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Bath and North East Somerset
—  unitary authority  —
Nickname(s): BANES or B&NES
Bath and North East Somerset shown within England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region South West England
Ceremonial county Somerset
Admin HQ Bath
Created 1 April 1996
Government
 - Type unitary authority
 - Leader Cllr. Francine Haeberling
 - Council Conservative (council NOC)
 - MPs: Don Foster (LD)
Dan Norris (L)
Area
 - Total 135.6 sq mi ([[Ranked 137th_m²|351.12]] km2)
Population (2008 est.)
 - Total 180,300 (Ranked 91st)
 - Ethnicity
[1]
94.5% White
1.4% S. Asian
1.0% Black
1.4% Mixed Race
1.7% Chinese or other
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 - Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcode BA
Area code(s) 01225
Website http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/

Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES or B&NES) is a unitary authority that was created on 1 April 1996 following the abolition of the County of Avon. It is part of the Ceremonial county of Somerset.

Bath and North East Somerset covers an area of 220 square miles (570 km2), of which two thirds is green belt. It stretches from the outskirts of Bristol, south into the Mendip Hills and east to the southern Cotswold Hills and Wiltshire border. The city of Bath is the principal settlement in the district, but BANES also covers Keynsham, Midsomer Norton, Radstock and the Chew Valley.

The area has varied geography including river valleys and rolling hills. The history of human habitation is long but expanded massively during Roman times, and played significant roles in the Saxon era and English civil war. Industry developed from a largely agricultural basis to include coal mining with the coming of canals and railways. Bath developed as a spa resort in Georgian times and remains a major cultural tourism centre having gained World Heritage City status.

Contents

History

Although BANES was only created in 1996 the area it covers has been occupied for thousands of years. The age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but is believed to be from the Neolithic period,[2] as is the chambered tomb known as Stoney Littleton Long Barrow.[3] Solsbury Hill has an Iron Age hill fort.

Photograph of the Baths showing a rectangular area of greenish water surrounded by yellow stone buildings with pillars. In the background is the tower of the abbey.
The Great Bath at the Roman Baths. The entire structure above the level of the pillar bases is a later reconstruction.

The archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman Baths' main spring was treated as a shrine by the Celts,[4] and was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva; however, the name Sulis continued to be used after the Roman invasion, leading to Bath's Roman name of Aquae Sulis (literally, "the waters of Sulis").

Excavations carried out before the flooding of Chew Valley Lake also uncovered Roman remains, indicating agricultural and industrial activity from the second half of the first century until the third century AD. The finds included a moderately large villa at Chew Park,[5] where wooden writing tablets (the first in the UK) with ink writing were found. There is also evidence from the Pagans Hill Roman Temple at Chew Stoke,[6][7] and a villa at Keynsham.

The Saxon advance from the east seems to have been halted by battles between the British and Saxons, for example; at the siege of Badon Mons Badonicus (which may mave been in the Bath region eg at Solsbury Hill),[8] or Bathampton Down.[9] This area became the border between the Romano-British Celts and the West Saxons following the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD.[10] The Western Wandsdyke was probably built during the 5th or 6th century. The ditch is on the north side, so presumably it was used by the Celts as a defence against Saxons encroaching from the upper Thames valley. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Saxon Cenwalh achieved a breakthrough against the British Celtic tribes, with victories at Bradford-on-Avon (in the Avon Gap in the Wansdyke) in 652 AD.[11] In 675, Osric, King of the Hwicce, set up a monastic house at Bath, probably using the walled area as its precinct.[12] King Offa of Mercia gained control of this monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, which was dedicated to St. Peter.[13] In the ninth century the old Roman street pattern had been lost and it had become a royal possession, with King Alfred laying out the town afresh, leaving its south-eastern quadrant as the abbey precinct.[14] Edgar of England was crowned king of England in Bath Abbey in 973.[15]

King William Rufus granted the city to a royal physician, John of Tours, who became Bishop of Wells and Abbot of Bath in 1088.[16] It was papal policy for bishops to move to more urban seats, and he translated his own from Wells to Bath.[17] He planned and began a much larger church as his cathedral, to which was attached a priory, with the bishop's palace beside it.[16] New baths were built around the three springs. Later bishops, however, returned the episcopal seat to Wells, while retaining the name of Bath in their title as the Bishop of Bath and Wells. The priory at Hinton Charterhouse was founded in 1232 by Ela, Countess of Salisbury who also founded Lacock Abbey.[18]

By the 15th century, Bath's abbey church was badly dilapidated and in need of repairs.[19] Oliver King, Bishop of Bath and Wells, decided in 1500 to rebuild it on a smaller scale. The new church was completed just a few years before Bath Priory was dissolved in 1539 by Henry VIII.[20] The abbey church was allowed to become derelict before being restored as the city's parish church in the Elizabethan period, when the city revived as a spa. The baths were improved and the city began to attract the aristocracy. Bath was granted city status by Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1590.[21] Keynsham, said to be named after Saint Keyne, developed into a medieval market town, its growth prompted by the foundation of an influential and prosperous abbey, founded by the Victorine order of Augustinian monks founded around 1170. It survived until the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539 and a house was built on the site. The remains have been designated as grade I listed building by English Heritage.[22] The town was the site of a battle between royalist forces and the rebel Duke of Monmouth.

