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Battle of Midway
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
SBDs approach the burning Mikuma (Center).
.U.S. Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers about to attack the burning cruiser Mikuma for the third time.^ Dive bombers attack Lt. Cdr.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers about to attack the burning cruiser Mikuma for the third time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Douglas SBD's are used for patrol planes as well as dive bombers.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Date 4–7 June 1942
Location Near Midway Atoll
28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.2°N 177.35°W / 28.2; -177.35Coordinates: 28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.2°N 177.35°W / 28.2; -177.35
Result Decisive United States victory
Belligerents
United States
United States
Japan
Empire of Japan
Commanders
Chester W. Nimitz
Frank J. Fletcher
Raymond A. Spruance
Yamamoto Isoroku
Kondo Nobutake
Nagumo Chūichi
Yamaguchi Tamon [1]
Ryusaku Yanagimoto 
Strength
3 carriers,
~25 support ships,
233 carrier aircraft,
127 land-based aircraft
4 carriers,
2 battleships,
~15 support ships (heavy and light cruisers, destroyers),
248[2] carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes
Did not participate in battle:
2 light carriers,
5 battleships,
~41 support ships (Yamamoto "Main Body", Kondo "Strike Force" plus "Escort" and "Occupation Support Force")
Casualties and losses
1 carrier sunk,
1 destroyer sunk,
150 aircraft destroyed[citation needed],
307 killed[3]
4 carriers sunk,
1 cruiser sunk,
248 carrier aircraft destroyed,
2,013 killed
.The Battle of Midway (Japanese: ミッドウェー海戦) is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II.^ For these reasons, Midway can fairly be assigned the status of the most important battle of the Pacific War.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Related subjects: World War II .

^ The battle was a crushing defeat for the Japanese and is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of World War II .

[4][5][6] .Between 4 and 7 June 1942, approximately one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea and six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese.^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ RESTRICTED Zuikaku, got damaged in the battle of Coral Sea as those were not ready.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A picture of Midway Atoll, taken several months before the battle.

[7]
.The Japanese operation, like the earlier attack on Pearl Harbor, aimed to eliminate the United States as a strategic power in the Pacific, thereby giving Japan a free hand in establishing its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Okinawa, a Japanese prefecture, was part of Japan's huge East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere.
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan attacks Pearl Harbor .
  • http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/9-3917.aspx 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was hoped another demoralizing defeat would force the U.S. to negotiate an end to the Pacific War on conditions favorable to Japan.^ It was hoped another demoralizing defeat would force the U.S. to negotiate an end to the Pacific War on conditions favorable to Japan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the best of circumstances, it was also hoped that the Americans would be forced to the negotiating table to terminate the Pacific War.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also hoped that another defeat would force the Americans to the negotiating table to terminate the Pacific War.

[8]
.The Japanese plan was to lure the United States' few remaining aircraft carriers into a trap.^ The Japanese plan was to lure the United States' few remaining aircraft carriers into a trap.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spruance knew that he had won a great victory, but he was still unsure of what Japanese forces remained at hand, and was determined to safeguard both Midway and his carriers.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nimitz was aware, for example, that the vast Japanese numerical superiority had been divided into no less than four task forces, and the escort for the Carrier Striking Force was limited to just a few fast ships.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The Japanese also intended to occupy Midway Atoll as part of an overall plan to extend their defensive perimeter in response to the Doolittle Raid.^ The Japanese overall plans were: a.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Planning the attack on Midway Atoll .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Japanese also intended to occupy Midway Atoll as part of an overall plan to extend their defensive perimeter in response to the Doolittle Raid .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This operation was considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji and Samoa.^ This operation was considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji and Samoa .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success of this operation was also considered preparatory for further operations against Fiji and Samoa , as well as an anticipated invasion of Hawaii.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ever since March, Yamamoto had been pressing to convince the Naval General Staff that the planned attacks on Samoa and Fiji Islands had to be dropped in favor of an attack on the Central Pacific island of Midway.

.The plan was handicapped by faulty Japanese assumptions of American reaction and poor initial dispositions.^ The plan was handicapped by faulty Japanese assumptions of American reaction and poor initial dispositions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese carrier doctrine preferred fully constituted strikes, and in the absence of a confirmation of whether the American force contained carriers, Nagumo's reaction was cautious.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In planning the Midway offensive, the Japanese military leadership was influenced by a number of dangerous assumptions.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Most significantly, American codebreakers were able to determine the date and location of the attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to set up an ambush of its own.^ Most significantly, American codebreakers were able to determine the date and location of the attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to set up an ambush of its own.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having located the Japanese force first, the Americans launched a steady progression of both land- and carrier-based attacks on the morning of the 4th.
  • http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/9-3917.aspx 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Americans located the Japanese fleet in the early morning and commenced a costly air strike that only 6 of the attacking 41 torpedo bombers survived.
  • The Battle of Midway: "Five minutes" that changed the War. [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer.^ Four Japanese carriers and a cruiser were sunk.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Altogether, four Japanese aircraft carriers ( Akagi, Hiryu, Kaga, and Soryu ) and the heavy cruiser Mikuma were sunk.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The heavy losses in carriers and aircrews permanently weakened the Imperial Japanese Navy.^ The heavy losses in carriers and aircrews permanently weakened the Imperial Japanese Navy.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the planes on Midway were discards from US Navy carriers whose performance fell far below that of aircraft Japanese fleet carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Japan's shipbuilding and pilot training programs were unable to keep pace in replacing their losses, while the U.S. steadily increased output in both areas.^ Japan's shipbuilding and pilot training programs were unable to keep pace in replacing their losses, while the U.S. steadily increased output in both areas.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Midway, the Japanese lost as many of these pilots in a single day as their pre-war training program produced in a year.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan's loss of four out of her six fleet carriers, as well as a large number of highly trained aircrew, ended Japanese expansion in the Pacific.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Strategic context

.Japan had been highly successful in swiftly securing its initial war goals, including the conquest of the Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, and the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) with its vital resources.^ Japan had been highly successful in swiftly securing its initial war goals, including the conquest of the Philippines , Malaya , Singapore , and the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia ) with its vital resources.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan had been highly successful in rapidly securing its initial war aims, including the reduction of the Philippines , the capture of Malaysia and Singapore , and the securing of the vital resource areas in Java , Borneo , and Indonesia .
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The initial reasons were mainly economic, to secure Japan's access to the oil reserves of the Dutch East Indies.
  • The Battle of Midway: Turning Point in the Pacific Campaign 3 - 7 June 1942 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.As such, preliminary planning for a second phase of operations commenced as early as January 1942. However, because of strategic differences between the Imperial Army and Imperial Navy, as well as infighting between the Navy's GHQ and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's Combined Fleet, the formulation of effective strategy was hampered, and the follow-up strategy was not finalized until April 1942.[12] Admiral Yamamoto succeeded in winning a bureaucratic struggle, placing his operational concept—further operations in the Central Pacific—ahead of other contending plans.^ In March 1942, Japan's Navy General Staff and the Imperial Navy's Combined Fleet had conflicting strategic priorities in the Pacific region.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As such, preliminary planning for a second phase of operations commenced as early as January 1942.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a strategy would not only waste the proven effectiveness and technical efficiency of the Imperial Navy but the strategic advantage gained by the initial operations as well.
  • The Battle of Midway: Turning Point in the Pacific Campaign 3 - 7 June 1942 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.These included operations either directly or indirectly aimed at Australia and into the Indian Ocean.^ These included operations either directly or indirectly aimed at Australia and into the Indian Ocean.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Akagi has but 14 operational Zeros thereafter, including these three 6th AG planes, and as she has enough pilots of her own to fly them.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, we have the foray into the Indian Ocean by Nagumo's carriers in April 1942.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the end, Yamamoto's thinly-veiled threat to resign unless he got his way carried his agenda forward.^ However, in the end, Yamamoto's barely-veiled threat to resign unless he got his way succeeded in carrying his agenda forward.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second wave attack on Midway had to go forward as planned, but it was decided that the First Carrier Striking Force should also prepare to meet a threat from an American fleet.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the fracas seemed to have ended, 10,000 feet above him, the Japanese planes that Muri had passed on his way out from Midway were coming home to their carriers.
  • "A Shot Across The Bow" depicts and is autographed by James Muri who is shown piloting his B-26 Marauder across the Akagi during the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.valorstudios.com [Source type: General]

[13]
.Yamamoto's primary strategic concern was the elimination of America's remaining carrier forces, which he perceived as the principal obstacle to the overall Pacific campaign.^ Yamamoto's primary strategic concern was the elimination of America's remaining carrier forces, which he perceived as the principal obstacle to the overall Pacific campaign.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yamamoto's primary strategic concern was the elimination of America's remaining carrier forces.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinking America's aircraft carriers and seizing Midway, the only strategic islands besides Hawaii in the eastern Pacific, was seen as the only means of nullifying this threat.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .This concern was acutely heightened by the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo (18 April 1942) by USAAF B-25s launched from USS Hornet.^ This concern was acutely heightened by the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo (18 April 1942) by USAAF B-25s launched from USS Hornet .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James H. Doolittle made a raid on Tokyo.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The retaliatory air raid on military targets in Tokyo and other Japanese cities by Lieutenant Colonel Doolittle’s carrier-launched bombers on 18 April 1942 put an abrupt end to the dispute between Japan's generals and admirals concerning the Midway Operation and dramatically altered Japan’s strategic military priorities.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The raid, while militarily insignificant, was a severe psychological shock to the Japanese and showed the existence of a gap in the defenses around the Japanese home islands.^ The raid, while militarily insignificant, was a severe psychological shock to the Japanese and showed the existence of a gap in the defenses around the Japanese home islands.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the remainder of the war, she operated between the Philippine Islands and New Guinea, as American forces continued to sweep northward towards the Japanese home islands.

