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Battle of Britain
Part of the Second World War
.Battle of britain air observer.jpg
An Observer Corps spotter scans the skies of London.
^ Sky over London was protected not only by radars, but also by Home Guard observers.
  • so many to so few, Luftwaffe, RAF, PAF, Royal Air Force, Polish Air Force 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.ww2.pl [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the German aircraft came over at heights above 15,000 feet in sunny skies which made the task of the Observer Corps very difficult.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

Date 10 July – 31 October 1940
Location United Kingdom airspace
Result Decisive British victory
[nb 1][2][nb 2][nb 3][5][6][nb 4][nb 5][9][10][nb 6][nb 7]
Belligerents
 United Kingdom[info 1]
 Canada[nb 8]
Nazi Germany Germany
Italy Italy
Commanders
United Kingdom Hugh Dowding
United Kingdom Keith Park
United Kingdom Trafford Leigh-Mallory
United Kingdom C. J. Quintin Brand
United Kingdom Richard Saul
Nazi Germany Hermann Göring
Nazi Germany Albert Kesselring
Nazi Germany Hugo Sperrle
Nazi Germany Hans-Jürgen Stumpff
Italy Rino Corso Fougier[16]
Strength
1,963 serviceable aircraft[nb 9] 2,550 serviceable aircraft. [nb 10]
Casualties and losses
544 aircrew killed[3][19][20]
422 aircrew wounded[18]
1,547 aircraft destroyed[nb 12]
2,698 aircrew killed[21]
1,887 aircraft destroyed[nb 13]
  1. ^ The RAF was the only sovereign Allied air force; the Polish Air Force was not given sovereignty until June 1944[13]
.The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England) is the name given to the air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940. The objective of the campaign was to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), especially Fighter Command.^ The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely by air forces.
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • YouTube - Battle of Britain Newsreels 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.youtube.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lesson 3 Lesson objectives: To understand what the Battle of Britain was.

^ One of the major campaigns of the early part of World War II , the Battle of Britain is the name commonly given to the attempt by the German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), before a planned sea and airborne invasion of Britain ( Operation Sealion ).
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name derives from a famous speech delivered by Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the House of Commons: "The Battle of France is over.^ On 18 June 1940, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill stated in the House of Commons: .
  • BATTLE OF BRITAIN: JUL-OCT 1940 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.olive-drab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prime Minister Winston Churchill famously said, after the battle.

^ The name derives from an 18 June 1940 speech in the House of Commons by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, "The Battle of France is over.

.I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin..."^ I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Winston Churchill: "Their Finest Hour", 1940 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin."
  • Flickr: Battle of Britain and the UK Blitz 1940-1941 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: General]

^ I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin.

[22][23][nb 14]
.The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces, and was the largest and most sustained aerial bombing campaign until that date.^ The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely by air forces.

^ RAF pilots were killed during the battle.The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely in the air.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Britain was won at sea AND in the air.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.From July 1940 coastal shipping convoys and shipping centres, such as Portsmouth were the main targets; one month later the Luftwaffe shifted its attacks to RAF airfields and infrastructure.^ July 22nd : Attacks on Channel shipping.

^ Luftwaffe targets RAF airfields .
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting on July 10, 1940, the Luftwaffe attacked shipping convoys in the Channel as well as Channel ports.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

.As the battle progressed the Luftwaffe also targeted aircraft factories and ground infrastructure.^ Secondary objectives were to destroy aircraft production and ground infrastructure, to attack areas of political significance, and to terrorise the British people into seeking an armistice or surrender.

^ Thousands of targets including every plane, factory, airfield, and radar station have a specific role and impact on the progress of the war below.
  • Battle of Britain II: Wings of Victory (pc) reviews at Metacritic.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.metacritic.com [Source type: General]
  • Battle Of Britain II: Wings Of Victory for Windows - Buy Computer Games, Video Games at Shopping.com Australia 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC au.shopping.com [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Britain 2: Wings of Victory (PC) : Read reviews and compare prices at Ciao.co.uk 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.ciao.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ It was therefore withdrawn from attacks on Britain in August, after prohibitive losses, leaving the Luftwaffe short of precision ground attack aircraft.

.Eventually the Luftwaffe resorted to attacking areas of political significance and using terror bombing tactics.^ Secondary objectives were to destroy aircraft production and ground infrastructure, to attack areas of political significance, and to terrorise the British people into seeking an armistice or surrender.

^ Secondary objectives were to destroy aircraft production and ground infrastructure, to attack areas of political significance, and to terrorize the British people with the intent of intimidating them into seeking an armistice or surrender.
  • YouTube - Battle of Britain Newsreels 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.youtube.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RAF has changed tactics and moved to the idea of the Big Wing, that uses up to 6 squadrons at one time to attack the bomber streams.
  • WikiAnswers - When was the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[nb 15]
.The failure of Germany to achieve its objectives of destroying Britain's air defences, or forcing Britain to negotiate an armistice or an outright surrender is considered its first major defeat and one of the crucial turning points in the war.^ The failure of Nazi Germany to destroy Britain's air force, or to break the spirit of the British government or people, is considered the Third Reich's first major defeat.

^ The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely by air forces.

^ The failure of Nazi Germany to destroy Britain's air forces to allow for an invasion or to break the spirit of either the British government or people is widely considered the Third Reich 's first major defeat.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .If Germany had gained air superiority, Adolf Hitler might have launched Operation Sea Lion, an amphibious and airborne invasion of Britain.^ The operation will be given the designation Sea Lion.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler postponed "Operation Sea Lion" indefinitely.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler postponed Operation Sea Lion until further notice.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Background

.Following the evacuation of British and French soldiers from Dunkirk and the French surrender on 22 June 1940, Hitler was mainly focused on the possiblities of invading The Soviet Union [26] while believing that the British, defeated on the continent and without European allies, would quickly come to terms.^ Following the evacuation of the British from Dunkirk ( Operation DYNAMO ) and the French surrender on 22 June 1940, Hitler believed the war was practically over and that the British, defeated on the continent and without European allies, would quickly be forced to come to terms with Germany.

^ Without United States help, it is improbable that Hitler would have been defeated.
  • Helena Schrader - WWll Battle of Britain - RAF & Luftwaffe Pilots 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC helena-schrader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the British evacuation from Dunkirk and the French surrender in June 1940, the Germans were uncertain what to do next on the military front.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Although the Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, and an element of British public and political sentiment favoured a negotiated peace with an ascendant Germany, Winston Churchill, newly installed as Prime Minister, and a majority of his Cabinet refused to consider an armistice with Hitler.^ Although there was an element of British public and political sentiment favouring negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, among them the Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, the recently-installed Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with Hitler's Germany.

^ Although there was a strand of British public and political sentiment that favoured a negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, the recently-installed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with the Nazis.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, believed that Britain had lost already.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Instead Churchill used his skillful rhetoric to harden public opinion against capitulation, and to prepare the British for a long war.^ Churchill's skilful use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a resolution and prepared the British for a long war.

^ Churchill's skillful use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His skillful use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 11 July Großadmiral Erich Raeder, Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine (German Navy), told Hitler that an invasion could only be contemplated as a last resort, and only then with full air superiority.^ Prior to this, on 11 July, Admiral Raeder had told Hitler invasion could only be contemplated as a last resort, and only then with full air superiority.

^ The Kriegsmarine was reluctant to launch an invasion, and on 11 July, Admiral Raeder told Hitler invasion could only be contemplated as a last resort, and only then with full air superiority.

^ German lack of command of the sea could be substituted by supremacy in the air."
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kriegsmarine had been nearly crippled by the Norwegian Campaign, with many of its ships having been sunk or damaged, while the Royal Navy still had over 50 destroyers, 21 cruisers and eight battleships in the British Home Fleet.^ The Kriegsmarine had been nearly crippled during the Norwegian Campaign, with many of its ships having been sunk or damaged, while the Royal Navy had over 50 destroyers, 21 cruisers and eight battleships in the British Home Fleet.

^ The Navy also had five capital ships on hand, whereas the Kriegsmarine had lost or had damaged their battleships.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kriegsmarine had a limited number of ships, while the Royal Navy had over 50 destroyers and dozens of cruisers and battleships in home waters.
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29][30][nb .16] There was little the weakened Kriegsmarine could do to stop the Royal Navy from intervening.^ There was little the weakened Kriegsmarine could do to stop the RN intervening against the invasion.

^ All too often there was little that could be done.

^ Given the vast superiority of the Royal Navy over the Kriegsmarine, the success of such an attempt is far from certain, yet there can be no question that German air superiority would have been used against the Royal Navy – possibly with sufficient success to make the invasion possible.
  • Helena Schrader - WWll Battle of Britain - RAF & Luftwaffe Pilots 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC helena-schrader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only alternative was to use the Luftwaffe's dive bombers and torpedo bombers, which required air superiority to operate effectively.^ The only alternative was to use the Luftwaffe's dive bombers, which required air superiority in order to operate effectively.

^ Prior to this, on 11 July, Admiral Raeder had told Hitler invasion could only be contemplated as a last resort, and only then with full air superiority.

^ That was the last major operation of the Luftwaffe in the area until the 1943 air campaign over occupied Europe that I know of.
  • Airminded · An alternative Battle of Britain — I 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC airminded.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 16 July, although he agreed with Raeder, Hitler ordered the preparation of a plan to invade Britain;[32] he also hoped that news of the preparations would frighten Britain into negotiating peace.^ Hitler hoped and thought that Britain would accept the peace terms he now offered.

^ On July 16, Hitler ordered preparations started for Operation Sea Lion, an invasion of Britain.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler hoped to frighten Britain into peace before an actual invasion was launched, and used the invasion preparations as a means to apply pressure.

"Directive No. 16; On the Preparation of a Landing Operation against England" read, in part, as follows:
.Since England, despite its militarily hopeless situation, still has not shown any signs of being prepared to negotiate, I have decided to prepare a landing operation against England and, if necessary, carry it out.^ I have there­fore decided to begin to prepare for and if necessary to carry out an invasion of England.

^ Luftflotte 2 to carry out any early offensive against England).
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Britain still shows no sign of willingness to come to an agreement in spite of her hopeless military situation, I have decided to prepare and if necessary carry out an amphibious operation against England.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The objective of this operation is to eliminate the English home country as a base for the continuation of the war against Germany...^ The purpose of this operation will be to eliminate the English mother country as a base for continuation of the war against Germany and, if it should become necessary, to occupy the entire island.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of this operation is to eliminate the English motherland as a base from which war against Germany can be continued and, if necessary, to occupy completely.

^ In order to establish the conditions necessary for the final conquest of England, I intend to continue the air and naval war against the English homeland more intensively.

2) Included in these preparations is the bringing about of those preconditions which make a landing in England possible;
a) The English air force must have been beaten down to such an extent morally and in fact that it can no longer muster any power of attack worth mentioning against the German crossing. (italics added)[33][nb 17][34]
.All preparations were to be made by mid-August.^ All preparations were to be made by mid-August.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All preparations were to be made by mid August.

^ The Wehrmacht chief signal officer will ensure that all necessary preparations are made to establish communications between France and England.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plan, code named Unternehmen Seelöwe ("Operation Sealion"), was submitted by the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or "High Command of the Armed Forces") and was scheduled to take place in mid-September 1940. Seelöwe called for landings on the south coast of Great Britain, backed by an airborne assault.^ Had it been successful, the planned amphibious and airborne landings in Britain of Operation Sealion would have followed.

^ The plan was prepared by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Armed Forces High Command).

^ The plan was prepared by OKW. The operation, code-named Seelwe ("Sealion"), was scheduled for mid-September 1940 and called for landings on the south coast of Great Britain, backed by an airborne assault.

.Neither Hitler nor OKW believed it would be possible to carry out a successful amphibious assault on Britain until the RAF had been neutralised.^ Neither Hitler nor the Wehrmacht believed it possible to carry out a successful amphibious assault on the British Isles until the RAF had been neutralized.

^ Neither Hitler nor the German Wehrmacht believed it possible to carry out a successful amphibious assault on the British Isles until the RAF had been neutralised.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither Hitler nor the German Wehrmacht believed it possible to carry out a successful amphibious assault on the British Isles until the Royal Air Force had been neutralised.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Raeder believed that air superiority might make a successful landing possible although it would be a risky operation and required "absolute mastery over the Channel by our air forces".[35]
.Conversely Großadmiral Karl Dönitz believed air superiority was "not enough". Dönitz stated, "we possessed neither control of the air or the sea; nor were we in any position to gain it".[36] Some historians, such as Derek Robinson, have agreed with Dönitz.^ Having consolidated that power base, with the controlling position in the North Sea which the British Isles would have given them, Hitler would have been free to continue his plan which was for a constant state of war in the East.
  • If Germany won the Battle of Britain, would they have won the war? - Yahoo!7 Answers 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Junkers Ju 87 (Stuka) Before the Allies would gain air superiority over the skies of France and Germany, the Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" dive bomber would reign supreme.

^ To conquer England, he planned an invasion, which would be preceded by intensive aerial attacks by the Luftwaffe intended to destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF) and gain air superiority.

.Robinson argues that the massive superiority of the Royal Navy over the Kriegsmarine would have made Sealion a disaster and the Luftwaffe could not have prevented decisive intervention by British cruisers and destroyers, even with air superiority.^ With control of the air, the Luftwaffe would have at least a chance of preventing Royal Navy interference.

^ Some historians have argued no invasion could have succeeded; given the massive superiority of the Royal Navy over the Kriegsmarine , Sealion would have been a disaster.

^ If the Germans had won air superiority, the Royal Navy would have been destroyed piece meal!
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[37][38]

Opposing forces

.The Luftwaffe faced a more capable opponent than it had ever met before: a sizeable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied, modern air force.^ The Luftwaffe was facing a more capable opponent than it had met before: a sizable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft that could match the German Bf 109E and Bf 110 .

^ At the same time, the Luftwaffe was facing an opponent the likes of which it had not met before: a sizable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft every bit the match for the German Bf-109 and Bf-110 .
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, the Luftwaffe was facing an opponent the likes of which it had not met before: a sizable, highly coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft every bit the match for the German Bf-109 and Bf-110 .
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fighters

X4382, a late production Spitfire Mk I of 602 Squadron flown by P/O Osgood Hanbury, Westhampnett, September 1940
.The Luftwaffe's Messerschmitt Bf 109E and Bf 110C squared off against the RAF's workhorse Hurricane Mk I and the less numerous Spitfire Mk I.^ It was soon realised that the Bf 110 stood little chance against determined pilots flying the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire.

^ Finest Hour : The Battle of Britain The Luftwaffe was facing a more capable opponent than it had met before: a sizeable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft able to match the German Messerschmitt Bf 109E and Bf 110C. The majority of the RAF's fighting would rest upon the workhorse Hurricane Mk I. The performance of the Spitfire Mk I, over Dunkirk came as a surprise to the Jagdwaffe, although there was a strong belief that in the 109 they had a superior fighter.

^ Flyable aircraft in Battle of Britain include the Spitfire and the Hurricane for the RAF and the Bf 109E, Me 110 and Ju 87 Stuka for the Luftwaffe.
  • Battle of Britain and IL-2 Sturmovik | Flight Journal | Find Articles at BNET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: General]

.The Bf 109E had a better climb rate and was between 10 to 30 mph faster than the Hurricane, depending on altitude.^ The Bf 109E was superior to the Hurricane; it had a better climb rate and was faster by up to 30 to 40 mph.

^ Faster at all altitudes than Hurricane.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galland compared the combatants saying, The Vickers Supermarine Spitfire was 10-15 MPH slower than our planes (Bf 109E) but could perform steeper and tighter turns.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: The Battle of Britain, Part 2 - Pilots 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .In September 1940 the more powerful Mk IIa series 1 Hurricanes started entering service although only in small numbers.^ The technological breakthroughs which were to be so important in the battle, moreover, were of only recent origin: the basic principle of radar was first demonstrated only in 1935; the Spitfire and Hurricane fighters only began to enter service in any numbers in 1939.
  • Britain, battle of - FREE Britain, battle of information | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Companion to World War II 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our only regret is that we our unable to gain the support of all those great airmen who had made their last sortie before and since we started this series.

^ In early September 1940 he converted to Hurricanes and joined No 1 Squadron at Wittering four weeks later.

[40] .This version was capable of a maximum speed of 342 mph, some 25 to 30 mph faster than the Mk I.[41] The performance of the Spitfire over Dunkirk came as a surprise to the Jagdwaffe, although the German pilots retained a strong belief that the 109 was the superior fighter.^ The maximum speed was 366 mph.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (The maximum speed for the Spitfire Mk 1: 355 mph, and that of the Hurricane Mk 1: 328 mph.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factual error : The German planes in the movie should be Messerschmitt Bf-109E. However, all the German fighters are Hispano Buchon, a post-war version of the Bf-109 model, built in Spain.
  • Battle of Britain movie mistakes, goofs and bloopers 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.moviemistakes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .However, the Bf 109E had a much larger turning circle than either the Hurricane or the Spitfire.^ The Hurricane could, however, turn more tightly than both the 109 and the Spitfire.

^ The Hurricane was larger and slower, but like the Spitfire, it could turn inside the Bf 109.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In combat, Hurricanes were also sturdier than Spitfires.
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]

[43] .The two British fighters were equipped with eight Browning 303 machine guns, while most Bf 109Es had two machine guns and two wing cannons.^ The success of this new two-seat fighter, equipped with a gun-turret, was the outstanding feature of a wonderful day … sixteen of their thirty-eight victims were Me 110’s, the others being an Me 109 and twenty-one bombers.
  • Airminded · An alternative Battle of Britain — I 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC airminded.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17 s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.

^ In view of the combat performance and the fact that they are not yet equipped with cannon guns both types are inferior to the Me109, while the individual Me110 is inferior to skillfully handled Spitfires.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bf 109E and the Spitfire were superior to each other in key areas; for instance, at some altitudes, the 109 could out-climb the British fighter.^ Bf 109's intercepted 15 Spitfires.

^ At some altitudes the 109 could out-climb the British fighter.

^ A radial-engineered fighter, it out-climbed and out-dived the Spitfire.

In general, though, as Alfred Price noted in The Spitfire Story:
.
...the differences between the Spitfire and the Me 109 in performance and handling were only marginal, and in a combat they were almost always surmounted by tactical considerations: which side had seen the other first, had the advantage of sun, altitude, numbers, pilot ability, tactical situation, tactical co-ordination, amount of fuel remaining, etc.^ Bf 109 pilots, if they could, attacked from altitude, which gave them an advantage.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In view of the combat performance and the fact that they are not yet equipped with cannon guns both types are inferior to the Me109, while the individual Me110 is inferior to skillfully handled Spitfires.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe pilots who flew captured Spitfires reached completely different conclusions.

[44]
.The Bf 109 was also used as a fighter-bomber—the E-4/B and E-7 models could carry a 250 kg bomb underneath the fuselage.^ The Bf 109 was also used as a fighter-bomber.

^ Bf 109 E-7s had the ability to carry a 250kg bomb underneath the fuselage.

^ While the bombers had the range to fight and return, the Bf-109’s short range was causing wrecks to wash up on the coast of England instead of German invasion barges.
  • The Battle of Britain July - September 1940 - World War II Multimedia Database 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.worldwar2database.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of Britain July - September 1940 - World War II Multimedia Database 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC worldwar2database.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bf 109, unlike the Stuka, could fight on equal terms with RAF fighters after releasing its ordnance.^ The Bf 109 was also used as a fighter-bomber.

^ The Bf 109, unlike the Stuka could then, after releasing its ordnance, fight on equal terms with RAF fighters.

^ Drawing from regular RAF forces as well as the Auxiliary Air Force and the Volunteer Reserve, the British could muster a total of some 1,103 fighter pilots on 1 July.

[45][46]
.At the start of the battle, the twin-engine Messerschmitt Bf 110 long range Zerstörer ("Destroyer") was also expected to engage in air-to-air combat while escorting the Luftwaffe bomber fleet.^ At the start of the Battle the twin engined Messerschmitt Bf 110 long range "Destroyer" (Zerstrer) was also expected to engage in air to air combat while escorting the Luftwaffe bomber fleet.

^ The Luftwaffe also had the Bf 110, nominally a twin-engine fighter.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pilots in the Merlin Air Combat engine will: .
  • Battle of Britain II - Wings of Victory: Patch 2.06 [Patches] | 4players.de (PC, XBox, 360, Playstation2, Playstation3, GameCube, Wii, PSP, Nintdendo DS) 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.4players.de [Source type: General]

.Although the 110 was faster than the Hurricane and almost as fast as the Spitfire, its lack of manoeuvrability and acceleration meant that it was a failure as a long-range escort fighter.^ Faster at all altitudes than Hurricane.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In combat, Hurricanes were also sturdier than Spitfires.
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]

^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 13 and 15 August, 13 and 30 aircraft were lost, the equivalent of an entire Gruppe, and the type's worst losses during the campaign.^ During this action we lost two aircraft.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: The Battle of Britain, Part 2 - Pilots 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was therefore withdrawn from attacks on Britain in August, after prohibitive losses, leaving the Luftwaffe short of precision ground attack aircraft.

^ In four actions, on August 8, 11, 12, and 13, the Germans lost 145 aircraft as against the British loss of 88.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[47] .This trend continued with a further eight and 15 lost on 16 and 17 August.^ Geschrieben am 17.12.2005 15:16 .
  • Storm Of War: The Battle Of Britain. Fakten und Screenshots - Thema entwickelt von eve community 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums-de.ubi.com [Source type: General]

[48] Göring ordered the Bf 110 units to operate "where the range of the single-engined machines were not sufficient".
.The most successful role of the 110 during the battle was as a Schnellbomber (fast bomber).^ The most successful role of the 110 during the Battle was as a schnellbomber (fast-bomber).

^ Two of these, the He111 and the Do17, would see extensive service during the Battle of Britain; one, the He111, would continue to serve for most of the war.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although some of the Poles reluctantly agreed to convert to bombers, most were determined to fill the interceptor role.
  • The Forgotten Few: Polish Airmen Fought During the Battle of Britain » HistoryNet 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 110 usually used a shallow dive to bomb the target and escaped at high speed.^ The Stuka’s top speed was 230 mph (compared to more than 350 for the Spitfire), and it was even slower and more vulnerable when diving to deliver bombs.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dive bomber was accurate in putting bombs directly on compact targets, which predominated in Spain.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success of the Heinkel bomber was found to lie more in low-level, high speed runs against targets, and this vindicated the view that a 'wonder-bomber' along the lines of the Ju88 was required, even more so because it would have the capacity to dive-bomb."
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49][50] .One unit, Erprobungsgruppe 210, proved that the Bf 110 could be used to good effect in attacking small or "pinpoint" targets.^ Frantisek gets one Bf 110.
  • Battle of Britain - 303 Squadron Diary 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.avstop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A wind-powered siren, used in diving attacks, contributed to the psychological effect.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will also be important for air units to destroy roads which could be used by the enemy to move reserves forward, and to attack naval units approaching the areas of operations while still far distant from the crossing routes.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.The RAF's Boulton Paul Defiant had some initial success over Dunkirk[51] because of its resemblance to the Hurricane; Luftwaffe fighters attacking from the rear were surprised by its unusual gun turret.^ For the British, the most disappointing fighter was the Boulton-Paul Defiant.

^ BOULTON PAUL DEFIANT --Hurricane look-alike with rear gunner turret and no front guns.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This initiated a retaliatory strike against Berlin by the RAF. Acting on direct orders from Hitler - infuriated by the attack on Berlin - the Luftwaffe began targeting the civilian population in an effort to demoralize the British.

.However, during the Battle of Britain, this single-engine two-seater proved to be hopelessly outclassed.^ Incidents during Battle of Britain .

^ The main problem with that with regard to Dark Age Britain is that no single battles were well enough recorded for that to be a distinct possibility.
  • Battle of Dark Age Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edweb.sdsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RAF, of course, had other ideas and during the summer of 1940 the Battle of Britain was fought in the skies over southern England.
  • Motor Books - Commando: Battle of Britain - Scramble! : The Ten Best Commando Battle of Britain Comic Books Ever! 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.motorbooks.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For various reasons, the Defiant lacked any form of forward firing armament and the heavy turret meant that it could not out-run or out-manoeuvre either the Bf 109 or the Bf 110. By the end of August, after disastrous losses, the aircraft was withdrawn from daylight service.^ The Luftwaffe was facing a more capable opponent than it had met before: a sizable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft that could match the German Bf 109E and Bf 110 .

^ In four actions, on August 8, 11, 12, and 13, the Germans lost 145 aircraft as against the British loss of 88.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was therefore withdrawn from attacks on Britain in August, after prohibitive losses, leaving the Luftwaffe short of precision ground attack aircraft.

[52][53]
.There has been some criticism of the decision to keep these aircraft (along with the Fairey Battle in RAF Bomber Command) operational instead of retiring and scrapping them, allowing their Merlin engines to be turned over to fighters and their pilots (about three thousand in all) to be retrained on Hurricanes, thereby freeing large numbers of high-time, combat-experienced Hurricane pilots for Spitfires.^ In July 1940, when the fight began, the RAF Fighter Command had 396 operational Hurricanes and 228 Spitfires.
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]

^ There has been some criticism of the decision to keep these aircraft operational instead of retiring and scrapping them, allowing their Merlin s to be turned over to fighters and their pilots (about three thousand in all) to be retrained on Hurricanes, thereby freeing large numbers of high-time, combat-experienced Hurricane pilots for Spitfires.

^ What Fighter Command needed above all was time to regroup, and Hitler was about to provide just that.