During the English Civil War, Somerset, which was largely Parliamentarian, was the site of a number of important battles between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians.[23] The Battle of Lansdowne was fought on July 5, 1643 on the northern outskirts of the city.[23]

In 1668 Thomas Guidott, who had been a student of chemistry and medicine at Wadham College Oxford, moved to Bath and set up practice. He became interested in the curative properties of the waters and in 1676 he wrote A discourse of Bathe, and the hot waters there. Also, Some Enquiries into the Nature of the water. This brought the health-giving properties of the hot mineral waters to the attention of the country and soon the aristocracy started to arrive to partake in them.[24] Several areas of the city underwent development during the Stuart period, and this increased during Georgian times in response to increasing numbers of people visiting the spa and resort town and requiring accommodation.[25] The architects John Wood the elder and his son John Wood the younger laid out the new quarters in streets and squares, the identical facades of which gave an impression of palatial scale and classical decorum.[26] The creamy gold of Bath stone further unified the city, much of it obtained from the limestone Combe Down and Bathampton Down Mines, which were owned by Ralph Allen (1694–1764).[27] Allen, in order to advertise the quality of his quarried limestone, commissioned the elder John Wood to build him a country house on his Prior Park estate between the city and the mines.[27]

Aerial photo of Pensford with the viaduct in the foreground

In north Somerset, around Radstock mining in the Somerset coalfield was an important industry, and in an effort to reduce the cost of transporting the coal the Somerset Coal Canal was built; part of it was later converted into a railway.[28] It connected to the Kennet and Avon Canal which linked the River Thames at Reading and the Floating Harbour at Bristol, joining the River Avon at Bath via Bath Locks. The Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway connected Bath and Bournemouth. It was jointly operated by the Midland Railway and the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR). After the 1 January 1923 Grouping joint ownership of the S&D passed to the LMS and the Southern Railway.[29][30] The area was also served by the Bristol and North Somerset Railway that connected Bristol with towns in the Somerset coalfield. The line was opened in 1873 between Bristol and Radstock, where it joined with an earlier freight only line from Frome. The biggest civil engineering project on the line was the Pensford Viaduct over the River Chew. The viaduct is 995 feet long, reaches a maximum height of 95 feet to rail level and consists of 16 arches. It is now a Grade II listed building. Freight services on the branch line ceased in 1951. The line achieved some fame after closure by its use in the film The Titfield Thunderbolt, but the track was taken up in 1958.

During World War II, between the evening of 25 April and the early morning of 27 April 1942, Bath suffered three air raids in reprisal for RAF raids on the German cities of Lübeck and Rostock. The three raids formed part of the Luftwaffe campaign popularly known as the Baedeker Blitz; over 400 people were killed, and more than 19,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed.[31] Houses in the Royal Crescent, Circus and Paragon were burnt out along with the Assembly Rooms, while the south side of Queen Square was destroyed.[32] All have since been reconstructed.

The River Chew suffered a major flood in 1968 with serious damage to towns and villages along its route, including Chew Stoke, Chew Magna, Stanton Drew, Publow, Woollard, Compton Dando and Chewton Keynsham. The flood even swept away the bridge at Pensford.

Geography

Bath and North East Somerset covers an area of 220 square miles (570 km2), of which two thirds is green belt. It stretches from the outskirts of Bristol, south into the Mendip Hills and east to the southern Cotswold Hills and Wiltshire border.[33] Surrounding local government areas include Bristol, North Somerset, Somerset, South Gloucestershire, and Wiltshire.

The city of Bath is the principal settlement in the district, but BANES also covers Keynsham, Midsomer Norton, Radstock and the Chew Valley. Bath lies on the River Avon and its tributaries such as the River Chew and Midford Brook cross the area.

In the west of the area the Chew Valley consists of the valley of the River Chew and is generally low-lying and undulating. It is bounded by higher ground ranging from Dundry Down to the north, the Lulsgate Plateau to the west, the Mendip Hills to the south and the Hinton Blewett, Marksbury and Newton Saint Loe plateau areas to the east. The River Chew was dammed in the 1950s to create Chew Valley Lake, which provides drinking water for the nearby city of Bristol and surrounding areas. The lake is a prominent landscape feature of the valley, a focus for recreation, and is internationally recognised for its nature conservation interest, because of the bird species, plants and insects.

To the north of Bath are Lansdown, Langridge and Solsbury hills. These are outliers of the Cotswolds.

Governance

Historically part of the county of Somerset, Bath was made a county borough in 1889 so being independent of the newly created administrative Somerset county council, which covered the rest of B&NES.[34] The area that would become B&NES became part of Avon when that non-metropolitan county was created in 1974. Since the abolition of Avon in 1996, Bath has been the main centre of the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset (B&NES), one of the four authorities that replaced Avon.[35]

Before the Reform Act of 1832 Bath elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons.[36] Bath now has a single parliamentary constituency, with Liberal Democrat Don Foster as Member of Parliament. The rest of the area falls within the Wansdyke constituency, which covers the part of B&NES that is not in the Bath constituency. It also contains four wards or parts of wards from South Gloucestershire Council. It is named after the former Wansdyke district. At the next general election 2009/2010 much of this constituency will change to North East Somerset (UK Parliament constituency).[37] The current MP is Dan Norris.

