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Battle of Kagul
Kagula.jpg
Battle of Kagul, by Daniel Chodowiecki
Date 21 July 1770
Location Kagul River, southern Bessarabia
Result Decisive Russian victory
Belligerents
 Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Commanders
Pyotr Rumyantsev Ivazzade Halil Pasha
Strength
45,000, 118 guns[1] Turkish: 75,000,[2] of them 50,000 infantry
Tatar: 80,000-100,000 cavalry[1]
Casualties and losses
ca 1,500 killed and wounded 20,000 killed and wounded, 2,000 taken prisoner, 130 guns lost

The Battle of Kagul (Russian: Сражение при Кагуле) was the most important land battle of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 and one of the largest battles of the 18th century. It was fought on 21 July 1770, just a fortnight after the Russian victory at Larga.

The Russian commander Pyotr Rumyantsev arranged his army of 45,000 soldiers in solid squares and surprisingly chose to go on the offensive against the allied forces of the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire, which consisted of 30,000 Ottoman infantry and 45,000 Ottoman cavalry. About 80,000 Crimean Tatar cavalry were deployed within 20 km from the battlefield but they did not engage in battle.

The comparatively small Russian army assaulted the Turks and put them to flight. The Russian casualties were 1,000, while casualties on the Turkish side amounted to over 20,000 soldiers killed and wounded. In the wake of this victory, the Russians captured 130 Turkish cannons and overran all major fortresses in the region - İşmasıl (now Izmail), Kilya (now Kilia), Akkerman (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), Ibrail (now Brăila), Isaccea, and Bender (now Bendery).

In commemoration of the victory, Catherine II of Russia ordered the Kagul Obelisk to be erected in Tsarskoe Selo, while Frederick II of Prussia sent to Rumyantsev a congratulatory letter in which he compared the Russian victory to the deeds of the Ancient Romans. On the same day four years later, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ending the war.

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