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Bats
Fossil range: 52–0 Ma
Late Paleocene – Recent
Townsend's big-eared bat, Corynorhinus townsendii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria[1]
Order: Chiroptera
Blumenbach, 1779
Suborders
See article
Bats are flying mammals in the order Chiroptera (pronounced /kaɪˈrɒptərə/). The forelimbs of bats are webbed and developed as wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. .By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums and colugos, glide rather than fly, and only for short distances.^ It's made worse when the monster splits into two and has one of them swarm you as said Goddamned Bats, while the other tries to attack you with magic or some such.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ This list excludes villains who have appeared only in venues other than DC Comics, such as Egghead and the Ninja.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Each is a flying enemy with a large movement range and higher Agility than other enemies for that part of the game (meaning your attacks are significantly more likely to miss).
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread out digits,[2] which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. Chiroptera comes from two Greek words, cheir (χειρ) "hand" and pteron (πτερον) "wing."
.There are about 1,100 bat species worldwide, which represent about twenty percent of all classified mammal species.^ There's exactly one very short cave with bats, but killing them is about as pointless as shooting at trees.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

[3] About seventy percent of bats are insectivores. Most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species feed from animals other than insects. Bats are present throughout most of the world and perform vital ecological roles such as pollinating flowers and dispersing fruit seeds. Many tropical plants depend entirely on bats for the distribution of their seeds.
Bats range in size from Kitti's Hog-nosed Bat measuring 29–33 mm (1.14–1.30 in) in length and 2 g (0.07 oz) in mass,[4] to the Giant Golden-crowned Flying-fox, which has a wing span of 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) and weighs approximately 1.2 kg (3 lb).

Contents

Fossil bats

.There are few fossilized remains of bats, as they are terrestrial and light-boned.^ Mission 4 has an entire area filled to the brim with bats, and also a few tough enemies spawn there too.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.An Eocene bat, Onychonycteris finneyi, was found in the fifty-two-million-year-old Green River Formation in South Dakota, United States, in 2004 and was added as a new genus and placed in a new family when published in Nature in 2008.[5] It had characteristics indicating that it could fly, yet the well-preserved skeleton showed that the cochlea of the inner ear lacked development needed to support the greater hearing abilities of modern bats.^ And they show up in greater numbers in the Trilogy edition, and in new places too.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ He is the son of two hippie criminals who travelled across the United States with him.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Jason re-emerged years later as the new Red Hood, ironically the Joker's old alias.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

This provided evidence that flight in bats developed well before echolocation. .The team that found the remains of this species, named Onychonycteris finneyi, recognized that it lacked ear and throat features present not only in echolocating bats today, but also in other known prehistoric species.^ Other enemies acting exactly like Keese are Guay (Like Keese, only outdoors) and Bad Bats (Like Keese, only bigger.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Fossil remains of another Eocene bat, Icaronycteris, were found in 1960.
The appearance and flight movement of bats 52.5 million years ago were different from those of bats today. .Onychonycteris had claws on all five of its fingers, whereas modern bats have at most two claws appearing on two digits of each hand.^ In the 1978 Avalon Hill board game Magic Realm the giant bats are among the most dangerous of all monsters.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

It also had longer hind legs and shorter forearms, similar to climbing mammals that hang under branches such as sloths and gibbons. This palm-sized bat had broad, short wings suggesting that it could not fly as fast or as far as later bat species. Instead of flapping its wings continuously while flying, Onychonycteris likely alternated between flaps and glides while in the air. .Such physical characteristics suggest that this bat did not fly as much as modern bats do, rather flying from tree to tree and spending most of its waking day climbing or hanging on the branches of trees.^ Neopets has a flash game that's pretty much your basic Breakout, only with a pair of bats flying around to get in your way.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ It also suggests that he has no true personality of his own, that on any given day he can be a harmless clown or a vicious killer, depending on which would benefit him the most.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Classification and evolution

Bats are mammals. .Sometimes they are mistakenly called "flying rodents" or "flying rats", and they can also be mistaken for insects and birds.^ Skljagger: Revolt of the Westicans has a number of annoying flying enemies, including giant insects, large birds, and monkey/bird hybrids.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Plus, they fly, so they can be hard to hit sometimes.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

There are two suborders of bats:
Not all megabats are larger than microbats. The major distinctions between the two suborders are:
  • Microbats use echolocation: megabats do not with the exception of Rousettus and relatives.
  • Microbats lack the claw at the second toe of the forelimb.
  • The ears of microbats do not close to form a ring: the edges are separated from each other at the base of the ear.
  • Microbats lack underfur: they are either naked or have guard hairs.
Megabats eat fruit, nectar or pollen while most microbats eat insects; others may feed on the blood of animals, small mammals, fish, fruit, pollen or nectar. Megabats have a well-developed visual cortex and show good visual acuity, while microbats rely on echolocation for navigation and finding prey.
The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. .The traditional subdivision between Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflects the view that these groups of bats have evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor that was already capable of flight.^ Now factor in the fact that these bats are fast, often get the first move, and can come in groups as small as two, or as many as six .
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.This hypothesis recognized differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has just evolved only in one order of mammals.^ Because not only is it a good Pokemon itself, but it evolved into a rather powerful Pokemon just by happiness, making it something of a Disc One Nuke .
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group.[7]
Researchers have proposed alternate views of chiropteran phylogeny and classification, but more research is needed.
Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four major lines of microbats.
Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed. The new suborder Yinpterochiroptera includes the Pteropodidae or megabat family as well as the Rhinolophidae, Megadermatidae, and Rhinopomatidae families. The new suborder Yangochiroptera includes all the remaining families of bats (all of which use laryngeal echolocation). These two new suborders are strongly supported by statistical tests. Teeling (2005) found 100% bootstrap support in all maximum likelihood analyses for the division of Chiroptera into these two modified suborders. This conclusion is further supported by a fifteen-base pair deletion in BRCA1 and a seven-base pair deletion in PLCB4 present in all Yangochiroptera and absent in all Yinpterochiroptera.[8] .The Chiropteran phylogeny based on molecular evidence is controversial because microbat paraphyly implies that one of two seemingly unlikely hypotheses occurred.^ Monsters that fly move in an even more random pattern because they move in two dimensions instead of one.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

The first suggests that laryngeal echolocation evolved twice in Chiroptera, once in Yangochiroptera and once in the rhinolophoids.[9][10] The second proposes that laryngeal echolocation had a single origin in Chiroptera, was subsequently lost in the family Pteropodidae (all megabats), and later evolved as a system of tongue-clicking in the genus Rousettus.[11]
Common Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus pipistrellus.
Analyses of the sequence of the "vocalization" gene, FoxP2 was inconclusive of whether laryngeal echolocation was secondarily lost in the pteropodids or independently gained in the echolocating lineages[12]. However, analyses of the "hearing" gene, Prestin seemed to favor the independent gain in echolocating species rather than a secondary loss in the pteropodids.[13]
In addition to Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, the names Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes have also been proposed for these suborders.[14][15] .Under this new proposed nomenclature, the suborder Pteropodiformes includes all extant bat families more closely related to the genus Pteropus than the genus Vespertilio, while the suborder Vespertilioniformes includes all extant bat families more closely related to the genus Vespertilio than to the genus Pteropus.^ Blue Wizzrobes are more like Demonic Spiders than Goddamned Bats .
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated that the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera. The so-called flying primates theory proposed that when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features that are not shared with Microchiroptera. One example is that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats,[16] debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic and morphological evidence.[citation needed]
Little fossil evidence is available to help map the evolution of bats, since their small, delicate skeletons do not fossilize very well. However a Late Cretaceous tooth from South America resembles that of an early Microchiropteran bat. The oldest known definitely identified bat fossils, such as Icaronycteris, Archaeonycteris, Palaeochiropteryx and Hassianycteris, are from the early Eocene period, 52.5 million years ago[7]. .These fossil bats were already very similar to modern microbats.^ Medusa Heads were a worse variation of these bats: their moving patterns were very erratic, making them hard to hit.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Archaeopteropus, formerly classified as the earliest known megachiropteran, is now classified as a microchiropteran.
Bats were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta along with the treeshrews (Scandentia), colugos (Dermoptera), and the primates, because of the apparent similarities between Megachiroptera and such mammals. Genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria along with carnivorans, pangolins, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans.[1]
"Chiroptera" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
The traditional classification of bats is:
Megabats primarily eat fruit or nectar. In New Guinea, they are likely to have evolved for some time in the absence of microbats. This has resulted in some smaller megabats of the genus Nyctimene becoming (partly) insectivorous to fill the vacant microbat ecological niche. .Furthermore, there is some evidence that the fruit bat genus Pteralopex from the Solomon Islands, and its close relative Mirimiri from Fiji, have evolved to fill some niches that were open because there are no nonvolant or non-flying mammals in those islands.^ Furthermore, there is one bonus mission that has you facing six Chimerea-possessed Assaults (which are tougher enemies on their own) and requires that you take no damage.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ "Defeat Enemies With Items" medal, at which points you'll be damning those high-flying, nigh-unreachable bats quite often.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Those which attract objects aren't too bad, but those which repel, are, making objects to go fly everywhere and player has to fly very close to them to shoot them due to their repelling force.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Anatomy

Skeleton of a Greater Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis myotis).