Since B&NES was created, no political party has been in overall control of the council. The Liberal Democrats quickly became the dominant party, but in the local elections on 3 May 2007 the Conservative Party won 31 seats and are now the dominant party, though they do not have a majority. The Labour Party has only five seats, none of which are in Bath.

The current council composes of:

Party Councillors +/-
Conservative Party 31 +5
Liberal Democrats 26 -3
Labour Party 5 -1
Independent 2 -2
No party 1 +1
NOC Hold (Con 1st)

The whole council will be up for re-election in 2011.

Local concerns include the building of large out of town car parks and a new road for buses on Green belt / Conservation Area / World Heritage land, traffic calming measures, council tax, development of the large Western Riverside brownfield land site in Bath, and the now popular, but long delayed Thermae Bath Spa development. On 10 December 2003, Bath and North East Somerset was granted Fairtrade Zone status.

Bath and North East Somerset Council runs one of the most successful youth democracy groups in the UK, Democratic Action for B&NES Youth (DAFBY), which is now a model of good practice for similar organisations across the country.[38] The group are consulted by the council and its partners on a wide variety of issues that affect young people. The Quality Improvement Agency have awarded the group Post-16 Citizenship Champion status, and in May 2008, DAFBY was awarded Outstanding status by OFSTED. DAFBY now delivers training for other youth participation organisations, as well as supporting the local Member of Youth Parliament, Fred Cotterill.[39]

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Parishes

The area of the city of Bath which was part of Bath County Borough is unparished.