[53]

Fighter formations

.In the late 1930s, Fighter Command were not expecting to be facing single-engine fighters over Britain, only bombers.^ Of course some fighter sweeps occurred and the occasional lone night bombers, usually fast Junkers 88 continued to harass fighter command and channel shipping.
  • Airminded · An alternative Battle of Britain — I 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC airminded.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Me-109 fighter could only carry enough fuel for 20 minutes flight over Britain, so London was on the edge of its limited range.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE —all metal single engine, low wing fighter.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With this in mind, a series of "Fighting Area Tactics" were formulated and rigidly adhered to, involving a series of manoeuvres designed to concentrate a squadron's firepower to bring down bombers: with no apparent prospect of escorting fighters to worry about, RAF fighter pilots flew in tight, vee-shaped sections ("vics") of three.^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August, Göring ordered an increase in close escort duties.

^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The frontline RAF pilots were acutely aware of the inherent deficiencies of their own tactics.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These restricted squadrons to tight 12 aircraft formations composed of four sections in another tight "V". With this formation, only the squadron leader at the front was free to watch for the enemy; the other pilots had to concentrate on keeping station.^ With four sections flying together in tight formation only the squadron leader at the front was free to actually watch for the enemy; the other pilots had to concentrate on him and each other.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These restricted their squadrons to tight formations of three aircraft (or 'vics') and by-the-book attacks.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With four sections flying together in tight formation, only the squadron leader at the front was free to actually watch for the enemy; the other pilots had to concentrate on him and each other, to keep station.

[54] .RAF fighter training also emphasised by-the-book attacks by sections breaking away in sequence.^ RAF fighter training also emphasised by-the-book attacks by sections breaking away in sequence.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RAF fighter training also emphasized by-the-book attacks by sections breaking away in sequence.

^ If the enemy had persisted in heavy attacks against [RAF installations and communications], the whole intricate organisation of Fighter Command might have broken down."

.Fighter Command recognised the weaknesses of this rigid structure early in the battle, but it was felt too risky to change tactics during the battle, because replacement pilots – often with only minimal flying time – could not be readily retrained,[55] and inexperienced RAF pilots needed firm leadership in the air only rigid formations could provide.^ Fighter Command recognized the weaknesses of this rigid structure early in the battle, but it was felt too risky to change tactics in the midst of the battle, as replacement pilots, often with only minimal actual flying time, could not be readily retrained [15] and that the inexperienced pilots of RAF needed firm leadership in the air that only rigid formations provided.

^ Command structure & order of battle .
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a change in tactics just in time to save the RAF airfields.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .German pilots dubbed the RAF formations Idiotenreihen ("rows of idiots") because they left squadrons vulnerable to attack.^ Thanks to a determined attack, the pilots scatter the German formation.
  • Battle of Britain - 303 Squadron Diary 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.avstop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German pilots dubbed the RAF formations "Idiotenreihen" ("rows of idiots") because they left squadrons vulnerable to attack.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German pilots dubbed the vics "Idiotenreihen" ("rows of idiots") because they left squadrons vulnerable to attack.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57][58]
.By contrast the Luftwaffe employed a loose section of two (nicknamed the Rotte), based on a leader (Rottenführer) followed at a distance of about 183 meters (200 yards)[nb 18] by his wingman (nicknamed the Rottenhund or Katschmareks), who also flew slightly higher and was trained to always stay with his leader.^ They employed the looser and more flexible four-ship 'Schwarme' developed in the Spanish Civil War, using two pairs each consisting of leader and wingman.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe pilots who flew captured Spitfires reached completely different conclusions.

^ If a film about heroic pilots is to be made then it should possibly be about the free Polish airmen who I believe avaraged a higher kill rate that British pilots.
  • Hollywood updates history of Battle of Britain: Tom Cruise won it all on his own - News, Films - The Independent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

.While the leader was free to search for enemy aircraft, and could cover his wingman's blind spots, his wingman could concentrate on searching the airspace in the leader's blind spots, behind and below.^ With four sections flying together in tight formation only the squadron leader at the front was free to actually watch for the enemy; the other pilots had to concentrate on him and each other.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With four sections flying together in tight formation, only the squadron leader at the front was free to actually watch for the enemy; the other pilots had to concentrate on him and each other, to keep station.

^ Meanwhile, Sergeant Lucas of 257 Squadron, breaking away from his attack on the bombers, saw enemy fighters below and behind.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attacking aircraft could be sandwiched between the two 109s.^ On the 13th and 15th the attacks on Portsmouth, were renewed and in some of them, notably that-which began soon after 5 in the afternoon of the I5th, between three and four hundred aircraft were employed.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Probably some infantry used east-west footpaths between the two routes; this could explain the existence of the Bredgar coins.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the assault phase, if an aircraft attacks it must move two hexes after the attack.
  • The Battle of Britain - Avalon Hill Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: General]

[59] .This formation was developed based on principles formulated by First World War ace Oswald Boelcke in 1916. The Finnish Air Force, from 1934 on, adopted similar formations, called partio (patrol; two aircraft) and parvi (two patrols; four aircraft),[60] for comparable reasons, though Luftwaffe pilots (led by Günther Lützow and Werner Mölders among others, during the Spanish Civil War) are generally given credit.^ What is so important about World War Two?
  • Amazon.com: Battle of Britain [VHS]: Michael Caine, Trevor Howard, Harry Andrews, Curd Jürgens, Ian McShane, Kenneth More, Laurence Olivier, Nigel Patrick, Christopher Plummer, Michael Redgrave, Ralph Richardson, Robert Shaw, Guy Hamilton, Benjamin Fisz, Harry Saltzman, John Palmer, Derek Dempster, Derek Wood, James Kennaway, Wilfred Greatorex: Video 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon.com: Battle of Britain [Blu-ray]: Michael Caine, Trevor Howard, Harry Andrews, Curd Jürgens, Ian McShane, Kenneth More, Laurence Olivier, Nigel Patrick, Christopher Plummer, Michael Redgrave, Ralph Richardson, Robert Shaw, Guy Hamilton, Benjamin Fisz, Harry Saltzman, John Palmer, Derek Dempster, Derek Wood, James Kennaway, Wilfred Greatorex: Movies & TV 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Took part in the Spanish Civil War.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German pilots honed their skills in the Spanish Civil War.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Luftwaffe formations, the pair allowed the Rottenführer to concentrate on getting kills.^ In the Luftwaffe formations, the basic pair, or Rotte , allowed the Rottenführer to concentrate on getting kills, while his wingman protected him and scanned for threats.

^ Since London was within the range of the Me109, and since this was also a geographically limited area, the Luftwaffe could more easily concentrate their fighter forces for the kill.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe employed the looser and flexible four-ship Schwarm (two pairs, each consisting of a leader and a wingman) in an open formation.

.This latter aspect, however, caused some grievances in the lower ranks because it was felt that the high scores of some Rottenführer came at the expense of the Katschmareks.^ However, he aborted the interception to return to base but due some unknown cause he lost control of the aircraft and it crashed into the ground, killing the pilot.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Defining the latter, however, was frustrating, because the German Navy, Army and Air Force all had different assumptions over the needs of the invasion and the extent to which British air had to be suppressed.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But before examining the directive, however, it would perhaps be beneficial to examine some ambiguities that were developing within the High Command --13-- .
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Battle of Britain, a pilot who shot down 20 aircraft was automatically awarded the Ritterkreuz (Knight's Cross), to which was added the Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds for each additional 20 aircraft.^ Who won the Battle of Britain for the Allies?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Victories : 115 Awards : Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds Units : J/88, JG 53, JG 51 .
  • Aces of the Luftwaffe - Werner Mölders 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.luftwaffe.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 147 Polish pilots claimed 201 aircraft shot down.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those pilots who appeared to have a constant desire for these awards were said to be suffering from Halsweh (a sore throat).^ Morale began to suffer and kanalkrankheit or 'Channel Sickness' – a form of combat fatigue – began to appear amongst the German pilots.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Morale began to suffer and Kanalkrankheit ("Channel Sickness") — a form of combat fatigue — began to appear among the German pilots.

^ Present the facts only but if these acedemics must draw conclusions then please state them considering the great bravery of those RAF, Commonwealth, Polish, American etc pilots who fought in this battle.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Few wingmen in Luftwaffe fighter formations were able to shoot down opposing aircraft, while their formation leaders were scoring heavily.^ However, post-war analysis of records has shown that between July and September the RAF claimed over 2,698 kills for 1,023 fighter aircraft lost to all causes, while the Luftwaffe fighters claimed 3,198 RAF aircraft downed for losses of 1,887, of which 873 were fighters.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, post-war analysis of records has shown that between July and September the RAF claimed over 2,698 kills for 1,023 fighter aircraft lost to all causes, while the Luftwaffe claimed 3,198 RAF aircraft downed for losses of 1,887, of which 873 were fighters.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But already, by September 15, on which day the British believed, albeit incorrectly, that they had scored their greatest success by destroying 185 German aircraft, Fighter Command had demonstrated to the Luftwaffe that it could not gain air ascendancy over Britain.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[61]
.Two of these sections were usually teamed up into a Schwarm, where all the pilots could watch what was happening around them.^ Visiting Luftwaffe personnel watch with interest as the pilot of a Fiat CR.42 of the CAI climbs into his fighter on a cold day in late 1940.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, with all the foresight of the Emperor at their disposal and knowledge of the Rebel fleet massing at Sullust, the Empire could only scrounge up 27?
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Occasionally "Stand-by " is employed which means that the pilots are seated in their aircraft, with the engines off, but all pointing into wind ready to start up, and take off, the moment the leader gets his orders from the Controller.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.Each Schwarm in a Staffel flew at staggered heights and with 183 meters (200 yards) of room between them, making the formation difficult to spot at longer ranges and allowing for a great deal of flexibility.^ Each Schwarm in a Staffel flew staggered and with plenty of room in between them, making the formation difficult to spot at larger ranges and allowing for a great deal of flexibility.

^ Our pilots opened fire at an average range of from 250 to 200 yards, closing when necessary to 50.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The speed of modern bombers is so great that it is only worthwhile to attack them under conditions which allow no relative motion between the fighter and its target.
  • Airminded · An alternative Battle of Britain — I 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC airminded.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .By utilising a tight "cross-over" turn, a Schwarm could quickly change direction.^ As they crossed the land mass, they began rising and changing direction.
  • Storm Of War: The Battle Of Britain. Fakten und Screenshots - Thema entwickelt von eve community 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums-de.ubi.com [Source type: General]

^ He found that he could turn with the agile biplane, but quickly ran out of ammunition and rammed the Italian fighter, striking the upper mainplane with his propeller.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]
.The 110 fighters adopted the same Schwarm formation as the 109s, but were seldom able to use this to the same advantage.^ Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17 s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.

^ They ran into a formation of thirty Dorniers escorted by fifteen of the feared Messerschmitt 110 fighters, christened "Destroyers" by the Luftwaffe.

^ The primary means used by the sector controllers was radio, both to converse with the fighters, but also, with separate direction-finding antennas and receivers, to track the fighter formation continuously after takeoff.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When attacked, Zerstörergruppen increasingly resorted to forming large "defensive circles". Each 110 guarded the tail of the aircraft ahead of it.^ As I wheeled around to guard my tail I found the sky had cleared with not an aircraft in sight - friend or foe.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: The Battle of Britain, Part 2 - Pilots 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Squadrons formed a third and inner ring patrolling above these aerodromes forming a defensive screen to guard the southern approaches to London.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

Göring ordered that they be renamed "offensive circles" in a vain bid to improve rapidly declining morale.[63] .These conspicuous formations were often successful in attracting RAF fighters that were sometimes "bounced" by high-flying 109s.^ This shackled many Bf 109s to the bombers and, though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of this RAF Fighter Command was able to achieve high levels of efficiency, at times achieving interception rates greater than 80%.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the battle RAF pilots adopted a variant on the German formations with some success [2] .
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the often repeated myth that the 110s were escorted by 109s.^ Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17 s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.

^ A couple hours later, twenty-four Do 17Zs of KG 2 escorted by twenty-six Bf 110s of ZG 26 and two dozen Bf 109s from JG 51.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: The Battle of Britain, Part 2 - Pilots 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hurris were happily up sun and saw Ju 87s escorted by 109s and 110s.
  • COMBATSIM.COM: The Battle of Britain, Part 2 - Pilots 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.combatsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 110's most successful method of attack was the "bounce" from above.^ The most successful role of the 110 during the Battle was as a schnellbomber (fast-bomber).

.Front line RAF pilots were acutely aware of the inherent deficiencies of their own tactics.^ The frontline RAF pilots were acutely aware of the inherent deficiencies of their own tactics.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ At the height of fighting, and despite Churchill's insistence, only 30 pilots were released to the front line from administrative duties.

^ RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response from their front-line squadrons.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A compromise was adopted whereby squadron formations used much looser formations with one or two "weavers" flying independently above and behind to provide increased observation and rear protection; these tended to be the least experienced men and were often the first to be shot down without the other pilots even noticing that they were under attack.^ A compromise was adopted whereby squadron formations used much looser formations with one or two aircraft flying independently above and behind (dubbed 'weavers') to provide increased observation and rear protection; these, often the least experienced men, were also often the first to die.

^ Squadron claimed seven shot down and two probables.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A compromise was adopted whereby squadron formations used much looser formations with one or two aircraft flying independently above and behind ( dubbed 'weavers') to provide increased observation and rear protection.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57][64] During the battle, 74 Squadron under Squadron Leader Adolph "Sailor" Malan adopted a variation of the German formation called the "fours in line astern", which was a vast improvement on the old three aircraft "vic." Malan's formation was later generally used by Fighter Command.[65]

Bombers

.The Luftwaffe's four primary bombers were the Heinkel He 111, Dornier Do 17, and Junkers Ju 88 for level bombing, and the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka for diving attacks.^ The bombers were for the most part Ju 87s (dive bombers), with a smaller quantity of He 111's, Do 17's and Ju 88's.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Hardest Day" had sounded the end for the Ju 87 Stuka dive-bomber in the campaign.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the aircraft types used in these raids was the Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive-bomber.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Heinkel He 111 was used in greater numbers than the others during the conflict and is better known, partly due to its distinctive wing shape.^ Converted from airliner use, the Heinkel was larger than other bombers.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Squadron had a number of these, and the parking lot at Tangmere (airbase) used to look like a starting point for a 'concours de elegance' with brightly coloured MG's and Austin Healey's looking in far better shape than the Hurricanes that they flew," the Historical Society author wrote.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: Experimental use of external fuel tanks occurred during the Spanish conflict, but serious further development was not continued.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each level bomber also had a few reconnaissance versions that were used during the battle.^ In the fourth phase of the Battle the Germans used a proportion of fighters acting as bombers.
  • Battle of Britain in the Words of Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding - Part 1 - The Battle 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.spitfiresite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the bombers returned with battle damage attributed to a British night-fighter, although no British claim was submitted for a combat in this area during this night.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Mossie" was as fast as a fighter, and was used as one, as well as a fighter-bomber for ground support, reconnaissance, and every other conceivable function.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
.Although successful in previous Luftwaffe engagements, the Stuka suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Britain, particularly on 18 August, due to its slow speed and vulnerability to fighter interception after the dive bombing.^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by the Luftwaffe bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August , Göring was only too pleased to order an increase in close escort duties.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by the Luftwaffe bomber crews, who demanded more close protection against the RAF. They had the ear of Göring who after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August was only too pleased to order an increase in close escort duties.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was therefore withdrawn from attacks on Britain in August, after prohibitive losses, leaving the Luftwaffe short of precision ground attack aircraft.

.As a result of the losses and limited payload and range, Stuka units were largely removed from operations over England and concentrated on shipping instead until they were re-deployed to the Eastern Front in 1941. They returned on occasion, such as on the 13 September attack on Tangmere airfield.^ West Malling and Tangmere airfields attacked.

^ Draw the British interceptors out by attacking their ships in the ocean channel between England and the occupied countries of France, Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands (Holland).
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With fighter protection overhead, the Stuka was a ship killer and Eastern Front tank buster.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67][68][69]
.The remaining three bomber types differed in their capabilities; the Heinkel 111 was the slowest, the Ju 88, once its mainly externally carried bomb load was dropped, was the fastest, and the Do 17 had the smallest bomb load.^ One unit Erprobungsgruppe 210 proved it could carry a greater bomb load over a greater range than a Ju 87 and deliver it with similar accuracy, while its much higher maximum speed, especially at lower altitudes, meant it was far more capable of escaping RAF fighters.

^ The bombers were for the most part Ju 87s (dive bombers), with a smaller quantity of He 111's, Do 17's and Ju 88's.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There followed a brief period where the Luftwaffe employed fighter bombers, Me110s and a new version Me109E4, capable of carrying up to a 500-pound bomb load in high altitude bombing operations.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .All three bomber types suffered heavy losses from British fighters, but the Ju 88 disproportionately so.^ In that time the British suffered losses of 959 aircraft (477 fighters).
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ In four actions, on August 8, 11, 12, and 13, the Germans lost 145 aircraft as against the British loss of 88.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bombers were the main German weapon, opposed by British defenses that appeared, to the Germans, to be principally made up of fighter aircraft , with anti-aircraft artillery in a very secondary role.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later in the conflict, when night bombing became more frequent, all three were used.^ After the invasion was cancelled, the air battles were not as intense and there were few attacks on the British IADS. What did change, however, is that the German night bombing attacks used electronic navigational aids, and British electronic intelligence and electronic warfare , especially meaconing became what Churchill later called "the Wizard War".
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allowed for somewhat more accurate bombing at night, when British air defence was at its weakest.

^ The docks were frequently subjected to German bombing both during the Battle and the subsequent night Blitz.
  • Battle of Britain in the Words of Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding - Part 1 - The Battle 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.spitfiresite.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, due to its reduced bomb load, the lighter Do 17 was used less than the He 111 and Ju 88 for this purpose.^ "Due to the speed-reducing effect of the externally suspended bomb load, she only reached 150 mph when diving," said German ace Adolf Galland, who was no admirer of the Stuka.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bombers were for the most part Ju 87s (dive bombers), with a smaller quantity of He 111's, Do 17's and Ju 88's.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 3 1940 he shared a Ju 88, on the 20th shared a Do 17, on August 29 he got two probable Bf 109s and on the 31st another probable.

.On the British side, three bombers were mostly used on night operations against targets such as factories, invasion ports and railway centres; the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, the Handley-Page Hampden and the Vickers Wellington were classified as heavy bombers by the RAF, although the Hampden was a medium bomber comparable to the He 111. The twin-engined Bristol Blenheim and the obsolescent single-engined Fairey Battle were both light bombers; the Blenheim was the most numerous of the aircraft equipping RAF Bomber Command and was used in attacks against shipping, ports, airfields and factories on the continent by day and by night, while the Battle was rarely used on operations.^ Air War - RAF Bomber Command by night and increasingly the USAAF by day mounted a growing attack on Germany and occupied Europe from British airfields.
  • Britain, Battle, Courbet, Foyle Bank, VC, Imogen, Brazen, Wren, Codrington, Delight, Channel, CE, E-boat, MTB, Hunt 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A plan was hatched to attack RAF airfields and aircraft production centres.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 14th : Airfields, radar stations, aircraft factories attacked.

Pilots

.Before the war, the RAF's processes for selecting potential candidates were more concerned with social standing than actual aptitude.^ The selection processes of potential RAF candidates were more concerned with social standing than actual aptitude leading up to the war.

^ Prior to the war, the RAF's processes for selecting potential candidates were more concerned with social standing than actual aptitude.

^ It was his last words that they remembered: "Now more than ever your training will stand you in good stead.

[70] .By summer 1940, there were about 9,000 pilots in the RAF for approximately 5,000 aircraft, most of which were bombers.^ By Summer 1940 there, were about 9,000 pilots in the RAF for approximately 5,000 aircraft, the majority of which were bombers.

^ The Regia Aeronauticas aircraft had been most advanced in the period 1937/1938, but there had been insufficient development from that time.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technique of the pilot positioning his aircraft with the gunner's field of fire in mind was feasible against slow bombers but quite impossible in a fast dogfight.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, the problem of pilot shortage was self-inflicted, due to inefficiencies in training and assignment.^ However, the problem of pilot shortage was self-inflicted, being due to inefficiencies in training and assignment.

^ SP(BB)45 - Lieutenant Commander John Humphrey Charlesworth Sykes Sykes joined the Fleet Air Arm in 1939 and trained as a pilot, but due to a shortage of qualified RAF pilots he joined RAF Fighter Command.

^ However, he aborted the interception to return to base but due some unknown cause he lost control of the aircraft and it crashed into the ground, killing the pilot.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With aircraft production running at 300 each week, only 200 pilots were trained in the same period.^ Only 63 new fighter pilots were available from the training schools for the same period.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With aircraft production running at 300 each week, only 200 pilots were being trained in the same period.

^ He had completed his basic flying training in April and was only in France because he had drawn the short straw when one of eight trainee pilots was required to go.

.In addition, more pilots were allocated to squadrons than there were aircraft.^ In addition, more pilots were allocated to squadrons than were aircraft.

^ Additionally, there are more than 100 districts where the government controls little more than a few buildings, meaning that locals in those places might not go to the polls out of fear of Taliban retribution.
  • Taliban Killed in Gun Battle in Afghan Town Ahead of Elections - WSJ.com 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In the airborne war of nerves, Polish pilots, more often than not, were the winners.

.Another problem was that only about 30% of the 9,000 pilots were assigned to operational squadrons; 20% of the pilots were involved in conducting pilot training, and a further 20% were undergoing further instruction, like those offered in Canada to the Commonwealth trainees, although already qualified.^ Another problem was that only about 30% of the 9,000 pilots were assigned to operational squadrons; 20% of the pilots were involved in conducting pilot training, and a further 20% were undergoing further instruction, like those offered in Canada to the Commonwealth trainees, although already qualified.

^ He had completed his basic flying training in April and was only in France because he had drawn the short straw when one of eight trainee pilots was required to go.

^ The rest were assigned to staff positions since, RAF policy dictated that only pilots could make many staff and operational command decisions, even in engineering matters.

.The rest were assigned to staff positions, since RAF policy dictated that only pilots could make many staff and operational command decisions, even in engineering matters.^ The rest were assigned to staff positions since, RAF policy dictated that only pilots could make many staff and operational command decisions, even in engineering matters.

^ While we were fighting in Belgium and France, we suffered the disadvantage that even the temporary stoppage of an engine involved the loss of pilot and aircraft, whereas, in similar circumstances, the German pilot might be fighting again the same day, and his aircraft be airborne again in a matter of hours.
  • Battle of Britain in the Words of Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding - Part 1 - The Battle 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.spitfiresite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Drawing from regular RAF forces as well as the Auxiliary Air Force and the Volunteer Reserve, the British could muster a total of some 1,103 fighter pilots on 1 July.

.At the height of fighting, and despite Churchill's insistence, only 30 pilots were released to the front line from administrative duties.^ At the height of fighting, and despite Churchill's insistence, only 30 pilots were released to the front line from administrative duties.

^ Richard was to remain as a test pilot throughout the remainder of the war, and performed test duties until he was released from the RAF in January 1946.

^ With four sections flying together in tight formation only the squadron leader at the front was free to actually watch for the enemy; the other pilots had to concentrate on him and each other.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] .For these reasons, the RAF had fewer experienced pilots at the start of the battle, and it was the lack of trained pilots in the fighting squadrons, rather than the lack of aircraft, that became the greatest concern for Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, Commander of Fighter Command.^ The Commander-in-Chief of Fighter Command, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding, had an initial total force of fewer than seven hundred fighters, divided between fifty-two squadrons.
  • Britain at War: The Battle of Britain - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This was known as the 'Dowding System' after its chief architect: Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding, the leader of RAF Fighter Command.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British had fewer experienced pilots at the start of the battle, and it was the lack of trained pilots, rather than the lack of machines, that became the greatest concern for Dowding.

.Drawing from regular RAF forces and the Auxiliary Air Force and the Volunteer Reserve, the British could muster some 1,103 fighter pilots on 1 July.^ Drawing from regular RAF forces as well as the Auxiliary Air Force and the Volunteer Reserve , the British could muster some 1,103 fighter pilots on 1 July.

^ Drawing from regular RAF forces as well as the Auxiliary Air Force and the Volunteer Reserve, the British could muster a total of some 1,103 fighter pilots on 1 July.

^ Royal Air Force (RAF) 2002.
  • Battle of Britain - July 2002 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.jfsc.ndu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Replacement pilots, with little flight training and often no gunnery training, suffered high casualty rates.^ Replacement pilots, with little actual flight training and no gunnery training whatsoever, suffered high casualty rates.

^ Replacement pilots, with little actual flight training and often no gunnery training whatsoever, suffered high casualty rates.

^ An annual rate of 1,500 fully trained pilots was reached by January 1941.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
.Due mostly to more efficient training, the Luftwaffe could muster a larger number (1,450) of more experienced fighter pilots.^ RAF forces were bolstered by foreign nationals, including: The Luftwaffe could muster more fighter pilots, 1,450.

^ It took more time to train a pilot than to build a fighter.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe could muster a similar number of fighter pilots, 1126, but they were more experienced overall.

[71] .Drawing from a cadre of Spanish Civil War veterans, they had comprehensive courses in aerial gunnery and instructions in tactics suited for fighter-versus-fighter combat.^ Drawing from a cadre of Spanish Civil War veterans, they had comprehensive courses in aerial gunnery, as well as instructions in tactics that were suited for fighter versus fighter combat.

^ Drawing from a cadre of Spanish Civil War veterans, they had comprehensive courses in aerial gunnery, as well as instructions in tactics suited for fighter versus fighter combat.

^ Took part in the Spanish Civil War.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .Luftwaffe training manuals also discouraged heroism, stressing the utmost importance of attacking only when the odds were in the pilot's favour.^ Luftwaffe training manuals also discouraged heroism, stressing the utmost importance of attacking only when the odds were in the pilot's favour.

^ The Luftwaffe fighter pilot manuals also discouraged heroism, stressing the utmost importance of attacking only when the odds were in the pilot's favour.