Echolocation

Bat echolocation is a perceptual system where ultrasonic sounds are emitted specifically to produce echoes. By comparing the outgoing pulse with the returning echoes the brain and auditory nervous system can produce detailed images of the bat's surroundings. This allows bats to detect, localize and even classify their prey in complete darkness. At 130 decibels in intensity, bat calls are some of the most intense airborne animal sounds.[17]
To clearly distinguish returning information, bats must be able to separate their calls from the echoes they receive. Microbats use two distinct approaches.
1.Low Duty Cycle Echolocation: Bats can separate their calls and returning echos in time. .Bats that use this approach time their short calls to finish before echoes return.^ Inspired by the Bat-Signal, he becomes the Signalman, using signals, signs, and symbols in his crimes, but is inevitably defeated by Batman and Robin, time and again.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

This is also important because these bats contract their middle ear muscles when emitting a call to avoid deafening themselves. .The time interval between call and echo allows them to relax these muscles so they can clearly hear the returning echo.^ However, in Metroid Prime 2 Echoes, there are these cyborg puffers called Preeds, which have the same mechanism.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

[18]
2. High Duty Cycle Echolocation: Bats emit a continuous call and separate pulse and echo in frequency. The ears of these bats are sharply tuned to a specific frequency range. They emit calls outside of this range to avoid self-deafening. They then receive echoes back at the finely tuned frequency range by taking advantage of the Doppler shift of their motion in flight. These bats must deal with changes in the Doppler shift due to changes in their flight speed. They have adapted to change their pulse emission frequency in relation to their flight speed so echoes still return in the optimal hearing range.[19]
The new Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera classification of bats that are supported by molecular evidence, suggest two possibilities for the evolution of echolocation. It may have been gained once in a common ancestor of all bats and was then subsequently lost in the Old World fruit bats, only to be regained in the Horse-Shoe bats; or echolocation was evolved independent in both the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochirpotera lineages.[20]
Two groups of moths exploit a bat sense to echolocate: tiger moths produce ultrasonic signals to warn the bats of that moths are chemically-protective or aposematic. This was once thought to be the biological equivalent of "radar jamming", but this theory has yet to be confirmed. The moths Noctuidae have a hearing organ called a tympanum, which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth's flight muscles to twitch erratically, sending the moth into random evasive manoeuvres.

Eyes

Although the eyes of most microbat species are small and poorly developed, leading to poor visual acuity, none of them are blind. Vision is used to navigate microbats especially for long distances when beyond the range of echolocation. It has even been discovered that some species are able to detect ultraviolet light. They also have a high quality sense of smell and hearing. Bats hunt at night to avoid competition with birds, and travel large distances at most 800 km, in their search for food.[2]

Wings

Thermographic image of a bat using trapped air as insulation.
.The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals.^ In the last 20 years, however, there have been more human rabies cases of bat origin in the United States than of any other wildlife group.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more than 60 years, artificial bat roosts have been used in Europe.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big brown bat is one of the most widely distributed of bats in the United States and is probably familiar to more people than any other species.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One reason is that the cartilage in their fingers lacks calcium and other minerals nearer the tips, increasing their ability to bend without splintering. The cross-section of the finger bone is also flattened compared to the circular cross section that human finger bones have, and is very flexible. .The skin on their wing membranes has more elasticity and so can stretch much more than other mammals.^ In some instances she claims to love him, in other encounters she functions as an ally, and at other times she is more than willing to kill him.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ She is a more compatible partner than Wesker, since Scarface no longer substitutes "b" with "g" and is much more compliant with Scarface's brutal methods.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

.The wings of bats are much thinner than those of birds, so bats can manoeuvre more quickly and more accurately than birds.^ She is a more compatible partner than Wesker, since Scarface no longer substitutes "b" with "g" and is much more compliant with Scarface's brutal methods.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

It is also delicate, ripping easily.[21] However the tissue of the bat's membrane is able to regrow, such that small tears can heal quickly.[21][22] The surface of their wings is equipped with touch-sensitive receptors on small bumps called Merkel cells, found in most mammals including humans, similarly found on our finger tips. These sensitive areas are different in bats as each bump has a tiny hair in the center,[23] making it even more sensitive and allowing the bat to detect and collect information about the air flowing over its wings, thereby providing feedback to the bat to change its shape of its wing to fly more efficiently.[23] Some bats like the little brown bat can use this dexterious ability where it is able to drink in mid air.[24] Other bats such as the flying fox or fruit bat gently skim the water's surface, then land nearby to lick water from their chest fur.[25] .An additional kind of receptor cell is found in the wing membrane of species that use their wings to catch prey.^ In addition to that, the main character's whip is too short and slow to be actually useful against this kind of enemy.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

This receptor cell is sensitive to the stretching of the membrane.[23] .The cells are concentrated in areas of the membrane where insects hit the wings when the bats capture them.^ Take the captured bat outdoors and release it away from populated areas, preferably after dark.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the bat has difficulty escaping, it can be captured in a hand net (for example, an insect net [Fig.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other

The teeth of microbats resemble insectivorans. They are very sharp to bite through the hardened armor of insects or the skin of fruit. Mammals have one-way valves in veins to prevent the blood from flowing backwards, but bats also have one-way valves in arteries.
.One species of bat has the longest tongue of any mammal relative to its body size.^ Although the fresh urine of a single bat is relatively odorless, that of any moderate-sized colony is obvious, and the odor increases during damp weather.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big brown bat is one of the most widely distributed of bats in the United States and is probably familiar to more people than any other species.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, weve got two able-bodied people inside, including one whos worked with bats all her life, and one measly bat.
  • Bats Review - Jabootu's Bad Movie Dimension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.jabootu.com [Source type: Original source]

This is beneficial to them in terms of pollination and feeding their long narrow tongues can reach deep into the long cup shape of some flowers. When their tongue retracts, it coils up inside their rib cage.[26]

Reproduction

Newborn Common Pipistrelle, Pipistrellus pipistrellus.
Colony of Mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis.
Most bats have a breeding season, which is in the spring for species living in a temperate climate. Bats may have one to three litters in a season, depending on the species and on environmental conditions such as the availability of food and roost sites. Females generally have one offspring at a time, this is maybe a result of the mother's need to fly to feed while pregnant. Female bats nurse their youngster until it has grown nearly to adult size, this is because a young bat cannot forage on its own until its wings are fully developed.
.Female bats use a variety of strategies to control the timing of pregnancy and the birth of young, to make delivery coincide with maximum food ability and other ecological factors.^ Inspired by the Bat-Signal, he becomes the Signalman, using signals, signs, and symbols in his crimes, but is inevitably defeated by Batman and Robin, time and again.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ He is an insane neuroscientist and developed hardware that can control the brain and induce hypnotic states, and often uses hats or other headgear for mind control.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

Females of some species have delayed fertilization, in which sperm are stored in the reproductive tract for several months after mating. In many such cases, mating occurs in the fall, and fertilization does not occur until the following spring. Other species exhibit delayed implantation, in which the egg is fertilized after mating, but remains free in the reproductive tract until external conditions become favorable for giving birth and caring for the offspring. In yet another strategy, fertilization and implantation both occur but development of the fetus is delayed until favorable conditions prevail. All of these adaptations result in the pup being born during a time of high local production of fruit or insects.
At birth wings are too small to be used for flight. Young microbats become independent at the age of 6 to 8 weeks, megabats do not until they are four months old.
.A single bat can live over 20 years, but the bat population growth is limited by the slow birth rate.^ In the last 20 years, however, there have been more human rabies cases of bat origin in the United States than of any other wildlife group.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big brown bats may live as long as 18 years.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bats often live more than 10 years.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Hunting, feeding, and drinking

Newborn bats rely on the milk from their mother’s nipples for sustenance.[28] When they are a few weeks old, bats are expected to fly and hunt on their own. It is up to them to find and catch their prey, along with satisfying their thirst.[29]

Hunting

Bats are nocturnal creatures. Their daylight hours are spent grooming, sleeping, and resting; it is during the nighttime hours that they hunt. The means by which bats navigate while finding and catching their prey in the dark was unknown until the 1790s, when Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted a series of experiments on a group of blind bats. These bats were placed in a room submerged in total darkness, with silk threads strung across the room. Even then, the bats were able to navigate their way through the room. Spallanzani concluded that the bats were not using their eyes to fly through complete darkness, but something else.
Spallanzani decided that bats were able to catch and find their prey through the use of their ears. To prove this theory, Spallanzani plugged the ears of the bats in his experiment. To his pleasure, he found that the bats with plugged ears were not able to fly with the same amount of skill and precision that they were able to without their ears plugged.
Bats seem to use their ears to locate and catch their prey, but how they accomplish this wasn’t discovered until the 1930s, by one Donald R. Griffin. .Griffin, who was a biology student at Harvard College at the time, discovered that bats use echolocation to locate and catch their prey.^ Inspired by the Bat-Signal, he becomes the Signalman, using signals, signs, and symbols in his crimes, but is inevitably defeated by Batman and Robin, time and again.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

When bats fly, they produce a constant stream of high pitch sounds that only bats are able to hear. When the sound waves produced by these sounds hit an insect or other animal, the echoes bounce back to the bat, and guide them to the source.[29]

Feeding

The majority of food consumed by bats includes:
  • Insects
  • Fruits and flower nectar
  • Vertebrates
  • Blood
Almost three-fourths of the world’s bats are insect eaters. Each of these bats is able to consume one third of its body weight in insects each night, and several hundred insects in a few hours. This means that a group of one thousand bats could eat four tons of insects each year. If bats were to become extinct, the insect population would reach an alarmingly high number.[31]
The types of insects consumed by bats can be divided into two categories; aerial insects, and ground dwelling insects.

