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Battle of Ayacucho
Part of Peruvian War of Independence
Battle of Ayacucho.jpg
The Battle of Ayacucho.
Date 9 December 1824
Location Quinua, Peru, Huamanga Province

Location of the province Huamanga in Ayacucho.svg

Result Independentist Victory
Capitulation of the Royalist Army
End of Spanish rule in South America
Belligerents


Commanders
Bandera 1819.PNG Antonio José de Sucre Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Viceroy La Serna
José de Canterac
Strength
United Liberation Army [5]

Total: 5780[6]-8500[7] men

Royalist Army [9]

Total: 6906-9310 men [10]

Casualties and losses
979 2,100 killed or captured 3,500 prisoners

The Battle of Ayacucho was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that sealed the independence of Peru, as well as the victory that ensured independence for the rest of South America.

As of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of the Real Felipe fort in the port of Callao. On December 9, 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho, or Battle of La Quinua, took place at Pampa de La Quinua, a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independentist forces. Independentist forces were led by Antonio José de Sucre, Simón Bolívar's lieutenant. Viceroy José de la Serna was wounded, and after the battle second commander in chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army. The modern Peruvian Army celebrates the anniversary of this battle.

Contents

Past History

In year 1820, Spain entered a politic disaster because of king Ferdinand VII subduing and the restoration of the Liberal Constitution, supported by general Rafael de Riego, who revolted an expedition of 20 000 soldiers sent to Río de la Plata to help the royalists of America. This event ended Spain’s reinforcement expeditions for America, which eventually forced Peru and Nueva España (New Spain) viceroyaltys to take different paths, although they had contained the Spanish American revolution so far.

Meanwhile, the monarchic absolutists, after defeating the insurgents, proclaimed their negotiated separation of Liberal Spain through the Iguala’s Plan, Cordoba’s Treaties and the Tigarant Pact. In Peru, however, viceroy Pezuela was discredited because of the defeat of Mariano Osorio’s Expedition in Chile, and weakened because of José de San Martín’s Lima Expedition. The birrey was finally overthrown on January 29, 1821 in Aznapuquio by the coup of general José de la Serna, who proclaimed his adhesion to the Liberal Constitution.

The independentists started in Cerro de Pasco a promising campaign in order to defeat Peruvian Royal Army commanded by viceroy La Serna; but royalists had a solid military training. The first independentist army to be defeated was the one commanded by Domingo Tristán and Agustín Gamarra in Ica’s campaigns. A year later, by the time José de San Martin had withdrawn after Interview of Guayaquilw, Rudecindo Alvarado's Libertor Expedition was smashed in Torata and Moquegua campaigns. The year 1823 ended with the destruction of another patriot army commanded by Andrés de Santa Cruz and Agustín Gamarra in yet another open campaign on Puno, which started with the Battle of Zepita and the subsequent occupation of La Paz city on August 8, reaching Oruro in High Peru viceroy La Serna ended the mentioned campaign, scattering Santa Cruz’s isolated troops and retrieving Arequipa after beating Antonio José de Sucre, who made Colombians embark on October 10, 1823, saving himself and his troops, although losing the best of his cavalry.

Finally the last remnants of optimism were fading away because of treason accusations against Peruvian presidents José de la Riva Agüero and José Bernardo de Tagle. Riva Agüero deported Peru Congress deputies and organized another Congress in Trujillo. After being declared of high treason by the Peru Congress [12] he was banished to Chile. This act was considered by Simón Bolívar as treason. Tagle arranged that all armies under his command supported Bolívar against the enemy, at the same time Bolivar was looking to capture and execute him.[13] José Bernardo de Tagle took shelter with the royalists in the fortress of Callao, which was under siege.