Image Name Status Population[40] Former local authority Coordinates Refs
Yellow stone building, with porch with triangular roof in front. Short square tower with battelements toped by flag and falg pole. Gray gravestones in the foreground Bathampton Civil parish
1,504
Bathavon Rural District 51°23′N 2°19′W / 51.39°N 2.32°W / 51.39; -2.32 (Bathampton) [41]
White fronted buildings with windows with small panes of glass. Shop signs for fish and chips and a pub. Postbox on the pavement in front of the buildings separated by black railings. Batheaston Civil parish
2,625
Bathavon Rural District 51°25′N 2°19′W / 51.41°N 2.31°W / 51.41; -2.31 (Batheaston) [41]
Street scene with yellow stone houses on the left and trees showing above a wall on the right Bathford Civil parish
1,753
Bathavon Rural District 51°23′N 2°18′W / 51.39°N 2.30°W / 51.39; -2.30 (Bathford) [41]
Side of stone building with arched windows, partially obscured by trees. Gravestones in the foreground Cameley Civil parish
1,286
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°34′W / 51.32°N 2.56°W / 51.32; -2.56 (Cameley) [42]
Square gray tower of stone church building, partially obscured by trees. Red roofed lych gate to right. Grass and gravestones in the foreground Camerton Civil parish
660
Bathavon Rural District 51°19′N 2°27′W / 51.32°N 2.45°W / 51.32; -2.45 (Camerton) [41]
Gray building with tower at the near end. Trees to right. Gravestones in front Charlcombe Civil parish
433
Bathavon Rural District 51°25′N 2°22′W / 51.41°N 2.36°W / 51.41; -2.36 (Charlcombe) [41]
Gray stone building. Prominent square tower with arched window, topped by small slate pyramidal roof. Left and right of the building are yew trees amongst gravestones. Chelwood Civil parish
153
Clutton Rural District 51°21′N 2°31′W / 51.35°N 2.52°W / 51.35; -2.52 (Chelwood) [42]
Street scene showing road junction and gray stone buildings with parked cars in front of them. To the left is a grassy area with a tree. Chew Magna Civil parish
1,161
Clutton Rural District 51°22′N 2°37′W / 51.37°N 2.61°W / 51.37; -2.61 (Chew Magna) [42]
multiple buildings with red and grey roofs nestled amongst trees. Church tower to the left. Foreground is grassy fields and hedgerows. Background is hills. Chew Stoke Civil parish
905
Clutton Rural District 51°21′N 2°38′W / 51.35°N 2.64°W / 51.35; -2.64 (Chew Stoke) [42]
Gray stone building with slate roof. Attached to the right is a wooden structure over water, partially obscured by trees Claverton Civil parish
149
Bathavon Rural District 51°23′N 2°19′W / 51.38°N 2.31°W / 51.38; -2.31 (Claverton, Somerset) [41]
Stone building, partially obscured by trees. Red brick tower with horizontal stripe pattern surmounted by battlements. Clutton Civil parish
1,529
Clutton Rural District 51°20′N 2°32′W / 51.33°N 2.54°W / 51.33; -2.54 (Clutton, Somerset) [42]
Semicircular stone steps, partially obscured by trees. Water to the left Combe Hay Civil parish
149
Bathavon Rural District 51°20′N 2°23′W / 51.34°N 2.38°W / 51.34; -2.38 (Combe Hay) [41]
Gray stone building with arched windows. Square tower topped with spirelet, flagpole and weather vane. Foreground has small trees and bushes and a wooden rail fence. Compton Dando Civil parish
613
Keynsham Urban District 51°23′N 2°31′W / 51.38°N 2.51°W / 51.38; -2.51 (Compton Dando) [43]
In the foreground are a stone wall and road. Beyond is an area of water surrounded by trees and white fronted houses. Compton Martin Civil parish
508
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°39′W / 51.31°N 2.65°W / 51.31; -2.65 (Compton Martin) [42]
Gray stone building with small square tower and pyramidal roof. Grassy foreground with a cross and gravestones Corston Civil parish
498
Bathavon Rural District 51°23′N 2°26′W / 51.39°N 2.44°W / 51.39; -2.44 (Corston, Somerset) [41]
White caravan on grassy bridge, surrounded by small trees and shrubs Dunkerton Civil parish
479
Bathavon Rural District 51°20′N 2°25′W / 51.33°N 2.41°W / 51.33; -2.41 (Dunkerton, Somerset) [41]
Red and grey stone building with arched windows and triangular roof. Behind is a small square tower East Harptree Civil parish
680
Clutton Rural District 51°18′N 2°37′W / 51.30°N 2.62°W / 51.30; -2.62 (East Harptree) [42]
Roofs of houses visible amongst green fields and hedgerows. Large rock in the foreground. Englishcombe Civil parish
332
Bathavon Rural District 51°22′N 2°25′W / 51.36°N 2.41°W / 51.36; -2.41 (Englishcombe) [41]
Gray stone building with square tower at left hand end. Grass and gravestones in the foreground. Farmborough Civil parish
1,103
Clutton Rural District 51°20′N 2°29′W / 51.34°N 2.48°W / 51.34; -2.48 (Farmborough) [42]
Gray stone building with square tower at far end. Grass and gravestones in the foreground. Farrington Gurney Civil parish
846
Clutton Rural District 51°17′N 2°32′W / 51.29°N 2.53°W / 51.29; -2.53 (Farrington Gurney) [42]
Yellow stone building with gray slate roof and grey chimney, surrounding by houses and trees. In thre foreground is a path with a high stone wall and vegetation. Freshford Civil parish
530
Bathavon Rural District 51°20′N 2°19′W / 51.34°N 2.31°W / 51.34; -2.31 (Freshford) [41]
Grey stone building on 3 bays with a square stone tower at near end of central bay. To the left is a porch with slate roof. In front is a yew tree and gravestones behind a stone wall separating it from a road. High Littleton Civil parish
2,086
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°31′W / 51.32°N 2.51°W / 51.32; -2.51 (High Littleton) [42]
Church tower seen arising behind stone buildings with tile roofs, one of which has a pub sign. Foreground is grass Hinton Blewett Civil parish
326
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°35′W / 51.31°N 2.58°W / 51.31; -2.58 (Hinton Blewitt) [42]
Gray stone building with small square tower at left hand end. In the foreground is grass with a small tiled memorial. Hinton Charterhouse Civil parish