Aerial insectivores

Watching a bat catch and eat an insect is difficult. .The action is so fast that all one sees is a bat rapidly change directions, and continue on its way.^ All of the victims are police officers who, in one way or another, helped Harvey Dent rise to his position of District Attorney.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

Scientist Frederick A. Webster discovered how bats catch their prey. In 1960, Webster developed a high-speed camera that was able to take one thousand pictures per second. These photos revealed the fast and precise way in which bats catch insects.[29] Occasionally, a bat will catch an insect in mid-air with its mouth, and eat it in the air. .However, more often than not, a bat will use its tail membrane or wings to scoop up the insect and trap it in a sort of “bug net”.^ Accordingly, he still leaves his victims with post-mortem smiles throughout the film, but with the use of a knife and make-up rather than chemical manipulation.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] Then, the bat will take the insect back to its roost. There, the bat will proceed to eat said insect, often using its tail membrane as a kind of napkin, to prevent its meal from falling to the ground.[32]

Forage gleaners

These bats typically fly down and grasp their prey off the ground with their teeth, and take it to a nearby perch to eat it. Generally, these bats don’t use echolocation to locate their prey. Instead, they rely on the sounds produced by the insects. Some make unique sounds, and almost all make some noise while moving through the environment.[28]

Fruits and flower nectar

.Fruit eating, or frugivory, is a specific habit found in two families of bats.^ Antillean fruit eating bat .

^ Cuban fruit eating bat .

^ Brachyphylla - the west Indian fruit-eating bats .

Megachiropterans and microchiropterans both include species of bat that feed on fruits. These bats feed on the juices of sweet fruits, and fulfill the needs of some seeds to be dispersed. The fruits preferred by most fruit eating bats are fleshy and sweet, but not particularly strong smelling or colorful.[28] .To get the juice of these fruits, bats pull the fruit off the trees with their teeth, and fly back to their roost with the fruit in their mouth.^ Panniet naked backed fruit bat .

^ Solomon's naked backed fruit bat .

^ Biak Naked backed fruit bat .

There, the bat will consume the fruit in a specific way. To do this, the bats crush open the fruit and eat the parts that satisfy their hunger. The remainder of the fruit; the seeds and pulp, are spat onto the ground. .These seeds take root and begin to grow into new fruit trees.^ Blackfire begins a violent war on crime, which escalates into him taking over the entire city, isolating it from the rest of the country.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

[33] “Over one hundred and fifty types of plants depend on bats in order to reproduce”.[34]
Some bats prefer the nectar of flowers to insects or other animals. These bats have evolved specifically for this process. For example, these bats possess long muzzles and long extrusible tongues covered in fine bristles that aid them in feeding on particular flowers and plants.[28] When they sip the nectar from these flowers, pollen gets stuck to their fur, and is dusted off when the bat takes flight, thus pollinating the plants below them.[35] The rainforest is said to be the most benefitted out off all the biomes that bats live in, because of the large variety of appealing plants.[36] .Because of their specific eating habits, nectar-feeding bats are more prone to extinction than any other bat.^ In some instances she claims to love him, in other encounters she functions as an ally, and at other times she is more than willing to kill him.
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[37] However, according to a study done, published in Biotropica, bats benefit from eating fruits and nectar just as much from eating insects.[38]

Vertebrates

.Although most bats are not included in this group, there is a small group that comprises the carnivorous bats, these bats feed on other vertebrates, and are considered the “top carnivores of the bat world”.^ Batman: The Animated Series blended these two aspects, although most interpretations tend to embrace one characterization or the other.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] These bats typically eat a variety of animals, but normally consume frogs, lizards, and birds, and sometimes other bats.[39] For example, one vertebrate predator; Trachops cirrhosus, is particularly skilled at catching frogs. These bats locate large groups of frogs by distinguishing their mating calls from other sounds around them. They follow the sounds to the source, and pluck them from the surface of the water with their sharp canine teeth.[28]
There are also several species of bat that feed on fish. These types of bats are found on almost all continents. They use echolocation to detect tiny ripples in the water’s surface to locate fish. .From there, the bats swoop down low, inches from the water, and use specially enlarged claws on their hind feet to grab fish out of the water.^ Out of work but still hungering for thrills, Sutton began stealing jewels using a specially designed one-seat rocket.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

The bats then take the fish to a feeding roost and consume the animal.[28]

Blood

There are a few species of bat that consume blood exclusively as their diet. This type of diet is referred to as hematophagy, and three species of bat exhibit this behavior. .These species include the Common Vampire Bat, the White-winged Vampire Bat, and the Hairy-legged Bat.^ White winged vampire .

^ Hairy legged vampire .

^ Hairy winged bat .

The Common Vampire Bat typically consumes the blood of mammals, while the Hairy-legged and White-winged feed on the blood of birds.[40] In Dennis Turners book, The Vampire Bat, a scientist by the name of Dr. Greenhall conducted a study to find out if bats preferred the blood of wild or domestic animals. In this study, Greenhall had a sample size of 3,500 vampire bats. Of this group, eighty percent of them fed on the blood of cattle. Thus proving that vampire bats prefer the blood of domestic animals, rather than wild ones.[41]

Results of eating

Bats’ dung, or guano, is so rich in nutrients, that it is mined from caves, bagged, and used by farmers to fertilize their crops. Also, guano was used in the U.S. Civil War to make gunpowder.[42]
There comes a time in the year that some bats will not eat to supply themselves with food for the night, but for the coming months. These bats are beginning to hibernate. To do this, the bat will eat as much food as its body can contain, being as fat as possible. The bat’s body then takes from the supply of fat for energy, but very slowly, because all body activities have slowed down. This supply of fat will last until the spring season arrives.[29]

Drinking

Generally, bats drink water. In 1960, Frederic A. Webster discovered how bats are able to acquire this water. To do this, Webster developed a high-speed camera and flashgun that could take one thousand photos per second. Webster's camera captured the bat's method of skimming the surface of a body of water, and lowering its jaw to get just one drop of water. It then skims again to get a second drop of water, and then again to get a third, and so on, until it has had its fill of water. Its precision and control is very fine, and it almost never misses.[29]

Behaviour

Most microbats are nocturnal and are active at twilight. A large portion of bats migrate hundreds of kilometres to winter hibernation dens[43], some pass into torpor in cold weather, rousing and feeding when warm weather allows for insects to be active[44]. Others retreat to caves for winter and hibernate for six months.[44] Bats rarely fly in rain as the rain interferes with their echo location, and they are unable to locate their food.
The social structure of bats varies, with some bats leading a solitary life and others living in caves colonized by more than a million bats[45]. The fission-fusion social structure is seen among several species of bats. The term "fusion" refers to a large numbers of bats that congregate together in one roosting area and "fission" refers to breaking up and the mixing of subgroups, where individual bats switching roosts with others and often ending up in different trees and with different roostmates.
.Studies also show that bats make all kinds of sounds to communicate with others.^ All the others have been just kind of goofy.
  • No Robin in Nolan Batman sequels [Archive] - Evil Avatar 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.evilavatar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then a train nearby flashes past, providing cool sound effects and a strobing light so as to make the inevitable murderous attack all arty and such.
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^ "Well show the bats the movie and put them all to sleep!"
  • Bats Review - Jabootu's Bad Movie Dimension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.jabootu.com [Source type: Original source]

Scientists in the field have listened to bats and have been able to identify some sounds with some behaviour bats will make after the sounds are made[45].
70% of bat species are insectivorous, locating their prey by means of echolocation. Of the remainder, most feed on fruits[46]. Only three species sustain themselves with blood. Some species even prey on vertebrates: these are the leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) of Central America and South America, and the two bulldog bat (Noctilionidae) species, which feed on fish. At least two species of bat are known to feed on bats: the Spectral Bat, also known as the American False Vampire bat, and the Ghost Bat of Australia[46]. One species, the Greater Noctule bat, catches and eats small birds in the air.

Threats

A little brown bat with white nose syndrome.

White nose syndrome

White nose syndrome is a condition associated with the deaths of more than a million bats in the Northeastern United States.[47] The disease is named after a white fungus found growing on the muzzles, ears, and wings of some afflicted bats, but it is not known if the fungus is the primary cause of the disease or is merely an opportunistic infection.[48] Mortality rates of 90–100% have been observed in some caves.[48] At least six species of hibernating bats are affected, including the endangered Indiana bat.[49] Because the affected species have a long lifespan and a low birth rate of only about one offspring per year, it is not expected that populations will recover quickly.[49]

Wind turbines

The lungs of bats are typical mammalian lungs, and unlike the lungs of birds it has been hypothesized they are more sensitive to sudden air pressure changes in their immediate vicinity such as wind turbines, and are more liable to rupture them to explain their apparent higher rate of mortality rate with such devices.[50] .Bats suffer a higher death rate than birds in the neighborhood of wind turbines[51][52][53] since there are no signs of external trauma, the cause has been hypothesized to be a greater sensitivity to sudden pressure fluctuations in the mammalian lung than in that of birds.^ She is a more compatible partner than Wesker, since Scarface no longer substitutes "b" with "g" and is much more compliant with Scarface's brutal methods.
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[54] In addition, it has been suggested that bats are attracted to these structures, perhaps seeking roosts, and thereby increasing the death rate.[50]

Role in the transmission of pathogens

.
A big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) approaches a wax moth (Galleria mellonella), which serves as the control species for the studies of the tiger moths.
^ Small big eared brown bat .

^ Big brown bat .

^ Histiotus - the big-eared brown bats .