^ He had completed his basic flying training in April and was only in France because he had drawn the short straw when one of eight trainee pilots was required to go.

International participation

.Both sides received significant outside support during the battle.^ During the battle, Afghan authorities asked for American air support, and U.S. helicopters arrived at the scene and opened fire.
  • Taliban Killed in Gun Battle in Afghan Town Ahead of Elections - WSJ.com 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ The docks were frequently subjected to German bombing both during the Battle and the subsequent night Blitz.
  • Battle of Britain in the Words of Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding - Part 1 - The Battle 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.spitfiresite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Missions and campaigns are being prepared that will represent actual day-to-day missions flown by both sides in the Battle of Britain.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

Allies
126 German aircraft or "Adolfs" were claimed by Polish pilots of 303 Squadron during the Battle.
.The Royal Air Force roll of honour for the Battle of Britain recognises 595 non-British pilots (out of 2,936) as flying at least one authorised operational sortie with an eligible unit of the RAF or Fleet Air Arm between 10 July and 31 October 1940.[72][73] These included 145 Poles, 127 New Zealanders, 112 Canadians, 88 Czechoslovaks, 28 Belgians, 32 Australians, 25 South Africans, 13 French, 10 Irish, 7 Americans, and one each from Jamaica, the British Mandate of Palestine, and Southern Rhodesia.^ The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely by air forces.

^ Fleet Air Arm Sqn between August 1939 and October 1940.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of these were finished by October 1940.
  • Battle of Britain in the Words of Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding - Part 1 - The Battle 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.spitfiresite.com [Source type: Original source]

[74]
Axis
.An element of the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) called the Italian Air Corps (Corpo Aereo Italiano or CAI) first saw action in late October 1940. It took part in the latter stages of the battle, but achieved limited success.^ Late in the battle, an Italian expeditionary force, the Corpo Aereo Italiano , briefly joined the fighting.

^ Late in the battle, an Italian expeditionary force , the Corpo Aereo Italiano , briefly joined the fighting.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Known aviators in the Corpo Aereo Italiano (CAI) .
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The unit was redeployed in early 1941.

Luftwaffe strategy

Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe
Hugo Sperrle
.The Luftwaffe was devised to provide tactical support for the army on the battlefield.^ The Luftwaffe was designed as a tactical weapon to support the Army on the battlefield.

^ In the Battle of Britain, however, the Luftwaffe had to operate alone, not as support for an advancing army but as a decisive weapon in its own right.
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The Luftwaffe's bomber force was substantial and specialist at battlefield support.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.During the blitzkrieg offensives against Poland, Denmark and Norway and France and the Low Countries, the Luftwaffe had co-operated fully with the Wehrmacht.^ In Poland and France the Luftwaffe had operated jointly with the Wehrmacht , creating the Blitzkrieg or "lightning war".
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Poland and France , the Luftwaffe had operated jointly with the Wehrmacht in its Blitzkrieg or "lightning war".
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^ In Poland and France, the Luftwaffe had operated jointly with the Army, creating the Blitzkrieg or "lightning war".
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the Battle of Britain however, the Luftwaffe had to operate in a strategic role, something for which it was unsuited.^ BATTLE OF BRITAIN BACKGROUND The Battle of Britain, the first major air battle of the war, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to dominate the skies around Britain, in a prelude to Operation Sea Lion.
  • The Battle of Britain - Avalon Hill Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: General]

^ The Luftwaffe regrouped after the Battle of France into three Luftflotten (Air Fleets) on Britain's southern and northern flanks.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He became Chairman of the Battle of Britain Fighter Association in 1978 and still takes an active role and interest in current events.

.Its main task was to ensure air supremacy over southeast England, to pave the way for an invasion fleet.^ Its main task was to ensure air supremacy over south-east England, to pave the way for an invasion fleet.

^ However, the fact remains the Germans realised that for an invasion to be successful the RAF needed to be destroyed and total Air Supremacy gained.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Group covered the southeast of England and the critical approaches to London and was commanded by Air Vice-Marshal Keith Park .
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The Luftwaffe regrouped after the Battle of France into three Luftflotten (Air Fleets) on Britain's southern and northern flanks.^ The Luftwaffe regrouped after the Battle of France into three Luftflotten (Air Fleets) on Britain's southern and northern flanks.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Britain was won at sea AND in the air.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Luftwaffe regrouped after the Battle of France into three Luftflotten (Air Fleets) on the UK's southern and northern flanks.
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.Luftflotte 2, commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring, was responsible for the bombing of southeast England and the London area.^ Luftflotte 2, with headquarters in Brussels, was commanded by Field Marshal Albert Kesselring.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftflotte 2 , commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring, was responsible for the bombing of southeast England and the London area.

^ Areas of Scotland and England bombed.

.Luftflotte 3, under Generalfeldmarschall Hugo Sperrle, targeted the West Country, Midlands, and northwest England.^ Midlands, West Country and Scotland bombed.

^ Luftflotte 3, commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Hugo Sperrle was responsible for the West Country, Midlands and northwest England.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftflotte 3 , under Generalfeldmarschall Hugo Sperrle , targeted the West Country , Midlands, and northwest England.
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.Luftflotte 5, led by Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen Stumpff from his headquarters in Norway, targeted the north of England and Scotland.^ Luftflotte 5 , led by Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen Stumpff from his headquarters in Norway , was unleashed against the north of England and Scotland .
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^ Luftflotte 5, commanded by Generaloberst Hans-Jurgen Stumpff from his headquarters in Norway, had responsibility for the north of England and Scotland.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftflotte 5 , led by Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen Stumpff from his headquarters in Norway , targeted the north of England and Scotland.

.As the battle progressed, command responsibility shifted, with Luftflotte 3 taking more responsibility for the nighttime Blitz attacks while the main daylight operations fell upon Luftflotte 2's shoulders.^ The luftflotte commanded normal operations.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ As the battle progressed, command responsibility shifted, with Luftflotte 3 taking more responsibility for the night Blitz while the main attack fell upon Luftflotte 2' s shoulders.
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^ As the battle progressed, command responsibility shifted, with Luftflotte 3 taking more responsibility for the night Blitz while the main attack fell upon Luftflotte 2's shoulders.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initial Luftwaffe estimates were that it would take four days to defeat the RAF Fighter Command in southern England.^ The Luftwaffe estimated haughtily that it would be able to defeat the Royal Air Force’s Fighter Command in southern England in four days and destroy the rest of the RAF in four weeks.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The worst day for Fighter Command was Aug.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And they did not have to wait long - in fact, far too short to build up the RAF to a strength that would be able to match the German Luftwaffe.
  • Battle of Britain | Board Game | BoardGameGeek 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC www.boardgamegeek.com [Source type: General]

.This would be followed by a four-week offensive during which the bombers and long-range fighters would destroy all military installations throughout the country and wreck the British aircraft industry.^ Initial Luftwaffe estimates allotted four days to defeat Fighter Command in southern England, followed by four weeks for the bombers and long-range fighters to mop up the rest of the country and destroy the British aircraft industry.

^ The searchlights would find the bombers or fighters, or radar would on some aircraft.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This aircraft was intended to be used as a "bomber destroyer" because it was thought, The speed of modern bombers is so great that it is only worthwhile to attack them under conditions which allow no relative motion between the fighter and its target.

.The campaign was planned to begin with attacks on airfields near the coast, gradually moving inland to attack the ring of sector airfields defending London.^ The plan was to begin attacks on airfields near to the coast, gradually rolling subsequent attacks inland toward London and the ring of Sector airfields defending it.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plan was to begin with attacks on airfields near the coast, gradually moving inland toward London and the ring of sector airfields defending it.

^ The plan was to begin attacks on airfields near the coast, gradually rolling subsequent attacks inland toward London and the ring of Sector airfields defending it.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later reassessments gave the Luftwaffe five weeks, from 8 August to 15 September, to establish temporary air superiority over England.^ August - 6 September: The Luftwaffe targets the airfields.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later reassessments gave the Luftwaffe five weeks to establish temporary air superiority over England within the period from 8 August to 15 September.

^ August – 6 September: the Luftwaffe targets the airfields.

[75] .To achieve this goal, Fighter Command had to be destroyed, either on the ground or in the air, yet the Luftwaffe had to be able to preserve its own strength to be able to support the invasion; this meant that the Luftwaffe had to maintain a high "kill ratio" over the RAF fighters.^ The German high command claimed 99 RAF fighters destroyed in the air.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To achieve this goal, the RAF had to be destroyed on the ground or in the air with the Luftwaffe maintaining a high enough kill ratio to avoid depleting its own forces to such a level that it could not support an invasion.

^ That Germany ever had a serious chance of destroying RAF fighter command.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The only alternative to the goal of air superiority was a terror bombing campaign aimed at the civilian population, but this was considered a last resort and it was expressly forbidden by Hitler.^ The only alternative to the goal of air superiority was a terror bombing campaign aimed at the civilian population, but this alternative was considered unfeasible and was expressly forbidden by Hitler.

^ Prior to this, on 11 July, Admiral Raeder had told Hitler invasion could only be contemplated as a last resort, and only then with full air superiority.

^ The Kriegsmarine was reluctant to launch an invasion, and on 11 July, Admiral Raeder told Hitler that invasion could only be contemplated as a last resort, and only then with full air superiority.
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[75]
.The Luftwaffe kept broadly to this scheme, but its commanders had differences of opinion on strategy.^ The Luftwaffe kept broadly to this scheme but its commanders soon had differences of opinion on strategy.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broadly, the Luftwaffe kept to this scheme, but its commanders had differences of opinion on strategy.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe kept broadly to this scheme, but its commanders had differences of opinion on strategy.
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.Sperrle wanted to eradicate the air defence infrastructure by bombing it.^ The commander of Luftflotte 3 , Hugo Sperrle, wanted to eradicate the air defence infrastructure by bombing it.

^ The commander of Luftflotte 3, Hugo Sperrle, wanted to eradicate the air defence infrastructure by bombing.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commander of Luftflotte 3 , Hugo Sperrle, wanted to eradicate the air defence infrastructure by bombing.
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.His counterpart, Kesselring, championed attacking London directly—either to bombard the British government into submission or to draw RAF fighters into a decisive battle.^ His counterpart in Luftflotte 2 , Albert Kesselring, championed attacking London directly—either to bombard the British government into submission or to draw RAF fighters into a decisive battle.
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^ His counterpart in Luftflotte 2 , Albert Kesselring, demanded to attack London directly—either to bombard the British government into submission or draw RAF fighters up into a decisive battle.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His counterpart in Luftflotte 2, Albert Kesselring, demanded to attack London directly—either to bombard the British government into submission or draw RAF fighters up into a decisive battle.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Göring did nothing to resolve this disagreement between his commanders, and only vague directives were set down during the initial stages of the battle, with Göring seemingly could not decide upon which strategy to pursue.^ Göring did nothing to resolve this disagreement between his commanders, and only vague directives were set down during the initial stages of the battle, with Göring seemingly unable to decide upon which strategy to pursue.

^ Göring did nothing to clarify strategy between his commanders, obsessed as he was with maintaining his own powerbase in the Luftwaffe and indulging his outdated beliefs on air fighting which were later to lead to tactical and strategic errors.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Göring did nothing to resolve this disagreement between his commanders, obsessed as he was with maintaining his own power base in the Luftwaffe and indulging his outdated beliefs on air fighting, which were later to lead to tactical and strategic errors.
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[76] .He seemed at times obsessed with maintaining his own power base in the Luftwaffe and indulging his outdated beliefs on air fighting, which were later to lead to tactical and strategic errors.^ He seemed at times obsessed with maintaining his own power base in the Luftwaffe and indulging his outdated beliefs on air fighting, which were later to lead to tactical and strategic errors.

^ Göring did nothing to clarify strategy between his commanders, obsessed as he was with maintaining his own powerbase in the Luftwaffe and indulging his outdated beliefs on air fighting, which were later to lead to tactic al and strategic errors.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Göring did nothing to clarify strategy between his commanders, obsessed as he was with maintaining his own powerbase in the Luftwaffe and indulging his outdated beliefs on air fighting which were later to lead to tactical and strategic errors.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Tactics

.Luftwaffe tactics were influenced by their fighters.^ Luftwaffe tactics were influenced by their fighters, which were divided into single-engined Me 109s and twin-engine Me 110s.

^ Luftwaffe tactics were influenced by their fighters, which were divided into single-engined Me 109 and twin-engined Me 110 types.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftwaffe tactics were influenced by their fighters, which were divided into single-engined Messerschmitt Bf 109 and twin-engined Messerschmitt Bf 110 types.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bf 110 proved too vulnerable to the nimble single-engined RAF fighters.^ The Me 110 Zerstörer (Destroyer fighters) proved to be too vulnerable to the nimble single-engined RAF fighters.
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^ The Bf 110 Zerstörer (destroyer) proved too vulnerable to the nimble single-engined RAF fighters.

^ The Bf 110 Zerstörer (Destroyer) fighters proved to be too vulnerable to the nimble single-engined RAF fighters.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This meant the bulk of fighter escort duties fell on the Bf 109. Fighter tactics were then complicated by bomber crews who demanded closer protection.^ The fighter bombers were protected more and more by Me.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This meant that the bulk of fighter duties fell on the Bf 109.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This meant that the bulk of fighter duties fell on the Me 109.
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.After the hard-fought battles of 15 and 18 August, Göring met with his unit leaders.^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August, Göring ordered an increase in close escort duties.

^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by the Luftwaffe bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August , Göring was only too pleased to order an increase in close escort duties.
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^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by the Luftwaffe bomber crews, who demanded more close protection against the RAF. They had the ear of Göring who after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August was only too pleased to order an increase in close escort duties.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this conference, the need for the fighters to meet up on time with the bombers was stressed.^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
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^ Bombers were the main German weapon, opposed by British defenses that appeared, to the Germans, to be principally made up of fighter aircraft , with anti-aircraft artillery in a very secondary role.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This rule could not be followed in close bomber escort duties though, as the fighter gave up tactical flexibility and the advantage of height.

.It was also decided that one bomber Gruppe could only be properly protected by several Gruppen of 109s.^ This shackled many Bf 109s to the bombers and, though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One gruppe (48-64 aircraft) of fighters would provide close escort for each geschwader (144-256 aircraft) of bombers.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This shackled many more Me 109s to the bombers, and though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition Göring stipulated that as many fighters as possible were to be left free for Freie Jagd (this fighter sweep would precede a raid to try to sweep defenders out of the raid's path).^ This left many raids completely undefended by fighter escorts.
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^ A free hunt would precede a raid to try and sweep any defenders out of the raid's path.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They launched many free-roving fighter sweeps, known as Freie Jagd or "Free Hunts" to try to draw up RAF fighters.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ju 87 units, which had suffered heavy casualties, were only to be used under favourable circumstances.^ One of the aircraft types used in these raids was the Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive-bomber.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers 18 August, which saw the greatest number of casualties to both sides, has been dubbed "The Hardest Day".

^ They suffered heavy casualties when engaged by our rear rank of fighters.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .In early September, due to increasing complaints from the bomber crews about RAF fighters seemingly able to get through the escort screen, Göring ordered an increase in close escort duties.^ The bomber commanders insisted on additional close escort due to increased losses.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Losses due to the daylight operations, both bomber and fighter, had been increasing.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The number of escorting fighters was increased and the size of bomber formations reduced.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.This decision shackled many of the Bf 109s to the bombers and, although they were more successful at protecting the bomber forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted primarily because they were forced to fly and manoeuvre at reduced speeds.^ The fighter bombers were protected more and more by Me.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This shackled many Bf 109s to the bombers and, though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This shackled many more Me 109s to the bombers, and though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
.The Luftwaffe consistently varied its tactics in its attempts to break through the RAF defences.^ The Luftwaffe varied its tactics considerably to try to find a way through the RAF defences.
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^ The Luftwaffe varied their tactics considerably to try to find a way through the RAF defences.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bf 109E The Luftwaffe varied its tactics considerably to try to find a way through the RAF defences.

.It launched many free-roving fighter sweeps, known as Freie Jagd ("Free Hunts"), to draw up RAF fighters.^ They launched many free-roving fighter sweeps, known as Freie Jagd or "Free Hunts" to try to draw up RAF fighters.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It launched many free-roving fighter sweeps, known as Freie Jagd or "Free Hunts" to try to draw up RAF fighters.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ It launched many free-roving fighter sweeps, known as Freie Jagd ("Free Hunts"), to draw up RAF fighters.

.RAF fighter controllers, however, were often able to detect these and position squadrons to avoid them, keeping to Dowding's plan to preserve fighter strength for the bomber formations.^ RAF fighter controllers, however, were often able to detect these and position squadrons to avoid them, keeping to Dowding's plan to preserve fighter strength for the bomber formations.

^ After the sector controllers had decided to launch fighters, the fighters had to be directed to the bomber formations.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the RAF fighter controllers were often able to detect the free hunts and manoeuvre squadrons around them.
  • Battle of Britain - Charles' George Orwell Links 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netcharles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Luftwaffe also tried using small formations of bombers as bait, covering them with large numbers of escorts.^ The Luftwaffe also tried using small formations of bombers as bait, covering them with large numbers of escorts.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The number of escorting fighters was increased and the size of bomber formations reduced.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Large formations of bombers escorted by fighters are very unwieldy.

.This was more successful, but escort duty tied the fighters to the bombers' slow speed and made them more vulnerable.^ The fighter bombers were protected more and more by Me.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was more successful, but escort duty tied the fighters to the bombers' slow speed and made them more vulnerable.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.By September, standard tactics for raids had become an amalgam of techniques.^ Standard tactics for raids soon became an amalgam of techniques.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The Luftwaffe began to implement the new tactics on 7 September, when they launched a massive raid on the London docks that marked the start of the third phase of the campaign.

.A Freie Jagd would precede the main attack formations.^ The British force was spread out thinly along the whole riverbank, now with fewer horses and not knowing where the main attack would come.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other examples would be the inaccuracies in the radar system, especially height finding, and the lack of radar coverage once an attacking formation crossed the coastline.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bombers would fly in at altitudes between 16,000 feet (4,900 m) and 20,000 feet (6,100 m), closely escorted by fighters.^ The bombers would penetrate at altitudes between 10,000 and 16,000 feet, sometimes closely escorted by fighters.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bombers would then fly in at altitudes between 10,000 and 16,000 feet, sometimes closely escorted by fighters.
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^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Escorts were divided into two parts (usually Gruppen), some operating in close contact with the bombers, and others a few hundred yards away and a little above.^ The bombers would then fly in at altitudes between 10,000 and 16,000 feet, sometimes closely escorted by fighters.
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In "Tears of the Prophets"[DS9] to which Ossus refers, the Allied fleet closes on hundreds of weapons platforms which, upon arrival, are not operational !
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One gruppe (48-64 aircraft) of fighters would provide close escort for each geschwader (144-256 aircraft) of bombers.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the formation was attacked from the starboard, the starboard section engaged the attackers, the top section moving to starboard and the port section to the top position.^ The intention was to subject attackers to continual attacks by relatively small numbers of aircraft and try to break up the tight formations of bombers.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ [The standard military method of war is for one formation to attack, take and hold a position, whereupon a second formation moves through the first's position to attack and hold its own objective.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the attack came from the port side the system was reversed.^ Meanwhile the ramshackle invasion forces were slowly gathering in the Channel ports, where they came under attack from RAF Bomber Command, but preparations were far from complete.

^ Squadron, meanwhile, was fast approaching from the port side and attacked almost simultaneously.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British fighters coming from the rear were engaged by the rear section and the two outside sections similarly moving to the rear.^ For the British, the main disappointment was the performance of the Boulton-Paul Defiant two-seat turret fighters and Fairey Battle bombers.

^ They suffered heavy casualties when engaged by our rear rank of fighters.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two superb fighters would bear the brunt of the coming battle.
  • How the Luftwaffe Lost the Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airforce-magazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the threat came from above, the top section went into action while the side sections gained height to be able to follow RAF fighters down as they broke away.^ If the enemy had persisted in heavy attacks against [RAF installations and communications], the whole intricate organisation of Fighter Command might have broken down."

^ Yet when the Eighth Air Force went to war against the Luftwaffe in 1942-1943, its fighter forces followed the same operational philosophy.

^ This rule could not be followed in close bomber escort duties though, as the fighter gave up tactical flexibility and the advantage of height.

.If attacked, all sections flew in defensive circles.^ All through Friday, May 10, they flew patrols in sections of three.

.These tactics were skillfully evolved and carried out, and were extremely difficult to counter.^ The chief problem created by these tactics was to have a sufficient number of fighters ready to engage the main attack as soon as it could be picked out.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These tactics threw the enemy into extreme confusion.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all a life primarily carrying out blockade duty was monotonous in the extreme.

[79]
Adolf Galland, the charismatic and successful leader of III./JG 26, became Geschwaderkommodore of JG 26 on 22 August.
We had the impression that, whatever we did, we were bound to be wrong. .Fighter protection for bombers created many problems which had to be solved in action.^ The fighter bombers were protected more and more by Me.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This shackled many Bf 109s to the bombers and, though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have gathered the distinct impression that dive bombers are [only] useful against a force which has no fighter protection and no AA defense to speak of.

.Bomber pilots preferred close screening in which their formation was surrounded by pairs of fighters pursuing a zigzag course.^ The bombers would then fly in at altitudes between 10,000 and 16,000 feet, sometimes closely escorted by fighters.
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ One gruppe (48-64 aircraft) of fighters would provide close escort for each geschwader (144-256 aircraft) of bombers.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High fighter screens were sent over to occupy our fighters while the bombers closely escorted by more fighters tried to get through some 6,000 to 10,000 feet below.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.Obviously, the visible presence of the protective fighters gave the bomber pilots a greater sense of security.^ The fighter bombers were protected more and more by Me.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This shackled many Bf 109s to the bombers and, though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This rule could not be followed in close bomber escort duties though, as the fighter gave up tactical flexibility and the advantage of height.

.However, this was a faulty conclusion, because a fighter can only carry out this purely defensive task by taking the initiative in the offensive.^ I have gathered the distinct impression that dive bombers are [only] useful against a force which has no fighter protection and no AA defense to speak of.

^ This ignored the fact, however, that daylight operations would be limited because of the inability of escort fighters (principally, the Me109) to accompany the bombers to the more distant targets.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftflotte 2 to carry out any early offensive against England).
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He must never wait until attacked because he then loses the chance of acting.
.We fighter pilots certainly preferred the free chase during the approach and over the target area.^ The Cross-Channel map is intentionally large enough to include some of the operational area of the 352nd Fighter Group during 1944 and 45.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the bombers returned with battle damage attributed to a British night-fighter, although no British claim was submitted for a combat in this area during this night.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certainly the leadership and the valiant efforts of the men and women, and especially the skill and heroism of the pilots of Fighter Command cannot go without mention.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.This gives the greatest relief and the best protection for the bomber force.^ This shackled many Bf 109s to the bombers and, though they were more successful at protecting the bombing forces, casualties amongst the fighters mounted.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have gathered the distinct impression that dive bombers are [only] useful against a force which has no fighter protection and no AA defense to speak of.

^ Two of these were bombers and were the striking force, self-protection being provided by the fighter Stormo.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80]
.The biggest disadvantage faced by Bf 109 pilots was that without the benefit of long-range drop tanks (which were introduced in limited numbers in the late stages of the battle), usually of 300 litre (79 US gallon) capacity, the 109s had an endurance of just over an hour and, for the 109E, a 600 km (360 mi) range.^ When the German pilots, who had to worry about fuel limitations on their long-range attacks, turned to head back across the Channel, the Poles were in hot pursuit.

^ Any challenge to the long-held theory that the 2,600 pilots of Fighter Command defeated the might of Germany would be subject to "more than a modicum of hostility", she added.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The 109 also had good pilot armour, but no self-sealing tank(s) [likely trying to keep the operational range up].
  • Battle of Britain Campaign Feedback - CombatACE - Page 3 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forum.combatace.com [Source type: General]

.Once over Britain, a 109 pilot had to keep an eye on a red "low fuel" light on the instrument panel: once this was illuminated, he was forced to turn back and head for France.^ With France conquered, Hitler could now turn his forces on Germany’s sole remaining enemy: Great Britain, which was protected from the formidable German Army by the waters of the English Channel .
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the German pilots, who had to worry about fuel limitations on their long-range attacks, turned to head back across the Channel, the Poles were in hot pursuit.

^ Once they hove into view it's a matter of keeping your eyes peeled to keep track of where they get to!
  • Battle of Britain Campaign Feedback - CombatACE - Page 3 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forum.combatace.com [Source type: General]

With the prospect of two long over-water flights, and knowing their range was substantially reduced when escorting bombers or during combat, the Jagdflieger coined the term Kanalkrankheit or "Channel sickness".[81]

Intelligence

.The Luftwaffe was ill-served by its lack of military intelligence about the British defences.^ The Luftwaffe was ill-served by their lack of intelligence on the British defences.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe was ill-served by its lack of intelligence on the British defences.
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^ The Luftwaffe was ill-served by its lack of intelligence about the British defences.

[82] .The German intelligence services were fractured and plagued by rivalries; their performance was "amateurish".[83] By 1940, there were few German agents operating in the UK and a handful of bungled attempts to insert spies into the country were foiled.^ By 1940, there were few if any German agents operating in the UK and a handful of bungled attempts to insert spies into the country were foiled.
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^ By 1940 there were few or no German agents operating in the UK and a handful of bungled attempts to insert spies into the country were foiled.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German intelligence services were fractured, driven by rivalries and their overall performance was amateurish.
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[84]
.As a result of intercepted radio transmissions, the Germans began to realise that the RAF fighters were being controlled from ground facilities; in July and August 1939, for example, the airship Graf Zeppelin, which was packed with equipment for listening in on RAF radio and RDF transmissions, flew around the coasts of Britain.^ It is important to note that it was at about this point in the conflict--as the result of intercepted radio transmissions--that the Germans began to realize the RAF fighters were being controlled from ground facilities.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Ground-controlled intercept .
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was therefore withdrawn from attacks on Britain in August, after prohibitive losses, leaving the Luftwaffe short of precision ground attack aircraft.