And so, by the end of year 1823, in spite of the impressive triumphs obtained so far, by the time Bolívar wrote requesting reinforcements form Colombia and prepared for what became the final battle against the Royal Army of Peru, the situation had started to become critical for those who defended the king’s cause:

"..Viceroy la Serna por su parte,without direct communications whith the Península, with the most sad news of the metropoli’s state… and therefore restricted to its own and exclusive resources but having a remarkable trust in his subordinates’ decision, union, loyalty and fortune, he too was accelerating the reorganization of his troops and was preparing for the fight that was so close to Costa-firme. Another triumph for Spanish armies in that situation would make the Castilian pavilion wave again with inmarcesible glory to the very Ecuator; but another luck was already irrevocable written in the books of fate.
.."
Gnrl. Andrés Garcia Camba.[14]
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The outcomes of 1824

Truce in Buenos Aires and revolt in el Callao

Associated Press Historian Rufino Blanco Fombona says that "Still in 1824 Bernardino Rivadavia makes a pact with Spanish, obstructing Ayacucho Campaign":[15] on July 4 1823, Buenos Aires made a truce with Spanish commissionaires (Preliminary Peace Convention (1823)) that forced it to send negotiators to other South American governments so that it could had effect.[16] It was stipulated that hostilities would cease after 60 days after its ratification and would subsist over a year and half; meanwhile, a definitive peace and friendship would be negotiated. This was the reason for which they had a meeting in Salta Juan Gregorio de Las Heras city with brigadier Baldomero Espartero, obtaining no agreement. Among other measures taken by the viceroy for containing the imminent rebellion, on January 10 1824 Olañeta was ordered:

I warn to V.E. that he shoudl not arrange any expedition in any direction over down provinces without my express order because, besides they are having a meeting in Saltatrying to negotiate, General Las Heras on Government of Buenos Aires’ side and Brigadier Espartero on this superior Government’s side (...)[17]

Rivadavia believed that the project would establish peace and stopped authority’s efforts of Salta over High Peru, refusing assistance and withdrawing advanced posts,[18] in detriment of the cause of Peru.

In that matter, the Irish historian, of military origin, Daniel Florencio O'Leary was of the opinion that with that that truce "Buenos Aires has implicitly withdrawn from the struggle",[19] and that "Buenos Aires Government pacts with the Spanish, on detriment of the American cause".[20]

On January 1 1824, Bolívar fell terribly ill in Pativilca. At that time, Félix Álzaga, plenipotentiary ministe of Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata arrived to Lima, in order to request Peru its adhesion to the truce, which was rejected by the Peruvian Congress. Nevertheless, since February 4 1824 the quarters of Callao rioted, having the whole Argentinian infantry of the Libertor Expedition, together with some Chilean, Peruvians and Colombians: nearly 2000 men that in addition went over to the royalists [17], raising the Spanish pavilion and handing over the fortresses of Callao. The mounted granadier regiment of los Andes also revolted in Lurin on February 14: two squadrons went over to the Callao to join the riot, but when they noticed that they had joined the royalists, a hundred of them with regiment bosses went to Lima to join. The cuerpo was then reorganized by general Mariano Necochea. On the verge of such events,[21] the minister of Colombia, Joaquín Mosquera “fearing the ruin of our army” asked:«¿And what do you plan to do now?», and Bolívar, in a decided, answered:

Triumph!
Simón Bolívar, Pativilca, 1824.

The Site of El Callao extended the war until 1826, and immediately resulted in the occupation of Lima Canterac, and it is said that, on May of 1824, with a military action against Bolívar "they would have given the final blow to independence in this part of America".[22]