477
Bathavon Rural District 51°20′N 2°19′W / 51.33°N 2.32°W / 51.33; -2.32 (Hinton Charterhouse) [41]
Stone building with tower to right hand side. In front is a wall separating the building from the road. Kelston Civil Parish
185
Bathavon Rural District 51°24′N 2°26′W / 51.40°N 2.43°W / 51.40; -2.43 (Kelston) [41]
Street scene showing shops on left and right, with cars and vans on road. On the left hand pavement is a sign saying welcome to Keynsham high street. Keynsham Town
15,533
Keynsham Urban District 51°25′N 2°29′W / 51.41°N 2.49°W / 51.41; -2.49 (Keynsham) [43]
Top of ower with spirelets seen behind trees. In the foreground is grass and gravestones Marksbury Civil parish
399
Bathavon Rural District 51°22′N 2°29′W / 51.36°N 2.48°W / 51.36; -2.48 (Marksbury) [41]
The roofs of houses and farm buildings in a green valley. Trees in the foreground Monkton Combe Civil parish
356
Bathavon Rural District 51°22′N 2°20′W / 51.36°N 2.33°W / 51.36; -2.33 (Monkton Combe) [41]
Gray stone building with tower at right hand end surmounted by a small spirelet, partially obscured by trees. Nempnett Thrubwell Civil parish
189
Clutton Rural District 51°20′N 2°41′W / 51.34°N 2.68°W / 51.34; -2.68 (Nempnett Thrubwell) [42]
Reddish brown building with tower nearest the camera. Trees to left and right Newton St Loe Civil parish
631
Bathavon Rural District 51°23′N 2°26′W / 51.38°N 2.43°W / 51.38; -2.43 (Newton Saint Loe) [41]
Gray rectangular tower of two storeys, surrounded by trees. In the foreground is grass with sheep. North Stoke Civil parish
72
Bathavon Rural District 51°25′N 2°26′W / 51.42°N 2.43°W / 51.42; -2.43 (North Stoke, Somerset) [41]
The roofs of a row of houses amongst green fields. Norton Malreward Civil parish
241
Clutton Rural District 51°23′N 2°34′W / 51.39°N 2.57°W / 51.39; -2.57 (Norton Malreward) [42][40]
A river running between pavements with railings. Shops behind Norton Radstock Town
21,325
Norton-Radstock Urban District 51°17′N 2°26′W / 51.29°N 2.44°W / 51.29; -2.44 (Norton Radstock) [44]
Large conical black mound with trees in the foreground Paulton Civil parish
4,896
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°30′W / 51.31°N 2.50°W / 51.31; -2.50 (Paulton) [42]
Gray stone building on the left with a pub sign outside it. A road is central to the picture with a white coloured building on the right. Peasedown St John Civil parish
6,306
Bathavon Rural District 51°19′N 2°26′W / 51.32°N 2.44°W / 51.32; -2.44 (Peasedown St John) [41]
Gray building with arched windows. Square tower surmounted by a weather vane. Gravestones and crosses in grass in the foreground separated from the road by a stone wall. Priston Civil parish
252
Bathavon Rural District 51°20′N 2°26′W / 51.34°N 2.44°W / 51.34; -2.44 (Priston) [41]
Gray stone bridge with two arches over water. The central pillar is on a small island. Trees to the left and right and behind the bridge. Publow with Pensford Civil parish
1,087
Clutton Rural District 51°22′N 2°33′W / 51.37°N 2.55°W / 51.37; -2.55 (Publow with Pensford) [42][45]
Gray stone building with red tiled roof, partially obscured by a hedge. A square tower is at the far end. The foreground includes several crosses and gravestones. Saltford Civil parish
4,153
Keynsham Urban District 51°24′N 2°28′W / 51.40°N 2.46°W / 51.40; -2.46 (Saltford) [43]
Several houses, many with white walls and red roofs nestling in a green valley with occasional trees. Shoscombe Civil parish
462
Bathavon Rural District 51°18′N 2°25′W / 51.30°N 2.41°W / 51.30; -2.41 (Shoscombe) [41]
Gray stone building with prominent four stage tower at the right hand end. To the left is a large yew tree. Southstoke Civil parish
440
Bathavon Rural District 51°21′N 2°22′W / 51.35°N 2.36°W / 51.35; -2.36 (Southstoke) [41]
Honey coloured building with prominent porch and triangular fronting to the roof. St Catherine Civil parish
69
Bathavon Rural District 51°26′N 2°19′W / 51.43°N 2.32°W / 51.43; -2.32 (St Catherine, Somerset) [41]
Gray stone building with square tower behind. In the foreground are green fields and bushes. Stanton Drew Civil parish
762
Clutton Rural District 51°22′N 2°35′W / 51.37°N 2.58°W / 51.37; -2.58 (Stanton Drew) [42]
The roofs of many houses can be seen in a green valley with several trees. Stowey-Sutton Civil parish
1,222
Clutton Rural District 51°20′N 2°35′W / 51.34°N 2.59°W / 51.34; -2.59 (Stowey-Sutton) [42][46]
The roofs of several houses can be seen nestling in a green valley with lots of trees. Swainswick Civil parish
284
Bathavon Rural District 51°25′N 2°21′W / 51.41°N 2.35°W / 51.41; -2.35 (Swainswick) [41]
Gray three bay building with arched windows. Tower behind and gravestones in the foreground. Timsbury Civil parish
2,581
Clutton Rural District 51°20′N 2°29′W / 51.33°N 2.48°W / 51.33; -2.48 (Timsbury, Somerset) [42]
Gray stone building with square tower surmounted by a spire on the left. Surrounded by trees and green fields. Ubley Civil parish
335
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°41′W / 51.32°N 2.68°W / 51.32; -2.68 (Ubley) [42]
The roofs of many houses, and a church spire can be seen in a green valley with several trees. Wellow Civil parish
511
Bathavon Rural District 51°19′N 2°22′W / 51.32°N 2.37°W / 51.32; -2.37 (Wellow, Somerset) [41]
Street scene with a church and spire central to the picture. To the right is a yellow building with a pub sign. To the left is a large tree with a signpost in front. Several cars. West Harptree Civil parish
459
Clutton Rural District 51°19′N 2°38′W / 51.31°N 2.63°W / 51.31; -2.63 (West Harptree) [42]
Gray stone building with arched windows. A central tower has a clock on the near face and is surmounted by a weather vane. Whitchurch Civil parish
1,313
Bathavon Rural District 51°25′N 2°34′W / 51.41°N 2.56°W / 51.41; -2.56 (Whitchurch) [41]