.Although the Luftwaffe correctly interpreted these new ground control procedures, they were incorrectly assessed as being rigid and ineffectual.^ It is equally important to note that the Germans correctly interpreted the purpose of these new ground control procedures, but assessed them as rigid and ineffectual.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ For all of its faults, RAF's system of ground control directed its fighters to be where they were needed.

^ It is important to note that it was at about this point in the conflict--as the result of intercepted radio transmissions--that the Germans began to realize the RAF fighters were being controlled from ground facilities.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.A British radar system was well known to the Luftwaffe from intelligence gathered before the war, but the highly developed "Dowding system" linked with fighter control had been a well kept secret.^ The existence of a British radar system was well known to the Luftwaffe from intelligence gathered before the war, but "the secret of the highly developed plotting system linked with fighter control had been well kept by the British."
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ They did not understand the significance of British radar and control systems.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe was facing a more capable opponent than it had met before: a sizable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft that could match the German Bf 109E and Bf 110 .

[85][86] .Even when good information existed, such as a November 1939 Abwehr assessment of Fighter Command strengths and capabilities by Abteilung V, it was ignored if it did not match conventional preconceptions.^ Even when good information existed, such as 5th Abteilung' s November 1939 assessment of Fighter Command strengths and capabilities, it was ignored if it did not match conventional preconceptions.
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^ Even when good information existed, such as 5th Abteilung s November 1939 assessment of Fighter Command strengths and capabilities, it was ignored if it did not match conventional preconceptions.

^ Even when good information existed, such as 5th Abteilung s November 1939 assessment of Fighter Command strengths and capabilities, it was ignored if it did not match conventional wisdom.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 16 July 1940, Abteilung V, commanded by Oberstleutnant "Beppo" Schmid, produced a report on the RAF and on Britain's defensive capabilities which was adopted by the frontline commanders as a basis for their operational plans.^ Similar conclusions were reached in the report of 16 July 1940.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Britain began in July, 1940.

^ The plan was prepared by OKW. The operation, code-named Seelwe ("Sealion"), was scheduled for mid-September 1940 and called for landings on the south coast of Great Britain, backed by an airborne assault.

.One of the most conspicuous failures of the report was the lack of information on the RAF's RDF network and control systems capabilities; it was assumed that the system was rigid and inflexible, with the RAF fighters being "tied" to their home bases.^ Group RAF Uxbridge) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

[87][88] An optimistic and, as it turned out, erroneous conclusion reached was:
D. Supply Situation... .At present the British aircraft industry produces about 180 to 300 first line fighters and 140 first line bombers a month.^ At present the British aircraft industry produces about 180 to 300 first line fighters and 140 first line bombers a month.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17 s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.

^ Bombing Formations Assuming the average squadron strength to be 20 aircraft, the 55 or 60 bomber squadrons contain about 1,150 first line bombers, of which about 860 (75 percent) may be regarded as serviceable.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In view of the present conditions relating to production (the appearance of raw material difficulties, the disruption or breakdown of production at factories owing to air attacks, the increased vulnerability to air attack owing to the fundamental reorganization of the aircraft industry now in progress), it is believed that for the time being output will decrease rather than increase.^ In view of the present conditions relating to production (the appearance of raw material difficulties, the disruption or breakdown of production at factories owing to air attacks, the increased vulnerability to air attack owing to the fundamental reorganization of the aircraft industry now in progress), it is believed that for the time being output will decrease rather than increase.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brooklands and Rochester aircraft factories attacked.

^ By night the Germans greatly increased I heir attacks by single aircraft.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the event of an intensification of air warfare it is expected that the present strength of the RAF will fall, and this decline will be aggravated by the continued decrease in production.^ In the event of an intensification of air warfare it is expected that the present strength of the RAF will fall, and this decline will be aggravated by the continued decrease in production.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As regards aircraft, the RAF is at present almost entirely dependent on home production.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post-war records show that British aircraft were being replaced faster than those of the Germans; the RAF maintained its strength even as the Luftwaffe' s declined.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88]
.Because of this statement, reinforced by another more detailed report, issued on 10 August, there was a mindset in the ranks of the Luftwaffe that the RAF would run out of frontline fighters.^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by the Luftwaffe bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August , Göring was only too pleased to order an increase in close escort duties.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by the Luftwaffe bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August, Göring was only too pleased to order an increase in close escort duties.

^ The Luftwaffe commander, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring called his plan Adlerangriff (Eagle Attack), which would begin on 11 August , or Adlertag (Eagle Day), with an all-out attack.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] .The Luftwaffe believed it was weakening Fighter Command at three times the actual attrition rate.^ But already, by September 15, on which day the British believed, albeit incorrectly, that they had scored their greatest success by destroying 185 German aircraft, Fighter Command had demonstrated to the Luftwaffe that it could not gain air ascendancy over Britain.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The German concentration on Fighter Command airfields was, as the Luftwaffe had hoped, forcing the RAF fighters into combat.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .Many times, the leadership believed Fighter Command's strength had collapsed, only to discover that the RAF were able to send up defensive formations at will.^ Winston Churchill summed up the effect of the battle and the contribution of the RAF in the immortal words: "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few" .

^ If the enemy had persisted in heavy attacks against [RAF installations and communications], the whole intricate organisation of Fighter Command might have broken down."

^ Fighter Command recognized the weaknesses of this rigid structure early in the battle, but it was felt too risky to change tactics in the midst of the battle, as replacement pilots, often with only minimal actual flying time, could not be readily retrained [15] and that the inexperienced pilots of RAF needed firm leadership in the air that only rigid formations provided.

.Throughout the battle, the Luftwaffe had to use numerous reconnaissance sorties to make up for the poor intelligence.^ Throughout the battle, the Luftwaffe was plagued by poor intelligence; as a result, the Luftwaffe had to launch numerous reconnaissance sorties.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the battle, the Luftwaffe had to launch numerous reconnaissance sorties to make up for the poor intelligence.

^ A 109 pilot could use the spinner colour, gruppe colour and letter codes to make sure they were forming up on the right unit.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.^ Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17 s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.

^ The Dornier 17s proved easy prey for British fighters, even though for the better part of the battle, they were escorted by a whole squadron of Messerschmitt Me 109s.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To achieve this the weight of the attack now fell on Luftflotte 2, and the bulk of the Bf 109s in Luftflotte 3 were transferred to Kesselring's command, reinforcing the fighter bases in the Pas de Calais.

.Thus, the Luftwaffe operated "blind" for much of the battle, unsure of its enemy's true strengths, capabilities, and deployments.^ Thus, the Luftwaffe operated 'blind' for much of the battle, unsure of its enemy's true strengths, capabilities and deployment.

^ For much of the battle the Luftwaffe operated 'blind', unaware of their enemy's true strengths, capabilities, and deployments.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, for much of the battle, the Luftwaffe operated 'blind', unaware of their enemy's true strengths, capabilities and deployments.
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the Fighter Command airfields were never attacked, while raids against supposed fighter airfields fell instead on bomber or coastal defence stations.^ Peter Blatchford was turning to attack the bombers again, but saw many fighters.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many times the leadership believed Fighter Command's strength had collapsed, while raids against supposed fighter airfields fell instead on bomber or coastal defence stations.

^ Many times the leadership believed that the Fighter Command's strength had collapsed, while raids against supposed fighter airfields fell instead on bomber or coastal defence installations.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The results of bombing and air fighting were consistently exaggerated, due to over-enthusiastic claims and the difficulty of confirmation over enemy territory.^ The results of bombing and air fighting were consistently exaggerated, due to over enthusiatic claiming and the difficulty of effective confirmation over enemy territory.

^ In general, claims were two to three times the actual numbers, due to confusion in the whirling air battles.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stated that "the realms of the air are not restricted to the fronts of the Army; they are above and behind the army, over the coasts and seas, over the whole nation and over the whole of the enemy's territory."
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the euphoric atmosphere of perceived victory, the Luftwaffe leadership became increasingly disconnected from reality.^ The results of bombing and air fighting were exaggerated, resulting in a Luftwaffe leadership that became increasingly disconnected from reality.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of bombing and air fighting were exaggerated, resulting in the Luftwaffe leadership becoming increasingly disconnected from reality.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe leadership, with some admitted optimism, was quite willing to accept the success of previous victories as proof of their own beliefs.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This lack of leadership and solid intelligence meant the Germans did not adopt consistent strategy, even when the RAF had its back to the wall.^ This lack of leadership and solid intelligence meant that the Germans did not adopt any consistent strategy, even when the RAF had its back to the wall.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lack of leadership and solid intelligence meant the Germans did not adopt any consistent strategy, even when the RAF had its back to the wall.

^ After the battle RAF pilots adopted a variant on the German formations with some success [2] .
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, there was never a systematic focus on one type of target (such as airbases, radar stations, or aircraft factories), so the already haphazard effort was further diluted.^ Moreover, there was never a systematic focus on any one type of target (airbases, radar station, aircraft factories), so the already haphazard effort was further diluted.

^ August 14th : Airfields, radar stations, aircraft factories attacked.

^ Thousands of targets including every plane, factory, airfield, and radar station have a specific role and impact on the progress of the war below.
  • Battle Of Britain 2 Wings of Victory for PC (Brand New) - eBay, PC, Games, Video Games. (end time 20-Jan-10 10:08:58 AEDST) 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC cgi.ebay.com.au [Source type: General]

[90]

Navigational aids

.While the British were using radar for air defence more effectively than the Germans realised, the Luftwaffe attempted to press its own offensive advantage with advanced radio navigation systems of which the British were initially not aware.^ More German craft than British were lost that day and every day.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See Battle of the beams While the British were using radar more effectively than the Germans realised for air defence, the Luftwaffe had their own electronic means to increase their air attacks' effectiveness.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the British were using radar for air defence more effectively than the Germans realised, the Luftwaffe attempted to press its own offensive advantage with advanced radio navigation systems the British were initially not aware of.

.One of these was Knickebein ("crooked leg"); this system was used at night and for raids where precision was required.^ One of these was Knickebein ("crooked leg"), a system where carefully positioned radio transmitters in friendly territory broadcast specially targeted navigational beams that intersected over specific bombing targets in enemy territory.

^ One of the systems was called Knickebein ("crooked leg"), a system where carefully positioned radio transmitters in friendly territory broadcast specially targeted navigational beams that intersected over specific bombing targets in enemy territory.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the aircraft types used in these raids was the Junkers Ju-87 Stuka dive-bomber.
  • Battle of Britain - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was rarely used during the Battle of Britain.^ Italian dictator Benito Mussolini insisted on providing an element of the Italian Royal Air Force ( Regia Aeronautica ) to assist his German ally during the Battle of Britain.

^ RAF pilots were killed during the battle.The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely in the air.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Campaign players are recommended to use the RESTORE program to reset BOBII to the Battle of Britain period objects, before playing their campaigns.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

(See Dr. Reginald Jones and Battle of the Beams).[91]

Air-sea rescue

.The Luftwaffe was much better prepared for the task of air-sea rescue than the RAF, with one unit, the Seenotdienst equipped with Heinkel He 59 floatplanes, specifically tasked with picking up downed aircrew from the North Sea, English Channel and the Dover Straits.^ For Luftwaffe aircrews, a bail out over England meant capture, while parachuting into the English Channel often meant drowning or death from exposure.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One unit Erprobungsgruppe 210 proved it could carry a greater bomb load over a greater range than a Ju 87 and deliver it with similar accuracy, while its much higher maximum speed, especially at lower altitudes, meant it was far more capable of escaping RAF fighters.

^ Will there be the ability to possibly equip your aircraft with modifications that weren't part of a unit's specific TO&E? I specifically want the cigar lighter in Adolf Galland's Bf 109.
  • Storm Of War: The Battle Of Britain. Fakten und Screenshots - Thema entwickelt von eve community 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums-de.ubi.com [Source type: General]

.In addition, Luftwaffe aircraft were equipped with life rafts and the aircrew were provided with sachets of a chemical called fluorescein which, on reacting with water, created a large, easy-to-see, bright green patch.^ As a service, the Luftwaffe ’s apparent strength came from the reputation it had earned destroying far weaker and smaller opponents equipped in large measure with small numbers of dramatically inferior aircraft: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and Holland.

^ In losses of aircraft and experienced aircrew the battle was a blow from which the Luftwaffe never fully recovered.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The campaign starts in July 1940 with the so called "Kanalkampf", when the Luftwaffe and the RAF fought for domination of the English Channel, and the Luftwaffe won, closing these waters for convoys.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

[92]
.In accordance with the Geneva Convention the He 59s were unarmed and painted white with civilian registration markings and red crosses.^ They weren't lorries from his own division anymore, he could tell because their own 2nd Division lorries were marked with crossed keys painted white on the bumper.

.Nevertheless, RAF aircraft attacked these aircraft, as some were escorted by Bf 109s.^ Reconnaissance aircraft (at first mostly Dornier Do 17 s, but increasingly Bf 110s) proved easy prey for British fighters, as it was seldom possible for them to be escorted by Bf 109s.

^ He was then attacked by three Bf 109s and set on fire.
  • Wingfields SIGNED BATTLE OF BRITAIN MEMORIAL 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wing-fields.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ To achieve this the weight of the attack now fell on Luftflotte 2, and the bulk of the Bf 109s in Luftflotte 3 were transferred to Kesselring's command, reinforcing the fighter bases in the Pas de Calais.

[93]
.After single He 59s were forced to land on the sea by RAF fighters, on 1 and 9 July respectively,[93][94] a controversial order was issued to the RAF on 13 July; this stated that as of 20 July, Seenotdienst aircraft were to be shot down.^ He continued flying and fighting over the Channel Front until early May, by which time he had brought down an additional 13 British aircraft.
  • Aces of the Luftwaffe - Werner Mölders 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.luftwaffe.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the enemy had persisted in heavy attacks against [RAF installations and communications], the whole intricate organisation of Fighter Command might have broken down."

^ However, post-war analysis of records has shown that between July and September the RAF claimed over 2,698 kills for 1,023 fighter aircraft lost to all causes, while the Luftwaffe fighters claimed 3,198 RAF aircraft downed for losses of 1,887, of which 873 were fighters.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One of the reasons given by Churchill was:
.
We did not recognise this means of rescuing enemy pilots so they could come and bomb our civil population again...^ The success of our fighter tactics at this stage can be gauged by a comparison between our losses in pilots and those of the enemy.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These were used to intimidate the enemy and send the best British fighters quickly to the position where they could be most effective.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 109 pilot could use the spinner colour, gruppe colour and letter codes to make sure they were forming up on the right unit.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

all .German air ambulances were forced down or shot down by our fighters on definite orders approved by the War Cabinet.^ German Air Force was needed for the forthcoming war with Soviet Russia."
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polish flyers proved especially effective — the pre-war Polish Air Force had lengthy, extensive and high standards of training and — with Poland conquered and under German occupation — the Polish pilots of 303 Squadron were strongly motivated.

^ It burns brightly in hearts across the old Commonwealth, including India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, but also in places like the Netherlands and Israel, where after the war Spitfires served as air force founding fighters.
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]

[95]
The Air Ministry issuing a communique to the German government on 14 July:
.
It has come to the notice of His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom that enemy aircraft in civilian markings and marked with the red cross have recently flown over British Ships at sea and near the British coast, and that they are being employed for purposes which His Majesty's Government cannot regard as being consistent with the privileges generally accorded to the Red Cross.^ They employed the looser and more flexible four-ship 'Schwarme' developed in the Spanish Civil War, using two pairs each consisting of leader and wingman.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England while being flown by Hptm Asmus on 25 October, with no stab markings according to the crash report, but 49 victory bars).
  • Aces of the Luftwaffe - Werner Mölders 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.luftwaffe.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were used to intimidate the enemy and send the best British fighters quickly to the position where they could be most effective.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His Majesty's Government desire to accord to ambulance aircraft reasonable facilities for the transportation of the sick and wounded, in accordance with Red Cross Convention, and aircraft engaged in the direct evacuation of sick and wounded will be respected, provided that they comply with the relevant provisions of the Geneva Convention.^ The evacuation of the two aircraft went well and only the radio operator 1 o Avieri Armando Paolini was wounded in a foot.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His Majesty's Government are unable, however, to grant immunity to such aircraft flying over areas in which operations are in progress on land or at sea, or approaching British or Allied territory, or territory in British occupation, or British or Allied ships.^ He continued flying and fighting over the Channel Front until early May, by which time he had brought down an additional 13 British aircraft.
  • Aces of the Luftwaffe - Werner Mölders 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.luftwaffe.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monthly Loss Summary 48 British, Allied and neutral ships of 93,000 tons in UK waters.
  • Britain, Battle, Courbet, Foyle Bank, VC, Imogen, Brazen, Wren, Codrington, Delight, Channel, CE, E-boat, MTB, Hunt 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like he expected the British to do later, Hitler approved of sending landing ships across from France at the narrowest spot in the Channel.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ambulance aircraft which do not comply with the above will do so at their own risk and peril.[96]
.The white He 59s were soon repainted in camouflage colours and armed with defensive machine guns.^ Fast (348 mph or more), maneuverable, and hard to stall or spin, this "butcher bird" was armed with machine guns and cannon.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a low-wing all-metal cantilever monoplane armed with eight Browning machine guns, four in each wing set to fire forward outside the airscrew disc.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It carried a crew of four and was armed with three movable machine guns, one in the nose, one on the top of the fuselage and one in the streamlined " blister " underneath.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although another four He 59s were shot down by RAF aircraft,[97] the Seenotdienst continued to pick up downed Luftwaffe and Allied aircrew throughout the battle, earning praise from Adolf Galland for their gallantry.^ At exactly 3:54 p.m., a WAAF plotter at II Group's Uxbridge sector control station set down a marker on the large map table, indicating that radar had picked up twenty-plus enemy aircraft.

^ As commander, you can control the war down to a single aircraft or building in a world where thousands upon thousands battle for supremacy.
  • Battle Of Britain 2 Wings of Victory for PC (Brand New) - eBay, PC, Games, Video Games. (end time 20-Jan-10 10:08:58 AEDST) 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC cgi.ebay.com.au [Source type: General]

^ He continued flying and fighting over the Channel Front until early May, by which time he had brought down an additional 13 British aircraft.
  • Aces of the Luftwaffe - Werner Mölders 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.luftwaffe.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98]

RAF strategy

The Dowding system

.The keystone of the British defence was the complex infrastructure of detection, command, and control that ran the battle.^ The keystone of the British defence, however, was the complex infrastructure of detection, command, and control that ran the battle.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As commander, you can control the war down to a single aircraft or building in a world where thousands upon thousands battle for supremacy.
  • Battle Of Britain 2 Wings of Victory for PC (Brand New) - eBay, PC, Games, Video Games. (end time 20-Jan-10 10:08:58 AEDST) 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC cgi.ebay.com.au [Source type: General]

^ One reason the Battle of Britain has had such an influence on later air defence theory is that the key questions of what air superiority and control meant were first addressed in it.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was the "Dowding System," after its chief architect, Air Chief Marshal Sir H.C.T. "Stuffy" Dowding, the leader of RAF Fighter Command.^ Group covered the north of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland and was commanded by Air Vice-Marshal Richard Saul.

^ This was the 'Dowding System', after its chief architect, Air Chief Marshal Sir H.C.T. "Stuffy" Dowding, the leader of RAF Fighter Command.

^ SP(BB)45 - Lieutenant Commander John Humphrey Charlesworth Sykes Sykes joined the Fleet Air Arm in 1939 and trained as a pilot, but due to a shortage of qualified RAF pilots he joined RAF Fighter Command.

.It should be noted that the original air defence system, which Dowding inherited, had been set up in 1917 by Major General E B Ashmore.^ In addition the Germans had few Freya radar stations set up in France, meaning air defence of the French harbours were not nearly as good as the air defences over Germany.

^ He worked hard to set up an interception system before the real war began.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more serious wounds, the Air Ministry set up a civilian repair organization to sort through damaged Hurricanes, repairing what could be fixed and junking what couldn't.
  • Best of the Battle of Britain | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]

Dowding built upon and modernised many of the features which had had been pioneered by Ashmore.[99] .During the Battle several Coastal Command and Fleet Air Arm units came under Fighter Command control.^ This even led to the replacement of several senior fighter unit commanders.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC ftp.metalab.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each flew at least one authorised operational sortie with an eligible unit of the Royal Air Force or Fleet Air Arm during the period 10 July to 31 October 1940.
  • The Battle of Britain - Home Page 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.raf.mod.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • The Battle of Britain - Home Page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.raf.mod.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ As commander, you can control the war down to a single aircraft or building in a world where thousands upon thousands battle for supremacy.
  • Battle Of Britain 2 Wings of Victory for PC (Brand New) - eBay, PC, Games, Video Games. (end time 20-Jan-10 10:08:58 AEDST) 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC cgi.ebay.com.au [Source type: General]

Groups

.The UK's airspace was divided up into four Groups.^ The UK's airspace was divided up into four Groups.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battleofbritain.eu 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofbritain.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle can be roughly divided into four phases: .

^ The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.

Control systems

Chain Home radar cover, bases and group boundaries
.Usually the first indications of incoming air raids were received by the Chain Home Radio Direction Finding (RDF, the original RAF name for radar) facilities which were located around the coastlines of the UK. In most circumstances, RDF could pick up formations of Luftwaffe aircraft as they organised over their own airfields.^ They dug air raid shelters outside their homes.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.kilroywashere.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe was facing a more capable opponent than it had met before: a sizable, highly-coordinated, well-supplied air force, fielding aircraft that could match the German Bf 109E and Bf 110 .

^ At exactly 3:54 p.m., a WAAF plotter at II Group's Uxbridge sector control station set down a marker on the large map table, indicating that radar had picked up twenty-plus enemy aircraft.

.Once the raiding aircraft moved inland over England, the formations were also plotted by the Observer Corps.^ The RDF radar was subject to significant errors and the Observer Corps had difficulties tracking raids at night and in bad weather.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The British were being forced to rely on ground observation, by the observer corps, to detect incoming German raids.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the week drew on, the airfield attacks moved further inland and repeated raids were made on the radar chain.
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.The information from RDF and the Observer Corps were sent through to the main operations room of Fighter Command Headquarters at Bentley Priory.^ The RDF radar was subject to significant errors and the Observer Corps had difficulties tracking raids at night and in bad weather.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

.The plots were assessed to determine whether they were "hostile" or "friendly". If hostile, the information was sent to the main "operations room", which was in a large underground bunker.^ Whether they were serious about Operation Sealion or just wanted to worry the UK into thinking they were, it was the RAF that stopped either strategy in its tracks.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Information regarding the approach of the enemy is obtained by a variety of methods and is co-ordinated and passed to "Operations Rooms."
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a rule, observers were more accurate and reliable assessing technical information than operational or doctrinal information.

Here the course information of each raid was plotted by WAAFs who received information by a telephone system. .Additional intelligence was provided by the "Y" Service radio posts, which monitored enemy radio transmissions, and the "Ultra" decoding centre based at Bletchley Park.^ German Codes - The Bletchley Park Ultra programme was now decoding some Luftwaffe low-level Enigma codes, partly because of poor German security procedures.
  • Britain, Battle, Courbet, Foyle Bank, VC, Imogen, Brazen, Wren, Codrington, Delight, Channel, CE, E-boat, MTB, Hunt 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the 'Y' radio listening service, monitoring the patterns of Luftwaffe radio traffic, contributed considerably to the early warning of raids.
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^ As the battle progressed, however, Schmid did become aware that Martini's monitoring service had detected that radar information was being passed to RAF fighters by radio.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colour coded counters representing each raid were placed on a large table, which had a map of the UK overlaid and squared off with a British Modified Grid.^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compans has recently created a campaign using the Normandy map, but Fly_zo has taken this one further allowing campaign and mission builders for the first time to place objects and airfields on a UK map representing SE England.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.The colour coding (red, yellow and blue) of each counter was changed every five minutes, conforming to a colour coded 24 hour sector clock.^ Thus the Luftwaffe used a standard system for bombers whereby Gruppe 1 to V were allocated the colours white, red, yellow, blue and green respectively.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ Then, to identify the staffel within the Gruppe, spinners in white, red and yellow were also shown, together with the staffel emblem and the staffel code with the last letter in the appropriate colour.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.As the plots of the raiding aircraft moved, the counters were pushed across the map by magnetic "rakes". This system enabled the main "Fighter Controller" (usually of squadron leader rank) and Dowding to see quickly where each formation was heading and allowed an estimate to be made of possible targets.^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
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^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
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^ These squadrons had been held back by Dowding, who mistakenly thought the non-English speaking aircrew would have trouble working within his control system.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Because of the simplicity of the system, decisions could be made quickly and easily.^ Additional decisions made during the meeting on the 19th resulted in the Ju87 Stuka's withdrawal because of excessive losses.
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^ He also pointed out that this would be a fleeting objective because the Navy could easily sail north, out of range of the Luftwaffe bombers.
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^ The failings of the system "were so intimately bound up with the political structure of the Third Reich that only a change in regime could have made any fundamental difference . . .
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apart from the controller, most of the room and map information was operated by members of the WAAF. Before the war, there was still a great deal of doubt about the ability of women to stand up to battle conditions, with many airwomen employed on front-line RDF stations and aerodromes.^ Before the Battle of Britain, there was the Battle of France.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ At exactly 3:54 p.m., a WAAF plotter at II Group's Uxbridge sector control station set down a marker on the large map table, indicating that radar had picked up twenty-plus enemy aircraft.