Olañeta's Rebellion

Associated Press Surprisingly, at the start of year 1824, the whole royalist army of High Peru rioted with the Spanish absolutist leader Pedro Antonio Olañeta against viceroy of Peru, after receiving the new that the Constitutional Government had fallen in Spain. Indeed, the monarch Ferdinand VII de España and his absolutists followers recovered the government, supported by 132 000 French soldiers from the Holy Alliance army, which will occupy Spain until 1830. Rafael del Riego was hanged out on November 7 1823 and the peopellent of the liberal movement were executed, outcasted or exiled from Spain. On October 1 1823, the monarch decreed the abolition of everything approved during the last three years of constitutional government, which annulated the designation of La Serna as viceroy of Peru. The scope of the purge over the constitutionals of Viceroyalty Peru seemed infallible. [[Archivo:José de la Serna.jpg|thumb|200px|left| The last viceroy of Perú, José de la Serna e Hinojosa, Conde de los Andes.]] Olañeta ordered the attack of the Highperuvian royalists against the constitutionals of Peruvian viceroyalty.[23] La Serna changed his plans of going down to the coast to fight Bolívar, and sent Jerónimo Valdés with a force of 5000 veteran to cross the river River Desaguadero, which took place on January 22 1824, in order to drive them to Potosí against his former subordinate, "because there are indications of a meditated treason, joining the dissidents of Buenos Aires". Memorias para la historia de las armas españolas en el Perú (Memories for history of Spanish armies in Peru) from peninsular official Andrés García Camba (1846) detail the overturning that High Peru incidents produced in defensive plans of the viceroy. After a long campaign in the battles of Tarabuquillo, Sala, Cotagaita, and finally La Lava on August 17 of year 1824, both royalists forces of Viceroyalty Peru (liberals) and of the provinces of High (absolutists), were mutually decimated.

Bolivar, in comunication with Olañeta, took advantage of the desmounting of the royalist defensive system so that he "moved the whole month of May Jauja", and face José de Canterac aislated in Junín on August 6 of 1824. And so, a non-stop persecution started with the consequent desertion of 2700 royalists, which immediately went over to the independentists lines. Finally, October 7 of 1824, having his troops right in front of the doors of Cuzco, Bolívar gave general Sucre the command of the new battle front, which followed the course of the Apuríma River, and he withdraw to Lima in order to take from the capital more loans to keep the war going in Peru, and to receive a Colombian division of 4000 men given up by Páez which would arrive after Ayacucho.[24]

Campaign of Ayacucho

[[Archivo:Gran marical de ayacucho.jpg|thumb|200px|right|El Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho Antonio José de Sucre.]]

The desintegration of the observation body of Canterac forced La Serna to bring Jerónimo Valdés from Potosí, who came with forced marched with his soldiers. Gathered the royalist generals, and in spite of the signs of sincere adhesion of Cusco, the viceroy rejected a direct assault because of the lack of instruction of his army, enlarged by the massive reclutements of peasants a few weeks earlier. On the contrary, he intended to cut Sucre’s rearguard through march and countermarchrch maneuvers, which happen since Cusco to the encounter in Ayacucho, along the Andean range. Thereby, the royalists planned a quick strike which they made on December 3 in battle of Corpahuaico or Matará, where they caused the liberator army more than 500 casualties sand the loss of a big part of ammunition and artillery, having lost only 30 men. However, Sucre and his estado mayor managed to keep the troop organized and prevented the viceroy from exploiting this local success. Although having suffered important loses of men and material, Sucre kept the United Army in an ordered fall back, and always situated in assured positions of difficult access, like Quinoa field.

Another book of memories, In the service of the Republic of Peru, from general Guillermo Miller, offers the vision of the independentists. Besides Bolívar’s and Sucre’s talents, the United Army seeded from an important part of the century’s militar experience: the Rifles batallion of the army of Colombia was composed of European mercenary troops, which were mostly britanics volunteers. This unit was substantially damaged in Corpahuico. Among its ranks, there were also veterans from the Spanish Independence, the North American Independence, and from the Spanish American Wars; there were even cases like the German mayor Carlos Sowersby, veteran from the Battle of Borodino against Napoleón Bonaparte in Rusia.

The royalists had had consumed their resources in a war of movements without achieving a decisive victory against the liberator army. Because of the extremely hard conditions of a campaign in the Andine range, both armies felt in numbers the effects of disease and desertion, which affected the indepents as well as the armies lacking of military training and the armies made up by enemy prisoners. The royalists chiefs had posotioned themselves in the heights of hill Condorcunca (which means condor’s neck in quechua), a good defensive position they couldn’t hold for long given the incoming hunger in less than five days, which would mean the dispersion of the army and a certain defeat under the close arrival of Columbian reinforcements; that’s why they were impelled to take a desperate decision: the Battle of Ayacucho was about to begin.