The moth is only "semi-tethered," allowing it to fly evasively.
Bats are natural reservoir for a large number of zoonotic pathogens[55] including rabies,[56] severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),[57] Henipavirus (ie. Nipah virus and Hendra virus)[58] and possibly ebola virus[59].[60] Their high mobility, broad distribution, and social behaviour (communal roosting, fission-fusion social structure) make bats favourable hosts and vectors of disease. .Many species also appear to have a high tolerance for harbouring pathogens and often do not develop disease while infected.^ The roost is often shared with the big brown bat (E. fuscus) though the latter is less tolerant of high temperatures; M. keenii may also share the same site.
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^ This species is not as tolerant as M. lucifugus of high roost temperatures and will move to cooler niches within a building when temperatures rise much above 100 o F (37.8 o C).
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In regions where rabies is endemic, only 0.5% of bats carry the disease. However, of the few cases of rabies reported in the United States every year not caused by dogs, most are caused by bat bites.[61] Those that are rabid may be clumsy, disoriented, and unable to fly, which makes it more likely that they will come into contact with humans. Although one should not have an unreasonable fear of bats, one should avoid handling them or having them in one's living space, as with any wild animal. .If a bat is found in living quarters near a child, mentally handicapped person, intoxicated person, sleeping person, or pet, the person or pet should receive immediate medical attention for rabies.^ A bat that has blundered into the living quarters of a house will usually find its way out by detecting air movement.
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^ This is one of the most common bats found in and near buildings, often located near a body of water where they forage for insect prey.
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^ Lastly, pest control technicians, nuisance wildlife control personnel, wildlife biologists, and other individuals at particular risk of contact with rabid bats (or other wildlife) should receive a rabies pre-exposure vaccination.
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Bats have very small teeth and can bite a sleeping person without being felt. .There is evidence that it is possible for the bat rabies virus to infect victims purely through airborne transmission, without direct physical contact of the victim with the bat itself.^ Rabies transmission from bats to terrestrial mammals: evidence of frequency and significance.
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^ In the last 20 years, however, there have been more human rabies cases of bat origin in the United States than of any other wildlife group.
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^ (Through a virus, which can spread and turn other bats into meat eatersoh, never mind.
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[62][63]
.If a bat is found in a house and the possibility of exposure cannot be ruled out, the bat should be sequestered and an animal control officer called immediately, so that the bat can be analysed.^ As the team plots out the area in which the bats can be found -- basically a hundred miles in any direction -- a call comes in.
  • Bats Review - Jabootu's Bad Movie Dimension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.jabootu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the bat is captured and immediate transportation to the testing laboratory is possible, and if immediate testing can be arranged, postexposure treatment may be delayed several hours until the test results are known.
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^ Lastly, pest control technicians, nuisance wildlife control personnel, wildlife biologists, and other individuals at particular risk of contact with rabid bats (or other wildlife) should receive a rabies pre-exposure vaccination.
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This also applies if the bat is found dead. .If it is certain that nobody has been exposed to the bat, it should be removed from the house.^ All necessary measures should be taken to ensure that bats cannot enter living quarters in houses and apartments.
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^ Even without worrying about the bat and his newly exposed head, Kimsey should be choking to death right now.
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.The best way to do this is to close all the doors and windows to the room except one to the outside.^ The devices of Constantine and Hanks involve a one-way, self-closing valve feature and can be readily installed during daylight hours.
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^ If the bat is present at night, the lights should be dimmed to allow the animal to find open doors and windows; some light is necessary if an observer is to insure that the bat finds its way out.
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^ When no bite or contact with people or pets has occurred, the simplest solution for “removing” the bat is to try to confine it to one room, then open windows and doors leading outdoors and allow it to escape.
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The bat should soon leave.
Due to the risk of rabies and also due to health problems related to their faecal droppings (guano), bats should be excluded from inhabited parts of houses. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention provides full detailed information on all aspects of bat management, including how to capture a bat, what to do in case of exposure, and how to bat-proof a house humanely.[64] In certain countries, such as the United Kingdom, it is illegal to handle bats without a license.
.Where rabies is not endemic, as throughout most of Western Europe, small bats can be considered harmless.^ This is a small jersey and was likely used by a bat boy or a diminutive player and most likely was used by a Dodgers farm team (Pocatello, Bakersfield etc..

Larger bats can give a nasty bite. They should be treated with the respect due to any wild animal.

Cultural aspects

"Nightwing," a work of art by Dale Whistler in Austin, Texas.
The bat is sacred in Tonga and is often considered the physical manifestation of a separable soul[citation needed]. Bats are closely associated with vampires, who are said to be able to shapeshift into bats, fog, or wolves. Bats are also a symbol of ghosts, death, and disease. Among some Native Americans, such as the Creek, Cherokee and Apache, the bat is a trickster spirit.
Chinese lore claims the bat is a symbol of longevity and happiness, and is similarly lucky in Poland and geographical Macedonia and among the Kwakiutl and Arabs. The bat is also a heraldic animal of the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia.
Pre-Columbian cultures associated animals with gods and often displayed them in art. The Moche people depicted bats in their ceramics.[65]
In Western Culture, the bat is often a symbol of the night and its foreboding nature. .The bat is a primary animal associated with fictional characters of the night, both villains like Dracula and heroes like Batman.^ Game Informer features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Art by Jim Lee.This is a list of fictional characters from DC Comics who are enemies of Batman or of his associates (such as Robin).
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Club of Villains Batman #679 (November 2007) A group of villains organized by Simon Hurt to assist the Black Glove in taking down Batman and the Club of Heroes.
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.The association of the fear of the night with the animal was treated as a literary challenge by Kenneth Oppel, who created a best selling series of novels, beginning with Silverwing, which feature bats as the central heroic figures much as anthropomorphized rabbits were the central figures to the classic novel Watership Down.^ Game Informer features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rainbow Creature appears in the animated series Batman: The Brave and the Bold as a monster created by Bat-Mite to fight Batman.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

An old wives' tale has it that bats will entangle themselves in people's hair. .One likely source of this belief is that insect-eating bats seeking prey may dive erratically toward people, who attract mosquitoes and gnats, leading the squeamish to believe that the bats are trying to get in their hair.^ He is also a chemical genius who can turn people into large, lumbering, brutal zombie-like creatures that obey his every command.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Batman #518 (May 1995) Birds of Prey #87 (November 2005) The Blue Bat Batman #127 (October 1959) In an alternate universe The Blue Bat, was a criminal who wore the Batman costume.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Tally Man Batman: Shadow of the Bat #19 (October 1993) The Tally Man is a serial killer who murders around 60 people.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

In the United Kingdom all bats are protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Acts, and even disturbing a bat or its roost can be punished with a heavy fine.
In Sarawak, Malaysia bats are protected species under the Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1998 (see Malaysian Wildlife Law). .The large Naked bat (see Mammals of Borneo) and Greater Nectar bat are consumed by the local communities.^ Greater nectar bat .

Bats can be a tourist attraction. .The Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin, Texas is the summer home to North America's largest urban bat colony, an estimated 1,500,000 Mexican free-tailed bats, which eat an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 pounds of insects each night.^ Wroughton's free tailed bat .

^ White bellied free tailed bat .

^ Mongalla free tailed bat .

.An estimated 100,000 tourists per year visit the bridge at twilight to watch the bats leave the roost.^ Floodlights strung through an attic to illuminate all roosting sites may cause bats to leave.
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^ Dosages of 5 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet (2.4 kg/30 m 3 ) may dislodge bats in broad daylight.
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^ About 2.5 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet (1.2 kg/30 m 3 ) is recommended to chronically repel bats as the chemical vaporizes.
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Bats in Mesoamerican mythology

Bat, Moche Culture 100 A.D. Larco Museum Lima, Peru.
In Mesoamerican mythology during the Classic-Contemporary period, bats symbolized the land of the dead, which was considered to be the underworld.[66] They also symbolized destruction and decay. Bats may have symbolized in this way because they fly only at night and dwell in caves during the daytime and are associated with human skulls and bones by classic Maya ceramists. Central Mexicans sometimes depicted bats having snouts that looked like sacrificial knives and carrying human head in the Postclassic era[67]. Bat images were engraved onto funerary urns and were emphasized with large claws and round ears by Zapotecs. They were commonly associated with death.[68] The depiction of bats on funeral urns and goods took on some the characteristics of the jaguar which was and still is another entity of the night and the underworld. There have also been instances where bats are portrayed next to other unseemly animals including scorpions and other nocturnal animals such as owls.
.A gigantic, life-size ceramic bat-man has been discovered and dug up from the Templo Mayor.^ He became known as "The Man Who Broke the Bat" when he broke Batman's spinal cord, forcing Bruce Wayne to give up the Batman persona while he recuperated.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

The Templo Mayor is located in the center of the Mexica capital of Tenochtitlan. .Known as a god of death, this statue has the clawed feet and hands of a bat, but the body of a man.^ He became known as "The Man Who Broke the Bat" when he broke Batman's spinal cord, forcing Bruce Wayne to give up the Batman persona while he recuperated.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

The statue's human-like eyes bulged out from the bat-like head, making the Zapotec images very realistic and living. It was said that in the 1930s the Kaqchikel Maya proclaimed that the bat was the Devil’s provider. Kaqchikel would leave the Devil’s underworld home and collect blood from the animals to be used for scrumptious meals to feed the Devil. “In the myths, the beast of prey and the animal that is preyed upon play two significant roles. .They represent two aspects of life—the aggressive, killing, conquering, creating aspect of life, and the one that is the matter or, you might say, the subject matter”[69].^ As soon as they enter the plant, however, they are immediately caught by security and a shoot-out ensues, in which the two criminals are killed.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Batman: The Animated Series blended these two aspects, although most interpretations tend to embrace one characterization or the other.
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In the Devil’s underworld, dead sinners would work off their sins in order to get to heaven, indicating that the bat was too a sinner and worked under the authority of the Devil[70].