^ Occasionally "Stand-by " is employed which means that the pilots are seated in their aircraft, with the engines off, but all pointing into wind ready to start up, and take off, the moment the leader gets his orders from the Controller.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] .Experience during the battle proved that such doubts were unfounded and the contribution of the WAAFs became essential to the RAF in its control and communications systems and in many other duties.^ Many others contributed.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ FDR’s interest in air power, that he gave the two men a summary of the RAF’s experience in the Battle of Britain).

^ Its pilot was later protected by back and front armour of which the size and shape became standardized during the course of the battle.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[101][102]
.This information was simultaneously sent to the headquarters of each Group (for example, RAF Uxbridge for 11 Group),[103] where it was "filtered" through a filter room (that is, collated, cross-checked and simplified), before being sent through to another operations room, again housed in an underground bunker.^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

^ The RAF was faced with the real possibility of withdrawing 11 Group to bases north of London.
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.Because Group controlled the tactical control of the battle, the operations room was different in layout to the one at Bentley Priory.^ Many of the comments make valid points, particularly the one distinguishing the difference between Battle for Britaina and Battle of Britain.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ One reason the Battle of Britain has had such an influence on later air defence theory is that the key questions of what air superiority and control meant were first addressed in it.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How will the campaign in Battle of Britain actually differ from the one in Forgotten Battles?
  • Storm Of War: The Battle Of Britain. Fakten und Screenshots - Thema entwickelt von eve community 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums-de.ubi.com [Source type: General]

.The main map on the plotting table represented the Group command area and its associated airfields.^ The game-world will consist of a single large map and will encompass cities, towns, roads, airfields, radar stations, ports, and industrial areas.
  • Storm Of War: The Battle Of Britain. Fakten und Screenshots - Thema entwickelt von eve community 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums-de.ubi.com [Source type: General]

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extensive radio and telephone equipment transmitted and received a constant flow of information from the various sector airfields as well as the Observer Corps, AA Command and the navy.^ Shafter (Hickam Field would have made more sense), and the information displayed on four sector control boards as well as a plotting table.

^ The luftgau (air district) handled all logistic, training, and medical matters as well as exercising the operational command of airfields.
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^ He is in constant touch with his Fighters by radio telephone, is able to give them orders to change course from time to time, so as to put them in the best position for attack.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Duty fighter controller" was (for example in 11 Group) Park's personal representative, whose job was to control how and when each raid would be dealt with.^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the raid, he was taken to the hospital, where the wound in his leg was treated and he was released back to Fighter Command for duty.

^ From 24 August onwards, the battle was essentially a slugging match between Kesselring's Luftflotte 2 and Keith Park's 11 Group.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He ordered the squadrons airborne and positioned them as he thought best.^ He is in constant touch with his Fighters by radio telephone, is able to give them orders to change course from time to time, so as to put them in the best position for attack.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.Timing was of the essence, because "(e)ach minute of unnecessary delay waiting to make absolutely sure that the raid was coming in meant about 2,000 feet of vital altitude our fighters would not have when they met the enemy."^ Also, if indeed Kirk only meant Earth colonies, then 5,000 would be highly conservative.
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To enable their bombers to reach their targets the Germans sought to draw off our fighter patrols by high altitude rather than by geographical diversions.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bombers would then fly in at altitudes between 10,000 and 16,000 feet, sometimes closely escorted by fighters.
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.(Wing Commander Lord Willoughby de Broke, Senior Fighter Controller, Uxbridge.^ Fighter Command lost 14 fighters and six damaged and no significant damage to airfields or command and control.
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^ For the most part, considering the identified objective to reduce the effectiveness of Fighter Command, only limited effort was directed against Fighter Command bases, facilities, and command and control capabilities.
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^ These Sectors are grouped together under a conveniently situated Group Headquarters which in its turn comes under the general control of Headquarters, Fighter Command.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

)
Each Group room had a "tote board" which showed each squadron available to that group. .The tote board had a system of lights which enabled the controllers to see the squadron status: Released (not available); Available (airborne in 20 minutes); Readiness (airborne in 5 minutes); Standby (pilots in cockpit, airborne in 2 minutes); Airborne and moving into position; Enemy sighted; Ordered to land; Landed and refuelling/rearming.^ These squadrons had been held back by Dowding, who mistakenly thought the non-English speaking aircrew would have trouble working within his control system.
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^ On one of Park's trips over France on June 30, my Squadron was ordered to escort Basil Embrey to destroy a large enemy fuel dump in France.
  • Battle of Britain Campaign Feedback - CombatACE - Page 3 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forum.combatace.com [Source type: General]

^ The Emil was smaller than both main RAF fighters, but its controllability was decidedly inferior to the 'pilot-friendly' Spitfire and Hurricane, particularly during take-off and landing, and moving on the ground, where accidents were common.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Next to the tote board, where it could be clearly seen, was a weather board which showed the state of the weather around each airfield. It was the responsibility of the WAAF plotters to continually update the tote and weather boards.[104][105]
A vital role was played by the telephone engineers of the GPO "who worked all hours repairing communications, installing completely new facilities in the emergency centres, and keeping the nervous system of Fighter Command functioning..." (Air Commodore Eric Roberts, Commander Middle Wallop Sector in 1940)[106]
.Despite appearances, the Groups were not mutually supporting; Park, for instance, could only request - not demand - assistance from Brand (who usually co-operated), or from Leigh-Mallory (who often prevaricated).^ Because of the organizational subordination of intelligence to the operations staff, it was very often the operations staff officers themselves who would prepare intelligence assessments of the situation.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group defended the Midlands and East Anglia and was led by Air Vice-Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory .
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^ An example would be the disagreements between Air Vice Marshals Park and Leigh-Mallory over the concept of Mallory's "Big Wing" and Park's (and also Dowding's) approach to attack with only as much force as is readily available (generally at squadron level).
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.This was because Dowding had never issued standing orders to assist, nor had he created a method to co-ordinate it.^ This was because Dowding had never issued standing orders to assist, nor created a method to co-ordinate it.

^ Information regarding the approach of the enemy is obtained by a variety of methods and is co-ordinated and passed to "Operations Rooms."
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[90]
.There was a further problem in that the aircraft were not assigned equitably between Groups.^ Moreover, there was never a systematic focus on any one type of target (airbases, radar station, aircraft factories), so the already haphazard effort was further diluted.

^ The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.

^ The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each Sector commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the most effective RAF fighter was the Spitfire, 70% of 11 Group aircraft were Hurricanes.^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
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^ These were used to intimidate the enemy and send the best British fighters quickly to the position where they could be most effective.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the last week of August, for example, only 91 Spitfire and Hurricanes were produced while losses reached 137 destroyed and 11 seriously damaged.
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."In total, less than a third of Britain's best fighters were operating in the key sector."^ Those who got through on the 11th were so savagely handled by our fighter defence that the losses among their crews were estimated to be not less than two hundred and fifty.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hurricane was the toughest and most durable of the three, and servicability rates of Hawker's less sophisticated fighter were always higher than the more complex and advanced Spitfire.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biggin Hill, a key sector station south of the Thames, had been heavily damaged again, including a direct hit on its operations center.

[107]

Sectors

.The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.^ The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.
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^ The Group areas were subdivided into Sectors; each Sector commanding officer was assigned between two and four squadrons.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The command consisted of 59 squadrons distributed over Britain in four groups (10, 11, 12, and 13); each group was further subdivided into sectors which composed the main operational unit.
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.Sector Stations, comprising an aerodrome with a "Sector operations room", were the heart of this organisation, and they were also responsible for operating satellite aerodromes to which squadrons could be dispersed.^ Sector stations, comprising an aerodrome with a command post, were the heart of this organisation, though they also had satellite airfield s to disperse squadrons to.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sector stations, comprising an aerodrome with a command post, were the heart of this organisation, though they also had satellite airfields to disperse squadrons to.
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^ The most relaxed state is "released," which means that the Squadron is not required to operate until a specified hour and that the personnel can be employed in routine-maintenance, flying training and instruction, organised games, and that in some cases they may leave the Station.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.The operations rooms duplicated those at the Group HQs, although they were on a smaller scale and most were still housed in brick, single-storey, tile-roofed structures above ground, where they were vulnerable to attack.^ He warned that it was not sufficient to establish defense with only defensive weapons, instead the initiative must be taken and this meant that "the enemy bomber formations should be attacked at their most vulnerable moment; when they are on the ground taking on fresh fuel and ammunition and reservicing."
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^ I was most amused by attacks wherein they insist that I'd failed to flesh out some particular point.
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The German pilots dubbed the RAF formations "Idiotenreihen" ("rows of idiots") because they left squadrons vulnerable to attack.
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.By 1940, most were semi-protected by an earth bank or "blast wall" surrounding them which reached as high as the eaves.^ Fifth, and most important of all, a landing at Richborough allowed for a military advance towards London to be shielded by the protection of the south bank of the River Thames.
  • British Battles - The Battle of Medway 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britishbattles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fortunately for Fighter Command, Luftwaffe Intelligence was unaware of the importance of these rooms and most were left alone.^ The Luftwaffe fighter pilot manuals also discouraged heroism, stressing the utmost importance of attacking only when the odds were in the pilot's favour.

^ To achieve this the weight of the attack now fell on Luftflotte 2 and most of the Me 109 forces in Luftflotte 3 were transferred to Kesselring's command, reinforcing the fighter bases in the Pas de Calais.
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^ These were used to intimidate the enemy and send the best British fighters quickly to the position where they could be most effective.
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.The control rooms at Biggin Hill were destroyed by a raid on 31 August, but this was due to a chance bomb hit.^ The key sector stations were hit repeatedly: Biggin Hill and Hornchurch four times each, Debden and North Weald twice each.
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^ Not until the raiders bypassed Biggin Hill, Kenley, Manston, and other hard-hit airfields did it become clear the Germans were altering their strategy once again.

^ For example, following the raids on 17 August, Luftwaffe intelligence claimed 11 airfields permanently destroyed with another 12 severely damaged.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their vulnerability in time of war was appreciated and new airfields built during the expansion programme of the 1930s had new, bombproof Mk II, L-shaped structures.^ LYNNE OLSON and STANLEY CLOUD are co-authors of The Murrow Boys , a biography of the correspondents whom Edward R. Murrow hired before and during World War II to create CBS News.

^ The USA would not have entered the war in such a circumstance, and would later have been very vulnerable to some of the advanced weapons which the Germans were starting to develop at this time.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a further precaution, emergency control rooms were set up in different locations away from the airfields, with small loss in efficiency; RAF Kenley, for example, could use an alternative room housed in a butcher's shop in nearby Caterham.^ Charles has set it up so that bombers fly in combat boxes and their defensive fire is concentrated - the ultimate example of the technique being the USAAF B-17 style combat box.
  • Battle of Britain Campaign Feedback - CombatACE - Page 3 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forum.combatace.com [Source type: General]

^ A 109 pilot could use the spinner colour, gruppe colour and letter codes to make sure they were forming up on the right unit.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ The Luftwaffe could cope with the material loss, but the clear ascendancy on this day of the "beaten" RAF was a bitter lesson indeed.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The plotting table was laid out with a map of the sector and its airfields, and the tote and weather boards reflected this more localised information.^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
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^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

^ Shafter (Hickam Field would have made more sense), and the information displayed on four sector control boards as well as a plotting table.

[105]
.When ordered by their Group HQ, the sector stations would "scramble" their squadrons into the air.^ Thirteen RAF squadrons were ordered into the air to meet them.

^ When ordered by their Group HQ, the sector stations would 'scramble' their squadrons into the air.
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^ It was true that the British were heavily defending their sector air stations, but now the Luftwaffe felt compelled to press the RAF into a final, decisive encounter.
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.Once airborne, the squadrons would be directed by radio-telephone (R/T) from their sector station.^ Once airborne, the squadrons would be commanded by radio-telephone (R/T) from their sector station.
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^ Once airborne, the squadrons would be directed by radio-telephone (R/T) from their sector station.

^ More importantly, the British signals intercept units established direct telephone links with RAF Fighter Command's Group and Sector headquarters.
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Squadrons could be ordered to patrol airfields or vital targets or be "vectored" to intercept incoming raids.^ Squadrons could be ordered to patrol airfields or vital targets, or be 'vectored' to intercept incoming raids.
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^ Group RAF Uxbridge ) information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.
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^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

.As well as directing the fighter squadrons, Sector stations also controlled the anti-aircraft batteries in their area; an army officer sat beside each fighter controller and directed the gun crews when to open fire and, if RAF aircraft flew into the gun-zones, ordered the guns to cease fire.^ Thirteen RAF squadrons were ordered into the air to meet them.

^ When ordered by their Group HQ, the sector stations would 'scramble' their squadrons into the air.
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^ At exactly 3:54 p.m., a WAAF plotter at II Group's Uxbridge sector control station set down a marker on the large map table, indicating that radar had picked up twenty-plus enemy aircraft.

[108]

Limitations

.Though it was the most sophisticated air defence system in the world at that time, the Dowding System had many limitations, including, but not often stressed, its emphatic need for qualified ground maintenance personnel, many of whom had received their training under the Aircraft Apprentice scheme instituted by Hugh Trenchard.^ Though it was the most sophisticated air defence system in the world at that time, the Dowding System had many limitations, including, but not often stressed, its emphatic need for qualified ground maintenance personnel, many of whom had received their training under the Aircraft Apprentice scheme instituted by Hugh Trenchard .

^ These were desperate times for the RAF, which was also taking many casualties in the air.

^ Roosevelt acceded in Arnold’s request to build an Air Force of 7,500 combat planes, with 2,500 training aircraft as well, including endorsing the development of long-range bombers, a long-sought Air Corps goal.

.RDF (radar) was subject to significant errors and the Observer Corps had difficulties tracking raids at night and in bad weather.^ The RDF radar was subject to significant errors and the Observer Corps had difficulties tracking raids at night and in bad weather.
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^ RDF (radar) was subject to significant errors and the Observer Corps had difficulties tracking raids at night and in bad weather.

^ Such a retreat would have made radar less vital due to the Royal Observer Corps.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.R/T (radio telephone) communications with airborne fighters were restricted because the standard radio set used by RAF fighters at the beginning of the battle was the TR9F HF set, which operated over two selectable frequencies in the band 4.3-6.6 Megahertz (MHz);[109] the RAF soon realised that this equipment was limited in the range at which it could receive and transmit radio signals because of its limited power.^ R/T communications with airborne fighters were restricted because of the RAF's use of High-Frequency (HF) radio sets.
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^ The R/T problems were solved late in the battle with the adoption of Very High-Frequency (VHF) radio sets which gave clearer voice communications, had longer range, and provided multiple channels.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The R/T problems were solved late in the battle with the adoption of Very High-Frequency (VHF) radio sets, which gave clearer voice communications, had longer range, and provided multiple channels.
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.In addition, the increase in the number of civil, military and foreign HF-band radio transmitters since the adoption of the TR9 meant that the signal often suffered from distortion and interference, making clear communication with the RAF fighters difficult.^ The Battle of Britain was not won by the RAF but by the Royal Navy, military historians have concluded, provoking outrage among the war's surviving fighter pilots.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Luftwaffe units in 1940 lacked effective air to air radio communications between bombers and fighters.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ R/T communications with airborne fighters were restricted because of the RAF's use of High-Frequency (HF) radio sets.
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.It was also restricted to a single frequency per squadron, making inter-squadron communication impossible.^ It was also restricted to a single frequency per squadron, making inter-squadron communication impossible.
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^ It was also restricted to a single frequency per squadron, making it impossible to communicate between squadrons.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ R/T communications with airborne fighters were restricted because of the RAF's use of High-Frequency (HF) radio sets.
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[106] .Finally, the system for tracking RAF fighters, known as HF/DF or "Huff-Duff", restricted sectors to a maximum of four squadrons in the air.^ Finally, the system for tracking RAF fighters, known as HF/DF or " Huff-Duff ", restricted sectors to a maximum of four squadrons in the air.
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^ Thirteen RAF squadrons were ordered into the air to meet them.

^ When ordered by their Group HQ, the sector stations would 'scramble' their squadrons into the air.
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.The addition of IFF, "Pipsqueak", while a welcome help in identifying RAF aircraft, took up another radio channel.^ Spitfires and Hurricanes accounted for the loss of no less than 27 Me109s, and an additional four damaged while losing just seven RAF aircraft destroyed!
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC ftp1.us.proftpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ At least another 200 enemy aircraft were on their way across the Channel, and it looked as if they intended to have another go at Biggin Hill.

^ This period of fighting was called Kanalkampf (Channel Battle) by the Germans and was used to test the RAF's defences and to lure their fighter aircraft up for a battle of attrition.
  • Battle of Britain - WarWiki 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starting in late September 1940 VHF T/R Type 1133 radios started replacing the TR9s.^ This was partly due to the late start German engineers had in designing high-performance engine types and partly due to the low octane fuels on hand to operate them.
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These had first been fitted to Spitfires of 54 and 66 Squadrons starting in October 1939[106], but production delays with the improved T/R 1143 set meant the bulk of Spitfires and Hurricanes were not fitted with this equipment until October 1940. The reception was much clearer over a longer range, and controllers and pilots had a wider range of communications channels to choose from.[106][109]
Hawker Hurricane I (R4118), Battle of Britain veteran, photographed in 2008.

Effect of signals intelligence

.It is unclear how much the British intercepts of the Enigma cipher, used for high-security German radio communications, affected the battle.^ It is unclear how much the British intercepts of the Enigma cipher , used for high-security German radio communications, affected the battle.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is unclear how much the British intercepts of the Enigma cipher, used for high-security German radio communications, affected the battle.

^ The R/T problems were solved late in the battle with the adoption of Very High-Frequency (VHF) radio sets which gave clearer voice communications, had longer range, and provided multiple channels.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ultra, the information obtained from Enigma intercepts, gave the highest echelons of the UK's command a view of German intentions.^ Ultra , the information obtained from Enigma intercepts, gave the highest echelons of the UK's command a view of German intentions but it seems little of this material filtered down to Hugh Dowding's desk.

^ Ultra , the information obtained from Enigma intercepts, gave the highest echelons of the UK's command a view of German intentions but it seems that little of this material filtered down to Hugh Dowding's desk.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German Codes - 'Ultra' was now breaking the Luftwaffe Enigma codes with some regularity, and early in the month had its first major breakthrough when supporting evidence for the Knickebein navigation aid for bombers was obtained.
  • Britain, Battle, Courbet, Foyle Bank, VC, Imogen, Brazen, Wren, Codrington, Delight, Channel, CE, E-boat, MTB, Hunt 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to F. W. Winterbotham, who was the senior Air Staff representative in the Secret Intelligence Service, [110] Ultra helped establish the strength and composition of the Luftwaffe's formations, the aims of the commanders[111] and it provided early warning of some raids.^ Their radar early warning, the most advanced and the most operationally adapted system in the world, gave Fighter Command adequate notice of where and when to direct their fighter forces to repel German bombing raids.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ German Codes - 'Ultra' was now breaking the Luftwaffe Enigma codes with some regularity, and early in the month had its first major breakthrough when supporting evidence for the Knickebein navigation aid for bombers was obtained.
  • Britain, Battle, Courbet, Foyle Bank, VC, Imogen, Brazen, Wren, Codrington, Delight, Channel, CE, E-boat, MTB, Hunt 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three historians, who teach at Joint Services Command and Staff College, have suggested the existence of the Royal Navy was enough of a deterrent to the Germans [36] ; even had the Luftwaffe won, the Germans had no way to combat the Royal Navy which would have intervened to prevent a landing.

[112] .In early August the decision was made that a small unit would be set up at Fighter Command headquarters (Stanmore) which would process the flow of information from Bletchley and provide Dowding only with the most essential Ultra material; thus the Air Ministry did not have to send a continual flow of information to Stanmore, preserving secrecy, and Dowding was not inundated with non-essential information.^ Even when good information existed, such as 5th Abteilung s November 1939 assessment of Fighter Command strengths and capabilities, it was ignored if it did not match conventional preconceptions.

^ Fighter Command recognized the weaknesses of this rigid structure early in the battle, but it was felt too risky to change tactics in the midst of the battle, as replacement pilots, often with only minimal actual flying time, could not be readily retrained [15] and that the inexperienced pilots of RAF needed firm leadership in the air that only rigid formations provided.

^ Göring did nothing to resolve this disagreement between his commanders, and only vague directives were set down during the initial stages of the battle, with Göring seemingly unable to decide upon which strategy to pursue.

Keith Park and his controllers were also told about Ultra.[113] In a further attempt to camouflage the existence of Ultra Dowding created a unit called 421 Flight. .This unit (which later became 91 Squadron), was equipped with Hurricanes and Spitfires and sent out aircraft to search for and report Luftwaffe formations approaching England.^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
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^ "Saw: two squadrons pass underneath us in formation, travelling NW in purposeful manner., Then saw AA bursts, so turned Wing and saw enemy aircraft 3,000 feet below the NW. Managed perfect approach with two other squadrons between our Hurricanes and sun and enemy aircraft below and down sun.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The player can fly any of the aircraft in the missions, meaning that for example, in the Douglas Bader Big Wing mission, the player can fly as Bader in 242 Squadron, as a Spitfire from 19 or 603 Squadrons, Hurricane from 310 Sq, or in the opposing Luftwaffe aircraft including JG3's Bf109s, ZG76s Bf110s, KG1s He111s or KG5s Ju88s.
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

[114] .In addition the radio listening service (known as Y Service), monitoring the patterns of Luftwaffe radio traffic, contributed considerably to the early warning of raids.^ However, the 'Y' radio listening service, monitoring the patterns of Luftwaffe radio traffic, contributed considerably to the early warning of raids.
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^ In addition, combining this information with the low radio discipline of the flying units enabled "frequent early and accurate guesses of the units taking part in a raid."
  • HyperWar: The Battle of Britain--A German Perspective [Addendum/Appendices] 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These radars were to be connected via land-lines and radio to a central Aircraft Warning Service control center at Ft.

Air-sea rescue

.One of the biggest oversights of the entire system was the lack of a proper air-sea rescue organisation.^ German lack of command of the sea could be substituted by supremacy in the air."
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^ Air Sea Rescue .
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.The RAF had started organising a system in 1940 with High Speed Launches (HSLs) based around flying boat bases and at a number of overseas locations, but it was still believed that the amount of cross-Channel traffic meant that there was no need for a rescue service to cover these areas.^ Goering still believed in-superior numbers.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These made no attempt to hit military targets, but contented themselves with dropping their bombs at random over the large area of London.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cross-Channel map is intentionally large enough to include some of the operational area of the 352nd Fighter Group during 1944 and 45.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.Downed pilots and aircrew, it was hoped, would be picked up by any boats or ships which happened to be passing by.^ Of course until the Roman road "Watling Street" was built, most supplies for the Army would be transported up the Thames by boat.
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^ This could have happened if intimidatory Roman ships sailed up and down on calm days.
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^ The number of times an Imperial ship would've ended up dead during the adventures of Star Trek boggles the imagination.
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise the local life boat would be alerted, assuming someone had seen the pilot going into the water.^ Food and water would have been obtained locally.
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^ In real life the hand or finger of the pilot would work way faster and as result the response of controls will be also way faster.
  • Storm Of War: The Battle Of Britain. Fakten und Screenshots - Thema entwickelt von eve community 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums-de.ubi.com [Source type: General]

[115]
.RAF aircrew were issued with a life jacket, nicknamed the "Mae West" but in 1940 it still required manual inflation, which was almost impossible for someone who was injured or in shock.^ On 2 August 1940 the Luftwaffe General Staff issued the plan for the destruction of the RAF, starting the campaign for the Battle of Britain.
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.The waters of the English Channel and Dover Straits are cold, even in the middle of summer, and clothing issued to RAF aircrew did little to insulate them against these freezing conditions.^ Certainly the German pilots showed qualities of courage and tenacity; but these were of little avail against the better quality and still higher courage of the British pilots.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How well it could have held the English Channel against an enemy with command of the sky is the question which the Battle of Britain ensured need never be answered.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The campaign starts in July 1940 with the so called "Kanalkampf", when the Luftwaffe and the RAF fought for domination of the English Channel, and the Luftwaffe won, closing these waters for convoys.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.A conference in 1939 had placed air-sea rescue under Coastal Command.^ The commander of the Air War Academy prepared it under the supervision of Wever.
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^ At midmorning two days later, a Royal Air Force Coastal Command Catalina from No.

^ German lack of command of the sea could be substituted by supremacy in the air."
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.Because a number of pilots had been lost at sea during the "Channel Battle", on 22 August, control of RAF rescue launches was passed to the local naval authorities and 12 Lysanders were given to Fighter Command to help look for pilots at sea.^ Fighter tactics were then complicated by bomber crews who demanded closer protection against the RAF. Because they had his ear after the hard-fought battles of 15 August and 18 August, Göring ordered an increase in close escort duties.

^ Postwar analysis of records has shown, between July and September, the RAF claimed over 2,698 kills for 1,023 fighter aircraft lost to all causes, where 147 Polish pilots claimed 201 out of that number, while the Luftwaffe fighters claimed 3,198 RAF aircraft downed for losses of 1,887, of which 873 were fighters.

^ Group RAF Uxbridge ), information from Fighter Command headquarters would be noted on plotting tables, large maps on which counters marking the incoming raids would be moved, and RAF officers known as Fighter Controllers could then order a response.

.In all some 200 pilots and aircrew were lost at sea during the battle.^ 'The Few' were 2353 young men from Great Britain and 574 from overseas, pilots and other aircrew, who are officially recognised as having taken part in the Battle of Britain.
  • The Battle of Britain - Home Page 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.raf.mod.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • The Battle of Britain - Home Page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.raf.mod.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Material losses were also high; in the two week period beginning 24 August some 545 aircraft of all types were lost--200 more than British losses for the same period.
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^ That said, the heroism of our pilots during the Battle of Britain is something for us all to revere and be proud of.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

No proper air-sea rescue service was formed until 1941.[82]

Tactics

X4474, a late production Mk I Spitfire of 19 Squadron, September 1940. 19 Squadron was part of the Duxford Wing.
.The weight of the battle fell upon 11 Group.^ The weight of the battle fell upon the RAF's 11 Group.
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^ From 24 August onwards, the battle was essentially a slugging match between Kesselring's Luftflotte 2 and Park's 11 Group.