^ Several of the IJN ships that survived the war were utilized as repatriation vessels to transport surrendered Japanese troops and civilians from various parts of their former Empire back to the Home Islands.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Sinking America's aircraft carriers and seizing Midway, the only strategic islands besides Hawaii in the eastern Pacific, was seen as the only means of nullifying this threat.^ Sinking America's aircraft carriers and seizing Midway, the only strategic islands besides Hawaii in the eastern Pacific, was seen as the only means of nullifying this threat.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Admiral Yamamoto's view, the capture of Midway Island would allow Japan to pursue its Asian policies behind an impregnable eastern shield of defenses in the Central Pacific.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of 223 aircraft of all types embarked on the three American carriers at the Battle of Midway and 114 land based on Midway atoll, only the carrier based dive bombers inflicted any serious damage on the Japanese carriers and that damage was the devastating margin of victory.
  • Flightdeck Friday: Smoke and the Battle of Midway | USNI Blog 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC blog.usni.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yamamoto reasoned an operation against the main carrier base at Pearl Harbor would induce the U.S. to fight.^ Yamamoto reasoned an operation against the main carrier base at Pearl Harbor would induce the U.S. to fight.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yamamoto reasoned that an operation aimed at the main carrier base at Pearl Harbor would induce them to fight.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. did consider Midway vital; after the battle, establishment of a U.S. submarine base on Midway allowed submarines operating from Pearl Harbor to refuel and reprovision, extending their radius of operations by 1,200 miles (1,900 km).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, given the strength of American land-based air power on Hawaii, he judged the powerful American base could not be attacked directly.^ However, given the strength of American land-based air power on Hawaii, he judged the powerful American base could not be attacked directly.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air strength in the Hawaii area was estimated to be as follows: .
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These planes could not be launched while the American attack was underway.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Instead, he selected Midway, at the extreme northwest end of the Hawaiian Island chain, some 1,300 miles (2,100 km) from Oahu.^ Instead, he selected Midway, at the extreme northwest end of the Hawaiian Island chain, some 1,300 miles (2,100 km) from Oahu .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, he moved to block it, taking station some 100 nm (185 km) northeast of Midway; this frustrated Yamamoto's efforts, and the night passed without any contact between the opposing forces.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tone scout seaplane had located a fleet of warships about 240 miles (384 km) north of Midway Atoll and heading in a south-easterly direction.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Midway was not especially important in the larger scheme of Japan's intentions, but the Japanese felt the Americans would consider Midway a vital outpost of Pearl Harbor and would therefore strongly defend it.^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the American Pacific Fleet arrived from Pearl Harbor to defend Midway, Admiral Nagumo would destroy it.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Midway itself was not especially important in the larger scheme of Japan's intentions; however, the Japanese felt that the Americans would consider Midway a vital outpost of Pearl Harbor , and would therefore strongly defend it.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The U.S. did consider Midway vital; after the battle, establishment of a U.S. submarine base on Midway allowed submarines operating from Pearl Harbor to refuel and reprovision, extending their radius of operations by 1,200 mi (1,900 km).^ The U.S. did consider Midway vital; after the battle, establishment of a U.S. submarine base on Midway allowed submarines operating from Pearl Harbor to refuel and reprovision, extending their radius of operations by 1,200 miles (1,900 km).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He ordered Yorktown , which had been damaged at Coral Sea and which had returned to Pearl Harbor on 27 May 1942, to expedite repairs and join Enterprise and Hornet northeast of Midway.
  • The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC pwencycl.kgbudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midway itself was not especially important in the larger scheme of Japan's intentions; however, the Japanese felt that the Americans would consider Midway a vital outpost of Pearl Harbor , and would therefore strongly defend it.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An airstrip on Midway served as a forward staging point for bomber attacks on Wake Island.^ An airstrip on Midway served as a forward staging point for bomber attacks on Wake Island .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 23, 1941, Midway's air defenses were reinforced with 17 SB2U-3 Vought Vindicator dive bombers, 14 Brewster F2A-3 Buffalo fighters, and pilots and aircrews originally intended for the relief of Wake Island.
  • Free-Essays.us - Battle Of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.free-essays.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ever since March, Yamamoto had been pressing to convince the Naval General Staff that the planned attacks on Samoa and Fiji Islands had to be dropped in favor of an attack on the Central Pacific island of Midway.

[18]

Yamamoto's plan

.
Midway Atoll, several months before the battle.
^ Midway Atoll, several months before the battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The carrier Shokaku had been severely damaged at the Battle of the Coral Sea less than a month earlier, and the carrier Zuikaku had lost too many aircraft and aircrews in that battle to be capable of involvement in the Japanese offensive at Midway.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

Eastern Island (with the airfield) is in the foreground, and the larger Sand Island is in the background to the west.
.Typical of Japanese naval planning during World War II, Yamamoto's battle plan was exceedingly complex.^ As was typical of many Japanese naval plans during the Second World War , Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto 's battle plan was quite complex.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II battle from both the American and Japanese viewpoints.
  • Midway, Charlton Heston, DVD - Barnes & Noble 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC video.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

^ World War II Add category .
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .Additionally, his design was predicated on optimistic intelligence suggesting USS Enterprise and USS Hornet, forming Task Force 16, were the only carriers available to the U.S. Pacific Fleet at the time.^ Carriers involved are the Yorktown, Enterprise, and Hornet.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other items: Enemy task force strength: 3 carriers ( Yorktown, Enterprise, Hornet ).
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, his designs were predicated on optimistic intelligence information suggesting that Enterprise and Hornet , forming Task Force 16, were the only carriers available to the US Pacific forces at the time.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.USS Lexington had been sunk and USS Yorktown severely damaged (and believed by the Japanese to have been sunk) at the Battle of the Coral Sea just a month earlier.^ RESTRICTED Zuikaku, got damaged in the battle of Coral Sea as those were not ready.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battles in the Coral Sea on May 8, 1942.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lexington had been sunk and Yorktown had been severely mauled (and was believed sunk) at the Battle of the Coral Sea just a month earlier.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese were also aware that USS Saratoga was undergoing repairs on the West Coast after suffering torpedo damage from a submarine.^ Likewise, the Japanese believed that Saratoga was undergoing repairs on the West Coast after taking torpedo damage.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese were also aware that USS Saratoga was undergoing repairs on the West Coast after suffering torpedo damage from a submarine.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hit by multiple torpedoes for the Japanese submarine I-168 .

.However, more important was Yamamoto's belief the Americans had been demoralized by their frequent defeats during the preceding six months.^ However, more important was Yamamoto's belief the Americans had been demoralized by their frequent defeats during the preceding six months.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More important, however, was Yamamoto's belief that the Americans had been demoralized by their frequent defeats during the preceding six months.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the American code breakers were reading much of the Japanese naval traffic and correctly deduced Yamamoto’s objective.
  • The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC pwencycl.kgbudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yamamoto felt deception would be required to lure the U.S. fleet into a fatally compromised situation.^ Yamamoto felt deception would be required to lure the U.S. fleet into a fatally compromised situation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yamamoto felt that deception would be required to lure the U.S. Fleet into a fatally compromising situation.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Aleutians Operation was conceived by Admiral Yamamoto, the commander in chief of Combined Fleet, as a diversion designed to lure the American fleet out of Pearl Harbor.
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: General]

[20] .To this end, he dispersed his forces so that their full extent (particularly his battleships) would be unlikely to be discovered by the Americans prior to battle.^ To this end, he dispersed his forces so that their full extent (particularly his battleships ) would be unlikely to be discovered by the Americans prior to battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such, he dispersed his forces such that the full extent of his forces (particularly his battleships) would be unlikely to be discovered by the Americans prior to the decisive battle.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas prior historical accounts have often characterized the Aleutians operation as a feint to draw American forces away, recent scholarship on the battle has suggested that AL was supposed to be launched simultaneously with the attack on Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critically, Yamamoto's supporting battleships and cruisers would trail Vice-Admiral Nagumo Chūichi's carrier striking force by several hundred miles.^ Admiral Fletcher searches for Nagumo's Carriers .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Critically, Yamamoto's supporting battleships and cruisers would trail Vice-Admiral Nagumo Chūichi 's carrier striking force by several hundred miles.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critically, Yamamoto's supporting Main Body of battleships and cruisers would trail Vice-Admiral Chuichi Nagumo 's carrier Striking Force by several hundred miles.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japan's heavy surface forces were intended to destroy whatever part of the U.S. fleet might come to Midway's relief, once Nagumo's carriers had weakened them sufficiently for a daylight gun duel;[21] this was typical of the battle doctrine of most major navies.^ Japan's heavy surface forces were intended to destroy whatever part of the U.S. fleet might come to Midway's relief, once Nagumo's carriers had weakened them sufficiently for a daylight gun duel; [ 21 ] this was typical of the battle doctrine of most major navies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan's heavy surface forces were intended to destroy whatever part of the U.S. Fleet might come to Midway's relief, once Nagumo's carriers had weakened them sufficiently for a daylight gun duel to be fought.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In numerous and widespread engagements lasting from the 3rd to 6th of June, with carrier based planes as the spearhead of the attack, combined forces of the Navy, Marine Corps and Army in the Hawaiian Area defeated a large part of the Japanese fleet and frustrated the enemy's powerful move against Midway that was undoubtedly the keystone of larger plans.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, the United States had broken the main Japanese naval code (dubbed JN-25 by the Americans).^ United States naval aviation .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, the United States had broken the main Japanese naval code (dubbed JN-25 by the Americans).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leading a team of trained professionals in mathematics, communications and cryptology, Rochefort had broken the Japanese Naval Cipher, code named JN-25, before the war had started and had been able read at least 10 percent of the Japanese Navy's radio transmissions.

.Yamamoto's emphasis on dispersal also meant that none of his formations could support each other.^ Yamamoto's emphasis on dispersal also meant that none of his formations could support each other.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately for the Japanese, their emphasis on stealth and dispersal meant that none of their formations was mutually supporting.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had a Cineplex in LA that had 4 seats that you could not see the screen and a Pacific house that 2 could only see 1/2 the screen and the other 2 none of the screen.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

.For instance, the only significant warships larger than destroyers that screened Nagumo's fleet were two battleships and three cruisers, despite his carriers being expected to carry out the strikes and bear the brunt of American counterattacks.^ For instance, the only significant warships larger than destroyers that screened Nagumo's fleet were two battleships and three cruisers, despite his carriers being expected to carry out the strikes and bear the brunt of American counterattacks.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three cruisers and 5 destroyers were in the vicinity.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hiryu was facing not two American aircraft carriers, but three.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast, the flotillas of Yamamoto and Kondo had between them two light carriers, five battleships, and six cruisers, none of which would see any action at Midway.^ The Midway Occupation Force consisted of battleships, cruisers, transports and two seaplane carriers.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By contrast, the flotillas of Yamamoto and Kondo had between them two light carriers, five battleships, and six cruisers, none of which would see any action at Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Nagumo's carriers would see their very first action.

[21] .Their distance from Nagumo's carriers would also have grave implications during the battle, since the larger warships in Yamamoto and Kondo's forces carried scout planes, an invaluable reconnaissance capability denied to Nagumo.^ Their distance from Nagumo's carriers would also have grave implications during the battle, since the larger warships in Yamamoto and Kondo's forces carried scout planes , an invaluable reconnaissance capability denied to Nagumo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, their distance from Nagumo's carriers would have grave implications during the battle.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Aleutian invasion

.Likewise, the Japanese operations in the Aleutian Islands (Operation AL) removed yet more ships that could otherwise have augmented the force striking Midway.^ Re: Japanese fighters on Midway Island ?
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, the Japanese operations aimed at the Aleutian Islands (Operation AL) removed yet more ships from the force that would strike at Midway.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Midway Forces had struck with full strength, but the Japanese were not as yet checked.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whereas prior historical accounts have often characterized the Aleutians operation as a feint to draw American forces away, recent scholarship on the battle has suggested that AL was supposed to be launched simultaneously with the attack on Midway.^ Recall the simultaneous Operation AL against the Aleutian Islands.
  • Battle of Midway and the Aleutian Islands | World War II Database 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas prior historical accounts have often characterized the Aleutians operation as a feint to draw American forces away, recent scholarship on the battle has suggested that AL was supposed to be launched simultaneously with the attack on Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Americans by attacking Midway from various sides.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .However, a one-day delay in the sailing of Nagumo's task force meant that Operation AL began a day before the Midway attack.^ However, a one-day delay in the sailing of Nagumo's task force meant that Operation AL began a day before the Midway attack.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next day, Japanese forces began getting underway for Midway.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This task force was operating in waters to the north of the other one.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Prelude to battle