In Oaxacan mythology

Oaxacans believe that the jealousy of the bat in wanting birds' feathers that gently fit their bodies led him to become nocturnal. The bat feeling isolated and undesirable spoke to God after that he complained he was extremely cold. .God, fair and just turned to birds in the animal kingdom and asked if they would show compassion and donate a feather to the bat so the feathers would keep him warm.^ He gives detailed plans for robberies to gangs of crooks with the understanding that they would give him a big percentage of the loot.
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The birds all agreed, and began to pluck one feather from their bodies to give to the bat. With all of the feathers, the bat became much magnificent looking than all birds, even able to spread color to the night sky. .During daylight, the bat created rainbows that reflected vibrant colors from the sun.^ Rainbow Creature appears in the animated series Batman: The Brave and the Bold as a monster created by Bat-Mite to fight Batman.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

The bat soon became overly arrogant and conceited, due having this new and improved look. The birds grew tired of the bat’s self conceitedness and glorification, and so decided to fly up to heaven and speak to God to do something. The birds informed to God of the bat's behaviour, God was surprised and so decided to take a look himself. When on Earth, God called on the bat to show him what he was doing. .The bat began to fly across the light blue sky, where one by one each feather began to fall out, uncovering the bat’s natural ugly looking body.^ Out of work but still hungering for thrills, Sutton began stealing jewels using a specially designed one-seat rocket.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

The bat became ashamed and distressed of his appearance after all feathers came off, missing the beautiful, plentiful feathers that he had, that he decided to hide in caves during the day. He would only come out during the night, searching high and low for the feathers to avoid embarrassment that he will not be seen during his search.[70]

East Nigerian mythology

According to a particular East Nigerian tale, the bat developed its nocturnal habits after causing the death of his partner the bush-rat. The bat and the bush-rat would share activities such as rummaging through the grass and trees, hunting, talking and bonding during the day. When at night, the bat and the bush-rat would alternate in cooking duties cooking what was caught, and eat together. It appeared to a dedicated partnership, however the bat hated the bush-rat immensely. The bush rat always found the bat’s soup more appetising so when eating dinner one night asked the bat why the soup tasted better than his own and also asked how it was made. The bat agreed to show him how to make it the next day but instead was forming a malicious plan.
Next day as bat prepared his soup, the bush-rat came, greeting him and asked if he could be shown what was agreed yesterday. Earlier, the bat has found a pot looking exactly like the one he used usually, but it held warm water and so decided to use this instead. The bat explained to the bush-rat that to make his soup, he had to boil himself prior to serving the soup where sweetness and flavor of the soup came from the flesh. The bat jumped in the pot seemingly excited, with the bush-rat mesmerised. After a few minutes the bat climbed out and while the bush-rat was distracted, switched pots. The bat then served his soup out of the soup pot, both tasted it. Over anxious and eager, the bush-rat, jumped into the pot of warm water. He stayed much longer in the pot dying in the process.
Very large bat house, Tallahassee, Florida, United States.
.When the bush-rat’s wife returned that night to find her husband dead, she wept and ran to the chief of the land's house telling him about what happened and what she was sure what the bat had done.^ Batman visits him to ask him if he knows anything about the Black Glove, but Joker only responds by dealing a Dead man's hand.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In hearing this, the chief became angry, ordering for the immediate arrest of the bat. It just so happened that the bat was flying over the house and overheard what was just said. He quickly went into hiding high up in a tree. When the chief’s men went looking for the bat, he could not be found. The search to arrest the bat carried on over several days, but still could not be found. The bat needed to eat, so flew out of hiding every night to hunt for food to escape of being arrested. This, according to Eastern Nigeria mythology, is why bats only fly at night.[71].

Artificial roosts

.Many people put up bat houses to attract bats just like many people put up birdhouses to attract birds.^ Swallow like house bat .

^ Conversely, the Joker has given up many chances to kill the Batman because "[Batman] is just too much fun!"
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reasons for this vary, but mostly center around the fact that bats are the primary nocturnal insectivores in most if not all ecologies.^ Virtually all bats are of some economic importance; those north of Mexico are beneficial because of their insectivorous diet which eliminates many insect pests of humans.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this the "millions" of bats, which have hanging around in a docile fashion all this time, start off after them.
  • Bats Review - Jabootu's Bad Movie Dimension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.jabootu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This despite the fact that Kimsey keeps stopping so as to turn around and empty a clip of bullets into the established millions of bats (!!
  • Bats Review - Jabootu's Bad Movie Dimension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.jabootu.com [Source type: Original source]

Bat houses can be made from scratch, made from kits, or bought ready made. Plans for bat houses exist on many web sites, as well as guidelines for designing a bat house[72]. Some conservation societies are giving away free bat houses to bat enthusiasts worldwide[citation needed].
A bat house constructed in 1991 at the University of Florida campus next to Lake Alice in Gainesville, Florida has a population of over 100,000 free-tailed bats.[73]
In Britain, British hardened field defences of World War II have been converted to make roosts for bats. .Pillboxes that are well dug-in and thick walled are naturally damp and provide a stable thermal environment that is required by bats that would otherwise hibernate in caves.^ In the winter, little brown bats in the eastern part of their range abandon buildings to hibernate in caves and mines.
  • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For greedy players, this would get endlessly frustrating when the rupees would end up three tiles into a cave wall.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Youd think this would require rather more mass than four or five largish bats could bring to bear, but I guess not.
  • Bats Review - Jabootu's Bad Movie Dimension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.jabootu.com [Source type: Original source]

With a few minor modifications, suitable pillboxes can be converted to artificial caves for bats.[74][75]
Again in the UK, purpose-built bat houses are occasionally built when existing roosts are destroyed by developments such as new roads; one such has been built associated with bat bridges on the new (2008) A38 Dobwalls bypass.[citation needed]
Valencia city's arms
Palma de Mallorca's arms
Fraga coat of arms

The bat in heraldry

Burgee of the Royal Valencia Yacht Club.
.The bat is sometimes used as a heraldic symbol.^ Inspired by the Bat-Signal, he becomes the Signalman, using signals, signs, and symbols in his crimes, but is inevitably defeated by Batman and Robin, time and again.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

The coats of arms of certain cities in eastern Spain, like Valencia, Palma de Mallorca and Fraga have the bat over the shield. Formerly the Barcelona city coat of arms also had a bat crowning it, but the bat has been removed in the present-day versions.
The heraldic use of the bat in Valencia, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands has its origins in a winged dragon (vibra or vibria), which featured in King James I of Aragon's helmet or cimera reial. This is the most widely accepted theory, although there is also a legend that says that due to the intervention of a bat, King James was able to win a crucial battle against the Saracens that allowed him to win Valencia for his kingdom.
.The use of the bat as a heraldic symbol is prevalent in the territories of the former Crown of Aragon and it is little used elsewhere.^ Inspired by the Bat-Signal, he becomes the Signalman, using signals, signs, and symbols in his crimes, but is inevitably defeated by Batman and Robin, time and again.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

However, it can be found in a few places, as in the coats of arms of the city of Albacete, in Spain, as well as the town of Montchauvet (Yvelines), in France.
Certain Spanish soccer clubs including Valencia CF and Levante UD use bats in their badges.
The Burgee of the Royal Valencia Yacht Club (Reial Club Nàutic de València) displays a bat on a golden field in its center.