^ From 24 August onwards, the battle was essentially a slugging match between Kesselring's Luftflotte 2 and Keith Park's 11 Group.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Keith Park's tactics were to dispatch individual squadrons to intercept raids.^ Keith Park's tactics were to dispatch individual squadrons to intercept raids.

^ Squadrons could be ordered to patrol airfields or vital targets, or be 'vectored' to intercept incoming raids.

^ The issue caused intense friction between Park and Leigh-Mallory, as Leigh-Mallory's 12 Group were tasked with protecting 11 Group's airfields whilst Park's squadrons intercepted incoming raids.

.The intention was to subject attackers to continual attacks by relatively small numbers of aircraft and try to break up the tight formations of bombers.^ This enabled the others to attack the bomber formations, and.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With regards to the performance of the fighter aircraft, the Air Ministry concluded that the Me109s were "excellent weapons against enemy bombers and good defense for friendly formations."
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^ Returning RAF aircraft supported by Fleet air arm aircraft from armoured air craft carriers slaughter German bombers trying to hit naval vessels.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Once formations had fallen apart, stragglers could be picked off one by one.^ Once formations had fallen apart straggling bombers could be picked off one by one.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once formations had fallen apart, stragglers could be picked off one by one.

.Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.^ Where multiple squadrons reached a raid the procedure was for the slower Hurricanes to tackle the bombers while the more agile Spitfires held up the fighter escort.
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^ This bomber was then attacked by a Hurricane from 46 Squadron.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Although Air Corps headquarters was interested only in the European War, I detected no evidence that its top planners had absorbed any of the lessons of the Battle of Britain where the eight-gunned Spitfire and Hurricane fighters proved more than a match for German bombers unescorted or with fighter escort stretched beyond its effective range.

.This ideal was not always achieved, however, and sometimes the Spitfires and Hurricanes reversed roles.^ This ideal was not always achieved, however, and sometimes the Spitfires and Hurricanes reversed roles.
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^ The Hurricane was the toughest and most durable of the three, and servicability rates of Hawker's less sophisticated fighter were always higher than the more complex and advanced Spitfire.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cotary to popular opinion not everything flown by the RAF in 1940 was a Spitfire and it would be nice to see the Hurricane get a share of the proceeds, however small!
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[116] .Park also issued instructions to his units to engage in frontal attacks against the bombers, which were more vulnerable to such attacks.^ However, they are going to have to give a lot more in an attacking sense than they did against Toulouse.
  • Sky Sports | Rugby Union | Columnists | Miles Harrison | Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: General]

^ However, like Leinster I think Cardiff are going to have to give a lot more in an attacking sense than they did against Toulouse.
  • Sky Sports | Rugby Union | Columnists | Miles Harrison | Battle of Britain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: General]

^ Each luftflotte was a balanced self-contained force (consisting of bomber, fighter, ground attack, reconnaissance and associated support units).
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.Again, in the environment of fast moving, three-dimensional air battles, few RAF fighter units were able to attack the bombers from head-on.^ His counterpart in Luftflotte 2 , Albert Kesselring, championed attacking London directly—either to bombard the British government into submission or to draw RAF fighters into a decisive battle.

^ The Luftwaffe s failure to mount repeated attacks on them allowed the RAF to get the radar stations back on the air.

^ FDR’s interest in air power, that he gave the two men a summary of the RAF’s experience in the Battle of Britain).

[116]
.During the battle, some commanders, notably Leigh-Mallory, proposed squadrons be formed into "Big Wings," consisting of at least three squadrons, to attack the enemy en masse, a method pioneered by Douglas Bader.^ During the battle, some commanders, notably Trafford Leigh-Mallory of 12 Group, proposed squadrons be formed into Big Wing s, consisting of at least three squadrons, to attack the enemy en masse , a method pioneered by Douglas Bader .

^ The battle cost the Luftwaffe 28% of its front line strength, some 1,428 aircraft destroyed (1,129 to enemy action, 299 in accidents).
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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The redoubtable Douglas Bader commanded 242 Squadron during the battle. He also led the Duxford Wing.
.Proponents of this tactic claimed interceptions in large numbers caused greater enemy losses while reducing their own casualties.^ Proponents of this tactic claimed interceptions in large numbers caused greater enemy losses while reducing their own casualties.

^ Proponents of this tactic claimed that interceptions in large numbers caused greater enemy losses while reducing their own casualties.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success of our fighter tactics at this stage can be gauged by a comparison between our losses in pilots and those of the enemy.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.Opponents pointed out the big wings would take too long to form up, and the strategy ran a greater risk of fighters being caught on the ground refuelling.^ Opponents pointed out the big wings would take too long to form up, and the strategy ran a greater risk of fighters being caught on the ground refuelling.

^ Opponents pointed out that the big wings would take too long to form up, and that the strategy ran a greater risk of fighters being caught on the ground refueling.
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^ Duxford was crucial in developing the Hawker Typhoon into a formidable low-level and ground attack fighter and in 1942 the first Typhoon Wing was formed.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.The big wing idea also caused pilots to over-claim their kills, due to the confusion of a more intense battle zone.^ The big wing idea also caused pilots to overclaim their kills, due to the confusion of a more intense battle-zone.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 12 Group Big Wing was deployed for the first time, giving the German pilots a fright.
  • Battle of Britain at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RAF pilots were killed during the battle.The Battle of Britain was the first major battle to be fought entirely in the air.
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.This led to the belief big wings were far more effective than they were.^ This led to the media belief that the big wings were far more effective than they actually were.
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^ This led to the belief big wings were far more effective than they actually were.

^ The effectiveness of British tactics; the Big Wing formations (Leigh-Mallory) or squadron formations (Park), and the decision by Park to go "for bombers only" can be debated.
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[117]
.The issue caused intense friction between Park and Leigh-Mallory, as 12 Group were tasked with protecting 11 Group's airfields whilst Park's squadrons intercepted incoming raids.^ The issue caused intense friction between Park and Leigh-Mallory, as Leigh-Mallory's 12 Group were tasked with protecting 11 Group's airfields whilst Park's squadrons intercepted incoming raids.
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^ Keith Park's tactics were to dispatch individual squadrons to intercept raids.
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^ Despite appearances, the Groups were not mutually supporting; Park, for instance, could only request, and not demand assistance from Quintin-Brand (from whom he often got it), nor from Leigh-Mallory (from whom he more often did not).

.However, the delay in forming up Big Wings meant the formations often did not arrive at all or until after German bombers had hit 11 Group's airfields.^ However, the delay in forming up Big Wings meant that this air cover often did not arrive until after German bombers had hit 11 Group's airfields.
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^ With his first burst the leader destroyed the leading bomber which blew up with such force that it knocked a wing off the left-hand bomber.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For what indeed did the Germans accomplish in all their attacks ?
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[118] .Dowding, to highlight the problem of the Big Wing's performance, submitted a report compiled by Park to the Air Ministry on 15 November.^ During the Battle of Britain, Duxford was the centre of the 'Big Wing' controversy advocated by the Air Officer Commanding of No.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ Group’s Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory), Dowding and Park left Fighter Command within weeks of the highpoint of the Battle.

.In the report, he highlighted that during the period of 11 September – 31 October, the extensive use of the Big Wing had resulted in just 10 interceptions and one German aircraft destroyed, but his report was ignored.^ One hundred and three German aircraft were destroyed.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Spitfires and Hurricanes accounted for the loss of no less than 27 Me109s, and an additional four damaged while losing just seven RAF aircraft destroyed!
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^ While 9 kills were attributed to PAC batteries during the Battle, the only confirmed kill by PAC rockets was a Wellington aircraft destroyed during testing...
  • Battle of Britain - BoB2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

[119] .Postwar analysis agrees Dowding and Park's approach was best for 11 Group.^ Post-war analysis agrees Dowding's and Park's approach was best for 11 Group.

^ Group covered the southeast of England and the critical approaches to London and was commanded by Air Vice-Marshal Keith Park .

^ From 24 August onwards, the battle was essentially a slugging match between Kesselring's Luftflotte 2 and Park's 11 Group.

.Dowding's removal from his post in November 1940 has been blamed on this struggle between Park and Leigh-Mallory's daylight strategy.^ The issue caused intense friction between Park and Leigh-Mallory, as Leigh-Mallory's 12 Group were tasked with protecting 11 Group's airfields whilst Park's squadrons intercepted incoming raids.

^ Group’s Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory), Dowding and Park left Fighter Command within weeks of the highpoint of the Battle.

^ Post-war analysis agrees Dowding's and Park's approach was best for 11 Group.

.However, the intensive raids and destruction wrought during the Blitz also damaged Dowding and Park in particular, for the failure to produce an effective night-fighter defence system, something for which the influential Leigh-Mallory had long criticised them.^ The effectiveness of British tactics; the Big Wing formations (Leigh-Mallory) or squadron formations (Park), and the decision by Park to go "for bombers only" can be debated.
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^ The issue caused intense friction between Park and Leigh-Mallory, as Leigh-Mallory's 12 Group were tasked with protecting 11 Group's airfields whilst Park's squadrons intercepted incoming raids.

^ During the nine days of Phase three the RAF lost 131 fighters with 37 damaged.
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[120]

Bomber and Coastal Command contributions

A Bristol Blenheim Mk IV of 21 Squadron. The Blenheim bomber units of Bomber and Coastal Commands bore heavy casualties while undertaking a number of tasks during the Battle.
.Bomber Command and Coastal Command aircraft flew offensive sorties against targets in Germany and France during the battle.^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ During the Battle of Britain, Duxford was the centre of the 'Big Wing' controversy advocated by the Air Officer Commanding of No.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ Targeting was spread among multiple target types; Bomber Command airfields, Fighter Command airfields, Coastal Command stations, channel shipping, aircraft factories, at least nine manufacturing cities, with no immediate objective other than to "test the British defenses."
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.After the initial disasters of the war, with Vickers Wellington bombers shot down in large numbers attacking Wilhelmshaven and the slaughter of the Fairey Battle squadrons sent to France, it became clear that Bomber Command would have to operate mainly at night to achieve any results without incurring very high losses.^ Squadrons shot down two.
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^ On the night of 5/6 November a night raid was flown by the Chianti part, as Fighter Command now had begun to call them, when thirteen BR.20s of 13 o Stormo attacked Harwich and Ipswich without losses although one of the bombers returned with battle damage.
  • H�kans Flygsida - The Falco and Regia Aeronautica in the Battle of Britain 31 January 2010 12:16 UTC surfcity.kund.dalnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 18th August, in the evening attack on the Thames Estuary, one Squadron alone of thirteen Hurricanes shot down without loss an equal number of the enemy in fifty minutes.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] .From 15 May 1940, a night time bomber campaign was launched against the German oil industry, communications, and forests/crops, mainly in the Ruhr area.^ From 15 May 1940 a night-time bomber campaign was launched against German oil industry, communication, and forests/crops, mainly in the Ruhr area .

^ Also Allied bombers have completely failed to disturb German lines of communication by day-time attacks.

^ The two men had developed unshakably strong bonds of mutual respect and affection from their first communication, beginning in mid-May 1940.

.As the threat mounted, Bomber Command changed targeting priority on 3 June 1940 to attack the German aircraft industry.^ In 1940 the German threat was from the Luftwaffe not from their navy.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ To enable their bombers to reach their targets the Germans sought to draw off our fighter patrols by high altitude rather than by geographical diversions.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also Allied bombers have completely failed to disturb German lines of communication by day-time attacks.

.On 4 July, the Air Ministry gave Bomber Command orders to attack ports and shipping.^ He, therefore, launched a series of air attacks, first on our shipping and ports and then on our aerodromes.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With regards to the performance of the fighter aircraft, the Air Ministry concluded that the Me109s were "excellent weapons against enemy bombers and good defense for friendly formations."
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^ By the 19 th , Goering was directing additional attacks against Fighter Command, ordering even stronger escort of German bombers, and pulling the ill-suited Ju 87 out of combat.

.By September, the buildup of invasion barges in the Channel ports had become a top priority target.^ However, by 7 September, the industrial areas in and around London and especially the docks area, did become the prime targets for the Luftwaffe bombers.
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[122] .On 7 September, the government issued a warning that the invasion could be expected within the next few days and that night, Bomber Command attacked the Channel ports and supply dumps.^ But already, by September 15, on which day the British believed, albeit incorrectly, that they had scored their greatest success by destroying 185 German aircraft, Fighter Command had demonstrated to the Luftwaffe that it could not gain air ascendancy over Britain.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although a few days later there was a large storm which scattered his navy, he persisted with Richborough and again landed there successfully a year later for his brief invasion of Britain.
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^ Also Allied bombers have completely failed to disturb German lines of communication by day-time attacks.

.On 13 September, they carried out another large raid on the Channel ports, sinking 80 large barges in the port of Ostend.^ "We sighted a strong formation of enemy aircraft," wrote another, "and carried out a head-on attack.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ RAF Bomber Command contributed to the problems facing the German naval forces by sinking eighty barges in the Port of Ostend alone [32] .

^ In September 1940, Bomber Command was directing some 60% of its strength against the Channel ports.

[123] .84 barges were sunk in Dunkirk after another raid on 17 September and by 19 September, almost 200 barges had been sunk.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ The attacks on 15 September involved almost 1,300 sorties against London (300 bomber and 1,000 fighters) and another raid of 30 aircraft against Portland and the Southampton aircraft works.
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[122] .The loss of these barges may have contributed to Hitler's decision to postpone Operation Sealion indefinitely.^ The Battle of Britain was thus won, and the invasion of England was postponed indefinitely by Hitler.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On 11 September 1940 Hitler postponed Operation Sealion until 24 September.

^ Hitler and his generals understood that Operation Sealion- the planned invasion of Britain- was doomed to failure if the Royal Navy's Home Fleet remained intact.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[122] .The success of these raids was in part because the Germans had few Freya radar stations set up in France, so that air defences of the French harbours were not nearly as good as the air defences over Germany; Bomber Command had directed some 60% of its strength against the Channel ports.^ Their radar early warning, the most advanced and the most operationally adapted system in the world, gave Fighter Command adequate notice of where and when to direct their fighter forces to repel German bombing raids.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He noted the crews had little fear of night fighters, because of the 4-gun tail turrets and the 2-gun nose turrets of their bombers; while accurate at the time, this would swiftly change as the Germans developed a strongly internetted night air defense system built around radar-directed antiaircraft fire and radar-cued (and radar-equipped) cannon-armed night fighters that would, eventually, make RAF night bomber raids even more costly than USAAF daylight ones.

^ On August 8 the intensive phase began, when the Germans launched bombing raids involving up to nearly 1,500 aircraft a day and directed them against the British fighter airfields and radar stations.
  • World War II (1939-45) :: The Battle of Britain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Bristol Blenheim units also raided German-occupied airfields throughout July to December 1940, both during daylight hours and at night.^ Following the capitulation of Polish military resistance, pilots will lease their skills to the Belgian Aeronatique Militaire during the 1940 German invasion of France and the Low Countries.
  • Battle of Britain - IL2 news 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

^ These heavy casualties occurred during the hours when darkness prevented the enemy from being met and turned back as he was in daylight.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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.Although most of these raids were unproductive, there were some successes; on 1 August, five out of 12 Blenheims sent to attack Haamstede and Evere (Brussels) were able to bomb, destroying or heavily damaging three Bf 109s of II./JG 27 and apparently killing a Staffelkapitän identified as a Hauptmann Albrecht von Ankum-Frank.^ Spitfires and Hurricanes accounted for the loss of no less than 27 Me109s, and an additional four damaged while losing just seven RAF aircraft destroyed!
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^ Having thus altered his tactical formations the enemy proceeded to deliver some thirty-five major attacks between the 24th August and 5th September.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first of these from 20,000 feet was successful, for the German pilot straightened out, but only to find that the British pilot had followed him down and was close upon him.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

Two other 109s were claimed by Blenheim gunners.[124][nb .19] Another successful raid on Haamstede was made by a single Blenheim on 7 August which destroyed one 109 of 4./JG 54, heavily damaged another and caused lighter damage to four more.^ He claimed one destroyed and one damaged.
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^ Spitfires and Hurricanes accounted for the loss of no less than 27 Me109s, and an additional four damaged while losing just seven RAF aircraft destroyed!
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^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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[125]
There were some missions which produced an almost 100% casualty rate amongst the Blenheims; one such operation was mounted on 13 August 1940 against a Luftwaffe airfield near Aalborg in north-eastern Denmark by 12 aircraft of 82 Squadron. .One Blenheim returned early (the pilot was later charged and due to appear before a court martial, but was killed on another operation), the other 11, which reached Denmark, were shot down, five by flak and six by Bf 109s.^ These operations cost them thirty-nine aircraft shot down.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes, however, the high-flying enemy fighters appeared only a few minutes before the bombers, which were themselves escorted by other fighters.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He returned to America in early August on the British Airways Short Empire-class flying boat Clare , piloted by another great Irishman, the legendary Captain J. C. Kelly-Rogers.

Of the 33 crewmen who took part in the attack, 20 were killed and 13 captured.[126]
.As well as the bombing operations, Blenheim-equipped units had been formed to carry out long-range strategic reconnaissance missions over Germany and German-occupied territories.^ DOWNLOAD PDF (2MB) HERE: http://www.box.net/shared/ngx2p87k8k Among the lesser known units of the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain were the 'Aufklaringsgruppe' of Luftflotte 2, 3 and 5 – the long range reconnaissance units.
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^ "It was intended to operate tactically in support of the Army and the Navy, as well as conducting, at certain stages, strategic warfare of its own in defense of German cities and industries or in the attack on enemy industry, shipping and communications."
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^ If you add in army co-operation units, Coastal Command and Fleet Air Arm plus training units we could have put well over 1000 bombers or aircraft capable of carrying bombs into the air if necessary to defend the homeland.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In this role, the Blenheims again proved to be too slow and vulnerable against Luftwaffe fighters, and they took constant casualties.^ Yet when the Eighth Air Force went to war against the Luftwaffe in 1942-1943, its fighter forces followed the same operational philosophy.

^ Spitfires spun on wingtips, Hurricanes ducked and weaved behind bombers, RAF fighters dragged the Luftwaffe down to the treetops where they could chew them up.
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^ As a result, AAF fighter kills against the Luftwaffe stagnated, even as bomber losses remained unacceptably high.

[127]
.Coastal Command directed its attention towards the protection of British shipping, and the destruction of enemy shipping.^ Coastal Command directed its attention towards the protection of British shipping, and the destruction of enemy shipping.

^ The three authors do agree that after 11 July, with the release of the Directive for the Intensified Air War Against England, operations against British naval and merchant shipping were approved.
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^ At this stage, too, the enemy's dive bombers reappeared in attacks on coastal objectives and shipping off Essex and Kent.
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.As invasion became more likely, it participated in the strikes on French harbours and airfields, laying mines, and mounting numerous reconnaissance missions over the enemy-held coast.^ As invasion became more likely, it participated in the strikes on French harbours and airfields, laying mines, and mounting numerous reconnaissance missions over the enemy held coastline.

^ Similarly, the fact that the Battle of Trafalgar did not prevent a French invasion of Britain is not notably controversial any more either.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Pilots who want to land at a French airfield after their missions will need to navigate manually.
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.In all, some 9,180 sorties were flown by bombers from July to October 1940. Although this was much less than the 80,000 sorties flown by fighters, bomber crews suffered about half the total number of casualties borne by their fighter colleagues.^ In all, some 9,180 sorties where flown by bombers from July to October 1940.

^ Compared to the 80,000 sorties flown by fighters it is relatively little, but bombers suffered about 50% the number of casualties as their fighter colleagues.

^ There has been some criticism of the decision to keep these aircraft operational instead of retiring and scrapping them, allowing their Merlin s to be turned over to fighters and their pilots (about three thousand in all) to be retrained on Hurricanes, thereby freeing large numbers of high-time, combat-experienced Hurricane pilots for Spitfires.

.The bomber contribution was therefore much more dangerous on a loss-per-sortie comparison.^ The bomber contribution was therefore much more dangerous on a loss-per-sortie comparison.

^ Our twin-engine dive bombers will fly far enough and hit much more accurately.
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[128]
.It is a testament to the courage of the men in these bomber, reconnaissance and Coastal Command units that they continued to operate throughout these months with little respite and with little of the publicity accorded to Fighter Command.^ The fighter units reiterated the disadvantages under which they were forced to operate.
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^ The fighter commanders complained that close escort of the slow bomber formations was too rigid and precluded early engagement of the RAF fighters.
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^ But Spaatz and Hunter remained in place, and over the remaining two months they visited a variety of training and operational stations, meeting with senior RAF officials.

.In his famous 20 August speech about "The Few", praising Fighter Command, Churchill also made a point to mention Bomber Command's contribution, adding that bombers were even then striking back at Germany; this part of the speech is often overlooked.^ Of course Churchill made the most of the first major victory of the “dark days” of World War II, but he not only praised “The Few” (which, incidentally, included 56 Navy pilots) in his famous speech 66 years ago this week, he also praised the other airmen in Bomber Command who, throughout the Battle, harried the enemy across the Channel and beyond.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The fighter commanders complained that close escort of the slow bomber formations was too rigid and precluded early engagement of the RAF fighters.
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^ His tactical handling of his fighters and fighter bombers, a few of them were Me 110's but they were mostly Me.
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[129][130] .The Battle of Britain Chapel in Westminster Abbey lists in a Roll of Honour 718 Bomber Command crew members, and 280 from Coastal Command who were killed between 10 July and 31 October .^ Who won the Battle of Britain for the Allies?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Britain began in July, 1940.

^ The RAF roll of honour for the Battle of Britain recognises 510 overseas pilots as flying at least one authorised operational sortie with an eligible unit of the Royal Air Force or Fleet Air Arm between 10 July and 31 October 1940.

[131]

Phases of the battle

German Heinkel He 111 bombers over the English Channel 1940
The Battle can be roughly divided into four phases:
.
  • 10 July–11 August: Kanalkampf, ("the Channel battles").
  • 12 August–23 August: Adlerangriff ("Eagle Attack"), the early assault against the coastal airfields.
  • 24 August–6 September: the Luftwaffe targets the airfields.^ August 24, 2006 at 10:59 AM Report this comment It seems that not all the variables are being considered here.
    • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ James on August 24, 2006 at 12:38 PM Report this comment Interesting discussion.
    • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brenda Barnes on August 24, 2006 at 08:48 AM Report this comment The fact that the RAF was able to withstand Goering's attack was itself a victory.
    • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    The critical phase of the battle.
  • 7 September onwards: the day attacks switch to British towns and cities.

Channel battles

A pair of 264 Squadron Defiants. .(PS-V was shot down on 28 August 1940 over Kent by Bf 109s.^ Spaatz and Hunter duly reported back to Washington on August 31, by which time Hunter was dead, shot down on August 24.

)
.The Kanalkampf comprised a series of running fights over convoys in the English Channel and occasional attacks on the convoys by Stuka dive bombers.^ In these attacks he relied greatly on dive bombers, which proved no match for our Hurricanes.
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^ Luftwaffe during this phase of operations, known as KanalKampf or 'Channel Fight', was not inconsiderable.
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^ At this stage, too, the enemy's dive bombers reappeared in attacks on coastal objectives and shipping off Essex and Kent.
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.It was launched partly because Kesselring and Sperrle were not sure about what else to do, and partly because it gave German aircrews some training and a chance to probe the British defences.^ So determined was the British defence, so effective these tactics, that the German formations were again instantly broken up.
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^ Some hundred German bombers burst through our defence and reached the eastern and southern quarters .of the capital.
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^ However, because gaining air superiority was still the necessary prerequisite for the invasion, on 3 September, Goering told Kesselring and Sperrle, "We have no chance of destroying the English fighters on the ground.
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[76] .These battles off the coast tended to favour the Germans, whose bomber escorts massively outnumbered the convoy patrols.^ To enable their bombers to reach their targets the Germans sought to draw off our fighter patrols by high altitude rather than by geographical diversions.
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^ Furthermore it would have left German bombers without effective fighter protection, whereas the South Coast would be with in RAF fighter range.
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^ Many of these developed into stern chases which were broken off within a mile or two of the French Coast.
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.The need for constant patrols over the convoys put a severe strain on RAF pilots and machines, wasting fuel, engine hours and exhausting the pilots, but eventually the number of ship sinkings became so great the British Admiralty cancelled all further convoys through the Channel.^ Hitler was further quoted on the 14th, in discussions with his military chiefs, "There is a great chance of totally defeating the British."
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^ All through the war, the RN lost ships to German and Japanese airpower.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If an invasion had been forthcoming the RN would very probably have defeated it in the Channel--at great cost in ships and men; however, the RAF caused jerry to stop and think--always a difficult process for them--and drop the idea.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.However, these early combat encounters provided both sides with experience.^ These were the Weapons Used Before we can understand the general strategy and tactics followed, by both sides, something must be said of the weapons used.
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.They also gave the first indications some of the aircraft, such as the Defiant and Bf 110, were not up to the intense dog-fighting that would characterise the battle.^ II Legion would not have been needed for the mopping up phase comprising the crossing of the Thames, the battle mentioned by Dio (possibly at Brentwood) and the conquest of Colchester.
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^ They contend that the sheer numbers of destroyers and battleships in the Channel would have obliterated any invasion fleet even if the RAF had lost the Battle of Britain.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ (This listing excludes non-combat training and support aircraft--such as transports and light general aviation airplanes--flown in some of these conflicts): .