American reinforcements

USS Yorktown at Pearl Harbor days before the battle.
.To do battle with an enemy force anticipated to muster four or five carriers, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz (Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas) needed every available U.S. flight deck.^ To do battle with an enemy force anticipated to muster four or five carriers, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz (Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas) needed every available U.S. flight deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to do battle with an enemy force anticipated to be composed of 4-5 carriers, Nimitz needed every available U.S. flight deck.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admiral Nimitz's CinCPac report of the battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He already had Vice Admiral William Halsey's two-carrier (Enterprise and Hornet) task force at hand, though Halsey was stricken with psoriasis and had to be replaced by Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (Halsey's escort commander).^ He already had Vice Admiral William Halsey 's two-carrier ( Enterprise and Hornet ) task force at hand, though Halsey was stricken with psoriasis and had to be replaced by Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (Halsey's escort commander).
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^ Carriers involved are the Yorktown, Enterprise, and Hornet.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spruance had relieved Halsey as commander of the Enterprise task force after Halsey came down with a disabling skin disorder .
  • The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC pwencycl.kgbudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Nimitz also hurriedly called back Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's task force, including the carrier Yorktown (which had been severely damaged at the Battle of the Coral Sea), from the South West Pacific Area.^ RESTRICTED Zuikaku, got damaged in the battle of Coral Sea as those were not ready.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nimitz also hurriedly called back Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher 's task force from the South West Pacific Area .
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battles in the Coral Sea on May 8, 1942.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He reached Pearl Harbor just in time to provision and sail.^ They reached Pearl Harbor just in time to provision and re-sortie.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The orphaned TBFs had failed to reach Hawaii in time to fly aboard Hornet before it left Pearl Harbor for Midway.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On February 16, under sealed orders, Yorktown sailed from Pearl Harbor with supporting ships, not to return for one hundred and three days, which was then a cruising record.
  • http://www.military-network.com/midway.htm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.military-network.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite estimates that Yorktown would require several months of repairs at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, her elevators were intact, and her flight deck largely so.^ Despite estimates that Yorktown would require several months of repairs at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard , her elevators were intact, and her flight deck largely so.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He told Fletcher that he would be sailing with the Yorktown to join up with Spruance in a few days, but that presupposed the Yorktown being sufficiently combat worthy - estimates of repair time varied between three months and a fortnight, neither of which would mean she would be available to face the Japanese.
  • The Battle of Midway: Turning Point in the Pacific Campaign 3 - 7 June 1942 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 72 hours Yorktown was transformed from a barely-operational wreck, headed for a long stay at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard , into a working (if still compromised) aircraft carrier.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .The Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard worked around the clock and in 72 hours, she was restored to a battle-ready state,[27] judged good enough for two or three weeks of operations, as Nimitz required.^ The Aleutians Operation was conceived by Admiral Yamamoto, the commander in chief of Combined Fleet, as a diversion designed to lure the American fleet out of Pearl Harbor.
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: General]

^ Akagi has but 14 operational Zeros thereafter, including these three 6th AG planes, and as she has enough pilots of her own to fly them.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, there was little time for repairs, because Allied intelligence-most notably the cryptographic unit at Pearl Harbor-had gained enough information from decoded Japanese naval messages to estimate that the Japanese were on the threshold of a major operation aimed at the northwestern tip of the Hawaiian chain-two islets in a low coral atoll known as Midway.

[28] .Her flight deck was patched, whole sections of internal frames cut out and replaced, and several new squadrons were drawn from Saratoga; they did not, however, get time to train.^ Her flight deck was patched, whole sections of internal frames cut out and replaced, and several new squadrons were drawn from Saratoga ; they did not, however, get time to train.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her flight deck was patched, whole sections of internal beams were cut out and replaced, and several new squadrons (drawn from carrier Saratoga ) were put aboard her.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have had a very short time to train and we have worked under the most severe difficulties.
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: General]

[29] .Nimitz disregarded established procedure in getting his third and last available carrier ready for battle.^ Admiral Nimitz showed total disregard for established procedure in getting his third and last available carrier ready for battle — repairs continued even as Yorktown sortied.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nimitz disregarded established procedure in getting his third and last available carrier ready for battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To do battle with an enemy force anticipated to muster four or five carriers, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz (Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas) needed every available U.S. flight deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just three days after putting into dry dock at Pearl Harbor, Yorktown was again under way.^ USS Yorktown at Pearl Harbor days before the battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The days before Pearl Harbor.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just three days after putting into dry dock at Pearl Harbor, Yorktown was again under way.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Repairs continued even as she sortied, with work crews from the repair ship USS Vestal, herself damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor six months earlier, still aboard.^ For six months it worked.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He survived the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • http://www.military-network.com/midway.htm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.military-network.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Repairs continued even as she sortied, with work crews from the repair ship USS Vestal , herself damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor six months earlier, still aboard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.On Midway Island, the USAAF stationed four squadrons of B-17 Flying Fortresses, along with several B-26 Marauders.^ The fall of Wake Island provides Midway with a fighter squadron .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On September 14, 1991, Midway arrived at her final homeport, Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego, California.
  • USS Midway History 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.midwaysailor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The carrier entered Pearl Harbor on 26 May and began intensive preparations to meet the expected Japanese thrust at Midway Island.

.The Marine Corps had 19 SBD Dauntlesses, seven F4F-3 Wildcats, 17 Vought SBU-3 Vindicators, 21 Brewster F2A-3s, and six Grumman TBF-1 Avengers, the latter a detachment of VT-8 from Hornet.^ The Marine Corps had nineteen SBD Dauntless dive bombers, seven F4F-3 Wildcats , seventeen Vought SBU-3 Vindicators , twenty-one Brewster F2A-3s , and six Grumman TBF-1 Avenger torpedo bombers, the latter a detachment of VT-8 from Hornet .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midway-based Marine fighter pilots, flying obsolescent Grumman F4F-3 Wildcats and obsolete [ 47 ] Brewster F2A-3s, intercepted the Japanese and suffered heavy losses, though they managed to destroy four bombers and at least three Zeros.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Marine Fighting Squadron 221 (VMF-221) comprised six recently acquired Grumman F4F-3 Wildcat and twenty obsolescent Brewster F2A-3 Buffalo fighters.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

Japanese shortcomings

Akagi, the flagship of the Japanese carrier striking force which attacked Pearl Harbor, as well as Darwin, Rabaul, and Colombo, in April 1942 prior to the battle.
.Meanwhile, as a result of her participation in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Japanese carrier Zuikaku was in port in Kure, awaiting a replacement air group.^ RESTRICTED Zuikaku, got damaged in the battle of Coral Sea as those were not ready.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The participation of US Carriers was a surprise for the Japanese.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battles in the Coral Sea on May 8, 1942.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That there were none immediately available was a failure of the IJN crew training program, which already showed signs of being unable to replace losses.^ Well, Germany was already known to be a deadly opponent, but the Soviet failures showed that the USSR was very much inferior militarily to Germany on the field in 1941.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite a heavy inflow of planes from the mainland to Oahu and from there to Midway, the available numbers were never large enough to give a comfortable margin for losses.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was little likelihood of the fires being extinguished in the immediate future.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .Instructors from the Yokosuka Air Corps were employed in an effort to make up the shortfall.^ Instructors from the Yokosuka Air Corps were employed in an effort to make up the shortfall.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The heavily-damaged Shōkaku had suffered three bomb hits at Coral Sea, and required months of repair in drydock.^ The heavily damaged Shōkaku had suffered three bomb hits at Coral Sea, and required months of repair in drydock .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enterprise survived three bomb hits.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Akagi had been hit by one bomb (plus a near miss which caused crucial rudder damage), [44] Soryu by three, and Kaga by at least four and likely more.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the likely availability of sufficient aircraft between the two ships to re-equip Zuikaku with a composite air group, the Japanese made no serious attempt to get her into the forthcoming battle.^ No Japanese ships were even scratched!
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US aircraft begin to spot the groups of Japanese ships.
  • Timeline: Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncleted.jinak.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an attempt to replace their carrier losses, the Japanese attempted to convert the two battleships into aircraft carriers.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Consequently, Admiral Nagumo would only have four fleet carriers: Kaga and Akagi forming Carrier Division 1; Hiryū and Sōryū as Carrier Division 2.^ The flagship of Admiral Nagumo,the heavy carrier Akagi.

^ Admiral Fletcher searches for Nagumo's Carriers .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, instead of bringing six heavy carriers into battle, Admiral Nagumo would now only have four.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At least part of this was a product of fatigue; Japanese carriers had been constantly on operations since 7 December 1941, including raids on Darwin and Colombo.^ At least part of this was a product of fatigue; Japanese carriers had been constantly on operations since 7 December 1941, including raids on Darwin and Colombo .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941, the Japanese armed forces conducted military operations against U.S., British Commonwealth, and Dutch possessions in the Pacific and Southeast Asia.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The main Japanese strike aircraft to be used were the Aichi D3A1 dive bomber and the Nakajima B5N2, which was capable of being used either as a torpedo bomber or as a level attack bomber.^ Dive bombers attack Lt. Cdr.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main Japanese strike aircraft to be used were the Aichi D3A 1 dive bomber and the Nakajima B5N 2, which was capable of being used either as a torpedo bomber or as a level attack bomber.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ENTERPRISE was damaged by a Japanese dive-bomber.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main carrier fighter was the fast and highly maneuverable Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero.^ The main carrier fighter was the fast and highly maneuverable Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kikuchi Rokuro (p) 17 x Type 97 B5N2 carrier attack planes 6th Kokutai 3 x Type 00 A6M2 carrier fighters *CV Soryu *Capt.
  • Order of Battle - The Battle of Midway/Aluetians, 4-6 June 1942 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.navweaps.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were slow moving targets for the swarms of deadly Zero fighters that protected the Japanese carrier force that attacked Midway on 4 June 1942.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .However, the carriers of the Kido Butai were suffering from a shortage of frontline aircraft.^ Kido Butai: Hiryu was preparing to launch D4Y1 to find US carriers and lead the planned 3rd strike in.
  • Timeline: Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncleted.jinak.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kido Butai: Chikuma reports "carrier planes" approaching from the east.
  • Timeline: Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncleted.jinak.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kido Butai: Japanese stike forms up over their carriers.
  • Timeline: Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncleted.jinak.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For various reasons, production of the D3A had been drastically reduced, while that of the B5N had been stopped completely.^ For various reasons, production of the D3A had been drastically reduced, while that of the B5N had been stopped completely.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a consequence, there were none available to replace losses.^ As a consequence, there were none available to replace losses.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite a heavy inflow of planes from the mainland to Oahu and from there to Midway, the available numbers were never large enough to give a comfortable margin for losses.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That there were none immediately available was a failure of the IJN crew training program, which already showed signs of being unable to replace losses.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also meant that many of the aircraft being used during the June 1942 operations had been operational since late November 1941; although well maintained, they were almost worn out and had become increasingly unreliable.^ This also meant that many of the aircraft being used during the June 1942 operations had been operational since late November 1941; although well maintained, they were almost worn out and had become increasingly unreliable.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For both of these ships, the parenthetic figures give the maximum number used at any one time during the Aleutian operation.
  • Order of Battle - The Battle of Midway/Aluetians, 4-6 June 1942 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.navweaps.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although it's been 'plexed, I do agree that it is in immaculate condition and is well-run and well-maintained.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

