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Battle of Öland (1676)
Part of Scanian War
Slaget ved oland maleri av claus moinichen 1686.jpg
The sinking of Kronan. Painting by Claus Møinichen.
Date 1 June 1676
Location Öland island
Result Dutch and Danish victory
Belligerents
 Dutch Republic
 Denmark
 Sweden
Commanders
Cornelis Tromp
Niels Juel
Lorentz Creutz  
Claes Uggla  
Strength
42 warships, of which 25 ships of the line, 57 warships, of which 27 ships of the line, ca 12,000men
Casualties and losses
on danish side, 1 demolation ship.(fireship) 5 warships sunked, including the commandship "Kronan" ca 750men,"Svärdet" ca 600men +3 conquerd small ships.
Depiction the Battle of Öland. Romeyn de Hooghe, 1676

The naval Battle of Öland occurred on 1 June 1676 south off the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea, as part of the Scanian War.

It was a victory for a combined Danish/Dutch fleet of 25 ships of the line and 10 frigates etc. under Cornelis Tromp (at that time Admiral-General of the Danish fleet) over a Swedish fleet of 26 ships of the line, 12 frigates etc. under baron Lorentz Creutz, a Finnish nobleman.

Most notable was the loss of the Swedish ship Kronan/ "Makalös" at the time the most heavily armed warship in the world. The Kronan turned sharply without closing her gunports or reefing her sails. This caused her to heel over and water started pouring into the gunports, capsizing her. As she was sinking, a lamp in the gunpowder store fell off its hook and ignited the gunpowder, causing a violent explosion that killed most of her crew (an estimated 800 men were on board). Only 42 men survived the sinking.

The Swedish fleet fled after the battle.

Contents

Order of battle

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Denmark/Netherlands

Van Squadron

  • Churprinds (76) (Juel)
  • Anna Sofia (56)
  • Christianus IV (56)
  • Gyldenlove (56)
  • Nelleblad (54)
  • Kobenhavn (50)
  • Lindorm (50)
  • Delmenhorst (46)
  • Anthonette (34)
  • Hummer (34)
  • Svenske Charitas (32)
  • 2 small craft
  • 2 fireships

Center Squadron

  • Christianus V (86) (Tromp)
  • Enighed (62)
  • Fredericus III (60)
  • Tre Lover (60)
  • Oostergo (60) (Dutch)
  • Charlotta Amalia (54)
  • Christiania (54)
  • Campen (40) (Dutch)
  • Frisia (36) (Dutch)
  • Havmand (34)
  • Havfru (24)
  • Spraglede Falk (16)
  • 3 small craft
  • 2 fireships

Rear Squadron

  • Waesdorp (68) (Dutch)
  • Justina (64) (Dutch)
  • Delft (62) (Dutch)
  • Gideon (60) (Dutch)
  • Dordrecht (46) (Dutch)
  • Ackerboom (44) (Dutch)
  • Noortholland (44) (Dutch)
  • Caleb (40) (Dutch)
  • Utrecht (38) (Dutch)
  • Hvide Falk (28)
  • Loss (28)
  • 2 small craft
  • 1 fireship

Sweden

This was the same fleet that had fought the previous battle of Bornholm, with the exception of the two ships lost there.

  • Kronan (105-124) (Creutz) - Capsized and exploded
  • Svärd (86-94) - (Claas Uggla, amiral of the 2nd squadron) - Burnt, exploded
  • Äpple (86)
  • Nyckel (84-88) - (Johan Bär, amiral of the 3rd squadron)- retreated early
  • Sol (74) - Damaged
  • Mars (72) - Damaged?
  • Jupiter (70)
  • Hieronymus (64)
  • Merkurius (64) - Damaged
  • Saturnus (64)
  • Venus (64) - Damaged
  • Wrangel (60)
  • Riga (54)
  • Wismar (54)
  • Göteborg (48)
  • Spes (48)
  • Svenska Lejon (48)
  • Abraham (44)
  • Flygande Varg (44)
  • Neptunus (44)
  • Fredrika Amalia (34)
  • Trumslagare (34) - Aground later
  • Konung David (32)
  • Sundsvall (32)
  • Salvator (30)
  • Nordstjerna (28)
  • Perla (28)
  • Jernvag (24) - Captured
  • Utter (24)
  • Sol (54) (merchant??) - Aground later
  • Enhorn (16) (merchant?)
  • Ekhorre (8) (merchant?)
  • Rodkrita (fireship) - Scuttled
  • 8 merchant ships
  • 6 fireships

References

  • Svenska slagfält 2005, page 223-229 "Öland 1676"


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