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Battle of Cambrai
Part of the Western Front of the First World War
Bundesarchiv Bild 104-0941A, Bei Cambrai, zerstörter englischer Panzer Mark I.jpg
German soldiers recovering a British Mark IV tank. The effectiveness of the tank in combat was limited in the extreme

"Down in a Shell crater, We Fought Like Kilkenny Cats"

Date 20 November –6 December 1917
Location Cambrai, France
Result Operational stalemate
Both sides achieve offensive tactical success
No strategic result
Belligerents
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Dominion of Newfoundland Newfoundland
German Empire German Empire
Commanders
United Kingdom Julian Byng German Empire Georg von der Marwitz
Strength
2 Corps
476 tanks (378 combat tanks)
1 Corps
Casualties and losses
44,207 casualties
179 tanks out of action
45,000
(British estimates)

The Battle of Cambrai (20 November - 3 December 1917) was a British campaign of the First World War. Cambrai, in the Nord département (Nord-Pas-de-Calais), was a key supply point for the German Siegfried Stellung (part of the Hindenburg Line), and the nearby Bourlon Ridge would be an excellent gain from which to threaten the rear of the German line to the north. The operation was to include an experimental artillery action. Major General Henry Hugh Tudor, commander of the 9th Infantry Division, suggested trying out new artillery-infantry techniques on his sector of the front. During preparations, J.F.C Fuller, a staff officer with the Royal Tank Corps (RTC), was in the process of looking for a place to use tanks as raiding parties. Field Marshal Julian Byng, commander of the British Third Army, decided to incorporate them into the attack.

It is erroneously noted for being the first use of tanks in a combined arms operation. The first use of combined arms attacks had been used at the Battle of the Somme, with mixed results. At Cambrai in 1917, the tanks failed to achieve anything after the first day. German artillery and infantry defences quickly exposed the frailties of the armour. The battle was largely an artillery-infantry battle that achieved initial surprise and technical superiority against relatively strong fortifications, but weak German infantry and artillery defences, which then recovered. The British attack demonstrated that the Hindenburg Line could be penetrated, and showed the value of new artillery and infantry doctrines, such as Sound ranging and infiltration tactics, that would later play a vital part during the Hundred Days Offensive.

The popular perception of the battle as a tank battle was largely the result of extensive writings of biased historians Basil Liddell Hart and J. F. C. Fuller, of whom the later falsely claimed credit for the operational plan. Liddell Hart, a critic of Douglas Haig, attempted to use the battle to indicate a "new" form of doctrine. Liddell Hart's position as Military Correspondent of the Daily Telegraph and the The Times newspapers in 1925 to 1939, allowed him enormous access to the greater public and therefore great influence.[1] Several modern studies, and the The British Official History, rejected the position of Liddell-Hart and Fuller.[2]

Contents

British plan

The British plans originated from Henry Hugh Tudor, commander of the 9th Infantry Division artillery regiment. In August 1917, as Brigadier-General, he conceived the idea of a surprise attack in IV Corps sector that his unit occupied. Tudor suggested a primarily artillery-infantry attack, which would be supported by a small number of tanks to secure a breakthrough of the German Hindenburg Line. The German defences were formidable. Cambrai having been a quiet stretch of front thus far enabled the Germans to fortify their lines in depth and the British were aware of this. Tudor's plan sought to test new doctrinal practices in combined arms, with heavy emphasis on artillery and infantry techniques and see how effective they were against strong German fortifications. Tudor advocated the use of the new sound ranging, or 'silent registration' of guns in order to achieve instant suppression fire and maximum surprise. Tudor also sought to use tanks to clear extensive barbed wire defences, whilst supporting the tank force with the No. 106 fuse shell, designed as a HE (High Explosive charge) to supplement the armour.[3]

The Battle

The battle began at 8 p.m. on 20 November, with a carefully prepared and predicted, but unregistered, barrage by 1,003 guns on key German defences, followed by smoke and a creeping barrage at 300 yards ahead to cover the first advances. Despite efforts to preserve secrecy, the German forces had received sufficient intelligence to be on moderate alert: an attack on Havrincourt was anticipated, as was the use of tanks.