Main assault

The main attack upon the RAF's defences was code-named Adlerangriff ("Eagle Attack").
.Weather, which proved an important feature of the campaign, delayed Adlertag, ("Eagle Day") until 13 August 1940. On 12 August, the first attempt was made to blind the Dowding system when aircraft from the specialist fighter-bomber unit, Erprobungsgruppe 210 attacked four radar stations.^ One gruppe (48-64 aircraft) of fighters would provide close escort for each geschwader (144-256 aircraft) of bombers.
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^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ Yet American heavy bombers were sent over Europe unescorted by defensive fighters for over a year in an attempt to prove this fallacious doctrine of [Giulio] Douhet."

.Three were briefly taken off the air but were back working within six hours.^ Up to the moment, however, the first decisive encounter between Britain and Germany has taken place in the air and was fought three, four, five, and sometimes more than six miles above the surface of the earth by some hundreds of aircraft flying at speeds often in excess of three hundred miles an hour.
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[132] The raids appeared to show that British radars were difficult to knock out. .The failure to mount follow-up attacks allowed the RAF to get the stations back on the air, and the Luftwaffe neglected strikes on the supporting infrastructure, such as phone lines or power stations, which could have rendered the radars useless, even if the towers themselves (which were very difficult to destroy) remained intact.^ He had options - if the stukas had not destroyed the navy prior to the invasion then he could have used plan B - fly over the navy and pound the UK defenses and infrastructure some more and then back up the blitzkreig with storm paratroopers; take control of Kent or Norfolk and fly in the required support.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It was true that the British were heavily defending their sector air stations, but now the Luftwaffe felt compelled to press the RAF into a final, decisive encounter.
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^ FDR’s interest in air power, that he gave the two men a summary of the RAF’s experience in the Battle of Britain).

[90]
.Adlertag opened with a series of attacks, led again by Epro 210,[132] on coastal airfields used as forward landing grounds for the RAF fighters, as well as 'satellite airfields'[nb 20] (including Manston and Hawkinge).^ The German concentration on Fighter Command airfields was, as the Luftwaffe had hoped, forcing the RAF fighters into combat.
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^ First, eliminate the RAF as a fighting force, including its ground organization.
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^ Throughout this first stage the tactics he followed were usually to open his attack on objectives near the coast in order to draw off our fighters.
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[132] .As the week drew on, the airfield attacks moved further inland, and repeated raids were made on the radar chain.^ Basing his decision on results of early radar installation attacks, Goering further decided that it was doubtful any additional effort was worthwhile.
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^ After describing how all alone he broke up the enemy formation the Group Captain adds, "I made further attacks on the retreating bombers, each attack from climbing beam.
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.15 August was "The Greatest Day" when the Luftwaffe mounted the largest number of sorties of the campaign.^ The Luftwaffe mounted some 1,485 sorties (two-thirds fighter) while Fighter Command opposed with 727 defensive sorties.
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^ On 2 August 1940 the Luftwaffe General Staff issued the plan for the destruction of the RAF, starting the campaign for the Battle of Britain.
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^ This compared to 974 sorties to kill 67 German aircraft on 15 August.
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Luftflotte 5 attacked the north of England. .Believing Fighter Command strength to be concentrated in the south, raiding forces from Denmark and Norway ran into unexpectedly strong resistance.^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ But the directive missed the critical center of gravity, the one force that could prevent the Luftwaffe from dominating the skies over southern England: RAF Fighter Command.
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^ If we believe common Warsie claims of Imperial fleet strength, then overwhelming force could've been brought to bear .
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.Inadequately escorted by Bf 110s, bombers were shot down in large numbers.^ In all these, bombers were used and their escort of fighters steadily increased in numbers, till the ratio rose to four fighters to one bomber.
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^ The number of escorting fighters was increased and the size of bomber formations reduced.
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^ Large formations of bombers escorted by fighters are very unwieldy.

As a result of the casualties, Luftflotte 5 did not appear in strength again in the campaign.
.18 August, which had the greatest number of casualties to both sides, has been dubbed "The Hardest Day". Following the grinding battles of 18 August, exhaustion and the weather reduced operations for most of a week, allowing the Luftwaffe to review their performance.^ If the landing had been in 3 widely-spaced waves, as I suggest, the number of boats needed could have been reduced by some two thirds, as most boats would be used on three occasions.
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^ The Luftwaffe was confident that the entire operation could be completed in just two to four weeks.
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^ By early October, the Luftwaffe "was glad of the excuse of a deterioration in weather conditions to call off daylight operations; it was Goering himself who made the decision.
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"The Hardest Day" had sounded the end for the Ju 87 in the campaign.[133] .This veteran of Blitzkrieg was too vulnerable to fighters to operate over Britain, and to preserve the Stuka force, Göring withdrew them from the fighting.^ Yet when the Eighth Air Force went to war against the Luftwaffe in 1942-1943, its fighter forces followed the same operational philosophy.

^ The Royal Air Force and in particular fighter pilots most c ertainly won the Battle of Britain.
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^ This strategy would be effective only if the British fighter forces chose to enter the fight.
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.This removed the main Luftwaffe precision-bombing weapon and shifted the burden of pinpoint attacks on the already-stretched Erpro 210. The Bf 110 had also proven too clumsy for dogfighting with single-engined fighters, and its participation was scaled back.^ PHASE I: THE OFFENSIVE IS LAUNCHED In the first stage the enemy sent over massed formations of bombers escorted by similar formations of single and twin-engined fighters.
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^ The Hawker Hurricane Mark I was also a single-seater fighter similarly engined and armed.
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^ Each group of nine was in this case supported by a group of nine Me 110 fighters with single-seater Me.
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.It would only be used when range required it or when sufficient single-engined escort could not be provided for the bombers.^ One gruppe (48-64 aircraft) of fighters would provide close escort for each geschwader (144-256 aircraft) of bombers.
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^ I have gathered the distinct impression that dive bombers are [only] useful against a force which has no fighter protection and no AA defense to speak of.

^ He also pointed out that this would be a fleeting objective because the Navy could easily sail north, out of range of the Luftwaffe bombers.
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.Göring made yet another fateful decision: to order more bomber escorts at the expense of free-hunting sweeps.^ High fighter screens were sent over to occupy our fighters while the bombers closely escorted by more fighters tried to get through some 6,000 to 10,000 feet below.
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^ This ignored the fact, however, that daylight operations would be limited because of the inability of escort fighters (principally, the Me109) to accompany the bombers to the more distant targets.
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.To achieve this, the weight of the attack now fell on Luftflotte 2, and the bulk of the Bf 109s in Luftflotte 3 were transferred to Kesselring's command, reinforcing the fighter bases in the Pas-de-Calais.^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ The pilots of Fighter Command flew long hours with little sleep, losing many colleagues during that Summer to ensure this was not achieved.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is significant to note that the two Luftflotten commanders, Sperrle and Kesselring, both felt that RAF Fighter Command should be decisively weakened through night attacks before beginning any significant daylight operations.
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.Stripped of its fighters, Luftflotte 3 would concentrate on the night bombing campaign.^ The demand for bombs would be so great during the Polish campaign that for a while concrete bombs filled with shrapnel were produced to cover shortages.
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^ It would appear that to Goering, at least, the bombing of London was becoming more important than the objective of destroying Fighter Command as the prelude to invasion.
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^ In the long cold winter nights every effort would concentrate on survival and the eking out of the food supplies from autumn.
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.Göring, expressing disappointment with the fighter performance thus far in the campaign, also made a large change in the command structure of the fighter units, replacing many Geschwaderkommodore with younger, more aggressive pilots like Adolf Galland and Werner Mölders.^ This even led to the replacement of several senior fighter unit commanders.
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^ "As the inexperience of the R.A.F. squadrons increased, so also would the success of the German bombers and twin-engined fighters, whose crews were, thus far at least, more easily replaced with experienced personnel."
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^ Any challenge to the long-held theory that the 2,600 pilots of Fighter Command defeated the might of Germany would be subject to "more than a modicum of hostility", she added.
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[134]
.Finally, Göring stopped the attacks on the radar chain.^ Finally, the decision not to press attacks against the radar facilities was reaffirmed.
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These were seen as unsuccessful, and neither the Reichsmarschall nor his subordinates realised how vital the Chain Home stations were to the defence. .It was known that radar provided some early warning of raids, but the belief among German fighter pilots was that anything bringing up the "Tommies" to fight was to be encouraged.^ The higher concentration of fighters in the German raids reduced the edge that Fighter Command had previously enjoyed: the Germans could afford to trade Me109s, one for one, with Spitfires and Hurricanes!
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^ A more significant intelligence failure, however, was the fact that the German analysis never considered the main problem then facing Fighter Command: pilots.
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^ Defiants had done well at Dunkirk, where German fighter pilots had mistaken them for Hurricanes, attacked from the rear, and paid the price for their lack of recognition.

The Luftwaffe targets RAF airfields

.Göring ordered attacks on aircraft factories on 19 August 1940; on 23 August 1940 he ordered that RAF airfields be attacked.^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ When the attack develops, the "Readiness" Squadrons are ordered off in appropriate formations and the "Available" Squadrons are ordered to "Readiness" and used as a reserve to meet a second or a third attack or to protect aerodromes or vulnerable points such as aircraft factories.
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^ Brenda Barnes on August 24, 2006 at 08:48 AM Report this comment The fact that the RAF was able to withstand Goering's attack was itself a victory.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

That evening an attack was mounted on a tyre factory in Birmingham. .Raids on airfields continued through 24 August, and Portsmouth was hit by a major attack.^ He favored continued attacks on the airfields.
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^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ Brenda Barnes on August 24, 2006 at 08:48 AM Report this comment The fact that the RAF was able to withstand Goering's attack was itself a victory.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.That night, several areas of London were bombed; the East End was set ablaze and bombs landed on central London.^ These made no attempt to hit military targets, but contented themselves with dropping their bombs at random over the large area of London.
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^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ Considering Hitler's earlier directives against the bombing of London, such a decision would have been academic had not the British launched several night raids upon Berlin in response to an accidental bombing on parts of London on 24 August.
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.Some historians believe that these bombs were dropped accidentally by a group of Heinkel He 111s which had failed to find their target; this account has been contested.^ Thus some historians deduce that the tribe did not exist as an entity in AD 43 and that the Romans later created the Belgae tribe from groups of local people.
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^ There is some disagreement amongst historians about their exact geographical locations but judgements on these are not important to this essay.
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^ Some of the views expressed by these eminent historians, and others, can however lead to very different conclusions.
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[135] .In retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin on the night of 25–26 August, and continued bombing raids on Berlin.^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ It is probable that Hitler would have agreed to the London bombing even without the excuse of retaliation for the British raids.
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^ Considering Hitler's earlier directives against the bombing of London, such a decision would have been academic had not the British launched several night raids upon Berlin in response to an accidental bombing on parts of London on 24 August.
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.Göring's pride was hurt, as he had previously claimed the British would never be able to bomb the city.^ It is probable that Hitler would have agreed to the London bombing even without the excuse of retaliation for the British raids.
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^ Philip Farrell on August 24, 2006 at 01:45 PM Report this comment Why would the British public have been bombed into submission.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The attacks enraged Hitler, who ordered retaliatory attacks on London.^ Hitler, fearful for his own popularity at home, and also angered by the British attacks, agreed, on 31 August, to reprisal attacks on London.
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^ But Hitler had forbidden attacks on London and reserved to himself the decision to allow such an attack.
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[136]
.From 24 August onwards, the battle was a fight between Kesselring's Luftflotte 2 and Park's 11 Group.^ John Clare, (son of a Hurricane design engineer) on August 24, 2006 at 11:13 AM Report this comment Are these people historians or just deluded?
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^ The most important group, 11 Group, was commanded by Air Vice-Marshal (AVM) Keith Park.
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^ I.E.Hyland on August 24, 2006 at 11:54 AM Report this comment Such theorizing by academics is diverting but utlimately meaningless.
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.The Luftwaffe concentrated all their strength on knocking out Fighter Command and made repeated attacks on the airfields.^ The German concentration on Fighter Command airfields was, as the Luftwaffe had hoped, forcing the RAF fighters into combat.
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^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ But the directive missed the critical center of gravity, the one force that could prevent the Luftwaffe from dominating the skies over southern England: RAF Fighter Command.
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Of the 33 heavy attacks in the following two weeks, 24 were against airfields. .The key sector stations were hit repeatedly: Biggin Hill and Hornchurch four times each; Debden and North Weald twice each.^ "On the 31st, Luftflotte 2 launched its heaviest attack of phase two; 1,450 daylight sorties aimed primarily at five aerodromes, Biggin Hill, Debden, Hornchurch, Croydon and Eastchurch."
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^ The Luftwaffe concentrated efforts on airfields with major attacks on Manston, Hornchurch and North Weald.
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^ Eight hundred aircraft were used in a most determined effort to destroy or temporarily put out of use the aerodromes at Kenley, North Weald, Hornchurch, Debden, Lympne, Detling, Duxford, Northolt and Biggin Hill.
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Croydon, Gravesend, Rochford, Hawkinge and Manston were also attacked in strength. .Coastal Command's Eastchurch was bombed at least seven times because it was believed to be a Fighter Command aerodrome.^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ Squadrons at the forward aerodromes had to be in instant readiness, but had at the same time to be protected from bombing or machine-gun attacks.
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^ One simple question remains; was the RAF Fighter Command sufficiently strong to prevent a persistent Luftwaffe from gaining air superiority over at least southeastern England?
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At times these raids knocked out the sector stations, threatening the integrity of the Dowding system; emergency measures had to be taken to keep the sectors operating.
.The RAF was taking serious casualties in this period: between 15 August and 5 September it lost 377 fighters destroyed and 212 damaged.^ That Germany ever had a serious chance of destroying RAF fighter command.
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^ Between 8 August and 6 September, 657 fighters had been lost.
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^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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[137] .Aircraft production could replace aircraft, but replacement pilots were barely keeping pace with losses, and novices were shot down at an alarming rate.^ Our losses were ten aircraft, but six pilots were saved.
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^ These operations cost them thirty-nine aircraft shot down.
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^ This was "in spite of the fact that intelligence had established that bomber pilots were being called in to replace losses."
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.To offset losses, some 58 Fleet Air Arm fighter pilot volunteers were seconded to RAF squadrons, and a similar number of former (single-engine) Fairey Battle bomber pilots were used.^ In face of invasion all remaining fighters and bombers from the entire UK (remember many RAF units never participated significantly in the battle) plus reserves would have been rushed south to invasion area in numbers which would have matched if not exceeded Luftwaffe forces.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I have gathered the distinct impression that dive bombers are [only] useful against a force which has no fighter protection and no AA defense to speak of.

^ They contend that the sheer numbers of destroyers and battleships in the Channel would have obliterated any invasion fleet even if the RAF had lost the Battle of Britain.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Most replacements from Operational Training Units (OTUs) had as little as nine hours flying time and no gunnery or air-to-air combat training.^ The most relaxed state is "released," which means that the Squadron is not required to operate until a specified hour and that the personnel can be employed in routine-maintenance, flying training and instruction, organised games, and that in some cases they may leave the Station.
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^ Just as the B-17 entered service with the US Army Air Corps as an aircraft ahead of its time, so too had the Do17M-1 entered the Luftwaffe in early 1937, "at a time when it was twenty-five miles an hour faster than the most advanced enemy fighter."
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^ The Battle of Britain was the first time air to air combat reversed the outcome of an enemy’s major strategic plan.
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.At this point, the multinational nature of Fighter Command came to the fore.^ "It is no coincidence that Fighter Command came closest to defeat in this period.
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^ At this point (7 September and onwards), Fighter Command had indeed been saved from defeat on the ground, but the German strategy was actually working and the RAF could still be defeated in the air.
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^ DESPERATE POSITION OF THE RAF (At the end of Phase 2) September stood to be the culminating point for Fighter Command.
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.Many squadrons and personnel from the air forces of the Dominions were already attached to the RAF, including top level commanders — Australians, Canadians, New Zealanders, Rhodesians and South Africans.^ Thus at 12.15 a mixed force of Hurricanes and Spitfires amounting to the greater part of five Squadrons was over the south of the Thames, somewhere near Hammersmith.
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^ After the war, General Felmy indicated that planning for this contingency fell to his command because the General Staff of the Luftwaffe was already overburdened; developing the new air force and planning for operations in Czechoslovakia--"Studie Grun."
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^ In fact, during the Second World War, the Army Air Forces did operate in many ways as an independent air arm.

.In addition, there were other nationalities represented, including Free French, Belgian and a Jewish pilot from the British mandate of Palestine.^ The Few were our finest of heroes, British, Commonwealth, the tenacious and skilled Poles & Czechs as well as many other nationalities.
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.
Polish 303 squadron pilots, 1940. Left to right: P/O Ferić, Flt Lt Kent, F/O Grzeszczak, P/O Radomski, P/O Zumbach, P/O Łukciewski, F/O Henneberg, Sgt.
^ Pilot Officer -—— took left-hand Do 17, I took middle one and Flight-Lieutenant —— took the right-hand one which had lost ground on outside of turn.
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Rogowski, Sgt. Szaposznikow.
They were bolstered by the arrival of fresh Czechoslovak and Polish squadrons. .These had been held back by Dowding, who mistakenly thought non-English speaking aircrew would have trouble working within his control system.^ Without this system of central control, no battle, in the proper sense of the word, would have taken place.
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^ Dr Michael A Fopp on August 24, 2006 at 10:46 AM Report this comment If the Germans had won complete air superiority over the Channel , who and what would have held back the Stukas ?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I recommend to all who are interested, Len Deighton's three non-fiction books on the history of these events...
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

However, Polish and Czech fliers proved to be especially effective. The pre-war Polish Air Force had lengthy and extensive training, and high standards; with Poland conquered and under brutal German occupation, the pilots of No. 303 (Polish) Squadron, the highest-scoring Allied unit,[138] were strongly motivated. .Josef František, a Czech regular airman who had flown from the occupation of his own country to join the Polish and then French air forces before arriving in Britain, flew as a guest of 303 Squadron and was ultimately credited with the highest "RAF score" during in the Battle of Britain.^ The Battle of Britain was won at sea AND in the air.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Who won the Battle of Britain for the Allies?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Obviously the RAF won the Battle of Britain.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[139]
The RAF had the advantage of fighting over home territory. .Pilots who bailed out of their downed aircraft could be back at their airfields within hours.^ The first of these from 20,000 feet was successful, for the German pilot straightened out, but only to find that the British pilot had followed him down and was close upon him.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The theory was that Luftflotte's bombers could lure the Fighter Command aircraft into decisive battle within range of the Me109s.
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^ His object, be it remembered, was to "ground" the Fighters of the Royal Air Force and to destroy so large a number of pilots and aircraft as to put it, temporarily at least, out of action.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

For Luftwaffe aircrews, a bailout over England meant capture, while parachuting into the English Channel often meant drowning or death from exposure. .Morale began to suffer, and Kanalkrankheit ("Channel sickness") — a form of combat fatigue — began to appear among the German pilots.^ AVM Park had ordered his pilots to accept combat with German fighters only if Fighter Command's sector airfields were threatened.
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.Their replacement problem was even worse than the British.^ Something not feted by the British public sixty years on, but maybe even more decisive and long lasting than the efforts of the few?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Though the Luftwaffe maintained its numerical superiority, the slow supply of replacement aircraft and pilots put increasing strain on the resources of the remaining attackers.^ This consistently high rate of interception made it possible for our superiority in pilots and aircraft to achieve its full effect.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His object, be it remembered, was to "ground" the Fighters of the Royal Air Force and to destroy so large a number of pilots and aircraft as to put it, temporarily at least, out of action.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One simple question remains; was the RAF Fighter Command sufficiently strong to prevent a persistent Luftwaffe from gaining air superiority over at least southeastern England?
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On 6th September 1940 Air Vice Marshal Keith Park issued the following report:[140]
.Contrary to general belief and official reports, the enemy's bombing attacks by day did extensive damage to five of our forward aerodromes and also to six of our seven sector stations.^ Steve Hunter on August 25, 2006 at 02:01 AM Report this comment Precisely when did the Royal Navy defeat the German navy while defending our shores from attack?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Having thus altered his tactical formations the enemy proceeded to deliver some thirty-five major attacks between the 24th August and 5th September.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He, therefore, launched a series of air attacks, first on our shipping and ports and then on our aerodromes.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.There was a critical period when the damage to sector stations and our ground organization was having a serious effect on the fighting efficiency of the squadrons, who could not be given the same good technical and administrative service as previously....^ The number damaged or regarding who fate complete evidence proved impossible to obtain has not been given.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, eliminate the RAF as a fighting force, including its ground organization.
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^ Though they had done damage to aerodromes both near the coast and inland and thus put the fighting efficiency of the Fighter Squadrons to considerable strain, they failed entirely to put them out of action.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.The absence of many essential telephone lines, the use of scratch equipment in emergency operation rooms, and the general dislocation of ground organization, was seriously felt for about a week in the handling of squadrons by day to meet the enemy's massed attacks, which were continued without the former occasional break of a day.^ He retained serious doubts about the feasibility of the invasion; doubts shared by many within the military leadership.
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^ Then, shortly after two, fresh enemy forces returned to the attack in about the same strength as had been employed that morning.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the attack develops, the "Readiness" Squadrons are ordered off in appropriate formations and the "Available" Squadrons are ordered to "Readiness" and used as a reserve to meet a second or a third attack or to protect aerodromes or vulnerable points such as aircraft factories.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

Hugh Dowding had a different perspective. .Stephen Bungay's research indicates Dowding, in a letter to Hugh Trenchard[141] accompanying Park's report on the period 8 August - 10 September 1940, states Luftwaffe "achieved very little" in the last week of August and the first week of September.^ By the end of the first week in September, Fighter Command was in a desperate situation.
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^ August 24, 2006 at 10:59 AM Report this comment It seems that not all the variables are being considered here.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last week of August, for example, only 91 Spitfire and Hurricanes were produced while losses reached 137 destroyed and 11 seriously damaged.
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[142] .The only Sector Station to be shut down operationally was Biggin Hill, and it was non-operational for just two hours.^ But Spaatz and Hunter remained in place, and over the remaining two months they visited a variety of training and operational stations, meeting with senior RAF officials.

^ Just read the inscription on the RAF memorial recently erected on Plymouth Hoe (which is a bit like the RN have a memorial at Biggin Hill is it not?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Luftwaffe was confident that the entire operation could be completed in just two to four weeks.
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.Dowding admitted 11 Group's efficiency was impaired but despite serious damage to some airfields, only two out of 13 heavily attacked airfields were down for more than a few hours.^ The first of these from 20,000 feet was successful, for the German pilot straightened out, but only to find that the British pilot had followed him down and was close upon him.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last week of August, for example, only 91 Spitfire and Hurricanes were produced while losses reached 137 destroyed and 11 seriously damaged.
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^ About 11.30 Goering launched the first wave of the morning attack, consisting of a hundred or more aircraft, soon followed by one hundred and fifty more.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

The German refocus on London was not critical.[143]
Historians Derek Wood and Derek Dempster wrote:
.The position was grim in the extreme as from August 24th to September 6th 295 fighters had been totally destroyed and 171 badly damaged, against a total output of 269 new and repaired Spitfires and Hurricanes.^ Spitfires and Hurricanes accounted for the loss of no less than 27 Me109s, and an additional four damaged while losing just seven RAF aircraft destroyed!
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^ Having thus altered his tactical formations the enemy proceeded to deliver some thirty-five major attacks between the 24th August and 5th September.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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.Worst of all, during the fortnight 103 pilots were killed or missing and 128 were wounded, which represented a total wastage of 120 pilots per week out of a fighting strenght of just under 1,000. Experienced pilots were like gold-dust, and each one lost had to be replaced by an untried man who for some time would be vulnerable, until he acquired battle know-how.^ How many ships (small destroyers) were lost in the battles at Crete and Greece?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ That's a population doubling time of 60 years, which would require a population growth rate of 1.17% per year.
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
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^ As each was selecting his own man, the Me 110 escort roared in to intercept with cannons blazing at 1,000 yards range, but they were two seconds too late, too late to engage our fighters, but just in time to make them hesitate long enough to miss the bomber leader.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the whole August no more than 260 fighter pilots were turned out by O.T.U.s and casualties in the same month were just over 300. A full squadron establishment was twenty-six pilots whereas the avarage in August was sixteen.^ This may be no more than a speculation.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Spitfires and Hurricanes accounted for the loss of no less than 27 Me109s, and an additional four damaged while losing just seven RAF aircraft destroyed!
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^ These heavy casualties occurred during the hours when darkness prevented the enemy from being met and turned back as he was in daylight.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.The command was literally wasting away under Dowding's eyes and there was nothing he could do about it if southern England was to continue as a defended area.^ But the directive missed the critical center of gravity, the one force that could prevent the Luftwaffe from dominating the skies over southern England: RAF Fighter Command.
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^ Though there is no doubt that fighter command dealt the Luftwaffe a huge defeat under it's own steam.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not to say that there's nothing good about specialization.
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Star Trek Vs. Star Wars - The Battle of Britain :: Overview 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.st-v-sw.net [Source type: Original source]

[144]
Overall, by 2 November, the figure was 1,796, an increase of over 40% from July 1940s count of 1,259 pilots. .Based on German sources (from a Luftwaffe intelligence officer Otto Bechtle attached to KG 2 in February 1944) translated by the Air Historical Branch, Stephen Bungay asserts German fighter and bomber "strength" declined without recovery, and that from August - December 1940, the German fighter and bomber strength declined by 30 and 25 percent.^ In 1940 the German threat was from the Luftwaffe not from their navy.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ To enable their bombers to reach their targets the Germans sought to draw off our fighter patrols by high altitude rather than by geographical diversions.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ron Allen on August 24, 2006 at 01:18 PM Report this comment Without securing the air any invasion was doomed.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[145] .In contrast, Williamson Murray, asserts (using translations by the Air Historical Branch) that 1,380 German bombers were on strength on 29 June 1940,[146][147] 1,420 bombers on 28 September,[148] 1,423 level bombers on 2 November[149] and 1,393 bombers on 30 November 1940.[150] In July - September the number of pilots available fell by 136, but the number of operational pilots had shrunk by 171 by September.^ Each flew at least one authorised operational sortie with an eligible unit of the Royal Air Force or Fleet Air Arm during the period 10 July to 31 October 1940.
  • The Battle of Britain - Home Page 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.raf.mod.uk [Source type: Academic]
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^ A tremendous effort using all planes regardless of loss and with prodigious use of gas might be successful, but if not it would be the beginning of the end for the German air supremacy."

