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Battle of Calcinato
Part of the War of the Spanish Succession
Date 19 April 1706
Location near Calcinato, present-day Italy
Result Franco-Spanish victory
Belligerents
France[1] Kingdom of France
Spain Kingdom of Spain
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Austria
Commanders
Duc de Vendôme Christian Detlev Reventlow
Strength
41,000[2] 19,000[2]
Casualties and losses
500 6,000[2]


The Battle of Calcinato was a battle in the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 19 April 1706 near Calcinato, Italy between the forces of Bourbon France and Spain and the forces of the Austrian Habsburgs. It ended in a victory for Marshal Vendôme's French and Spanish army.

Contents

Prelude

In Italy the 1706 campaign had, as before, two branches: the contest for Piedmont and the contest between the French forces in Lombardy and the Austrian second army that sought to join Victor Amadeus and Starhemberg in Piedmont. The latter, repulsed by Vendôme at Cassano, had retired to Brescia and Lake Garda, Vendôme following up and wintering about Castiglione and Mantua.

The battle

In April 1706, profiting by Eugene's temporary absence, Vendôme attacked the Imperialist's camp of Montechiaro–Calcinato. His intention was by a night march to surprise the post of Ponte San Marco on their extreme left, but when day came he noticed that he could give battle to the enemy's left wing at Calcinato before their right from Montichiari could intervene. His onset broke up the defence completely and he hustled the fragments of the Imperialist army back into the mountains, where Eugene had the greatest difficulty in rallying them.

Aftermath

Vendôme was sent to Flanders after the crushing defeat there in the Battle of Ramillies. As a result the French position in Italy deteriorated drastically, and by the end of the year, all French forces had been chased from Italy.

Notes

  1. ^ George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana, The American Cyclopaedia, New York, 1874, p. 250, "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis...". *[1] The original Banner of France was strewn with fleurs-de-lis. *[2]:on the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)."[3] from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour."
  2. ^ a b c Lynn, p. 309

References

  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman, (1999). ISBN 0-582-05629-2

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