The attacking forces were six infantry divisions of the III Corps (under Lieutenant General Pulteney) on the right and IV Corps (under Lieutenant General Woollcombe) on the left, supported by twelve battalions of the Tank Corps, with a total of 381 tanks. In reserve were one infantry division in IV Corps and the three divisions of the Cavalry Corps (under Lieutenant General Kavanagh).

Initially there was considerable success in most areas, and it seemed as if a great victory was within reach; the Hindenburg Line had been successfully penetrated with advances of up to 5 miles (8.0 km) being achieved. On the right, the 12th (Eastern) Division advanced as far as Lateau Wood before being ordered to dig in. The 20th (Light) Division forced a way through La Vacquerie and then advanced to capture a key bridge across the St Quentin canal at Masnières. The bridge collapsed under the weight of the crossing tanks,[4] halting the hopes for advance there. In the centre the 6th Division captured Ribécourt and Marcoing, but when the cavalry passed through, late, they were dealt a sharp blow and fell back from Noyelles.

On IV Corps' front, the 51st (Highland) Division was stalled at its first objective, Flesquières, and this left the attacking divisions on each flank exposed to enfilading fire. The commander of the 51st Division, George Montague Harper, had substituted his own tank drill for the standard one laid down by the Tank Corps, and that an excessive distance between the tanks and the infantry contributed to the failure. Flesquières was also one of the strongest points in the German line and was flanked by other strong points. Its defenders under Major Krebs also acquitted themselves well against the tanks, engaging them aggressively. Almost forty tanks were knocked out by the Flesquières artillery, including sixteen by a single gun manned by a lone gunner.[citation needed] Despite this the Germans were forced to abandon Flesquières during the night.

The British Offensive.

To the west of Flesquières, the 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division swept all the way through Havrincourt and Graincourt to within reach of the woods on Bourlon Ridge and on the British left, the 36th (Ulster) Division reached the Bapaume-Cambrai road.

Of the tanks, 180 were out of action after the first day, although only 65 had been destroyed. Of the other casualties, 71 had suffered mechanical failure and 43 had been 'ditched'. The British had suffered around 4,000 casualties and had taken 4,200 prisoners, a casualty rate half that of Third Ypres (Passchendaele), and a greater advance in six hours than in three months there.

However, the British had failed to reach the heights of Bourlon Ridge. The German command was quick to send up reinforcements overnight and was relieved that the British did not manage to fully exploit their early gains. When the battle was renewed on the 21st, the pace of British advance was greatly slowed. Flesquières, which had already been abandoned, and then Cantaing were captured in the very early morning, but in general the British took to reinforcing their gains rather than expanding. The efforts of III Corps were officially halted and attention was turned to IV Corps.

The continuing effort was aimed at Bourlon Ridge. Fighting was fierce around Bourlon and at Anneux, just before the woods, was very costly. German counter-attacks squeezed the British out of Moeuvres on the 21st and Fontaine on the 22nd. Even when Anneux was taken, the 62nd Division found themselves unable to even enter Bourlon Woods. The British were left exposed in a salient. Haig still wanted Bourlon Ridge and the exhausted 62nd Division was replaced by the 40th Division under John Ponsonby on the 23rd. Supported by almost a hundred tanks and 430 guns, the 40th attacked into the woods of Bourlon Ridge on the morning of the 23rd. They made little progress. The Germans had put two divisions of Gruppe Arras on the ridge with another two in reserve, and Gruppe Caudry was reinforced. The British 40th Division did reach the crest of the ridge but were held there and suffered over 4,000 casualties for their efforts in three days.