^ The creation of the Greater German Reich has been made possible largely by the strength and constant readiness of the Air Force.
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The training organisation of the Luftwaffe was failing to replace losses. .German fighter pilots, in contrast to popular perception, were not afforded training or rest rotations unlike their British counterparts.^ The first of these from 20,000 feet was successful, for the German pilot straightened out, but only to find that the British pilot had followed him down and was close upon him.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly the German pilots showed qualities of courage and tenacity; but these were of little avail against the better quality and still higher courage of the British pilots.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AVM Park had ordered his pilots to accept combat with German fighters only if Fighter Command's sector airfields were threatened.
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[151] .The first week of September accounted for 25 percent of the Fighter Command, and 24 percent of the Luftwaffe's overall losses.^ By the end of the first week in September, Fighter Command was in a desperate situation.
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^ The German concentration on Fighter Command airfields was, as the Luftwaffe had hoped, forcing the RAF fighters into combat.
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^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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[152] .Between the dates 26 August - 6 September, the Germans only destroyed more aircraft than they lost on one day (1 September), losses were 325 German and 248 British.^ One hundred and three German aircraft were destroyed.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 8 August and 6 September, 657 fighters had been lost.
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^ On that day, 15th August, a hundred and eighty German aircraft are known to have been destroyed.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[153]
.Luftwaffe losses for August numbered 774 aircraft to all causes, representing 18.5 percent of all combat aircraft at the beginning of the month.^ A tremendous effort using all planes regardless of loss and with prodigious use of gas might be successful, but if not it would be the beginning of the end for the German air supremacy."

^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ The total losses from all causes saw the Luftwaffe with 321 aircraft destroyed or damaged compared to losses of 178 for RAF Fighter Command.
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[154] .Fighter Command's losses in August were 426 fighters destroyed,[155] amounting to 40 percent of 1,061 fighters available on 3 August.^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ In the last week of August, for example, only 91 Spitfire and Hurricanes were produced while losses reached 137 destroyed and 11 seriously damaged.
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^ The total losses from all causes saw the Luftwaffe with 321 aircraft destroyed or damaged compared to losses of 178 for RAF Fighter Command.
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[156] .In addition, 99 bombers and 27 other types were destoyed between 1 and 29 August.^ Enemy bomber formations were also protected by a box of fighters, some of which flew slightly above to a flank or in rear, others slightly above and ahead, and yet others weaving in and out between the sub-formations of the bombers.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

[157]
.From July to September, the Luftwaffe's loss records indicate the loss of 1,636 aircraft, 1,184 to enemy action.^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ The total losses from all causes saw the Luftwaffe with 321 aircraft destroyed or damaged compared to losses of 178 for RAF Fighter Command.
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^ On 9 September it was "ordered that the first duty of the fighters was to protect the bombers, not to attack the enemy, and that if substantial enemy opposition was met, the German aircraft should disengage rather than risk loss."
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[158] .This represented 47 percent of the initial strength of single-engine fighters, 66 percent of twin-engine fighters, and 45 percent of bombers.^ Our twin-engine dive bombers will fly far enough and hit much more accurately.
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^ PHASE I: THE OFFENSIVE IS LAUNCHED In the first stage the enemy sent over massed formations of bombers escorted by similar formations of single and twin-engined fighters.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reserves were sufficient to keep most fighter units at 80 percent strength and bombers at 86 percent.
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This indicates the Germans were running out of aircrews as well as aircraft.[159]
Throughout the battle, the Germans
greatly underestimated the size of the .RAF and the scale of British aircraft production.^ The RAF was better informed on German aircraft and engine production, the German Air Force, and German transportation.

.Across the Channel, the Air Intelligence division of the Air Ministry consistently overestimated the size of the German air enemy and the productive capacity of the German aviation industry.^ With regards to the performance of the fighter aircraft, the Air Ministry concluded that the Me109s were "excellent weapons against enemy bombers and good defense for friendly formations."
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^ Also on the 13th, Goering ordered "operations are to be directed exclusively against the enemy air force, including the targets of the enemy aircraft industry."
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^ Ports and com munications could then be destroyed without hindrance, the military forces of the enemy paralysed and the German armoured divisions placed in a position to operate undisturbed.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the battle was fought, both sides exaggerated the losses inflicted on the other by an equally large margin.^ New tactics were recognized by both sides; fewer bombers and more fighters in the German formations, and a continued reluctance by the British to do battle with the German fighters.
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.However, the intelligence picture formed before the battle encouraged the German Air Force to believe that such losses pushed Fighter Command to the very edge of defeat, while the exaggerated picture of German air strength persuaded the RAF that the threat it faced was larger and more dangerous than was the case.^ The critical problem faced by Fighter Command was the loss of trained fighter pilots.
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^ The Germans believed it was sufficient to draw up the fighter forces and kill them in the air.
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^ Such forces got very badly hammered.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[160]
.This led the British to the conclusion that another fortnight of attacks on airfields might force Fighter Command to withdraw their squadrons from the south of England.^ Thus at 12.15 a mixed force of Hurricanes and Spitfires amounting to the greater part of five Squadrons was over the south of the Thames, somewhere near Hammersmith.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever the weather was good enough waves of fighters appeared almost continuously over the South-East of England.
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^ Any challenge to the long-held theory that the 2,600 pilots of Fighter Command defeated the might of Germany would be subject to "more than a modicum of hostility", she added.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The German misconception, on the other hand,
encouraged first complacency, then strategic misjudgement. .The shift of targets from air bases to industry and communications was taken because it was assumed that Fighter Command was virtually eliminated.^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ Cajus Bekker, on the other hand, states "the primary target was the Royal Air Force, its ground organization and the industry that fed it."
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^ On 7 September, Goering assumed temporary, direct command of the air operations.
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[161]
.Between the 24 August and 4 September German serviceability rates, which were acceptable at Stuka units, were running at 75% with Bf 109s, 70% with bombers and 65% with Bf 110s, indicating a shortage of spare parts.^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ Simon BAYNES on August 24, 2006 at 08:09 AM Report this comment It would seem to me that we could have been bombed into submission had the RAF not been there to deter and destroy German bombers.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Having thus altered his tactical formations the enemy proceeded to deliver some thirty-five major attacks between the 24th August and 5th September.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

All units were well below established strength. The attrition was beginning to affect the fighters in particular."[162] .By 14 September the Luftwaffe's Bf 109 Geschwader possessed only 67 percent of their operational crews against authorized aircraft.^ Yet when the Eighth Air Force went to war against the Luftwaffe in 1942-1943, its fighter forces followed the same operational philosophy.

^ Chaney visited the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, where he inspected a captured Bf 109, stating that as a design it "has reached its peak of development."

^ Released on 30 June 1940, Goering's General Directive for the Operation of the Luftwaffe Against England closely paralleled the intentions of Hitler's directives.
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.For Bf 110 units it was 46 percent; and for bombers it was 59 percent.^ Reserves were sufficient to keep most fighter units at 80 percent strength and bombers at 86 percent.
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A week later the figures had dropped to 64 percent, 52 percent, and 52 percent.[163] .Serviceability rates in Fighter Command's fighter squadrons, between the 24 August and 7 September, were listed as: 64.8% on the 24 August; 64.7% on 31 August and 64.25% on the 7 September 1940, indicating a slow decline.^ Between 8 August and 6 September, 657 fighters had been lost.
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^ Mark M Newdick on August 24, 2006 at 11:14 AM Report this comment The command of the air was a precursor for the next stage of the battle.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He noted the close integration between RAF Fighter Command and the British Army’s antiaircraft artillery forces.

[164]
.Due to the failure of the Luftwaffe to establish air supremacy, a conference assembled on 14 September at Hitler's headquarters.^ In this instance the Luftwaffe was designed to prepare the way for the German Army by smashing the enemy's resistance, and it was a fundamental assumption in Berlin that Germany could in every case establish and maintain air supremacy.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This failure meant defeat, defeat of the German Air Force itself, defeat of a carefully designed strategic plan, defeat of that which Hitler most longed for, the invasion of this Island.
  • The Battle of Britain 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.mikekemble.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With air superiority established, the Luftwaffe would be free to conduct other strategic operations.
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.Hitler concluded that air superiority had not yet been established and "promised to review the situation on 17 September for possible landings on 27 September or 8 October.^ Fighter Command did their part by removing Germany's ability to provide air cover to the invasion beaches, and convinced Hitler that Goering was unable to deliver on his promises.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Without air superiority, or indeed supremacy, I doubt that Hitler would have dared launch an amphibious landing at the mercy of the RAF, for this is one of the principles that is so clearly taught in any Joint Warfare Forum.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ With air superiority established, the Luftwaffe would be free to conduct other strategic operations.
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.Three days later, when the evidence was clear that the German Air Force had greatly exaggerated the extent of their successes against the RAF, Hitler postponed Sealion indefinitely."^ A tremendous effort using all planes regardless of loss and with prodigious use of gas might be successful, but if not it would be the beginning of the end for the German air supremacy."

^ Yet when the Eighth Air Force went to war against the Luftwaffe in 1942-1943, its fighter forces followed the same operational philosophy.

^ It is relevant here to mention three additional factors that also weighed heavily on the decision not to establish a "strategic" air force, and hence a heavy bomber, from the outset.
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[165] .However, at the meeting on 14 September, the leadership of the Luftwaffe had persuaded him to give them a last chance to cow the RAF. "The air force chief of staff, General Hans Jeschonnek ...^ It was true that the British were heavily defending their sector air stations, but now the Luftwaffe felt compelled to press the RAF into a final, decisive encounter.
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^ However, the fact remains the Germans realised that for an invasion to be successful the RAF needed to be destroyed and total Air Supremacy gained.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The German concentration on Fighter Command airfields was, as the Luftwaffe had hoped, forcing the RAF fighters into combat.
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asked .Hitler to allow him to attack residential areas to create 'mass panic'. Hitler refused, perhaps unaware of just how much damage had already been done to civilian targets.^ How much more damage would the full Luftwaffe have done to the Navy in the channel?
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But Hitler, perhaps already aware of the dangers in such provocation--as evidenced by the retaliatory bombing of Berlin by the British following the accidental bombing of London on 24 August--initially refused.
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^ The majority of the air leaders wanted large scale attacks on residential areas.
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'Mass panic' was to be used only as a last resort. .Hitler reserved for himself the right to unleash the terror weapon.^ But Hitler had forbidden attacks on London and reserved to himself the decision to allow such an attack.
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The political will was to be broken by the collapse of the material infrastructure, the weapons industry, and stocks of fuel and food. On 16 September Göring ordered the air fleets to begin the new phase of the battle.[166]

Raids on British cities

Calais, September 1940. Göring giving a speech to pilots about the change in tactics to bomb the towns instead of the airfields.
Hitler's No. 17 Directive, issued 1 August 1940 on the conduct of war against England specifically prohibited Luftwaffe from conducting terror raids on its own initiative, and reserved the right of ordering terror attacks as means of reprisal for the Führer himself,[167] despite the raids conducted by RAF Bomber Command against German cities since May 1940. This echoed Göring's general order issued on 30 June 1940 on the air war against the island fortress:
.
The war against England is to be restricted to destructive attacks against industry and air force targets which have weak defensive forces....^ Yet when the Eighth Air Force went to war against the Luftwaffe in 1942-1943, its fighter forces followed the same operational philosophy.

^ After achieving temporary or local air superiority the air war is to be continued against ports, in particular against stores of food, and also against stores of provisions in the interior of the country."

^ I have gathered the distinct impression that dive bombers are [only] useful against a force which has no fighter protection and no AA defense to speak of.

The most thorough study of the target concerned, that is vital points of the target, is a pre-requisite for success. It is also stressed that every effort should be made to avoid unnecessary loss of life amongst the civilian population.[168]
.The Luftwaffe offensive against Britain had included numerous raids on major ports since August, but Hitler had issued a directive London was not to be bombed save on his sole instruction.^ Adolf Hitler set forth the challenge to the Luftwaffe in two directives; the first, on July 16, stated: "The English Air Force [sic] must be so reduced morally and physically that it is unable to deliver any significant attack against the German crossing," while the second, issued on August 1, stated with far greater precision that: .

^ Considering Hitler's earlier directives against the bombing of London, such a decision would have been academic had not the British launched several night raids upon Berlin in response to an accidental bombing on parts of London on 24 August.
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^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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.December 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, on the night of 23 August,[123] bombs were accidentally dropped on Harrow on the outskirts of London as well as raids on Aberdeen, Bristol and South Wales.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ It is probable that Hitler would have agreed to the London bombing even without the excuse of retaliation for the British raids.
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.The focus on attacking airfields had also been accompanied by a sustained bombing campaign which begun on 24 August with the largest raid so far killing 100 in Portsmouth, and that evening the first night raid on London as described above.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ Brenda Barnes on August 24, 2006 at 08:48 AM Report this comment The fact that the RAF was able to withstand Goering's attack was itself a victory.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[135] .On 25 August 1940, 81 bombers of Bomber Command were sent out to raid industrial and commercial targets in Berlin.^ However, by 7 September, the industrial areas in and around London and especially the docks area, did become the prime targets for the Luftwaffe bombers.
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^ The tasks were divided between Luftflotte 2, conducting daylight raids against key military and commercial targets, and Luftflotte 3, --22-- .
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.Cloud prevented accurate identification and the bombs fell across the city, causing some casualties amongst the civilian population as well as damage to residential areas.^ Civilian populations were provided specific protection since the doctrine also stated "attacks on cities for the purpose of terrorizing the civilian population are absolutely forbidden."
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^ Publicity on the use of airpower in civil war focused on the bombing of the city of Guernica (the center of the city was destroyed, killing at least 1,600 civilians) in the spring of 1937.
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^ The RN could have caused some damage had they been called upon, but would have lost huge numbers of ships and men.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[169] .Continuing RAF raids on Berlin in retaliation led to Hitler withdrawing his directive,[170] and on 3 September Göring planned to bomb London daily, with Kesselring's enthusiastic support, having received reports the average strength of RAF squadrons was down to five or seven fighters out of 12 and their airfields in the area were out of action.^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ But it was the RAF and their allied squadrone who were shooting the enemy down.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Hitler issued a directive on 5 September to attack cities including London.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ Subsequently, OKW would issue "new instructions for the attack, calling for a systematic destruction of London."
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^ Hitler, fearful for his own popularity at home, and also angered by the British attacks, agreed, on 31 August, to reprisal attacks on London.
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[171][172] .In his speech delivered on the 4 September 1940, Hitler threatened to obliterate (ausradieren) British cities if British bombing runs against Germany did not stop.^ Fighter Command did their part by removing Germany's ability to provide air cover to the invasion beaches, and convinced Hitler that Goering was unable to deliver on his promises.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is probable that Hitler would have agreed to the London bombing even without the excuse of retaliation for the British raids.
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^ By the time the American daylight bombing offensive against Germany got under way in the summer of 1942, the Chinese over Nanking, the British over London, and the A.V.G. over Rangoon had thoroughly proved the failure of unescorted day bombers against determined fighter attacks.

Bombing of London.
.On 7 September 1940 a massive series of raids involving nearly four hundred bombers and more than six hundred fighters targeted docks in the East End of London, day and night.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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.Though suffering from shortages, the RAF anticipated attacks on airfields and 11 Group rose to meet them, in greater numbers than the Luftwaffe expected.^ The RAF was faced with the real possibility of withdrawing 11 Group to bases north of London.
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^ However, over the next several days, continued focus by the Luftwaffe on 11 Group Sector airfields began to take a toll both in air and ground losses and resulted in reduced operations from these critical fields.
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^ The Luftwaffe concentrated efforts on airfields with major attacks on Manston, Hornchurch and North Weald.
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.The first official deployment of 12 Group's Big Wing took twenty minutes to gain formation, missing its intended target, but encountering another formation of bombers while still climbing.^ The effectiveness of British tactics; the Big Wing formations (Leigh-Mallory) or squadron formations (Park), and the decision by Park to go "for bombers only" can be debated.
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.They returned, apologetic about their limited success, and blamed the delay on being requested too late.^ What worries me most about these “new arguments” is that they are being put forward by those who educate our up-and-coming military leaders.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[136][173] Next morning, Keith Park flew his Hurricane over the city: "It was burning all down the river. It was a horrid sight. .But I looked down and said 'Thank God for that', because I knew that the Nazis had switched their attack from the fighter stations thinking that they were knocked out.^ In the other section where he also replied, I said: " In other words, precision attacks in Star Wars require maneuverable snubfighters getting in close and trying to knock out big obvious surface targets.
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^ If we can knock out their shields, our fighters might stand a chance against them."
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^ Adolf Galland wrote, "we fighter pilots, discouraged by a task which was beyond our strength, were looking forward impatiently and excitedly to the start of the bomber attacks [on London].
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.They weren't, but they were pretty groggy". Luftwaffe raids across Britain continued, with large attacks on London targeting the docks or bombing indiscriminately.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ The bombing of London, as a strategic target to draw Fighter Command into battle, was an idea now growing in favor.
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^ Once again, the Luftwaffe failed to apply sufficient mass and persistence to their attacks on London.
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.December 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Fighter Command had been at its lowest ebb, short of men and machines, and the break from airfield attacks allowed them to recover.^ This is also largely due to Goering switching from military to civilian targets part way through the battle and giving fighter command the breathing space it needed.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

11 Group had considerable success in breaking up daytime raids. .12 Group repeatedly disobeyed orders and failed to meet requests to protect 11 Group airfields, but their experiments with increasingly large Big Wings had some successes.^ Diversionary maneuvers scheduled by Luftflotte 2 failed for unknown reasons and as a result 11 Group was able to commit all of its squadrons with precision.
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^ The main effort was planned against 11 Group's airfields, mostly around London.
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.The Luftwaffe began to abandon their morning raids, with attacks on London starting late in the afternoon for 57 consecutive nights of attacks.^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ Once again, the Luftwaffe failed to apply sufficient mass and persistence to their attacks on London.
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^ Adolf Galland wrote, "we fighter pilots, discouraged by a task which was beyond our strength, were looking forward impatiently and excitedly to the start of the bomber attacks [on London].
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[174]
Members of the London Auxiliary Firefighting Service.
.The most damaging aspect to the Luftwaffe of the change in targets (to London) was the increase in range.^ Since London was within the range of the Me109, and since this was also a geographically limited area, the Luftwaffe could more easily concentrate their fighter forces for the kill.
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^ However, by 7 September, the industrial areas in and around London and especially the docks area, did become the prime targets for the Luftwaffe bombers.
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^ The visually observed (and, therefore, verifiable) ranges in Star Trek are always in the area of a few tens of kilometers, at the most, when engaging maneuvering targets.
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.The Bf 109 escorts had a limited fuel capacity, and by the time they arrived had only 10 minutes of flying time before they had to turn for home.^ On leaving Britain, Claudius presumably spent time visiting his troops in other lands before returning home.
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^ The absolute lack of instrumental flying training for the crews limited the fighters to only daylight patrols and bomber escort missions.
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^ What they seem to have decided to forget is that the discussion of the thousand worlds refers to a time over 100 years before Star Trek: First Contact , and over 100 years after Enterprise .
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This left many raids undefended by fighter escorts.
On 14 September Hitler chaired a meeting with the OKW staff. .Göring was absent in France, as he had decided to direct the decisive part of the battle from there, and left Erhard Milch to deputise for him.^ There was little difference in this directive from those used to form the operational basis for the campaigns in Poland, Norway and France.
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^ It has also been suggested that he took no part in the events hitherto described but was instead transported direct from France to the Regini capital at Chichester to prepare for the arrival of II Legion.
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^ Note how, in the last frame, there is a line at the left side of the glow, in the direction of a slash \\.
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[175] .At the meeting Hitler raised the question, "Should we call it off altogether?". Hitler had accepted that an invasion with massive air cover was no longer possible.^ Morale was raised throughout the whole country and the navy were not therefore called upon to stop an invasion.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler voiced an understanding of current air theories during a 1932 meeting with Milch, speaking "at length on the ideas of General Douhet. . . .
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^ It was not until 1 August 1940 that Hitler issued his first clear, guidance for the conduct of the air war through Directive No.
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.Instead he opted to try to crush British morale, while maintaining the threat of invasion.^ With no U-boat threat British and American forces gather more quickly and invasion of France happens in 1943.
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^ In effect, the Nazis provided the British a huge moral boosting propaganda victory, by trying and failing to defeat the RAF. .
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ So for Sealion to work, removing the threat of the RAF had to come before the Luftwaffe could try to protect the invasion fleet.
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.Hitler concluded this may result in "eight million going mad" (referring to the population of London in 1940), which would "cause a catastrophe" for the British.^ Goering, however, did not believe that reprisal attacks on London would achieve the desired results, insisting that the British will was too strong.
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^ It is probable that Hitler would have agreed to the London bombing even without the excuse of retaliation for the British raids.
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^ Considering Hitler's earlier directives against the bombing of London, such a decision would have been academic had not the British launched several night raids upon Berlin in response to an accidental bombing on parts of London on 24 August.
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In those circumstances, Hitler said, "even a small invasion might go a long way". At this point Hitler was against cancelling the invasion as "the cancellation would reach the ears of the enemy and strengthen his resolve".[nb 21][nb 22]
.On 15 September two massive waves of German attacks were decisively repulsed by the RAF, with every aircraft of 11 Group being used on that day.^ Also Allied bombers have completely failed to disturb German lines of communication by day-time attacks.

^ From 11 to 14 September, London was attacked by two major (over 200 bombers) daylight raids and two minor ones, as well as attacks every night.
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^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

.The total casualties on this critical day were 60 German and 26 RAF aircraft shot down.^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ Fighter Command downed 58 and damaged 25 German aircraft including 26 fighters lost and 8 damaged.
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^ The total losses from all causes saw the Luftwaffe with 321 aircraft destroyed or damaged compared to losses of 178 for RAF Fighter Command.
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.The German defeat caused Hitler to order, two days later, the postponement of preparations for the invasion of Britain.^ Although a few days later there was a large storm which scattered his navy, he persisted with Richborough and again landed there successfully a year later for his brief invasion of Britain.
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^ The Battle of Britain’s Strategic Significance to Roosevelt Foreign Policy Most importantly, the Battle of Britain forced Hitler to first delay, and then finally cancel his planned invasion of Great Britain.

^ Had a German invasion of Britain been attempted in 1940 it would have been a three way fight.
  • Battle of Britain was won at sea. Discuss - Telegraph 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Henceforth, in the face of mounting losses in men, aircraft and the lack of adequate replacements, the Luftwaffe switched from daylight to night-time bombing.^ On the night of August 24, London was bombed by German aircraft, and, in retaliation, the RAF bombed Berlin the next night, a dramatic transformation of the air war.

^ Fighter Command lost 23 aircraft destroyed and six damaged compared with a loss for the Luftwaffe of 35 destroyed and four damaged.
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^ The total losses from all causes saw the Luftwaffe with 321 aircraft destroyed or damaged compared to losses of 178 for RAF Fighter Command.
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.On 13 October, Hitler again postponed the invasion "until the spring of 1941"; however, the invasion never happened, and October is regarded as the month regular bombing of Britain ended.^ The Battle of Britain’s Strategic Significance to Roosevelt Foreign Policy Most importantly, the Battle of Britain forced Hitler to first delay, and then finally cancel his planned invasion of Great Britain.

^ Hitler would, however, issue a memorandum on 10 October detailing his intentions in the West if Britain failed to come to an agreement for peace.
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^ Also, it has never been convincingly shown (even his military commanders later wrote of their doubts in this regard) that he was ever fully committed to the invasion.
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[123] .It was not until Hitler's Directive 21 was ordered on 18 December 1940, that the threat of invasion finally dissipated.^ The Battle of Britain’s Strategic Significance to Roosevelt Foreign Policy Most importantly, the Battle of Britain forced Hitler to first delay, and then finally cancel his planned invasion of Great Britain.

^ It was not until 1 August 1940 that Hitler issued his first clear, guidance for the conduct of the air war through Directive No.
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^ Released on 30 June 1940, Goering's General Directive for the Operation of the Luftwaffe Against England closely paralleled the intentions of Hitler's directives.
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[123]
.During the battle, and for the rest of the war, an important factor in keeping public morale high was the continued presence in London of King George VI and his wife Queen Elizabeth.^ Two of these, the He111 and the Do17, would see extensive service during the Battle of Britain; one, the He111, would continue to serve for most of the war.
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^ These factors do not in themselves, however, justify the failure of the Luftwaffe to meet its identified and assigned objectives during the battle.
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^ Such a geographic feature was important in those days to allow the army commander to make informed decisions before and during a battle.
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When war broke out in 1939, the King and Queen decided to stay in London and not flee to Canada, as had been suggested.[nb .23] George VI and Elizabeth officially stayed in Buckingham Palace throughout the war, although they often spent weekends at Windsor Castle to visit their daughters, Elizabeth (the future queen) and Margaret.^ All four first visited France, where they saw first-hand how appallingly prepared France was for war.

[176] .Buckingham Palace was damaged by bombs which landed in the grounds on 10 September, and on 13 September, when more serious damage was caused by two bombs which destroyed the Royal Chapel.^ In the last week of August, for example, only 91 Spitfire and Hurricanes were produced while losses reached 137 destroyed and 11 seriously damaged.
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