.These factors meant that all carriers had fewer than their normal aircraft complement and few spare aircraft.^ These factors meant that all carriers had fewer than their normal aircraft complement and few spare aircraft.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is greater than the aircraft complement at Midway + 3 cargo aircraft, then you can be reasonably assured that the 6th Ku planes were assembled.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these factors probably combined at Midway to place the First Carrier Striking Force under pressure of a kind that it had never experienced before.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[34]
.Japanese strategic scouting arrangements prior to the battle were also in disarray.^ Japanese strategic scouting arrangements prior to the battle were also in disarray.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese strategic scouting arrangements prior to the battle also fell into disarray.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As it happened, however, the battle was a crushing strategic defeat for the Japanese.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A picket line of Japanese submarines was late getting into position (partly because of Yamamoto's haste), which let the American carriers reach their assembly point northeast of Midway (known as "Point Luck") without being detected.^ A picket line of Japanese submarines was late getting into position, which let the American carriers proceed to their assembly point northeast of Midway (known as "Point Luck") without being detected.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June The three carriers arrived at Point Luck before Japanese submarines arrived in position to detect their movement from Pearl Harbor .
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is felt that the success of the Japanese submarine attack against the Yorktown and Hammann was due solely to the extreme difficulty of screening a carrier dead in the water, and to the additional fact that conditions for supersonic sound detection of submarines were especially poor.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .A second attempt at reconnaissance, using four-engine Kawanishi H8K flying boats to scout Pearl Harbor prior to the battle (and thereby detect the absence or presence of the American carriers), part of Operation K, was also thwarted when Japanese submarines assigned to refuel the search aircraft discovered that the intended refueling point—a hitherto deserted bay off French Frigate Shoals—was occupied by American warships (because the Japanese had carried out an identical mission in March).^ Four Japanese carriers and a cruiser were sunk.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jim, you say that French Frigate Shoals was used for refueling by submarines on the March 10 "K" mission to photograph Midway, but I believe that no refueling was necessary.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All four carriers took part in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Thus, Japan was deprived of any knowledge concerning the movements of the American carriers immediately before the battle.^ Thus, Japan was deprived of any knowledge concerning the movements of the American carriers immediately before the battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If chance had not intervened at this critical stage of the battle, the three American carriers would have had to face powerful attacks by combat-toughened aircrews from three of Japan’s best carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Japanese radio intercepts did notice an increase in both American submarine activity and message traffic.^ Japanese radio intercepts did notice an increase in both American submarine activity and message traffic.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese radio intercepts also noticed an increase in both American submarine activity and U.S. message traffic volume.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese COMINT stations not only learned of carrier movements in and out of Pearl Harbor, simply by listening to increased air-ground radio chatter, but traffic analysis of "Urgent" American radio messages coming out of Pearl Harbor suggested at least one Task Force was at sea.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This information was in Yamamoto's hands prior to the battle.^ This information was in the hands of both Nagumo and Yamamoto prior to the battle.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This information was in Yamamoto's hands prior to the battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Japanese plans were not changed; Yamamoto, at sea on Yamato, did not dare inform Nagumo for fear of exposing his position and assumed that Nagumo had received the same signal from Tokyo.^ However, Japanese plans were not changed; Yamamoto, at sea on Yamato , did not dare inform Nagumo for fear of exposing his position and assumed that Nagumo had received the same signal from Tokyo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But events did not occur as the Japanese had planned.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Japanese continued to try to advance in the South Pacific, and it was many more months before the U.S. moved from a state of naval parity to one of increasingly clear supremacy, [ 96 ] so Midway by itself did not change the direction of the war in the same sense as Salamis or Tsushima .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Nagumo's radio antennae, however, were unable to receive such long-wave transmissions, and he was left unaware of any American ship movements.^ Nagumo's radio antennae, however, were unable to receive such long-wave transmissions, and he was left unaware of any American ship movements.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagumo's seeming opportunity to hit the American ships, [ 57 ] however, was now limited by the fact his Midway strike force would be returning shortly and needing to land promptly or ditch (as is commonly believed).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had easily fended off several attack waves by American bombers from Midway, and his ships had suffered no significant damage.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]

Allied code-breaking

.Admiral Nimitz had one priceless asset: cryptanalysts had broken the JN-25 code.^ Admiral Nimitz had one priceless asset: cryptanalysts had broken the JN-25 code.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Utilizing code-breaking and intuitive intelligence analysis, Admiral Chester Nimitz and his staff were able to discern the Japanese intentions and devise a counter-strategy to turn the tables on the Japanese.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One says ain't no way that the Hiryu codes changed when the ship became the Admiral's Flag ship.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Commander Joseph J. Rochefort and his team at HYPO were able to confirm Midway as the target of the impending Japanese strike, to determine the date of the attack as either 4 or 5 June, and to provide Nimitz with a complete IJN order of battle.^ Main article: Midway order of battle Initial air attacks .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commander Joseph J. Rochefort and his team at HYPO were able to confirm Midway as the target of the impending Japanese strike, to determine the date of the attack as either 4 or 5 June, and to provide Nimitz with a complete IJN order of battle .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midway: Major Japanese and American attacks: .
  • Timeline: Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncleted.jinak.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Japan's efforts to introduce a new codebook had been delayed, giving HYPO several crucial days; while it was blacked out shortly before the attack began, the important breaks had already been made.^ Japan's efforts to introduce a new codebook had been delayed, giving HYPO several crucial days; while it was blacked out shortly before the attack began, the important breaks had already been made.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a one-day delay in the sailing of Nagumo's task force meant that Operation AL began a day before the Midway attack.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 6 planes, attacking directly out of Oahu, in order to conserve gas did not climb to the usual attack level but made runs at 3600 feet.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.As a result, the Americans entered the battle with a very good picture of where, when, and in what strength the Japanese would appear.^ As a result, the Americans entered the battle with a very good picture of where, when, and in what strength the Japanese would appear.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be very useful for a good cause.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

^ On 10 June, the Imperial Japanese Navy conveyed to the military liaison conference an incomplete picture of the results of the battle, on the ground the real extent of damage was a military secret not to be entrusted to all members.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nimitz was aware, for example, that the vast Japanese numerical superiority had been divided into no less than four task forces, and the escort for the Carrier Striking Force was limited to just a few fast ships.^ The Japanese Main Striking Force assumed to have 4 carriers was not sighted on the third.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nimitz was aware, for example, that the vast Japanese numerical superiority had been divided into no less than four task forces, and the escort for the Carrier Striking Force was limited to just a few fast ships.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locate and destroy Japanese Carrier striking force in order to curb their Carrier superiority in the pacific.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, they knew the anti-aircraft guns protecting the carriers would be limited.^ For this reason, they knew the anti-aircraft guns protecting the carriers would be limited.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sides of the carrier turned into a veritable ring of flame as the enemy commenced firing small caliber and anti-aircraft guns.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His PBY was attacked by zeros by anti- aircraft guns on a Japanese cruiser, but Jack got his aircraft and crew to safety up in the clouds.
  • http://www.military-network.com/midway.htm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.military-network.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nimitz thus calculated his three carrier decks, plus Midway Island, to Yamamoto's four, gave the U.S. rough parity (especially since American carrier air groups were larger than Japanese ones).^ Re: Japanese fighters on Midway Island ?
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three Japanese carriers had been lost.

^ At 0630, Japanese planes from the four Japanese carriers bombed Midway Island installations.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese, by contrast, remained almost totally unaware of their opponent's true strength and dispositions even after the battle began.^ The Japanese, by contrast, remained almost totally unaware of their opponent's true strength and dispositions even after the battle began.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, the three remaining carriers are prepared for battle as the Japanese shifted to the JN-25C code books.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite Japanese hopes to even the battle by eliminating two carriers with two strikes, Yorktown absorbed both Japanese attacks.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]