Batalla order

There is a debate regarding the numbers of fighters, but there must be taken into account that both armies started with a men forcé (8500 indepents vs, 9310 royalists) that were disminished during the next weeks until the very day of the battle (5780 independentists vs. 6906 loyals) because of the reasons exposed so far.

thumb|290px|right|Batalla de Ayacucho

jército Unido Libertador del Perú

  • Commander: general Antonio José de Sucre
  • Jefe del Estado Mayor - general Agustín Gamarra
  • Cavalry – general Guillermo Miller
  • First Division - general José María Córdoba (2.300 men)
  • Second Division - general José de La Mar (1.580 men)
  • Reserve - general Jacinto Lara (1.700 men)

Before the battle beginning, general Sucre harangued his troops:

"¡Soldiers!, South America’s luck depends on today’s efforts; another day of glory will crown your admirable. ¡Soldiers!: ¡Long live The Liberator! ¡Long live Bolívar, The Savior of Peru!."
Antonio José de Sucre
Our line formed an angle; the right, composed by the batallions of Bogotá, Boltijeros, Pichincha and Caracas, of the first division of Colombia, under command of senior general Córdova. The left, by the batallions 1.° 2.° 3.° and Peruvian legion, with the hussars of Junin, under senior general La Mar. On the center, the granadiers and hussars of Colombia, with general Miller; and in reserve the batallions Rifles, Vencedor y Bargas, of the first division of Colombia, under command of senior general Lara.
Parte de la batalla de Ayacucho

Notice that marchall Sucre doesn’t mention in this part the Mounted Granadiers of Río de la Plata. Gneral Miller in his Memoirs of General Miller: in the service of the republic of Peru offers the full composition of the armies under Sucre:

Division Cordova (on the right): Bogota, Caracas, Voltigeros, Pichincha.

Cavalry, Miller (in the centre): Hussars of Junin, Granaderos of Colombia, Hussars of Colombia, Granaderos of Buenos Ayres.
Division La Mar (on the left): Legion. N° 1, 2, N° 3.
Division Lara (in reserve): Vargas, Vencedores, Rifles.[25]

Miller’s assertion regarding that the Hussars of Junín were in his division[26] contradicts what Sucre says in the part.

Ejército Real del Perú

  • Commander: viceroy José de La Serna
  • Cavalry Commander – brigadier Valentín Ferraz
  • Jefe del Estado Mayor – lieutenant general José de Canterac
  • División de Vanguardia - general Jerónimo Valdés (2.006 men)
  • First Division - general Juan Antonio Monet (2.000 men)
  • Second Division - general Alejandro González Villalobos (1.700 men)
  • Reserve Division - general José Carratalá (1.200 men)
The Spanish quickly moved their troops down, getting to the gaps to our left the batallions Cantabria, Centro, Castro, 1° Imperial and two Hussar squadrons with a six pieces battery, strengthing too much the attack on that zone. On the center, formed the batallions Burgos, Infante, Victoria, Guias and 2° of the first Regiment, supporting the left of these ones with with the three squadrons of the Union, San Carlos, the four of the Granaderos de la Guardia and the five pieces of artillery already situated; and over the heights to our left the battalions 1 and 2 of Gerona, 2° Imperial, 1° of the first Regiment, Fernandinos, and the squadron of Granaderos de Alabarderos del Viceroy.[27]

Events outcome

350px|thumb|left|Croquis de la batalla de Ayacucho.UNIQ3fb9e8bb51c9b374-nowiki-00000055-QINU28UNIQ3fb9e8bb51c9b374-nowiki-00000056-QINU
A. Royalists positions in the night from 8 to 9
B. Preparatory maneuver for the royalist attack
C. MMarch of battallions under colonel Rubín de Celis
D. Maneuver and attack of Monet division
E. Attack of Valdés’ vanguard over the house occupied by the independentists
F. Charge of royalist cavalry
M. and dispersion of Gerona battalions by the royalist reserve
K. Battalion Ferdinand VII, last royalist reserve

The mechanism organized by Canterac foresaw that the vanguard division surrounded, alone, the enemy gathering, crossing Pampas river in order to secure the units to the left of Sucre. While the rest of the royalist army descended frontally from the hill Condorcunca, abandoning his defensive positions and charging against the main body of the enemy, which he expected to find disorganized, there was stay in reserve the battalions Gerona and Ferdinand VII disposed in second line to be sent wherever they were required.