In popular culure

In Western Culture, bats are a symbol of darkness and forbidden nature, something that is associated to fictional dark characters. .For example: superheroes like Batman, villains like Dracula and videogame characters like Rouge the Bat of Sonic the Hedgehog videogame series.^ Two episodes of the 1972 series The New Scooby-Doo Movies featured a meeting with Batman; the Joker was one of the villains, with Storch reprising his role.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an example, in one story line, Batman threatens to kill the Joker, but then has an epiphany in which he says that would make him "a killer like yourself!"
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animation The Joker appeared as a recurring villain in the 1968-1969 Filmation series Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder, played by voice actor Larry Storch.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Eick et al.; Jacobs, DS; Matthee, CA (2005). "A Nuclear DNA Phylogenetic Perspective on the Evolution of Echolocation and Historical Biogeography of Extant Bats (Chiroptera)". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (9): 1869. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi180. PMID 15930153. "Several molecular studies have shown that Chiroptera belong to the Laurasiatheria (represented by carnivores, pangolins, cetartiodactyls, eulipotyphlans, and perissodactyls) and are only distantly related to dermopterans, scandentians, and primates (Nikaido et al. 2000; Lin and Penny 2001; Madsen et al. 2001; Murphy et al. 2001a, 2001b; Van Den Bussche and Hoofer 2004).". 
  2. ^ a b Hunter, P. (September 2007). "The nature of flight. The molecules and mechanics of flight in animals". Science and Society 8 (9): 811–813. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7401050. PMID 17767190.& PMC 1973956. http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=1635883. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  3. ^ Tudge, Colin (2000). The Variety of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860426-2. 
  4. ^ "Bumblebee bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai)". EDGE Species. http://www.edgeofexistence.org/mammals/species_info.php?id=49. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  5. ^ (BBC News) "Bat fossil solves evolution poser" 13 February 2008.
  6. ^ (Discovery Channel article) "Prehistoric bats learned to fly before they could see" February 13, 2008.
  7. ^ a b Nancy B. Simmons1, Kevin L. Seymour2, Jo¨rg Habersetzer3 & Gregg F. Gunnell4 (2008). "Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation". Nature 451 (7180): 818. doi:10.1038/nature06549. PMID 18270539. 
  8. ^ Teeling et al. 2005. A Molecular Phylogeny for Bats Illuminates Biogeography and the Fossil Record. Science 307: 580–584.
  9. ^ Teeling et al. 2000. Molecular evidence regarding the origin of echolocation and flight in bats. Nature 403: 188–192.
  10. ^ "Order Chiroptera (Bats)". Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chiroptera.html. Retrieved 2007-12-30. 
  11. ^ Springer et al. 2001. Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98: 6241–6246.
  12. ^ Li et al. 2007. "Accelerated FoxP2 Evolution in Echolocating Bats". PLOS ONE.
  13. ^ Li et al. 2008. "The hearing gene Prestin reunites the echolocating bats". Proc. Natl. Academy. Sci. U.S.A.
  14. ^ James M. Hutcheon and John A.W. Kirsch. "A moveable face: deconstructing the Microchiroptera and a new classification of extant bats" (PDF). doi:10.3161/1733-5329(2006)8%5B1:AMFDTM%5D2.0.CO;2. http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio-home/hutcheon/hutchkirsch2006.pdf. 
  15. ^ Eick et al.; Jacobs, DS; Matthee, CA (2005). "A Nuclear DNA Phylogenetic Perspective on the Evolution of Echolocation and Historical Biogeography of Extant Bats (Chiroptera)". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (9): 1869. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi180. PMID 15930153. "Following the recommendations of Hutcheon and Kirsch (2004), we refer to the two suborders of chiropterans as ‘Pteropodiformes’ (comprising the Pteropodidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Rhinopomatidae) and ‘Vespertilioniformes’ (remaining microbat families).". 
  16. ^ "Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation". Nature. 2008-02-14. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7180/abs/nature06549.html. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  17. ^ Jones, K. E., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, and J. L. Gittleman (2005). "Bats, clocks, and rocks: diversification patterns in chiroptera". Evolution 59: 2243–2255. 
  18. ^ Teeling, E. C. (2009). "Hear, hear: the convergent evolution of echolocation in bats?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24: 351–354. doi:10.1016/J.Tree.2009.02.012. 
  19. ^ Jones, G., and M. W. Holderied (2007). "Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution". Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 274: 905–912. doi:10.1098/Rspb.2006.0200. 
  20. ^ DesRoche, K., M. B. Fenton, and W. C. Lancaster (2007). "Echolocation and the thoracic skeletons of bats: a comparative morphological study". Acta Chiropterologica 9: 483–494. 
  21. ^ a b Roberts, W.C. (October 2006). "Facts and ideas from anywhere". Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 19 (4): 425–434. PMID 17106509.& PMC 1618737. http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=804041. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  22. ^ Irwin, N. (March 1997). "Wanted DNA samples from Nyctimene or Paranyctimene Bats" (PDF). The New Guinea Tropical Ecology and Biodiversity Digest 3: 10. http://papuaweb.anu.edu.au/dlib/jr/ngtebd/03.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  23. ^ a b c Melissa Calhoun (15 December 2005). "Bats Use Touch Receptors on Wings to Fly, Catch Prey, Study Finds". http://news.research.ohiou.edu/news/index.php?item=257. Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  24. ^ Saunders, D.A. (1988). "Adirondack Mammals". State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry. http://www.esf.edu/aec/adks/mammals/littlebrownbat.htm. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  25. ^ Jones, V. (2000). "Drinking in the river". Vivian Jones. http://www.bellingen.com/flyingfoxes. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  26. ^ Chamberlain, Ted (2006-12-06). "Photo in the News: Bat Has Longest Tongue of Any Mammal". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/12/061206-tongue-photo.html. Retrieved 2007-06-18. "A. fistulata (shown lapping sugar water from a tube) has the longest tongue, relative to body length, of any mammal—and now scientists think they know why." 
  27. ^ http://www.batworld.org/main/main.html Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Wilson, Don. Bats in Question. London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997
  29. ^ a b c d e Lauber, Patricia. Bats: Wings in the Night. New York: Random House, 1968
  30. ^ Johnson, Sylvia. Bats. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 1985
  31. ^ Shebar, Sharon. Bats. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990
  32. ^ Johnson, Sylvia. Bats. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 1985
  33. ^ Shebar, Sharon. Bats. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990
  34. ^ Shebar, Sharon. Bats. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990
  35. ^ Shebar, Sharon. Bats. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990
  36. ^ Hodgkison, Robert, Sharon T. Balding, Akbar Zuibad, and Thomas H. Kunz. "Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) as Seed Dispersers and Pollinators in a Lowland Malaysian Rain Forest." Biotropica 35.4 (2003): 491–502
  37. ^ Arita, Hector T., and Karina Santos-del-Prado. "Conservation Biology of Nectar-Feeding Bats in Mexico." Journal of Mammalogy 80.1 (1999): 31–41
  38. ^ M, L. Gerardo H., Keith A. Hobson, Adriana M. A, Daniel E. B, Victor Sanchez-Corero, and German M. C. "The Role of Fruits and Insects in the Nutrition of Frugivorous Bats: Evaluating the Use of Stable Isotope Models." Biotropica 33.3 (2001): 520–28
  39. ^ Shebar, Sharon. Bats. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990
  40. ^ Greenhall, Arthur M. 1961. Bats in Agriculture. A Ministry of Agriculture Publication. Trinidad and Tobago
  41. ^ Turner, Dennis C. Vampire Bats. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 1975
  42. ^ Shebar, Sharon. Bats. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990
  43. ^ Fenton, M. Brock (2001). Bats. New York: Checkmark Books. pp. 60–62. ISBN 0-8160-4358-2. 
  44. ^ a b Fenton, M. Brock (2001). Bats. New York: Checkmark Books. pp. 93=94. ISBN 0-8160-4358-2. 
  45. ^ a b Fenton, M. Brock (2001). Bats. New York: Checkmark Books. pp. 95–107. ISBN 0-8160-4358-2. 
  46. ^ a b Fenton, M. Brock (2001). Bats. New York: Checkmark Books. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-8160-4358-2. 
  47. ^ "Fish and Wildlife Service Awards $800,000 in Grants to Explore Cause, Control of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009-10-26. http://www.fws.gov/news/NewsReleases/showNews.cfm?newsId=9191BAAD-F8E8-0097-B3670BDF3849EBF2. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  48. ^ a b "White-nose syndrome in bats – Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009-04. http://www.fws.gov/northeast/pdf/white-nosefaqs.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  49. ^ a b "White-Nose Syndrome Threatens the Survival of Hibernating Bats in North America". United States Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center. http://www.fort.usgs.gov/WNS/. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  50. ^ a b "B.C. study to help bats survive wind farms", National Wind Watch, September 23, 2008
  51. ^ "Bats take a battering at wind farms", New Scientist, May 12, 2007
  52. ^ "Caution Regarding Placement of Wind Turbines on Wooded Ridge Tops" (PDF). Bat Conservation International. 4 January 2005. http://vawind.org/Assets/Docs/BCI_ridgetop_advisory.pdf. Retrieved 2006-04-21. 
  53. ^ Arnett, Edward B.; Wallace P. Erickson, Jessica Kerns, Jason Horn (June 2005). "Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines" (PDF). Bat Conservation International. http://batcon.org/wind/BWEC2004finalreport.pdf. Retrieved 2006-04-21. 
  54. ^ Baerwald, Erin F; D'Amours, Genevieve H; Klug, Brandon J; Barclay, Robert MR (2008-08-26). "Barotrauma is a significant cause of bat fatalities at wind turbines". Current Biology 18 (16): R695–R696. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.06.029. OCLC 252616082. PMID 18727900. Lay summary – CBC RadioQuirks & Quarks (2008-09-20).  Laysource includes audio podcast of interview with author.
  55. ^ Wong, Samson; Susanna Lau, Patrick Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen (2006-10-16). "Bats as a continuing source of emerging infections in humans" (Review). Reviews in Medical Virology (John Wiley & Sons) 17 (2): 67–91. doi:10.1002/rmv.520. PMID 17042030. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113398566/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "The currently known viruses that have been found in bats are reviewed and the risks of transmission to humans are highlighted. (from abstract)". 
  56. ^ McColl, KA; N Tordo, AA Aquilar Setien (April 2000). "Bat lyssavirus infections". Revue scientifique et technique 19 (1): 177–196. PMID 11189715. "Bats, which represent approximately 24% of all known mammalian species, frequently act as vectors of lyssaviruses. (from abstract)". 
  57. ^ Li, Wendong; Z. Shi, M. Yu, W. Ren and 13 additional coauthors (2005-10-28). "Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses". Science 310 (5748): 676–679. doi:10.1126/science.1118391. PMID 16195424. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/310/5748/676. Retrieved 2007-12-29. Lay summary – Science (2005-10-28). "The genetic diversity of bat-derived sequences supports the notion that bats are a natural reservoir host of the SARS cluster of coronaviruses.". 
  58. ^ Halpin, K.; P. L. Young, H. E. Field and J. S. Mackenzie (August 1, 2000). "Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus". Journal of General Virology 81 (8): 1927–1932. PMID 10900029. http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/81/8/1927. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "In this paper we describe the isolation of HeV from pteropid bats, corroborating our serological and epidemiological evidence that these animals are a natural reservoir host of this virus.". 
  59. ^ Leroy, Eric M.; Brice Kumulungui, Xavier Pourrut, Pierre Rouquet and 6 additional coauthors (2005-12-01). "Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus" (Brief Communication). Nature 438 (7068): 575–576. doi:10.1038/438575a. PMID 16319873. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7068/abs/438575a.html. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "We find evidence of asymptomatic infection by Ebola virus in three species of fruit bat, indicating that these animals may be acting as a reservoir for this deadly virus. (from abstract)". 
  60. ^ Charles Q. Choi (March 2006). "Going to Bat". Scientific American: pp. 24, 26. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=going-to-bat. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "Long known as vectors for rabies, bats may be the origin of some of the most deadly emerging viruses, including SARS, Ebola, Nipah, Hendra and Marburg."  Note: This could be considered a lay summary of the various scientific publications cited in the preceding sentence.
  61. ^ Gibbons, Robert V.; Charles Rupprecht (2000). "Twelve Common Questions About Human Rabies and Its Prevention" (PDF). Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 9: 202–207. doi:10.1097/00019048-200009050-00005. http://www.cdc.gov/rabies/docs/12_questions_rabies.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "Excluding dog bites that occurred outside of the country, 22 of the 31 (71%) human cases of rabies in the United States since 1980 have been associated with bat rabies virus variants.".  Note: the 71% figure in the quote would be for the 20 year period from 1980 to c.2000.
  62. ^ Constantine, Denny G. (April 1962). "Rabies transmission by nonbite route" (PDF). Public Health Reports (Public Health Service) 77 (4): 287–289. PMID 13880956.& PMC 1914752. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1914752&blobtype=pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "These findings support consideration of an airborne medium, such as an aerosol, as the mechanism of rabies transmission in this instance.". 
  63. ^ Messenger, Sharon L.; Jean S. Smith and Charles E. Rupprecht (2002-09-15). "Emerging Epidemiology of Bat-Associated Cryptic Cases of Rabies in Humans in the United States". Clinical Infectious Diseases 35 (6): 738–747. doi:10.1086/342387. PMID 12203172. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/342387. Retrieved 2007-12-29. "Cryptic rabies cases are those in which a clear history of exposure to rabies virus cannot be documented, despite extensive case‐history investigation. Absence of a documented bite history reflects inherent difficulties in obtaining accurate animal‐contact information.... <gap> Thus, absence of bite‐history data does not mean that a bite did not occur.". 
  64. ^ Center for Disease Control's website on bats and rabies
  65. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  66. ^ http://www.aztec-history.net/aztec_symbols
  67. ^ Kay Almere Read and Jason J. Gonzalez. 2000. Mesoamerican Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 132
  68. ^ http://www.oaxacanwoodcarving.com/mythnatr.html
  69. ^ Joseph Cambell and Bill Moyers. 1988. The Power of Myth. Doubleday. pp. 91
  70. ^ a b Kay Almere Read and Jason J. Gonzalez. 2000. Mesoamerican Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 132–134
  71. ^ Arnott, Kathleen. 1962. African Myths and Legends. Oxford University Press. Pp. 150–152
  72. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20020124162143/www.batcon.org/
  73. ^ Nordlie, Tom (2001-10-29). "Backyard Bat Houses Promote Pest Control, Says UF Expert". UF News. University of Florida. pp. 30. Archived from the original on 2001-11-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20011030203049/http://www.napa.ufl.edu/2001news/backyardbats.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-18. "... an example of good bat management. When a large colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats roosting in a campus stadium caused odor problems, university officials installed the massive house, which now holds about 100,000 bats and has become a local landmark." 
  74. ^ "Protecting and managing underground sites for bats (pdf), see section 6.4." (PDF). http://www.eurobats.org/documents/pdf/AC9/Doc_AC9_15_Protecting_underground_sites.pdf. Retrieved 2006-05-18. 
  75. ^ "Pillbox converted to bat retreat, BBC website". 2006-04-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4885642.stm. Retrieved 2006-05-18. 
General references
  • Greenhall, Arthur H. 1961. Bats in Agriculture. A Ministry of Agriculture Publication. Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Nowak, Ronald M. 1994. " Walker's BATS of the World". The Johns Hopikins University Press, Baltimore and London.
  • John D. Pettigrew's summary on Flying Primate Hypothesis
  • Altringham, J.D. 1998. Bats: Biology and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Dobat, K.; Holle, T.P. 1985. Blüten und Fledermäuse: Bestäubung durch Fledermäuse und Flughunde (Chiropterophilie). Frankfurt am Main: W. Kramer & Co. Druckerei.
  • Fenton, M.B. 1985. Communication in the Chiroptera. .Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Findley, J.S. 1995. Bats: a Community Perspective.^ We give special thanks to Roger W. Barbour and Wayne H. Davis for permission to reproduce figures from their excellent book, Bats of America (University Press of Kentucky).
    • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Fleming, T.H. 1988. The Short-Tailed Fruit Bat: a Study in Plant-Animal Interactions.^ Silky short tailed bat .