Battle

Order of battle

Initial air attacks

.The first air attack took off at 12:30 on 3 June, consisting of nine B-17s operating from Midway.^ Midway attack units take off.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first air attack took off at 12:30pm on 3 June, consisting of nine B-17s operating from Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Four hours later, they found the Japanese transport group 570 nmi (656 mi; 1,056 km) to the west.^ Four hours later they found the Japanese transport group 570 miles to the west.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than six months later, Bill then a Marine Warrant Officer assigned to Marine Air Group-22, survived the Japanese attack on Midway.
  • http://www.military-network.com/midway.htm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.military-network.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They eventually found a US carrier or two, but their position report was not received back at the Japanese ships because of a radio problem.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .Under heavy anti-aircraft fire, they dropped their bombs.^ It's the same way with anti-aircraft fire.
  • George Gay USNR  Sole Survivor of VF8  Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.yorktownsailor.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Midway: Ensign Gay, Oral History 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC funsite.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Under heavy anti-aircraft fire, they dropped their bombs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sides of the carrier turned into a veritable ring of flame as the enemy commenced firing small caliber and anti-aircraft guns.
  • Battle of Midway - Part 1 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sunwestmonograms.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though hits were reported,[43] none of the bombs actually landed on target and no significant damage was inflicted.^ Though hits were reported, [ 43 ] none of the bombs actually landed on target and no significant damage was inflicted.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had easily fended off several attack waves by American bombers from Midway, and his ships had suffered no significant damage.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chikuma sustains no damage when B-17's bombs fall into water 50 meters astern on the starboard.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] Early the following morning, Japanese oil tanker Akebono Maru sustained the first hit when a torpedo from an attacking PBY flying boat struck her around 01:00.[44]
.At 04:30 on 4 June, Nagumo launched his initial attack on Midway itself, consisting of 36 Aichi D3A dive-bombers and 36 Nakajima B5N torpedo bombers, escorted by 36 Zero fighters.^ Dive bombers attack Lt. Cdr.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each group was attacked by Zero fighters.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main Japanese strike aircraft to be used were the Aichi D3A 1 dive bomber and the Nakajima B5N 2, which was capable of being used either as a torpedo bomber or as a level attack bomber.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time, he launched combat air patrol (CAP), as well as his eight search aircraft (one from the heavy cruiser Tone launched 30 minutes late due to technical difficulties).^ At the same time, the Japanese launched seven search aircraft (one of which was launched 30 minutes late), as well as combat air patrol (CAP) fighters.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A twelve plant combat air patrol was launched.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1115 launched six fighters for Combat Air Patrol and landed the six fighters then in the air.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese reconnaissance arrangements were flimsy, with too few aircraft to adequately cover the assigned search areas, laboring under poor weather conditions to the northeast and east of the task force.^ Japanese reconnaissance arrangements were flimsy, with too few aircraft to adequately cover the assigned search areas, laboring under poor weather conditions to the northeast and east of the task force.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese reconnaissance arrangements were flimsy, with too few aircraft to adequately cover the assigned search areas, and laboring under poor weather conditions to the northeast and east of the task force.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The enemy task force has retired to the east.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Yamamoto's faulty dispositions had now become a serious liability.^ Yamamoto's faulty dispositions had now become a serious liability.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.American radar picked up the enemy at a distance of several miles and interceptors were soon scrambled.^ American radar picked up the enemy at a distance of several miles and interceptors were soon scrambled.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This Combat Air Patrol shot down a total of 13 VB and 2 VF and damaged 7 VB and 3 VF. At about 1555, a large group of planes was picked up on the screen bearing 340°, distance 33 miles, and the Radar Operator reported that they appeared to be climbing.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We estimate that the enemy is in position bearing 100 degrees, distance 200 miles from us at 1600."
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unescorted bombers headed off to attack the Japanese carrier fleet, their fighter escorts remaining behind to defend Midway.^ Re: Japanese fighters on Midway Island ?
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having taken off prior to the Japanese attack, American bombers based on Midway made several attacks on the Japanese carrier fleet.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attacks on the Japanese fleet .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 06:20, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed and heavily damaged the U.S. base.^ But the fourth Japanese carrier, the Hiryu was not damaged.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 06:20, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed and heavily damaged the U.S. base.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 06:20, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed and heavily damaged the U.S. base on Midway.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Midway-based Marine fighter pilots, flying obsolescent F4F-3s and obsolete[47] F2A-3s, intercepted the Japanese and suffered heavy losses, though they managed to destroy four bombers and at least three Zeros.^ Re: Japanese fighters on Midway Island ?
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three heavy bombers appear over the Soryu.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midway-based Marine fighter pilots, flying obsolescent Grumman F4F-3 Wildcats and obsolete [ 47 ] Brewster F2A-3s, intercepted the Japanese and suffered heavy losses, though they managed to destroy four bombers and at least three Zeros.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the U.S. planes were downed in the first few minutes; several were damaged, and only two remained flyable.^ Only 6 planes from the first strike survived.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two planes were shot down.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the U.S. planes were downed in the first few minutes; several were damaged, and only two remained flyable.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all, three F4Fs and 13 F2As were shot down.^ Three were shot down.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, three F4Fs and 13 F2As were shot down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the three which made hits, two were shot down just after releasing their bombs and the other went out of control just as his bomb was released.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.American anti-aircraft fire was accurate and intense, damaging many Japanese aircraft and claiming a third of the Japanese planes destroyed.^ It's the same way with anti-aircraft fire.
  • George Gay USNR  Sole Survivor of VF8  Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.yorktownsailor.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Midway: Ensign Gay, Oral History 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC funsite.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ American anti-aircraft fire was accurate and intense, damaging many Japanese aircraft and claiming a third of the Japanese planes destroyed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American anti-aircraft fire was accurate and intense, damaging many enemy aircraft.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.The Japanese did not succeed in neutralizing Midway.^ The Japanese did not succeed in neutralizing Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Response To: Re: Japanese CAP at Midway (Grant Goodale) The Japanese *did* have formal doctrine regarding placement of CAP assets both in terms of compass bearing and altitudes.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese submarine that had shelled Midway did not escape unscathed.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another attack would be necessary if troops were to go ashore by 7 June, and American bombers could still use the airbase to refuel and attack the Japanese invasion force.^ Another attack would be necessary if troops were to go ashore by 7 June, and American bombers could still use the airbase to refuel and attack the Japanese invasion force.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midway: Major Japanese and American attacks: .
  • Timeline: Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncleted.jinak.cz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December The small American force on Guam surrendered to a Japanese invasion force.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Having taken off prior to the Japanese attack, American bombers based on Midway made several attacks on the Japanese carrier fleet.^ May At 0915, the Japanese launched an attack on the American carriers.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having taken off prior to the Japanese attack, American bombers based on Midway made several attacks on the Japanese carrier fleet.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attacks on the Japanese fleet .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These included six TBFs from Hornet's VT-8, their crews on their first combat operation, and four USAAF B-26 Marauders armed with torpedoes.^ These included six TBF Avengers from Hornet' s VT-8 , their crews on their first combat operation, and four USAAC B-26 Marauders armed with torpedoes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early TBF-1 with a crew of four .
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These included six TBF Avengers in their first combat operation, and four B-26 Marauders (armed with torpedoes).
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Japanese shrugged off these attacks with almost no losses (as few as two fighters lost), while destroying all but one TBF and two B-26s.^ The U.S. Navy lost one carrier and one destroyer.
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All fighters were scrambled immediately, followed by B-26s and TBFs at 0600.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VT-3 lost all but two TBDs in this gallant but hopeless attack.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.One B-26, hit by anti-aircraft fire from Akagi, made no attempt to pull out of its run and narrowly missed crashing directly into the carrier's bridge.^ It's the same way with anti-aircraft fire.
  • George Gay USNR  Sole Survivor of VF8  Battle of Midway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.yorktownsailor.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Midway: Ensign Gay, Oral History 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC funsite.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No hits out of three.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One B-26, hit by anti-aircraft fire from Akagi , made no attempt to pull out of its run and narrowly missed crashing directly into the carrier's' bridge.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This experience may well have[citation needed] contributed to Nagumo's determination to launch another attack on Midway, in direct violation of Yamamoto's order to keep the reserve strike force armed for anti-ship operations.^ Nagumo might have had an opportunity to immediately launch some or all of his reserve strike force to attack the American ships.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, he ordered all planes from the second strike to be armed with bombs to attack Midway.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This experience may well have [ citation needed ] contributed to Nagumo's determination to launch another attack on Midway, in direct violation of Yamamoto's order the reserve strike force be kept armed for anti-ship operations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.
B-17 attack misses Hiryū; this was taken some time between 0800-0830. A Shotai of three Zeros is lined up near the bridge.
^ B-17 attack misses Hiryū ; this was taken some time between 0800-0830.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Shotai of three Zeros is lined up near the bridge.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The film focuses on a young Zero pilot aboard Hiryū who participates in both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was one of several CAPs (Combat Air Patrols) launched during the day.^ A twelve plant combat air patrol was launched.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1115 launched six fighters for Combat Air Patrol and landed the six fighters then in the air.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was one of several CAPs (Combat Air Patrols) launched during the day.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
.Admiral Nagumo, in accordance with Japanese carrier doctrine at the time, had kept half of his aircraft in reserve.^ Admiral Fletcher searches for Nagumo's Carriers .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Admiral Nagumo, in accordance with Japanese carrier doctrine at the time, had kept half of his aircraft in reserve.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admiral Nagumo, in accordance with Japanese carrier operational practices of the time, had kept half of his aircraft in reserve.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These comprised two squadrons each of dive bombers and torpedo bombers, the latter armed with torpedoes, should any American warships be located.^ American dive bombers approaches.
  • Glenn Beck: The Left Feels Sold Out By Obama. Is Violence Coming? 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These comprised two squadrons each of dive-bombers and torpedo bombers.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two American torpedo squadrons launched their torpedoes, but either missed or the torpedoes were defective.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dive bombers were, as yet, unarmed.^ The dive bombers were, as yet, unarmed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first strike of Japanese dive-bombers badly damaged the Yorktown , yet her engineers patched her up so quickly that the second strike of torpedo bombers mistook her for an intact carrier.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dive-bombers were, as yet, unarmed.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .As a result of the attacks from Midway, as well as the morning flight leader's recommendation of a second strike, at 07:15, Nagumo ordered his reserve planes to be re-armed with contact-fused general purpose bombs for use against land targets.^ Thus, he ordered all planes from the second strike to be armed with bombs to attack Midway.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None scored a single hit, but the more planes attacked, the more convinced was Nagumo that a second strike was needed against Midway.

^ Already at 0715, Nagumo had ordered to arm his ready planes with bombs instead of torpedoes.

.Some sources maintain that this had been underway for about 30 minutes when, at 07:40[53] the delayed scout plane from Tone signaled the discovery of a sizable American naval force to the east; however, new evidence suggests Nagumo did not receive the sighting report until 08:00, so the rearming operation actually proceeded for 45 minutes.^ Some sources maintain that this had been underway for about 30 minutes when, at 07:40 [ 53 ] the delayed scout plane from Tone signaled the discovery of a sizable American naval force to the east; however, new evidence suggests Nagumo did not receive the sighting report until 08:00, so the rearming operation actually proceeded for 45 minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American ground and naval forces reported 70,000 casualties.
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What this plane did not report were the ship types.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Nagumo quickly reversed his order and demanded the scout plane ascertain the composition of the American force.^ Nagumo quickly reversed his re-arming order, and asked the scout plane to ascertain the composition of the American task force.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagumo quickly reversed his order and demanded the scout plane ascertain the composition of the American force.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which scout plane sighted the American fleet?
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another 40 minutes elapsed before Tone's scout finally radioed the presence of a single carrier in the American force, TF 16 (the other carrier being missed).^ Another 40 minutes elapsed before Tone' s scout finally radioed the presence of a single carrier in the American force, TF 16 (the other carrier being missed).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some sources maintain that this had been underway for about 30 minutes when, at 07:40 [ 53 ] the delayed scout plane from Tone signaled the discovery of a sizable American naval force to the east; however, new evidence suggests Nagumo did not receive the sighting report until 08:00, so the rearming operation actually proceeded for 45 minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese search sweeps somehow missed the Americans, except for a single seaplane from Tone whose late launch put its path on top of the Yorktown task force.
  • The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC pwencycl.kgbudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
.Nagumo was now in a quandary.^ Nagumo was now in a quandary.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rear Admiral Yamaguchi Tamon, leading Carrier Division 2 (Hiryū and Sōryū), recommended Nagumo strike immediately with the forces at hand: 18 Aichi D3A2 dive bombers each on Sōryū and Hiryū, and half the ready cover patrol aircraft.^ Rear Admiral Yamaguchi Tamon , leading Carrier Division 2 ( Hiryū and Sōryū ), recommended Nagumo strike immediately with the forces at hand: 18 Aichi D3A 2 dive bombers each on Sōryū and Hiryū , and half the ready cover patrol aircraft.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Carrier Striking Force was despatched to strike Midway.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strike consisted of 18 dive bombers and 6 Zeros.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .Nagumo's seeming opportunity to hit the American ships,[57] however, was now limited by the fact his Midway strike force would be returning shortly and needing to land promptly or ditch (as is commonly believed).^ Nagumo's seeming opportunity to hit the American ships, [ 57 ] however, was now limited by the fact his Midway strike force would be returning shortly and needing to land promptly or ditch (as is commonly believed).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Carrier Striking Force was despatched to strike Midway.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, by spotting and launching immediately, Nagumo would be committing some of his reserve to battle without proper anti-ship armament; he had just witnessed how easily unescorted American bombers had been shot down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Because of the constant flight deck activity associated with combat air patrol operations during the preceding hour, the Japanese never had an opportunity to spot their reserve for launch.^ A twelve plant combat air patrol was launched.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1115 launched six fighters for Combat Air Patrol and landed the six fighters then in the air.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was one of several CAPs (Combat Air Patrols) launched during the day.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The few aircraft on the Japanese flight decks at the time of the attack were either defensive fighters, or (in the case of Sōryū) fighters being spotted to augment the task force defenses.^ The course taken by Nagumo meant that all four Japanese carriers would have to keep their flight decks clear to recover returning aircraft from the first attack wave, and would delay strike bombers and fighters being brought up from the hangars to respond quickly if an American carrier threat materialised.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His PBY was attacked by zeros by anti- aircraft guns on a Japanese cruiser, but Jack got his aircraft and crew to safety up in the clouds.
  • http://www.military-network.com/midway.htm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.military-network.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frank was at battle station in Flag Plot when the first Japanese aircraft attacked.
  • http://www.military-network.com/midway.htm 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.military-network.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .Spotting his flight decks and launching aircraft would have required at least 30–45 minutes.^ Spotting his flight decks and launching aircraft would require at least 30–45 minutes to accomplish.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The holes in her flight deck prevented launching and recovery of aircraft.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would take him at least forty-five minutes to "spot" a bomber strike on his flight decks and launch it at the American carrier.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] .Furthermore, by spotting and launching immediately, Nagumo would be committing some of his reserve to battle without proper anti-ship armament; he had just witnessed how easily unescorted American bombers had been shot down.^ Furthermore, by spotting and launching immediately, Nagumo would be committing some of his reserve to battle without proper anti-ship armament; he had just witnessed how easily unescorted American bombers had been shot down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nagumo might have had an opportunity to immediately launch some or all of his reserve strike force to attack the American ships.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five of them were shot down easily.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] .(In the event, poor discipline saw many of the Japanese bombers ditch their bombs and attempt to dogfight interceptor F4Fs.^ (In the event, poor discipline saw many of the Japanese bombers ditch their bombs and attempt to dogfight interceptor F4Fs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B-17 heavy bombers from Midway had arrived over the Japanese carrier fleet at 0814, and dropped their bombs on Hiryu and Soryu.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Japanese had been taught that Americans were poor fighters who lacked courage and discipline.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