Demography

Population Profile[47]
UK Census 2001 BANES UA South West England England
Total population 169,040 4,928,434 49,138,831
Foreign born 11.2% 9.4% 9.2%
White 97.3% 97.7% 91%
Asian 0.5% 0.7% 4.6%
Black 0.5% 0.4% 2.3%
Christian 71.0% 74.0% 72%
Muslim 0.4% 0.5% 3.1%
Hindu 0.2% 0.2% 1.1%
No religion 19.5% 16.8% 15%
Over 75 years old 8.9% 9.3% 7.5%
Unemployed 2.0% 2.6% 3.3%

170,238 people live in the area and approximately half live in the City of Bath making it 12 times more densely populated than the rest of the area.

According to the UK Government's 2001 census, Bath, together with North East Somerset, which includes areas around Bath as far as the Chew Valley, has a population of 169,040, with an average age of 39.9 (the national average being 38.6). According to the same statistics, the district is overwhelmingly populated by people of a white ethnic background at 97.2% — significantly higher than the national average of 90.9%. Other non-white ethnic groups in the district, in order of population size, are multiracial at 1%, Asian at 0.5% and black at 0.5% (the national averages are 1.3%, 4.6% and 2.1%, respectively).[48]

The district is largely Christian at 71%, with no other religion reaching more than 0.5%. These figures generally compare with the national averages, though the non-religious, at 19.5%, are significantly more prevalent than the national 14.8%. Since Bath is known for the restorative powers of its waters, it is interesting to note that only 7.4% of the population describe themselves as "not healthy" in the last 12 months, compared to a national average of 9.2%; only 15.8% of the inhabitants say they have had a long-term illness, as against 18.2% nationally.[48]

Population since 1801 - Source: A Vision of Britain through Time
Year 1801 1851 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Population BANES[49] 57,188 96,992 107,637 113,732 113,351 112,972 123,185 134,346 144,950 156,421 154,083 164,737 169,045

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of North and North East Somerset and South Gloucestershire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[50] Agriculture[51] Industry[52] Services[53]
1995 5,916 125 1,919 3,872
2000 8,788 86 2,373 6,330
2003 10,854 67 2,873 7,914

Settlements

The major towns and villages in the district are:

Transport

Bath is approximately 15 miles (24 km) south-east of the larger city and port of Bristol, to which it is linked by the A4 road, and is a similar distance south of the M4 motorway. Bath and North East Somerset is also served by the A37 and A368 trunk roads, and a network of smaller roads.

Bath is connected to Bristol and the sea by the River Avon, navigable via locks by small boats. The river was connected to the River Thames and London by the Kennet and Avon Canal in 1810 via Bath Locks; this waterway – closed for many years, but restored in the last years of the 20th century – is now popular with narrow boat users.[54] Bath is on National Cycle Route 4, with one of Britain's first cycleways, the Bristol & Bath Railway Path, to the west, and an eastern route toward London on the canal towpath. Although Bath does not have an airport, the city is about 18 miles (29 km) from Bristol International Airport, which may be reached by road or by rail via Bristol Temple Meads railway station.

Bath is served by the Bath Spa railway station (designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel), which has regular connections to London Paddington, Bristol Temple Meads, Cardiff Central, Swansea, Exeter, Plymouth and Penzance (see Great Western Main Line), and also Westbury, Warminster, Salisbury, Southampton, Portsmouth and Brighton (see Wessex Main Line). Services are provided by First Great Western. There is a suburban station on the main line, Oldfield Park, and at Keynsham, which have a limited commuter service to Bristol. Green Park station was once operated by the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway, whose line (always steam driven) climbed over the Mendips and served many towns and villages on its 71-mile (114 km) run to Bournemouth; this example of an English rural line was closed by Beeching in March 1966, with few remaining signs of its existence, but its Bath station building survives and now houses a number of shops.

Education

Bath has two universities. The University of Bath was established in 1966.[55] It is known, academically, for the physical sciences, mathematics, architecture, management and technology.[56]

Bath Spa University was first granted degree-awarding powers in 1992 as a university college (Bath Spa University College), before being granted university status in August 2005.[57] It has schools in Art and Design, Education, English and Creative Studies, Historical and Cultural Studies, Music and the Performing Arts, and Social Sciences.[57] It also awards degrees through colleges such as Weston College in nearby Weston-super-Mare.

The city contains one further education college, City of Bath College, and several sixth forms as part of both state, private, and public schools. In England, on average in 2006, 45.8% of pupils gained 5 grades A-C including English and Maths; for Bath and North East Somerset pupils taking GCSE at 16 it is 52.0%.[58] Special needs education is provided by Three Ways School.

State-funded schools are organised within the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset. A review of Secondary Education in Bath was started in 2007, primarily to reduce surplus provision and reduce the number of single-sex secondary schools in Bath, and to access capital funds available through the government's Building Schools for the Future programme.[59]

For a full list see: List of schools in Bath and North East Somerset

Sports

Bath Rugby plays at the Recreation Ground.[60] Bath Cricket Club play at the North Parade cricket ground next door to the Recreation Ground.

Bath City F.C. is the major football team in Bath city but there are also clubs in the surrounding areas such as; Bishop Sutton A.F.C., Radstock Town F.C. and Welton Rovers F.C..

The Bath Half Marathon is run annually through the city streets, with over 10,000 runners.[61] Bath also has a thriving cycling community, with places for biking including Royal Victoria Park, 'The Tumps' in Odd Down/east, the jumps on top of Lansdown, and Prior Park. Places for biking near Bath include Brown's Folly in Batheaston and Box Woods, in Box.

There are sport and leisure centres in Bath, Keynsham the Chew Valley and Midsomer Norton. Much of the surrounding countryside is accessible for walking and both Chew Valley Lake and Blagdon Lake provide extensive fishing under permit from Bristol Water. The River Chew and most of its tributaries also have fishing but this is generally under licences to local angling clubs. Chew Valley Sailing Club[62] is situated on Chew Valley Lake and provides dinghy sailing at all levels and hosts national and international competitions.

Places of interest

There are a total of 72,000 dwellings within the area, 6,408 are listed buildings, 662 Grade 1and 145 Grade 2 and classified as of historical or architectural importance. These include many buildings and areas of Bath such as Lansdown Crescent,[63] the Royal Crescent,[64] The Circus and Pulteney Bridge.[65] Outside the city there are also several historic manor houses such as St Catherine's Court and Sutton Court.