Sucre immediately realized the risky maneuver, which became clear as the royalists found themselves in a slope, without chances of covering their movements. Córdiva Division, supported by Miller’s Cavalry, stroked directly the disorganized bulk of royalist troops that were incapable of forming for battle and descended in lines from the mountains; it was right before starting this attack that general José María Córdova pronounced his famous phrase "Division, armas a discreción, de frente, paso de vencedores". Colonel Joaquín Rubín de Celis, who commanded the first royalist regiment had to protect the artillery emplacement, which was still loaded in its mules, moved forward carelessly into the plain where his unit was smashed and he himself was killed during the attack of the Córdova’s division, whose effective fire on the lines formations pushed the scattered shooters of Villalobos’.

Seeing the misfortune suffered by his left, general Monet, without waiting for his cavalry to form in the plain, crossed the ravine and he led his division against Cordova’s, managing to form in battle two of his battalions but, suddenly attacked by the independents division, he was surrounded before the rest of his troops could also form in battle; during these events Monet was hurt and three of his chiefs killed; the scattered armies of his side dragged in retreat the masses of militia. The royalist cavalry under Ferraz charged upon the enemy squadrons that pursued Monet’s left but that. supported by the heavy fire of his infantry, caused a huge deal of casualties over Ferraz’s horsemen, whose survivors were forced to rashly leave the battlefield.

On the other end of the line, the Second Division of José de La Mar plus the Third Division of Jacinto Lara stopped together the assault made by the veterans of Valdés’ vanguard who had launched themselves to take a lonely house occupied by some independentist companies, which, although swapped at first, were soon reinforced and went back to the attack , eventually helped by the victorious Córdova’s division. Viceroy La Serna and the other officers tried to reestablish the battle and reorganize the scattered men who ran and general Canterac himself led the reserve division over the plain; however, Gerona battalions were not the same that won in the battles of Torata and Moquegua, because during Olañeta’s rebellion they had lost almost all their veterans and even their former commander Cayetano Ameller; this troop, composed by recruits forced to fight scattered before facing the enemy, and Ferdinand VII battalion followed, after a feeble resistance. At one o’clock the viceroy had been hurt and made prisoner along with a great number of his officers and even though Valdés’ division was still fighting to the right of his front, the battle was a victory for independentists. Casualties told by Sucre were 370 killed and 609 wounded, the royalists had about 1800 dead and 700 wounded.

With the remnants of his division, Valdés managed to retreat to the heights of his rearguard where he joined 200 riders that had gathered around general Canterac and some dispersed soldiers from royalist divisions whose fleeing demoralized men even shot and kill their own officers who intended to regroup them. With the main body of the royal army destroyed and the viceroy himself in the hands of his enemies, royalists leaders surrendered.

Capitulation of Ayacucho

[[Archivo:Capitulación_de_Ayacucho1.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Capitulación de Ayacucho (óleo de Daniel Hernández).]] Associated Press

"Don José Canterac, lieutenant general of the royal armies of S. M. C., responsable of the superior command of Peru due to the imprisonment and injurement in today’s battle of the great lord viceroy don José de La Serna, having Heard senior senior generals and chiefes that gathered after the spanish army, filling in every sense all that has been demanded their reputation in the bloody day of Ayacucho and in the whole war in Peru, have had to give up the battlefield to the independent troops; and having to conciliate at the same time these forces remnants’ hono, and the decrease of this country’s misforunes, I believed it convenient to propose and adjust with senior division general of Colombia Republic, Antonio José de Sucre, chief commander of united liberator army of Peru".