    ^ New Zealand lesser short tailed bat .

    ^ Long tailed fruit bat .

    .Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Kunz, T.H. 1982. Ecology of Bats.^ We give special thanks to Roger W. Barbour and Wayne H. Davis for permission to reproduce figures from their excellent book, Bats of America (University Press of Kentucky).
    • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ University of Chicago Press.
    • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Plenum Press.
  • Kunz, T.H.; Racey, P.A. 1999. Bat Biology and Conservation.^ This bat comes from the upstate New York area.

    ^ Bat rabies in New York State.
    • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ II. Academic Press, New York.
    • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Kunz, T.H.; Fenton, M.B. 2003. Bat Ecology. .Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Neuweiler, G. 1993. Biologie der Fledermäuse.^ University of Chicago Press.
    • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"The Joker (NBA)!" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag.
  • Nowak, R.M. 1994. Walker's Bats of the World. .Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Richarz, K. & Limbruner, A. 1993. The World of Bats.^ We give special thanks to Roger W. Barbour and Wayne H. Davis for permission to reproduce figures from their excellent book, Bats of America (University Press of Kentucky).
    • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Neptune City: TFH Publications.
  • Teeling, E.C. 2009. Chiroptera. Oxford University Press.
  • Twilton, B. 1999. My Life as The Bat. Liverpool Hope University press

Further reading

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BAT,' a name for any member of the zoological order Chirop tera. Bats are insectivorous animals modified for flight, 1 M. E. bakke, the change to "bat" having apparently been influenced by Lat. batter, blatta, moth. The word is thus distinct from the other common term "bat," the implement for striking, which is probably connected with Fr. battre, though a Celtic or simply onomatopoetic origin has been suggested.
with slight powers of progression on the ground; the patagium or "flying-membrane" of some squirrels and of Galeopithecus probably indicates the way in which the modification was effected. .They are distributed throughout the world, but are most abundant in the tropics and the warmer parts of the temperate zones; within these limits the largest forms occur.^ And throughout the series, many entire zones were dedicated to these damn things.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.There is great variation in size; the Malay "flying-fox" (Pteropus edulis) measures about a foot in the head and body, and has a wing-spread of 5 ft.; while in the smaller forms the head and body may be only about 2 in., and the wing-spread no more than a foot.^ Variable flying fox .

^ Grey headed flying fox .

^ Philippine white winged flying fox .

The coloration is generally sombre, but to this there are exceptions; the fruit-bats are brownish yellow or russet on the under surface; two South American species are white; Blainville's chin-leafed bat is bright orange; and the Indian painted bat (Cerivoula pieta) with its deep orange dress, spotted with black on the wing-membranes, has reminded observers of a large butterfly. In habits bats are social, nocturnal and crepuscular; the insect-eating species feed on the wing, in winter in the temperate regions they migrate to a warmer climate, or hibernate, as do the British bats. The sense-organs are highly developed; the wing-membranes are exceedingly sensitive; the nose-leaf is also an organ of perception, and the external ear is specially modified to receive soundwaves. .Most bats are insect-eaters, but the tropical "flying foxes" or fox-bats of the Old World live on fruit; some are blood-suckers, and two feed on small fish.^ It's made worse when the monster splits into two and has one of them swarm you as said Goddamned Bats, while the other tries to attack you with magic or some such.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Now factor in the fact that these bats are fast, often get the first move, and can come in groups as small as two, or as many as six .
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.Twelve species are British, among which are the pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus, or P. Pipistrellus), the long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), the noctule (Pipistrellus [Pterygistes] noctulus) the greater and lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum and R. hipposiderus), &c.^ De Winton's long eared bat .

^ Angola long eared bat .

^ Namib long eared bat .

(See FLYING-FOX and VAMPIRE.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to bat article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has articles on:

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

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Wikipedia has an article on:
A bat (mammal).
.Dialectal variant (akin to Swedish dialect natt-batta) of Middle English bakke, balke, from Scandinavian (cf.^ [Alteration of Middle English bakke, of Scandinavian origin.

.Old Swedish natbakka, Old Danish nathbakkæ 'night-flapper', Old Norse leðrblaka 'leather-flapper').^ O.N. leðrblaka "leather flapper," so orig.
  • Bat | Definition of Bat at Dictionary.com: 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noun

Singular
bat
Plural
bats
bat (plural bats)
.
  1. Any of the small, nocturnal, flying mammals of the order Chiroptera, which navigate by means of echolocation.^ When bats fly, they navigate by means of an sophisticated echolocation system.

    ^ They are the only flying mammals, and are in the order Chiroptera.

    ^ Bats, the only mammals that truly fly, belong to the order Chiroptera.
    • Bats, Chioptera, their biology and their control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bats - eXtension 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.extension.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They look like a mouse with membranous wings extending from the forelimbs to the hind limbs or tail.^ The short tail is free of the wing membrane.
    • TerraNature | New Zealand Ecology - Short-tailed bat 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.terranature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The tail extends beyond the tail membrane between hind feet.
    • Northern California Bats 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.norcalbats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The free-tail bat gets its name from the long, mouse-like tail that extends below the wing membrane.

    Altogether, there are about 1,000 bat species in the world.
  2. (offensive) An old woman.
  3. (obsolete, slang) A low whore: so called from moving out like a bat in the dusk of the evening.
Derived terms
Translations
See also
.
  • Appendix: Animals
  • Appendix: Collective nouns
  • Commons-logo-en.png Bat on Wikimedia Commons.^ Common misconceptions are that bats will pursue and bite animals, become entangled in one's hair, and that they all carry rabies.
    • SDNHM Department of Birds and Mammals FAQs 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.sdnhm.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The methods used for bat removal have nothing in common with the methods normally used for animals such as raccoons, opossums, squirrels, groundhogs, and others.
    • Bats in attics, Bat Exclusion, Bat Removal, Bat Control 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.thebatguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ National Geographic Home » Animals » Common Vampire Bat .
    • Common Vampire Bats, Common Vampire Bat Pictures, Common Vampire Bat Facts - National Geographic 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC animals.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

    Wikimedia Commons
  • Wikispecies-logo-en.png Chiroptera on Wikispecies. Wikispecies: Chiroptera

Etymology 2

a cricket bat

Noun

Singular
bat
Plural
bats
bat (plural bats)
.
  1. A club made of wood or aluminium used for striking the ball in sports such as baseball, softball and cricket.
  2. A turn at hitting the ball with a bat in a game.
  3. (two-up): The piece of wood on which the spinner places the coins and then uses for throwing them.^ I played in a fun game with wood bats.