Bath is a major tourist centre and has a range of museums and art galleries including the Victoria Art Gallery,[66] the Museum of East Asian Art, and Holburne Museum of Art,[67] numerous commercial art galleries and antique shops, as well as numerous museums, among them Bath Postal Museum, The Fashion Museum, the Jane Austen Centre, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Roman Baths.[68]

The Radstock Museum details the history of the Somerset coalfield.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Office for National Statistics - Neighbourhood Statistics - Area: Bath and North East Somerset (Local Authority)". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=3&b=276833&c=bath&d=13&e=13&g=398043&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1223720488417&enc=1&dsFamilyId=1812. Retrieved 2008-11-01.  
  2. ^ "Stanton Drew Stone Circles". English Heritage Archeometry. http://www.eng-h.gov.uk/archaeometry/StantonDrew/. Retrieved 2006-07-08.  
  3. ^ "Stoney Littleton". Stones of England. http://www.stonepages.com/england/stoneylittleton.html. Retrieved 2008-03-15.  
  4. ^ "The Roman Baths". Somerset Tourist Guide. http://www.somersettouristguide.com/Bath/The_Roman_Baths_722.asp. Retrieved 2007-11-01.  
  5. ^ "Mendip Hills An Archaeological Survey of the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty". Somerset County Council Archaeological Projects. http://www.somerset.gov.uk/media/896B4/MendipAONB.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-28.  
  6. ^ Ross, Lesley (Ed.) (2004). Before the Lake: Memories of the Chew Valley. The Harptree Historic Society. ISBN 0-9548832-0-9.  
  7. ^ Hucker, Ernest (1997). Chew Stoke Recalled in Old Photographs. Ernest Hucker.  
  8. ^ "Roman Times". Britannia. http://www.britannia.com/history/somerset/somhist3.html. Retrieved 2006-10-29.  
  9. ^ Scott, Shane (1995). The hidden places of Somerset. Aldermaston: Travel Publishing Ltd. pp. 16. ISBN 1902007018.  
  10. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 501-97 AD.
  11. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 645-56 AD
  12. ^ "Timeline Bath". Time Travel Britain. http://www.timetravel-britain.com/articles/towns/bathtime.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  13. ^ "Bath Abbey". Robert Poliquin's Music and Musicians. Quebec University. http://www.uquebec.ca/musique/orgues/angleterre/batha.html#English. Retrieved 2007-09-18.  
  14. ^ "Alfreds Borough". Bath Past. http://www.buildinghistory.org/bath/saxon/alfredsborough.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-08.  
  15. ^ "Edgar the Peaceful". English Monarchs – Kings and Queens of England. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/saxon_12.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-08.  
  16. ^ a b Powicke, Maurice (1939). Handbook of British Chronology. ISBN 0901050172.  
  17. ^ Huscroft Ruling England p. 128
  18. ^ Scott, Shane (1995). The hidden places of Somerset. Aldermaston: Travel Publishing Ltd. pp. 18–19. ISBN 1902007018.  
  19. ^ "Bath Abbey". Visit Bath. http://visitbath.co.uk/site/things_to_do/p_24001. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  20. ^ "Renaissance Bath". City of Bath. http://www.thecityofbath.co.uk/renaissance_bath.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  21. ^ "Civic Insignia". City of Bath. http://www.thecityofbath.co.uk/civic_insignia.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  22. ^ "Keynsham Abbey". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=485012. Retrieved 2007-07-18.  
  23. ^ a b Rodgers, Colonel H.C.B. (1968). Battles and Generals of the Civil Wars. Seeley Service & Co..  
  24. ^ Burns, D. Thorburn (1981). "Thomas Guidott (1638–1705): Physician and Chymist, contributor to the analysis of mineral waters". Analytical Proceedings including Analytical Communications: Royal Society of Chemistry 18: 2–6. doi:10.1039/AP9811800002. http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/article.asp?doi=AP9811800002. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  25. ^ Hembury, Phylis May (1990). The English Spa, 1560-1815: A Social History. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 0838633919.  
  26. ^ "John Wood and the Creation of Georgian Bath". Building of Bath Museum. http://www.bathmuseum.co.uk/biography.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-08.  
  27. ^ a b "Ralph Allen Biography". Bath Postal Museum. http://www.bathpostalmuseum.co.uk/explore/biographies/ralphallen.html. Retrieved 2007-12-08.  
  28. ^ "Rivers and Canals". Somerset County Council: History of Somerset. http://www.somerset.gov.uk/archives/ASH/Rivers.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-29.  
  29. ^ Awdry, Christopher (1990). Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies. Partick Stephens Ltd. Page 237.
  30. ^ Casserley, H.C. (1968). Britain's Joint Lines. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0024-7.
  31. ^ "History - Bath at War". Royal Crescent Society, Bath. http://www.royalcrescentbath.com/HistoryBathatWar.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  32. ^ "Royal Crescent History: The Day Bombs fell on Bath". Royal Crescent Society, Bath. http://www.royalcrescentbath.com/HistoryRoyalCrescent%202.htm#The_Day_Bombs_fell_on_Bath. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  33. ^ "About the area". Bath and North East Somerset Council. http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/bathnes/leisureandculture/tourismandtravel/areainformation/default.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-30.  
  34. ^ Keane, Patrick. "An English County and Education: Somerset, 1889-1902". The English Historical Review 88 (347): 286–311.  