That’s the treaty signed by the mayor state chief royalista, Canterac, and general Sucre at the end of the Ayacucho battle, on December 9, 1824. Its main consequences were:

  • The royalist army under command of viceroy La Serna refused to keep on the fight.
  • The staying of the last royalist soldiers in Callao fortresses.
  • The Peru Republic should have paid the economic and politic debt to the countries that gave military contributions to its independence.

Bolívar summoned from Lima the Panama Congress, on December 7, for the unión of the new independent countries. The project was only ratified by Great Colombia. Four years later, due to personal ambitions of many of its generals and the absence of a united visión that foresaw South America as a single nation, Great Colombia would end up splitting in the countries that exist today in South American continent, frustrating the dream of union hoped by The Liberator of America.

Conspirative theories abour the Battle of Ayacucho

The capitulation has been called by Spanish historian Juan Carlos Losada as "Ayacucho betrayal" and in his piece of work Batallas decisivas de la Historia de España (Decisive battles in Hisroty of Spain) (Ed. Aguilar, 2004), he states that the result of the battle was already pactated. The historian points out Juan Antonio Monet as responsible of the agreement: “the main characters kept a deep silence pact and, therefore, we can only speculate, although with little risk of being wrong” (Page 254). A capitulation without battle would have been undoubtedly judged as treason. Spanish leader, of liberal ideas, and accused of belonging to masonry just like other independentist leaders, didn’t shared king Ferdinand VII’s ideas all the time, a monarch considered tyrannical, besides absolutism supporter. On the contrary, Spanish commander Andrés García Camba tells in his memories how Spanish officials, latter known as "ayacuchos", were unjustly accused upon their arrival to Spain: "misters, with that thing we had a Masonic defeat" they were told in an accusatory manner, -"That thing was lost, my general, in the way battles are lost", the battle veterans.

High Peru after battle of Ayacucho

[[Archivo:Palacio de Congresos Bolivia.jpg|thumbnail|250px|Vista del Palacio de Congresos de Bolivia.]] After the triumph in Ayacucho, and following precise orders from Bolívar, general Sucre entered in High Peru’s territory on February 25 1825. His role was limited to give a legality appeareance to a process that peruvians themselves had started already, besides keeping order and installuing mmediately independentis administration. Royalist general Pedro Antonio Olañeta stayed in Potosí, where he received by january the battallion "Union", coming from Puno under command of colonel José María Valdez, and then he summoned a War Council that agreed to cointinue the resistance in the name ofFerdinand VII. Olañeta distributed his tropos between Cotagaita fortress with battallion "Chichas" in charge of colonel Medinacelli, while Valdez was sent to Chuquisaca woth the "Union" and Olañeta himself marched toward Vitichi, with 60.000 pieces of gold form the Coin House in Potosí.

However, in Cochabamba the First Battallion "Ferdinand VII" and colonel José Martínezrioted, followed by the Second Battallion "Ferdinand VII" in Vallegrande, removing brigadier Francisco Aguilera on February 12. Then, royalist colonel José Manuel Mercado occupied Santa Cruz de la Sierra on February 14, as Chayanta stayed in the hands of lieutenant colonel Pedro Arraya, with swuadrons "Santa Victoria" (Holy Victory) and "Dragones Americanos" (American Dragons), and in Chuquisaca battallion "Dragones de la Frontera"(Frontier Dragons) of colonel Francisco López pronounced in favor of the independentists on February 22, whith which the mayority if royalist troops of High peru renounced to continue fichtihgn against the powerful army iif Sucre. Colonel Medinacelli with 300 soldiers also revolted against Olañeta and on April 2 of 1825 they faced each other in the Battle of Tumusla, that finished with the death of Olañeta. A few days later, on April 7, general José María Valdez surrendered in Chequelte under patriot general Urdininea, putting an end to the war in High Peru.

The born of Bolivia

Through a decree it was determined that the new state born in High Peru would carry the name of República Bolívar, in honor of the liberator, who was designated as "Father of the Republic and Supreme Chief of State". Bolívar thanked these honors, but declined the presidency of the Republic, duty who gave away to Ayacucho’s marshall Antonio José de Sucre. After a some time, the subject of the name of the Young nation arise again, and a Potosian deputy called Manuel Martín Cruz, said that in the same manner from Romulo comes Rome, from Bolívar shall come Bolivia.