More British troops were pushed in to move beyond the woods to Fointaine, but the British reserves were rapidly depleted and the Germans were still sending in more reinforcements. The final British effort was on the 27th by the 62nd Division aided by thirty tanks. Early success was soon reversed by a German counterattack. The British now held a salient roughly 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) by 9.5 kilometres (5.9 mi) with its front along the crest of the ridge. On the 28th the offensive was officially ended and the British troops were ordered to lay wire and dig in. The Germans were quick to concentrate their artillery on the new British positions. On the 28th, over 16,000 rounds were fired into the wood.

The Counter-attack

The German Counter-Attack.

As the British took the ridge the Germans began reinforcing the general area. As early as the 23rd the German command felt that a British breakthrough would not occur and began to consider a counter-offensive. Twenty divisions were arrayed in the Cambrai area. The Germans intended to retake the Bourlon salient and also to attack around Havrincourt while diversionary attacks would hold IV Corps. Overall it was hoped to at least reach the old positions on the Hindenburg Line. The Germans intended to employ the new tactics of a short, intense period of shelling followed by a rapid assault using Hutier infiltration tactics, leading elements attacking in groups rather than waves and bypassing strong opposition. For the initial assault at Bourlon three divisions of Gruppe Arras under Otto von Moser were assigned. On the eastern flank of the British salient, Gruppe Caudry attacked from Bantouzelle to Rumilly and aimed for Marcoing. Gruppe Busogny advanced from Banteux. These two corps groups totalled 7 infantry divisions.

Lieutenant General Thomas D'Oyly Snow, the commander of the British VII Corps to the south of the threatened area, warned III Corps of German preparations.

Captured British tank at Cambrai

The German attack began at 07:00 on 30 November. Almost immediately the majority of III Corps divisions were heavily engaged. The German infantry's advance was unexpectedly swift. The commanders of 29th and 12th divisions were almost captured, with Brigadier-General Vincent having to fight free from his own encircled headquarters and then grab men from any retreating units to try to halt the Germans. In the south the German advance spread across 8 miles (13 km) and came within a few miles of the vital village of Metz and its link to Bourlon.

At Bourlon itself, the men under Moser met with stiffer resistance. The British had assigned eight divisions' worth of fire support to the ridge and the Germans suffered heavy casualties. Despite this, the Germans closed and there was fierce fighting. British units displayed reckless determination - one group of eight British machine guns fired over 70,000 rounds in their efforts to stem the German advance around Bourlon.

The concentration of British effort to hold the ridge was impressive but allowed the German advance elsewhere greater opportunity. Only counter-attacks by the Guards Division, the arrival of British tanks and the fall of night allowed the line to be held. By the following day the impetus of the German advance was lost, but continued pressure on 3 December led to the German capture of La Vacquerie and a British withdrawal east of the St Quentin canal. The Germans had reached a line looping from the ridge at Quentin to near Marcoing. Their capture of Bonvais ridge made the British hold on Bourlon precarious.

Aftermath

Frontlines before and after the battle.

On 3 December Haig ordered a retreat from the salient and by 7 December all the British gains were abandoned except for a portion of the Hindenburg line around Havrincourt, Ribécourt and Flesquières. The Germans had exchanged this territorial loss for land to the south of Welsh ridge.

Total casualties were around 45,000 for each side, with 11,000 Germans and 9,000 British taken prisoner. In terms of territory, the Germans recovered most of their early losses and gained a little more. The battle showed the British that even the strongest trench defences could be overcome by a mass tank attack, however it also showed the Germans the efectiveness of the new Stormtrooper tactics so recently invented by General Hutier against the Russians. These lessons were later successfully implemented by both sides.

References

  1. ^ Hammond 2009, p. 430
  2. ^ Hammond 2009, pp. 429-430
  3. ^ Hammond 2009, p. 57.
  4. ^ Mann, Chris: Battles That Changed Warfare, pp.178–185

Bibliography

  • Hammond, Bryn (2009). Cambrai 1917: The Myth of the First Great Tank Battle. Orion Publishing.  ISBN 978-0-7538-2605-8

External links

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