms a regional immigration corridor between Spain and Chile, one that is large, visible, and continues over time. Basque immigration can be divided into historical periods: discovery, foundation, and colonial period; the wave of immigration of the 18th century; and the recent immigrants (19th and 20th centuries).

During the 18th century, the country experimented a mass immigration coming from the Basque provinces and Navarra, by the end of the 18th century represents 27% of the chilean population.[10] This raised the Basques to being the most important regional group in the population, displacing the natives and descendants of those born in New Castile, Old Castile, and Andalucía. These immigrant families initially dedicated themselves to their preferred form of business, and in successive years produced many alliances with families of Castilian origin possessing lands and titles, giving birth to a new social group known in Chilean history as the "Castilian-Basque Aristocracy."

In the second half of the 19 century came a new wave of Basque immigration, this time as much from the Spanish regions as the French. This migratory flood are extended until the end of the Spanish Civil War.

Notable Basque-Chileans

Notable Basque-Chilean families

See also

References

  1. ^ Diariovasco.
  2. ^ entrevista al Presidente de la Cámara vasca.
  3. ^ vascos Ainara Madariaga: Autora del estudio "Imaginarios vascos desde Chile La construcción de imaginarios vascos en Chile durante el siglo XX".
  4. ^ Basques au Chili.
  5. ^ Contacto Interlingüístico e intercultural en el mundo hispano.instituto valenciano de lenguas y culturas. Universitat de València Cita: " Un 20% de la población chilena tiene su origen en el País Vasco".
  6. ^ (Spanish) La población chilena con ascendencia vasca bordea entre el 15% y el 20% del total, por lo que es uno de los países con mayor presencia de emigrantes venidos de Euskadi.
  7. ^ El 27% de los chilenos son descendientes de emigrantes vascos. DE LOS VASCOS, OÑATI Y LOS ELORZA Waldo Ayarza Elorza.
  8. ^ (Spanish) Presencia vasca en Chile.
  9. ^ "«La Compañía de Jesús y la República de Chile son las dos grandes hazañas del pueblo vascongado», solía decir don Miguel de Unamuno". Miguel de Unamuno used to say "The Company of Jesus and the Republic of Chile are the two great achievements of the Basque people." [1]
  10. ^ Vascos en Chile.
  11. ^ Pedro Aguirre Cerda.
  12. ^ Salvador Allende.
  13. ^ Maricarmen Arrigorriaga.
  14. ^ José Manuel Balmaceda.
  15. ^ Alberto Blest Gana.
  16. ^ Felipe Camiroaga.
  17. ^ Javiera Carrera
  18. ^ José Miguel Carrera
  19. ^ Marco Enríquez-Ominami Gumucio.
  20. ^ Federico Errázuriz Zañartu.
  21. ^ Domingo Eyzaguirre.
  22. ^ Alejandro Gorostiaga.
  23. ^ Lucía Hiriart.
  24. ^ Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga.
  25. ^ Marta Larraechea.
  26. ^ Fernando Larraín.
  27. ^ Hernán Larraín.
  28. ^ María Eugenia "Kenita" Larraín.
  29. ^ Roberto Matta Echaurren.
  30. ^ Possible Paradises, Basque Emigration to Latin America By José Manuel Azcona Pastor.
  31. ^ Bernardo O'Higgins.
  32. ^ Augusto Pinochet Ugarte.
  33. ^ Manuel Rodríguez Erdoiza.
  34. ^ Fernando Solabarrieta.
  35. ^ Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna.
  36. ^ Adolfo Zaldívar.
  37. ^ Andrés Zaldívar.
  38. ^ Aníbal Zañartu.
  39. ^ Allende family.
  40. ^ Balmaceda family.
  41. ^ Carrera family
  42. ^ Possible Paradises, Basque Emigration to Latin America By José Manuel Azcona Pastor.
  43. ^ Larraín family.

External links

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