)[62] .Japanese carrier doctrine preferred fully constituted strikes, and without confirmation (until 08:20) of whether the American force included carriers, Nagumo's reaction was doctrinaire.^ Meanwhile, Catalinas from Midway had located the Japanese carrier force, and Midway and the American carriers launched strikes.
  • The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC pwencycl.kgbudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese Main Striking Force assumed to have 4 carriers was not sighted on the third.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese carrier doctrine preferred fully constituted strikes, and without confirmation (until 08:20) of whether the American force included carriers, Nagumo's reaction was doctrinaire.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] .In addition, the arrival of another American air strike at 07:53 gave weight to the need to attack the island again.^ In addition, the arrival of another American air strike at 07:53 gave weight to the need to attack the island again.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the impending arrival of yet more American air strikes at 07:53 made Nagumo's window of decision quite short.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Marine pilots stationed on the tiny Midway islands were required to defend this most westerly American outpost in the Pacific Ocean against a massive Japanese air attack on 4 June 1942.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the end, Nagumo chose to wait for his first strike force to land, then launch the reserve, which would by then be properly armed and ready.^ In the end, Nagumo chose to wait for his first strike force to land, then launch the reserve, which would by then be properly armed and ready.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end Nagumo made the fateful decision to wait for his first strike force to land, and then launch the reserve strike force (which would by then be properly armed).
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, by spotting and launching immediately, Nagumo would be committing some of his reserve to battle without proper anti-ship armament; he had just witnessed how easily unescorted American bombers had been shot down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .In the final analysis, it made no difference; Fletcher had launched beginning at 07:00, so the aircraft which would deliver the crushing blow were already on their way.^ In the final analysis, it made no difference; Fletcher had launched beginning at 07:00, so the aircraft which would deliver the crushing blow were already on their way.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, they were just beginning to range the aircraft on Soryu and Hiryu with the intent to launch around 1100.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese set about building more ships and better aircraft, but they had no hope of producing the quantity required to make a difference in the outcome of the war.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was nothing Nagumo could do about it.^ There was nothing Nagumo could do about it.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After having worked there for a period of about, well, it was nearly three months, they told us we could have a blow and go to Sidney, Australia.
  • Battle of Midway: Ensign Gay, Oral History 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC funsite.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His insight into the enemy's superiority in weapons and modern warfare was so profound, yet he could do nothing about it.
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was the fatal flaw of Yamamoto's dispositions: it followed strictly traditional battleship doctrine.[65]

Attacks on the Japanese fleet

Ensign George Gay (right), sole survivor of VT-8's TBD Devastator squadron, in front of his aircraft, 4 June 1942.
Devastators of VT-6 aboard USS Enterprise being prepared for take off during the battle.
.Meanwhile, the Americans had already launched their carrier aircraft against the Japanese.^ May At 0915, the Japanese launched an attack on the American carriers.
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^ Meanwhile, the Americans had already launched their carrier aircraft against the Japanese.
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  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 0700, the American carriers began launching aircraft.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Admiral Fletcher, in overall command aboard Yorktown, and benefiting from PBY patrol bomber sighting reports from the early morning,[66] ordered Spruance to launch against the Japanese as soon as was practical.^ Admiral Fletcher, in overall command aboard Yorktown , and benefiting from PBY patrol bomber sighting reports from the early morning, [ 66 ] ordered Spruance to launch against the Japanese as soon as was practical.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admiral Fletcher, in overall command on board Yorktown , and armed with PBY sighting reports from the early morning, ordered Spruance to launch against the Japanese as soon as was practical.
  • Battle of Midway - WarWiki 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Admiral Fletcher learned the whereabouts of the Japanese carriers he ordered Admiral Spruance in command of TF-16 to launch an attack.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spruance gave the order "Launch the attack" at around 06:00 and left Halsey's Chief of Staff, Captain Miles Browning, to work out the details and oversee the launch.^ Spruance gave the order "Launch the attack" at around 06:00 and left Halsey's Chief of Staff, Captain Miles Browning , to work out the details and oversee the launch.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spruance would be assisted by the brilliant but erratic Captain Miles Browning, Halsey's chief of staff.
  • The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia: Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC pwencycl.kgbudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 6 planes, attacking directly out of Oahu, in order to conserve gas did not climb to the usual attack level but made runs at 3600 feet.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It took until a few minutes after 07:00 before the first plane was able to depart from Spruance's carriers, Enterprise and Hornet. Fletcher, upon completing his own scouting flights, followed suit at 08:00 from Yorktown.^ Fletcher, upon completing his own scouting flights, followed suit at 08:00 from Yorktown .
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^ Yorktown's planes were over their carrier by 1115.
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^ As the Yorktown was disabled, one section of scouts landed on the Hornet and 4 sections landed on the Enterprise.
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[67] .It was at this point Spruance gave his second crucial command, to run toward the target, having judged that the need to throw something at the enemy as soon as possible was greater than the need for a coordinated attack among the different types of aircraft (fighters, bombers, torpedo planes).^ There is need for a second attack wave."
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^ It was at this point Spruance gave his second crucial command, to run toward the target, having judged that the need to throw something at the enemy as soon as possible was greater than the need for a coordinated attack among the different types of aircraft (fighters, bombers, torpedo planes).
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^ Type and number of aircraft: 17 ship-based attack planes.
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.Accordingly, American squadrons were launched piecemeal and proceeded to the target in several different groups.^ However, American flight deck operations were not nearly as proficient as their enemies' at this point in the war, and the American squadrons were launched in piecemeal fashion, proceeding to the target in several different groups.
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^ The Hornet began launching its strike group at 0700, with the torpedo bomber squadron (VT-8) last to leave the carrier.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of Hornet’s Air Group, only that ship's torpedo squadron VT-8 found the Japanese carriers, and lacking fighter escort, launched a gallant but doomed attack on them.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.This diminished the overall impact of the American attacks and greatly increased their casualties; conversely, it also reduced the Japanese ability to counterstrike and found Nagumo with his decks at their most vulnerable.^ This diminished the overall impact of the American attacks, and greatly increased their casualties.
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^ The Japanese were now more vulnerable to an American carrier attack.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Midway: Major Japanese and American attacks: .
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.American carrier aircraft had difficulty locating the target, despite the positions they had been given.^ American carrier aircraft had difficulty locating the target, despite the positions they had been given.
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^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
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^ Despite having so few aircraft left, Yamaguchi was determined to launch a third attack on the American carriers at dusk when the prospect of breaching the American carrier defences with such a small attack group would be greater.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The strike from Hornet, led by CDR Stanhope C. Ring, followed an incorrect heading of 263 degrees rather than the 240 heading indicated by the contact report.^ CDR Stanhope V. Ring was relived as CHAG and ordered to Pat Wing Two as operations officer.
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^ Tone reports sighting 15 enemy planes bearing 20 degrees to starboard, elevation 9 degrees, distance 29,000, heading for her.
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^ Lindsey and his VT-6 were following the course of 240 degrees, while Waldron and his VT-8 were following a more westerly course, John Waldron following his intuition rather than calculations which took him straight to the Japanese fleet!
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.As a result, Air Group Eight's dive bombers missed the Japanese carriers.^ ENTERPRISE was damaged by a Japanese dive-bomber.
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^ The sacrifice of USS Hornet's Torpedo Squadron Eight was not in vain, since it pulled the Japanese combat air patrol fighters down to sea level, thereby allowing the American dive-bombers to attack at 1020.
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^ Yorktown's dive bombers were still circling the carrier, waiting for their turn to land, when they were told to go and land on the Enterprise or Hornet .
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[68] .Torpedo Squadron 8 (VT-8, from Hornet), led by LCDR John C. Waldron broke formation from Ring and followed the correct heading.^ Meanwhile the Hornet's torpedo squadron led by Lt. Comdr.
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^ On Hornet , John Waldron and his VT-8 were leaving at about the same time.
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^ Nevertheless, Torpedo Squadron Eight (VT-8, from Hornet), led by LCDR John C. Waldron , finally sighted the enemy carriers and began attacking at 09:20 ( VT-8 , from Hornet ), followed by VT-6 (from Enterprise ) at 09:40.
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Waldron's squadron sighted the enemy carriers and began attacking at 09:20, followed by Torpedo Squadron 6 (VT-6, from Enterprise) at 09:40.[69] Without fighter escort, every TBD Devastator of VT-8 was shot down without being able to inflict any damage, with Ensign George H. Gay, Jr. the only survivor. .VT-6 met nearly the same fate, with no hits to show for its effort, thanks in part to the abysmal performance of their Mark 13 aircraft torpedoes;[70] senior Navy and BuOrd officers never questioned why half a dozen torpeodes, released so close to the Japanese carriers, produced no results.^ VT-8 was completely annihilated, and VT-6 nearly so, with no hits against the enemy to show for their efforts.
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^ Crenshaw writes the Navy high command never questioned why a likely half-dozen torpeodes, released so close to the Japanese carriers, produced no results.
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^ Without fighter escort, every TBD Devastator of VT-8 was shot down without being able to inflict any damage, with Ensign George H. Gay, Jr. VT-6 met nearly the same fate, with no hits to show for its effort, thanks in part to the abysmal performance of their Mark 13 aircraft torpedoes.
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[71] .The Japanese combat air patrol, flying the much faster Mitsubishi A6M2 "Zeros", made short work of the unescorted, slow, under-armed TBDs.^ The Japanese combat air patrol, flying the much faster Mitsubishi A6M2 "Zeros" , made short work of the unescorted, slow, under-armed TBDs.
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^ We have had a very short time to train and we have worked under the most severe difficulties.
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^ The sacrifice of USS Hornet's Torpedo Squadron Eight was not in vain, since it pulled the Japanese combat air patrol fighters down to sea level, thereby allowing the American dive-bombers to attack at 1020.
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  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: General]

.However, despite their losses, the American torpedo attacks indirectly achieved three important results.^ The three attacks resulted in the loss of most of Hiryu's attack unit.
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^ However, despite their losses, the American torpedo attacks indirectly achieved three important results.
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^ If chance had not intervened at this critical stage of the battle, the three American carriers would have had to face powerful attacks by combat-toughened aircrews from three of Japan’s best carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.First, they kept the Japanese carriers off balance, with no ability to prepare and launch their own counterstrike.^ First, they kept the Japanese carriers off balance, with no ability to prepare and launch their own counterstrike.
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^ Kido Butai: Hiryu was preparing to launch D4Y1 to find US carriers and lead the planned 3rd strike in.
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^ In fact, the 1020 attack did not happen in this way, in that it did not catch the Japanese in any way ready to launch their own attack.
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.Second, their attacks pulled the Japanese combat air patrol out of position.^ After this attack 4 Japanese carriers were out of action.
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^ Second, their attacks pulled the Japanese combat air patrol out of position.
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^ The sacrifice of USS Hornet's Torpedo Squadron Eight was not in vain, since it pulled the Japanese combat air patrol fighters down to sea level, thereby allowing the American dive-bombers to attack at 1020.
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.Third, many of the Zeros ran low on ammunition and fuel.^ Third, many of the Zeros ran low on ammunition and fuel.
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^ Many of these aircraft were low on fuel and some were badly damaged.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of our fighters ran out of ammunition even before the Jap dive bombers arrived over our forces; these were experienced pilots, not novices.
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[72] .The appearance of a third torpedo plane attack from the southeast by Torpedo Squadron 3 (VT-3) at 10:00 very quickly drew the majority of the Japanese CAP to the southeast quadrant of the fleet.^ The attacking aircraft were in fact Yorktown's Torpedo Squadron Three (VT-3).
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The appearance of a third torpedo plane attack from the southeast by VT-3 at 10:00 very quickly drew the majority of the Japanese CAP to the southeast quadrant of the fleet.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sacrifice of USS Hornet's Torpedo Squadron Eight was not in vain, since it pulled the Japanese combat air patrol fighters down to sea level, thereby allowing the American dive-bombers to attack at 1020.
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  • Battle of Midway - 1942 - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: General]

