The Full Wiki

More info on Bathyal

Bathyal: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


(Redirected to Bathyal zone article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aquatic layers
Lake stratification
Ocean habitats
Aquatic ecology
The layers of the pelagic zone.

The bathyal zone or bathypelagic – from Greek βαθύς (bathýs), deep – is the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of 1000 to 4000 meters below the ocean surface. It lies between the mesopelagic above, and the abyssopelagic below. The average temperature hovers at about 4 °C (39 °F). Although larger by volume than the euphotic zone, the bathyal zone is less densely populated. Sunlight does not reach this zone, meaning there can be no primary production. It is known as the midnight zone because of this feature. Because of the lack of light, some species do not have eyes, but one of the species that does is the viperfish. Another is the frill shark. Many forms of nekton live in the bathyal zone, such as squid, large whales, and octopuses, but this zone is difficult for fish to live in. Sponges, brachiopods, sea stars, and echinoids are also common in the bathyal zone. The fish in this zone have become very energy efficient since it is especially hard to find nutrients. Many have slow metabolic rates, to conserve energy. The fish here have weak muscles, soft skin and slimy bodies. Animals in the bathyal zone aren't threatened by predators that can see them, so they do not have powerful muscles. There are few plants because of lack of sunlight, as they need sunlight to produce their food through photosynthesis. The bathyal zone holds some of the world's largest whales.

The bathyal zone extends to the benthic zone on the ocean bed of that part of the continental slope that lies between 1000 and 4000 metres deep.

See also


  • Enig, C. C. (1997). "Bathyal zones on the Mediterranean continental slope: An attempt". Research on marine benthos: 9th Iberian Symposium on Studies of Marine Benthos. Madrid: MAPA, SGT. pp. 23–33. ISBN 8449102995.  
  • Bathyal zone (oceanography) Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 21 March 2009.


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address