    ^ For both baseball, softball bats!
    • ASA Approved Bat Warmer Sleeve Official Site By PYROFLITE Microwaveable bat warmer 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC batwarmer.com [Source type: General]
    • About Testimonials for the Microwave Bat Warmer: Testimonials 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC www.batwarmer.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Bat features light game use.
    • Charity Bats - Game Used Baseball Bat Auction 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.charitybats.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (Reference: Sidney J. Baker, The Australian Language, second edition, 1966, chapter XI section 3, page 242.)
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Verb

Infinitive
to bat
Third person singular
bats
Simple past
batted
Past participle
batted
Present participle
batting
to bat (third-person singular simple present bats, present participle batting, simple past and past participle batted)
  1. (transitive) to hit with a bat.
  2. (intransitive) to take a turn at hitting a ball with a bat in sports like cricket, baseball and softball, as opposed to fielding.
  3. (intransitive) to strike or swipe as though with a bat
    The cat batted at the toy.
Derived terms
Translations
Hyponyms
  • Myotis

Anagrams


Basque

Article

bat
  1. a, an
    • Musu batA kiss.

Cardinal number

bat
  1. one
    • Sagar bat eta lau laranja — One apple and four oranges.

French

Pronunciation

Verb

bat
  1. Third-person singular indicative present of battre.

Anagrams


German

Pronunciation

Verb

bat
  1. singular past tense of bitten (to please, to pray, to ask, to gratify).

Luo

Noun

bat (plural bede)
  1. arm

Min Nan

or
or

Alternative spellings

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [ bat˩˩ ]

Verb

bat (POJ, traditional and simplified or )
  1. to know somebody; to recognize
  2. to be familiar with

See also


Old English

Etymology

From Germanic *baitaz. Related to Old Norse bátr, beit (Icelandic: bátur). Related to German Boot and Dutch boot.

Pronunciation

Noun

bāt m. (plural bātas)
  1. boat

Descendants


Polish

bat

Noun

bat m.
  1. whip (rod)

Declension

Singular Plural
Nominative bat baty
Genitive bata batów
Dative batowi batom
Accusative bat baty
Instrumental batem batami
Locative bacie batach
Vocative bacie baty

Turkish

Verb

bat
  1. sink (imperative)

Volapük

Noun

bat
  1. game of whip and top
  2. bat (for ball games)

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

The Hebrew word (atalleph') so rendered (Lev 11:19; Deut 14:18) implies "flying in the dark." The bat is reckoned among the birds in the list of unclean animals. .To cast idols to the "moles and to the bats" means to carry them into dark caverns or desolate places to which these animals resort (Isa 2:20), i.e., to consign them to desolation or ruin.^ During a second clash with Batman, the Mole is knocked into a flooded cavern of the Batcave and washed away, his ultimate fate still unknown.
  • 227's DC Universe Bobbleheads-"Batman (NBA)" (YouTube "Chili")! 16 September 2009 21:31 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Also toward the end of the game they were translucent, meaning that in dark places (i.e.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
---
This well-known winged mammal (in Hebrew (missing hebrew text) , Lev 11:19; Deut 14:18; Isa 2:20) was considered by the Hebrews as belonging to the class of birds. The ancients in general considered it as a creature belonging both to the birds and to the mammalia, and partaking of the nature of both classes (Bochart, "Hierozoicon," s.v.). .Like all night-birds, the Bat was considered unclean by the Hebrews.^ Since they look like bats and are minions of Lucifer, they could be literally considered to be Goddamned Bats.
  • Goddamned Bats - Television Tropes & Idioms 2 February 2010 13:47 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

The numerous caves and ruins of Palestine afford shelter to innumerable swarms of bats; and Tristram ("Natural History of the Bible," pp. 45, 46) enumerates no less than seventeen species indigenous to that country. Several of these are also found in Europe and America.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Simple English

For other meanings see Bat (disambiguation)
Bats
Fossil range: Upper Paleocene – Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria / Archonta
Order: Chiroptera
Blumenbach, 1779

Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. They are the only mammals that can fly. Other mammals like flying squirrels, or flying possum, can glide but not fly.

Bats are the second largest order of mammals: there are more than 1,100 species of bats. This means that 20% of all known mammal species – one in five – are bats.[1]

About seventy percent of bats are insectivores. Most of the rest are frugivores (fruit bats). A few species suck blood (hematophagy), and some large ones are carnivorous.

Contents

Taxonomy

  • Order Chiroptera
    • Megabats (Megachiroptera)
    • Microbats (Microchiroptera)

The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision between Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflects the view that these groups of bats have evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor which was already capable of flight.

The hypothesis was that flight only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group.[2]

Adaptations

Echolocation

An interesting thing about bats is that even though they can see with their eyes, they also use their ears to help them 'see' in the dark. Because of this, they can fly into very dark places where no eye could see. This way of seeing is called echolocation. Basically, echolocation means they use echoes to find where things are.

Echolocation is a lot like sonar that submarines and ships use to find things underwater. This is how it works: when a bat flies, it makes lots of sounds. We can not hear these sounds (they are too high-pitched), but bats can hear them. Scientists have instruments to measure them.

When a bat makes its noises, the sound waves move away from the bat. If they hit something, they bounce back to the bat (this bounce is called an echo.) If nothing bounces back, the bat knows there it's okay to fly forward. They use this echolocation to catch their food, like butterflies or dragonflies. When a bat begins its nightly exploration, it usually sends out about 10 calls per second, but when they get an echo from something good to eat, the calls increase up to 200 calls per second. This increase of sounds is called a feeding buzz. The bat makes a feeding buzz to "see" all the quick moves of the insect it is trying to catch.

Hearing and understanding the echoes that go back to the bat must take a really big amount of complicated structures in the bat's brain. Because of this, many scientists, doctors, and even the U.S. army study bats carefully. The U.S. army spends hundreds of thousands of dollars every year to study echolocation in bats.

Bats also have quite good eyesight and can see their prey and where they are flying if it's not too dark. There are lots of stories about bats flying right into people, but this is not true. They can see in the light very well, and in the dark, they can see much better than us because they are nocturnal - that is, they are active during the night, dusk, or dawn. So the expression "blind as a bat" is not very scientific. [3]

Bat's wings

Bats fly with their hands. In fact, the order of bats, Chiropetera, means "hand-wings in Latin.

Bats' and birds' wings are rather different. Birds do not have long finger-like bones in their wings like bats. Birds can not move each of their fingers, but bats can. Because of this, bats can change their direction while flying or fly in any pattern they want: this makes it easier to catch their food. A bat flies as if they are "swimming" through the air - pushing both wings down and backward.

A bird's wing has lots of feathers, while a bat's wing is mostly a stretchy, thin skin called a patagium. This thin membrane of skin stretches between each finger bone, connects to the bat's ankle, and connects to the bat's tail (if it has one). When a bat folds its wings next to its body, the skin puckers up as if it's getting smaller.

Bats have one claw (sometimes called a bat thumb) that sticks out of the top of the wing. They use their "thumb" to climb and crawl. Interestingly, bats also use their thumbs to clean his ears out, just like we use cotton swabs.

Bats' wings have a lot of maneuverability (it can change direction well) - more than a bird, in fact - but it does not have a lot lift. Because of this, they usually have to climb up onto a tree or jump up into the air for the boost before they start flapping their wings.

Food

Megabats eat fruit, nectar or pollen. Most microbats (7 out of 10) are “insectivorous”, that is, they eat insects, but some microbats eat small vertebrate animals (small mammals or fish), blood, or even other bats.

Bats perform a very important role in ecology: They pollinate flowers and sometimes spread their seeds. Many tropical plants completely depend on bats.

Bats mostly live in caves or trees. In North America and in Europe they sometimes live in peoples houses without them knowing. People can be scared by this and sometimes hurt the bats, who mean no harm, unless they are Vampire bats. They eat blood.

Unusual bats

Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are the largest of the bats. They eat fruit and can see well. There are 166 species, all found in the Old World.

Vampire bats live in Latin America. They are famous for only drinking blood.

The Fisherman bat Lives in Latin America and the Caribbean. It swoops low over water and grabs small fish with its claws.

The bumblebee bat, from Thailand, is the world's smallest bat, and is also one of the world's smallest mammals. Adults grow to a length of 29-33mm, and weigh 2 grams.[4]

The biggest known bat is the Giant golden-crowned flying fox. It has a wing span of 1.5m and weighs approximately 1.2 kg.

Bats and people

In the United Kingdom all bats are protected by law, and even disturbing a bat or its roost can be punished with a heavy fine.

Austin, Texas is the summer home to North America's largest urban bat colony (under the Congress Avenue bridge), an estimated 1,500,000 Mexican free-tailed bats, who eat an estimated 10 to 30 tons of insects each night, and attract 100,000 tourists each year.

In Sarawak, Malaysia bats are protected species, but the large naked bat and greater nectar bat are eaten by the local communities.

Bats in folklore and fiction

In the West, Bats are associated with vampires, who are said to be able to change into bats. Bats are also a symbol of ghosts, death and disease. However bats are said to be lucky in some European countries, such as Poland.

The bat is used in fiction by both villains like dracula and heroes like Batman. Kenneth Oppel, wrote a series of novels , beginning with Silverwing, which feature bats as good characters.

An old wives' tale says that bats will entangle themselves in people's hair. This is untrue as bats can detect even a single hair, and fly around it.

Gallery

References

Look up Chiroptera in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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pcd:Soerie-volante


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bat, which are similar to those in the above article.








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