[73] .Better discipline, and employment of all the Zeroes aboard, might have enabled Nagumo to succeed.^ Better discipline, and employment of all the Zeroes aboard, might have enabled Nagumo to succeed.
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^ By this time, all of the Japanese Zeros including those reserved for the second Midway attack wave were aloft protecting Nagumo's widely dispersed carrier fleet.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of this activity raised a real possibility that the Americans had become aware of the approach of Japanese forces and a need to alert Admiral Nagumo that his arrival might be expected.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[74]
.By chance, at the same time VT-3 was sighted by the Japanese, two separate formations (a total of three squadrons) of American SBD Dauntless dive bombers were approaching the Japanese fleet from the northeast and southwest.^ By chance, at the same time VT-3 was sighted by the Japanese, two separate formations (a total of three squadrons) of American SBD Dauntless dive bombers were approaching the Japanese fleet from the northeast and southwest.
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^ ENTERPRISE was damaged by a Japanese dive-bomber.
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^ Japanese were totally surprised when the lookouts spotted enemy dive bombers.
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.They were running low on fuel because of the time spent looking for the enemy.^ They were running low on fuel because of the time spent looking for the enemy.
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^ The fighters were running low on fuel and some of the planes were badly damaged.
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^ They would be low on fuel, and carrying wounded crewmen, and would need to land promptly.
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However, squadron commander C. .Wade McClusky, Jr. decided to continue the search and luckily spotted the wake of the Japanese destroyer Arashi.^ McCluskey suspected that the destroyer was one of Nagumo's carrier force screening warships and decided to follow it in the hope that the destroyer would lead him to the Japanese carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, most of the Japanese troops were recovered by the destroyers, sans weapons and supplies, and continued towards Guadalcanal .
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^ Thereafter, Wake was bombed continuously and effectively from the Japanese base at Kwajalein.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The destroyer was steaming at full speed to rejoin Nagumo's carrier force after having unsuccessfully depth-charged the U.S. submarine Nautilus, which had earlier unsuccessfully attacked the battleship Kirishima.^ The destroyer was steaming at full speed to rejoin Nagumo's carrier force after having unsuccessfully depth-charged the U.S. submarine Nautilus , which had earlier unsuccessfully attacked the battleship Kirishima .
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^ Japan's heavy surface forces were intended to destroy whatever part of the U.S. Fleet might come to Midway's relief, once Nagumo's carriers had weakened them sufficiently for a daylight gun duel to be fought.
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^ Japanese carrier doctrine preferred fully constituted strikes, and in the absence of a confirmation of whether the American force contained carriers, Nagumo's reaction was cautious.
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[75] .Some bombers were lost from fuel exhaustion before the attack commenced.^ Some bombers were lost from fuel exhaustion before the attack commenced.
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^ The enemy formations were broken up by our fighters and many of the dive bombers shot down before they arrived at the attack position.
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^ Tomonaga's torpedo bomber had returned from Midway with a damaged fuel tank and he knew that the attack on the American carriers would be a one-way trip for him.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[76]
McClusky's decision to continue the search was credited by Admiral Chester Nimitz, and his judgment "decided the fate of our carrier task force and our forces at Midway..."[77] The American dive-bombers arrived at the perfect time to attack.[78] .Armed Japanese strike aircraft filled the hangar decks, fuel hoses snaked across the decks as refueling operations were hastily completed, and the repeated change of ordnance meant bombs and torpedoes were stacked around the hangars, rather than stowed safely in the magazines,[79] making the Japanese carriers extraordinarily vulnerable.^ Armed Japanese strike aircraft filled the hangar decks, fuel hoses snaked across the decks as refueling operations were hastily completed, and the repeated change of ordnance meant bombs and torpedoes were stacked around the hangars, rather than stowed safely in the magazines, [ 78 ] making the Japanese carriers extraordinarily vulnerable.
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^ With the American strikes expended and the American carriers recovering their aircraft, it was the turn of the Japanese.
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^ Being crammed with torpedoes, bombs, and aircraft fuel, carriers were highly combustible.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning at 10:22, Enterprise's air group scored multiple hits on Kaga.^ Beginning at 10:22, Enterprise ’s air group scored multiple hits on Kaga .
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^ The victory is all the more astonishing for the fact that the air groups of Enterprise and Hornet failed to co-ordinate their attacks on the Japanese carrier fleet.
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^ It was his opinion that Wade McCluskey (Commander Air Group 6) had screwed up, not attacking per doctrine, leading all of Bombing and Scouting 6 against the Kaga.
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.To the north, Akagi was struck four minutes later by three of Enterprise's bombers.^ To the north, Akagi was struck four minutes later by three of Enterprise' s bombers.
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^ Just 3 hours after the first bomb fell on Midway, planes from Hornet struck the enemy force, and 30 minutes later Enterprise and Yorktown aircraft streaked in to join in smashing the Japanese carriers.

^ The American bombs struck the flight decks of Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu, and penetrated to the hangars below that were crammed with fuelled and armed bombers.
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.Yorktown's aircraft went for Sōryū.^ Yorktown ’s aircraft went for Sōryū .
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.Simultaneously, VT-3 targeted Hiryū, which was sandwiched between Sōryū, Kaga, and Akagi, but scored no hits.^ No hits on Kaga were registered.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Simultaneously, VT-3 targeted Hiryū , which was sandwiched between Sōryū , Kaga , and Akagi , but scored no hits.
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^ By contrast, the dive-bombers, within six minutes, left Sōryū , Kaga , and Akagi heavily ablaze.
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.By contrast, the dive-bombers, within six minutes, left Sōryū, Kaga, and Akagi heavily ablaze.^ By contrast, the dive-bombers, within six minutes, left Sōryū , Kaga , and Akagi heavily ablaze.
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^ The Aichi "Val" dive-bombers from Akagi and Kaga followed the level bombers.
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^ At 1022, SBDs from VB-6 and VS-6 ( ENTERPRISE ) made unopposed dives against Kaga and Akagi with devastating results.
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.Akagi was hit by just one bomb, which penetrated to the upper hangar deck and exploded among the armed and fueled aircraft there.^ Akagi was hit by just one bomb, which penetrated to the upper hangar deck and exploded among the armed and fueled aircraft there.
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^ Planes were brought from hangars to the flight deck, fully fueled and armed.
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^ Bomb hits on Akagi and Hiryu were noted.
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.One bomb exploded underwater very close astern, the resulting geyser bending the flight deck upward and also causing crucial rudder damage.^ This bomb caused the most damage.
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^ The American bombs struck the flight decks of Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu, and penetrated to the hangars below that were crammed with fuelled and armed bombers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost in unison, on my left, Kaga's flight deck erupted with bomb bursts and flames.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] .Sōryū took three bombs in her hangar deck; Kaga, at least four, possibly more.^ Sōryū took three bombs in her hangar deck; Kaga , at least four, possibly more.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American bombs struck the flight decks of Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu, and penetrated to the hangars below that were crammed with fuelled and armed bombers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Akagi was hit by just one bomb, which penetrated to the upper hangar deck and exploded among the armed and fueled aircraft there.
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.All three carriers were out of action and were eventually abandoned and scuttled.^ After this attack 4 Japanese carriers were out of action.
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^ All three carriers were out of action and were eventually abandoned and scuttled .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ahead, and on a course to my left, were three large carriers, all with bow waves and stern wakes that indicated a high rate of speed.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[81]

Japanese counterattacks

Yorktown hit by an air-launched torpedo.
.Hiryū, the sole surviving Japanese aircraft carrier, wasted little time in counterattacking.^ Hiryū , the sole surviving Japanese aircraft carrier, wasted little time in counterattacking.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
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^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
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.The first wave of Japanese dive bombers badly damaged Yorktown with three bomb hits that snuffed out her boilers, immobilizing her, yet her damage control teams patched her up so effectively (in about an hour) that the second wave's torpedo bombers mistook her for an undamaged carrier.^ The first bomb hit Midway at about 0633 from horizontal bombers.
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^ Three torpedo hits were scored on a carrier of the Enterprise class, seriously damaging her.
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^ No hits out of three.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .Despite Japanese hopes to even the odds by eliminating two carriers with two strikes, Yorktown absorbed both Japanese attacks, the second wave mistakenly believing Yorktown had already been sunk and they were attacking Enterprise.^ Carriers involved are the Yorktown, Enterprise, and Hornet.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is need for a second attack wave."
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite this advantage, Yorktown was crippled by two successive attacks from one Japanese carrier – the Hiryu.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.After two torpedo hits, Yorktown lost power and developed a 26° list to port, which put her out of action and forced Admiral Fletcher to move his command staff to the heavy cruiser Astoria.^ Yorktown hit by an air-launched torpedo.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the two torpedoes corrected Yorktown's list from 26 to 17degrees.