"If from Romulo, Rome; from Bolívar, Bolivia".

By the time Bolívar got the new, he felt flattered by the Young nation, but until then he hadn’t accepted unwillingly High Peru’s Independence, because he was worried about its future, due to Bolivia’s location in the very center of South America; and this, according to Bolivar, would imply a pursued nation that would face future wars, matters that curiously did happened. Bolivar wished that Bolivia came part of another nation, preferably Peru (given the fact that it had been part of Viceroyalty del Perú for centuries), or Argentina (since during the last decades of colonial domain it had been part of Viceroyalty del Río de la Plata), but what deeply convinced him was the attitude of popular masses. On August 18, upon his arrival to La Paz, there was a manifestation of popular rejoice. The same scene repeated when the Liberator arrived to Oruro, then to Potosí and finally to Chuquisaca. Such a fervent demonstration by the people touched Bolivar, who called the new nation his Predilect Daughter.

Independence declaration of Bolivia

Associated Press

[[Archivo:Indepedence treaty of Bolivia.jpg|thumbnail|Acta de la Independencia de Bolivia en la Casa de la Libertad, Sucre.]]

After being summoned once again the Deliberant Assembly in Chuquisaca by Marshall Sucre, on July 8 of 1825, and then concluded, it was determined the complete independence of High Peru under the republican form. Finally, the Assembly president José Mariano Serrano, together with a commission, wrote down the "Independence Act" which carries the date August 6, 1825, in honor of the Battle of Junín won by Bolivar. Independence was declared by 7 representatives from Charcas, 14 from Potosí, 12 from La Paz, 13 from Cochabamba and 2 from Santa Cruz. The act of Independence, wrote by the president of the Congress, Serrano, states in its expositive part:

The world knows that High Peru has been in America continent, the altar where free people shed the first blood and the land where the last of the tyrants’ tomb lays. High Peru’s departments, adds in its resolutive part, protest in the face of the whole Earth, that its irrevocable resolution is to be governed by themselves.

Acknowledgement to Sucre

[[Archivo:Los Próceres, Caracas, Venezuela.jpg|thumb|Monumento de la Nación a sus Próceres. En el Paseo Los Próceres (Caracas, Venezuela.]]

Bolívar, quien redactó y publicó en 1825 su resumen sucinto de la vida del general Sucre, único trabajo en su género realizado por él, no escatimó elogios ante la hazaña culminante de su fiel lugarteniente:

"The Battle of Ayacucho is the Summit of American glory, and the obra of general Sucre. Its disposition gas been perfect, and its fulfillment divine. Upcoming generations expect victory of Ayacucho so they can bless it and stare at it sitting in the throne of freedom, dictating Americans the wielding of their rights, and the sacred empire of nature."
"You are called upon the greatest destinies, and I foresee that you are th rival of my Glory (Bolivar, Letter to Sucre, Nazca, April 26, 1825) ".
"Then the Congress of Colombia made Sucre Chief General, and the Congress of Peru gave him the Degree of Great Marshall of Ayacucho."