  35. ^ "The Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995". HMSO. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1995/Uksi_19950493_en_1.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  36. ^ "Parliamentary Constituencies in the unreformed House". United Kingdom Election Results. http://www.election.demon.co.uk/prereform.html. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  37. ^ "Somerset North East: New Boundaries Calculation". Electoral Calculus: General Election Prediction. http://www.electoralcalculus.co.uk/cgi-bin/calcwork.pl?seat=Somerset%20North%20East. Retrieved 2007-09-19.  
  38. ^ "Challenging injustice through democratic action". Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. http://www.qcda.gov.uk/libraryAssets/media/cs_banes.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-21.  
  39. ^ "Fred Cotterill, Member of Youth Parliament profile". UK Youth Parliament. http://www.ukyouthparliament.org.uk/profiles/south_west/cotterill_fred.html. Retrieved 2009-03-22.  
  40. ^ a b "Population Statistics for Bath & North East Somerset". Statistics and Census Information. Bath and North East Somerset Council. http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/BathNES/councilanddemocracy/statisticsandcensusinformation/default.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-06.  
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "A Vision of Britain Through Time : Bathavon Rural District". Great Britain Historical GIS Project 2004/University of Portsmouth. Data © Office of National Statistics, for England and Wales. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10173176&c_id=10001043. Retrieved 2009–12–06.  
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "A Vision of Britain Through Time : Clutton Rural District". Great Britain Historical GIS Project 2004/University of Portsmouth. Data © Office of National Statistics, for England and Wales. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10107775&c_id=10001043. Retrieved 2009-12-06.  
  43. ^ a b c "A Vision of Britain Through Time : Keynsham Urban District". Great Britain Historical GIS Project 2004/University of Portsmouth. Data © Office of National Statistics, for England and Wales. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10153116&c_id=10001043. Retrieved 2009-12-08.  
  44. ^ "A Vision of Britain Through Time : Norton-Radstock Urban District". Great Britain Historical GIS Project 2004/University of Portsmouth. Data © Office of National Statistics, for England and Wales. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/relationships.jsp?u_id=10107787&c_id=10001043. Retrieved 2009-12-08.  
  45. ^ "Publow with Pensford Parish Council". Publow with Pensford Parish Council. http://www.publow-with-pensford-pc.gov.uk/pub/Publow%20&%20Pensford%20Villages.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-08.  
  46. ^ "Stowey-Sutton Parish Council" (PDF). Stowey-Sutton Parish Council. http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/Committee_Papers/RegAccess/RAC051011/10zappendix%205.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-08.  
  47. ^ United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "Key Figures for 2001 Census: Census Area Statistics: Area: Bath and North East Somerset". statistics.gov.uk. http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadDatasetList.do?a=3&b=3567719&c=Somerset&d=180&e=16&g=397814&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1197489822531&enc=1&altAreaId=276833. Retrieved 2007-12-12.  
  48. ^ a b "Bath and North East Somerset UA 2001 Census". National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/00ha.asp. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  49. ^ "Bath and North East Somerset: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/place/place_page.jsp?p_id=1008&st=Bath%20and%20North%20East%20Somerset. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
  50. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  51. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  52. ^ includes energy and construction
  53. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  54. ^ Allsop, Niall (1987). The Kennet & Avon Canal. Bath: Millstream Book. ISBN 0-948975-15-6.  
  55. ^ "History of the University". University of Bath. http://www.bath.ac.uk/internal/staff/intro/history.html. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  56. ^ "Departments". University of Bath. http://www.bath.ac.uk/departments/. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  57. ^ a b "Bath Spa University". Bath Spa University. http://www.bathspa.ac.uk/. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  58. ^ "LDF Contextual Info" (Excel). Intelligence West. http://www.westofengland.org/media/67966/gcse%20results%202007%20by%20ua.xls. Retrieved 2007-12-14.  
  59. ^ Secondary School Reviews, Bath and North East Somerset Council, http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/BathNES/councilanddemocracy/consultations/SchoolsConsultation/secondary/, retrieved 2008-06-23  
  60. ^ "Stadium Layout". Bath Rugby. http://www.bathrugby.com/theclub/stadium_layout.php. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  61. ^ "Bath Half Marathon". http://www.bathhalfmarathon.co.uk/. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  
  62. ^ "Chew Valley Sailing Club". http://www.chewvalleysailing.org.uk/. Retrieved 2006-05-12.  
  63. ^ "1 to 20 Lansdown Crescent". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=442760. Retrieved 2006-11-14.  
  64. ^ "Royal Crescent". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=443488. Retrieved 2006-11-14.  
  65. ^ "Pulteney Bridge". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=443316. Retrieved 2006-11-14.  
  66. ^ "Victoria Art Gallery". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=442375. Retrieved 2006-11-15.  
  67. ^ "Holburne of Menstrie Museum". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=443742. Retrieved 2006-11-15.  
  68. ^ "Roman Baths Treatment Centre". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=442194. Retrieved 2006-11-15.  

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