Notes

  1. ^ Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata: un escuadrón del Regimiento de Granaderos a Caballo de Buenos Aires (mencionado también como Granaderos montados de los Andes), fue mandado reorganizar por Bolívar con los jinetes que amotinados en Lurín apresando a sus jefes, no se unieron a los sublevados del Callao. (Memorias del general O'Leary, pág. 139. S.B. O'Leary, 1883.) (Spanish)
  2. ^ República de Chile: no hubo unidades chilenas en Ayacucho, pero sí jefes y soldados, la mayoría de los 300 reclutas que llegaron de Chile al puerto de Santa en diciembre de 1823 al mando del coronel Pedro Santiago Aldunate para completar las formaciones chilenas y fueron incorporados a la caballería colombiana y al Batallón Vargas por intercambio por reclutas peruanos, se dispersaron en la batalla de Corpahuaico, reuniéndose con el Ejército de Sucre luego de la batalla de Ayacucho. Los que sí estuvieron en la batalla, lo hicieron formando parte de los batallones colombianos y peruanos. (Los Peruanos y su Independencia, pág. 95. José Augusto De Izcue. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. ISBN 0-559-43532-0, 9780559435324) (Spanish)
  3. ^ "At Ayacucho, the remains of the regiment were part of the Patriot order of battle but remained in the reserve and did not take part on the fighting. Instead, the Rifles and another battalion, the 'Vargas', were given a nerve-wracking mission: guarding the arsenal and the numerous Spanish prisoners. At any given moment there were only 50 Riflemen posted to keep an eye on 2,500 weapons and 2,000 prisoners-of-war. A number of the regiment's officers were temporarily transferred to other units and fought in the battle." Arthur Sandes
  4. ^ Los incas borbónicos: la elite indígena cuzqueña en vísperas de Tupac Amaru [1][2]
  5. ^ Complete name in spanish: "Ejército Unido peruano colombiano Libertador del Perú" [3] [4] [5]
  6. ^ 5780 men on the battle. Historia extensa de Colombia.Luis Martínez Delgado, Academia Colombiana de Historia.[6]. The Sucre's army start the campaign of Ayacucho with 13.000 independentist soldiers claim Viceroy la Serna:Ocho años de la Serna en el Perú (De la "Venganza" a la "Ernestine".Alberto Wagner de Reyna.[7]
  7. ^ 8.500 men at start campaign over the Apurimac river [8]
  8. ^ Freedom territories mainly antique northern provinces of Perú, see map File:LocationNorthPeru.png
  9. ^ in spanish:Ejército Real del Perú [9]
  10. ^ 9310 men at start campaign over Apurimac river.El Perú Republicano y los fundamentos de su emancipación.Jorge Basadre.[10]
  11. ^ Occupied territories mainly antique southern provinces of Perú, see map File:LocationSouthPeru.png
  12. ^ El congreso constituyente del Perú, decreto declarando reo de alta traición a José de la Riva Aguero, 8 de agosto de 1823
  13. ^ Manifiesto del Presidente del Perú, Gran Mariscal José Bernardo Tagle, 6 de mayo de 1824
  14. ^ Memorias para la historia de las armas españolas en el Perú 1809-1825. Tomo II, Página 98. Gnrl. Andrés Garcia Camba [11]
  15. ^ Biblioteca Ayacucho.Rufino Blanco-Fombona [12]
  16. ^ [13]
  17. ^ La guerra de la independencia en el alto Perú. Pág. 161. Escrito por Emilio A. Bidondo. Publicado por Círculo Militar, 1979
  18. ^ [14]
  19. ^ Memorias del general O'Leary. Pág. 235. Escrito por Daniel Florencio O'Leary. Publicado en 1883.
  20. ^ resaltado como un subtítulo en el Libro Junin y Ayacucho. General O'Leary
  21. ^ [15]
  22. ^ Ocho años de la Serna en el Perú (De la "Venganza" a la "Ernestine")[16]
  23. ^ Jaime E. Rodríguez O. The Independence of Spanish America (1998) ISBN 0521626730
  24. ^ Bolívar
  25. ^ Memoirs of General Miller: in the service of the republic of Peru. Escrito por John Miller. Publicado por Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1829. Pág. 194 - 195
  26. ^ Los Peruanos y su Independencia. pp. 88. Autor: Jose Augusto de Izcue. Editor: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. ISBN 0-559-43533-9, 9780559435331
  27. ^ [Parte de la batalla de Ayacucho, Antonio José de Sucre]
  28. ^ Mariano Torrente "Historia de la revolución hispano-americana", Volumen 3, pág. 490

References

  • El Perú Republicano y los fundamentos de su emancipación.Jorge Basadre.
  • Historia extensa de Colombia.Luis Martínez Delgado, Academia Colombiana de Historia.

See also

External links


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