^ Yorktown came to a stand still, listing 26 degrees to port.
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.Both carriers of Spruance's Task Force 16 were undamaged.^ Task Force 16 cruisers rejoined their force.
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^ Both carriers of Spruance's Task Force 16 were undamaged.
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^ He already had Vice Admiral William Halsey 's two-carrier ( Enterprise and Hornet ) task force at hand, though Halsey was stricken with psoriasis and had to be replaced by Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (Halsey's escort commander).
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.News of the two strikes, with the reports that each had sunk an American carrier, greatly improved morale in the Kido Butai.^ News of the two strikes, with the reports that each had sunk an American carrier, greatly improved morale in the Kido Butai .
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^ However, protecting the bombers in that strike from American carrier fighters had become a problem.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He flew two fighter patrols over Kido Butai.
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.Its few surviving aircraft were all recovered aboard Hiryū, where they were prepared for a strike against what was believed to be the only remaining American carrier.^ Meanwhile, the Americans had already launched their carrier aircraft against the Japanese.
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^ Only 6 planes from the first strike survived.
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^ The only American carrier to survive the war was USS Enterprise .
  • Military History Online - After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hiryū, shortly before sinking
.Late in the afternoon, a Yorktown scout aircraft located Hiryū, prompting Enterprise to launch a final strike of dive bombers (including 10 bombers from Yorktown).^ The Yorktown dive-bombers dived for the Soryu.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ENTERPRISE was damaged by a Japanese dive-bomber.
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^ Hiryū , shortly before sinking Late in the afternoon, a Yorktown scout aircraft located Hiryū , prompting Enterprise to launch a final strike of dive bombers (including 10 bombers from Yorktown ).
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.This delivered a killing blow, leaving Hiryū ablaze, despite being defended by a strong defensive cover of more than a dozen Zero fighters.^ This delivered a killing blow, leaving Hiryū ablaze, despite being defended by a strong defensive cover of more than a dozen Zero fighters.
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^ Plaintiffs have failed to show that Defendants said or did anything more than publicly adopt a hopeful posture that its strategic plans would pay off.
  • Shareholders Lose Court Battle Against Midway | GamePolitics 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The few aircraft on the Japanese flight decks at the time of the attack were either defensive fighters, or (in the case of Sōryū ) fighters being spotted to augment the task force defenses.
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.Vice Admiral Yamaguchi chose to go down with his ship, costing Japan perhaps her best carrier sailor.^ Vice Admiral Yamaguchi chose to go down with his ship, costing Japan perhaps her best carrier sailor.
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^ The management of the Japanese carrier force at Midway by Vice Admiral Nagumo left a lot to be desired.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If chance had not intervened at this critical stage of the battle, the three American carriers would have had to face powerful attacks by combat-toughened aircrews from three of Japan’s best carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hornet's strike, launching late because of a communications error, concentrated on the remaining escort ships, but failed to score any hits.^ Hornet' s strike, launching late because of a communications error, concentrated on the remaining escort ships, but failed to score any hits.
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^ At 1600, ENTERPRISE and HORNET launched strikes against Hiryu , located 100 miles to the southwest.
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^ An afternoon strike narrowly missed detecting Yamamoto's main body and failed to score hits on a straggling Japanese destroyer.
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.As darkness fell, both sides took stock and made tentative plans for continuing the action.^ As darkness fell, both sides took stock and made tentative plans for continuing the action.
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^ Before dawn on 4 June, PBY's took off from Midway continuing their invaluable scouting that contributed so greatly to the success of the action.
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.Admiral Fletcher, obliged to abandon derelict Yorktown and feeling he could not adequately command from a cruiser, ceded operational command to Spruance.^ Admiral Fletcher, obliged to abandon derelict Yorktown and feeling he could not adequately command from a cruiser, ceded operational command to Spruance.
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^ Task Force 17 reached her eon the 27th and sailed on eh 30th, under command of Rear Admiral F. J. Fletcher as Task Force Commander with Rear Admiral W. W. Smith in command of the Cruiser Group, and Captain G. C. Hoover in command of the Destroyers.
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^ The United States had gathered formidable forces; Admiral Nimitz oversaw Admirals Spruance and Turner, who led naval operations, and Lieutenant General Buckner, who commanded the ground troops.
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spruance knew the United States had won a great victory, but was still unsure of what Japanese forces remained and was determined to safeguard both Midway and his carriers.^ The Carrier Striking Force was despatched to strike Midway.
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^ Casablanca surrendered to United States forces.
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^ The management of the Japanese carrier force at Midway by Vice Admiral Nagumo left a lot to be desired.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.To aid his aviators, who had launched at extreme range, he had continued to close with Nagumo during the day, and persisted as night fell.^ To aid his aviators, who had launched at extreme range, he had continued to close with Nagumo during the day, and persisted as night fell.
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^ The thick fog had cleared during the night, and the first attack wave of 108 Japanese warplanes was launched towards Midway in the pre-dawn darkness.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All activities away from battle stations had to be carried on during the day, and after the evening stand-by, everyone went underground for the night except for the men on watch above ground.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fearing a possible night encounter with Japanese surface forces,[83] Spruance changed course and withdrew to the east, turning back west towards the enemy at midnight.^ October At midnight, Admiral Scott changed course to the west to pursue the enemy.
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^ Fearing a possible night encounter with Japanese surface forces, [ 82 ] Spruance changed course and withdrew to the east, turning back west towards the enemy at midnight.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enemy changed course to 90 degrees.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For his part, Yamamoto initially decided to continue the engagement and sent his remaining surface forces searching eastward for the American carriers.^ For his part, Yamamoto initially decided to continue the engagement and sent his remaining surface forces searching eastward for the American carriers.
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^ On all four Japanese carriers frantic preparations were under way to launch a massive strike at the American carrier force discovered by the Tone scout seaplane.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yamamoto's primary strategic concern was the elimination of America's remaining carrier forces, which he perceived as the principal obstacle to the overall Pacific campaign.
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.Simultaneously, a cruiser raiding force was detached to bombard the island.^ Simultaneously, a cruiser raiding force was detached to bombard the island.
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^ Actually, this was Yamamoto's bombardment group of four cruisers and two destroyers, which at 02:55 was ordered to retire west with the rest of his force.
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^ August A Japanese force of 7 cruisers and 1 destroyer, under Admiral Mikawa, approached west of Salvo Island under cover of darkness and launched float planes.
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.The Japanese surface forces failed to make contact with the Americans due to Spruance's decision to briefly withdraw eastward, and Yamamoto ordered a general retirement to the west.^ The Japanese surface forces failed to make contact with the Americans due to Spruance's decision to briefly withdraw eastward, and Yamamoto ordered a general retirement to the west.
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^ American search planes failed to detect the retiring Japanese task forces on 5 June.
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^ Admiral Yamamoto finally ordered a general withdrawal at 0255.
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.American search planes failed to detect the retiring Japanese task forces on 5 June.^ All planes forced to retire.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chikuma forces enemy planes to retire.
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^ The enemy task force has retired to the east.
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.An afternoon strike narrowly missed detecting Yamamoto's main body and failed to score hits on a straggling Japanese destroyer.^ An afternoon strike narrowly missed detecting Yamamoto's main body and failed to score hits on a straggling Japanese destroyer.
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^ On the 28th, the Japanese First Fleet, Main Body (Admiral Yamamoto in battleship Yamato ) sortied from home waters.
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^ Info, ComCarDiv 5, Akagi, Kaga: "Despatch 2 destroyers each to the damaged carriers and have them proceed towards the Main Body (0830)."
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strike planes returned to the carriers after nightfall, prompting Spruance to order Enterprise and Hornet to turn on searchlights in order to aid their landings.^ Carriers involved are the Yorktown, Enterprise, and Hornet.
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^ The strike planes returned to the carriers after nightfall, prompting Spruance to order Enterprise and Hornet to turn on searchlights in order to aid their landings.
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^ The carriers sighted, of course, were Enterprise and Hornet.
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[84].
.At 02:15 on 5 June–6 June, Commander John Murphy's Tambor, lying some 90 nmi (100 mi; 170 km) west of Midway, made the second of the Submarine Force's two major contributions to the battle's outcome.^ At 02:15 on 5 June–6 June, Commander John Murphy's Tambor , lying some 90 nm (165 km) west of Midway, made the second of the Submarine Force's two major contributions to the battle's outcome.
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^ The battles north of Midway on June 4, 1942.
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^ Instead, he selected Midway, at the extreme northwest end of the Hawaiian Island chain, some 1,300 miles (2,100 km) from Oahu .
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Sighting several ships, he (along with his exec, Ray Spruance, Jr.) could not identify them (and feared they might be friendly, so he held fire), but reported their presence, omitting their course. .This went to Admiral Robert English, Commander, Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet (COMSUBPAC), and from him through Nimitz to the senior Spruance.^ In addition to the forces and planes ashore Nimitz had 25 of the latest Submarines commanded by Admiral English.
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^ Sighting several ships, he (along with his exec, Ray Spruance, Jr. This went to Admiral Robert English, Commander, Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet ( COMSUBPAC ), and from him through Nimitz to the senior Spruance.
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^ As part of pre-battle disposition, 25 fleet submarines under the command of Rear Admiral Robert H. English were deployed around Midway.
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.Unaware of the exact location of Yamamoto's "Main Body" (a persistent problem since PBYs had first sighted the Japanese), Spruance presumed this was the invasion force.^ The Japanese Main Striking Force assumed to have 4 carriers was not sighted on the third.
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^ Unaware of the exact location of Yamamoto's "Main Body" (a persistent problem since PBYs had first sighted the Japanese), Spruance presumed this was the invasion force.
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^ Then, at 0530 a report from one of the PBYs piloted by Lt. Howard Ady located Japanese carrier(s) bearing 320 at a distance of 180 miles.
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.Thus, he moved to block it, taking station some 100 nmi (120 mi; 190 km) northeast of Midway; this frustrated Yamamoto's efforts, and the night passed without any contact between the opposing forces.^ Thus, he moved to block it, taking station some 100 nm (185 km) northeast of Midway; this frustrated Yamamoto's efforts, and the night passed without any contact between the opposing forces.
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^ Instead, he selected Midway, at the extreme northwest end of the Hawaiian Island chain, some 1,300 miles (2,100 km) from Oahu .
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^ A picket line of Japanese submarines was late getting into position (partly because of Yamamoto's haste), which let the American carriers reach their assembly point northeast of Midway (known as "Point Luck") without being detected.
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[85]
.Actually, this was Yamamoto's bombardment group of four cruisers and two destroyers, which at 02:55 was ordered to retire west with the rest of his force.^ Actually, this was Yamamoto's bombardment group of four cruisers and two destroyers, which at 02:55 was ordered to retire west with the rest of his force.
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^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
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^ Two other carriers (class undetermined) escorted by 5 cruisers and 6 destroyers sighted at 1516 in a position about 4 miles to the south of the others.
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[85] .Tambor was sighted around the same time; turning to avoid, Mogami and Mikuma collided, inflicting serious damage to Mogami's bow, the most any of the 18[86] submarines deployed for the battle achieved.^ Later, at 0910, 4 fighters and 18 bombers from CarDiv 2 (less Soryu ) bombed and sunk (seriously damaged) an enemy carrier.
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^ June Battle of Midway concluded as planes from ENTERPRISE and HORNET attacked the retiring Japanese force, sinking the heavy cruiser Mikuma and putting Mogami in a shipyard for a year, These strikes also damaged destroyers Asashio and Arashio .
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^ The carrier of the Yorktown type which had been hurt by our efforts (apparently no damage had been inflicted on her flight deck) was definitely sunk by subsequent submarine action.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only at 04:12 did the sky brighten enough for Murphy to be certain the ships were Japanese, by which time staying surfaced was a hazard, and he dived to approach for an attack.^ After the dive-bomber attack was over, I stayed there.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only at 04:12 did the sky brighten enough for Murphy to be certain the ships were Japanese, by which time staying surfaced was a hazard, and he dived to approach for an attack.
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^ The two VF planes directly over the torpedo planes were able to furnish considerable support to the VT during the first part of the approach when there were only 4 Zeros attacking.
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.This was unsuccessful, and at around 06:00, he finally reported two Mogami-class cruisers, westbound, placing Spruance at least 100 nmi (120 mi; 190 km) out of position.^ This was unsuccessful, and at around 06:00, he finally reported two Mogami -class cruisers, westbound, placing Spruance at least 100 nm (185 km) out of position.
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^ Two other carriers (class undetermined) escorted by 5 cruisers and 6 destroyers sighted at 1516 in a position about 4 miles to the south of the others.
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^ At 1510 sighted 2 carriers of the Yorktown or Hornet class with 2 cruisers and 4 destroyers acting as direct escorts in position 30-23N, 176-05W. Distance between the two units was about 3 miles.
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[87] .It may have been fortunate Spruance did not pursue, for had he come in contact with Yamamoto's heavy ships, including Yamato, in the dark, his cruisers would have been overwhelmed, and his carriers helpless.^ It may have been fortunate Spruance did not pursue, for had he come in contact with Yamamoto's heavy ships, including Yamato , in the dark, his cruisers would have been overwhelmed, and his carriers helpless.
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^ Clay Blair argued in 1975 that, had Spruance done so, he would have met Yamamoto's surface forces, including Yamato , at night, enabling the Japanese to overwhelm his cruiser escort while being unable to launch his aircraft.
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^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] .(At that time, only Britain's Fleet Air Arm was capable of night carrier operations.^ Only 1 carrier, Soryu, damaged enough to limit operations at this time.
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^ (At that time, only Britain's Fleet Air Arm was capable of night carrier operations.
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^ The victory is all the more astonishing for the fact that the air groups of Enterprise and Hornet failed to co-ordinate their attacks on the Japanese carrier fleet.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

)[89]
During an attempt to salvage Yorktown, both she and destroyer Hammann were struck by torpedoes from I-168.
.Over the following two days, first Midway and then Spruance's carriers launched several successive strikes against the stragglers.^ A quick first strike against the American carrier was imperative.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, other matters were beginning to trouble the commander of the First Carrier Striking Force at this moment.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To protect his four carriers against a succession of attacks from Midway, Nagumo had allowed a massive combat air patrol of almost fifty Zero fighters to be placed above his widely dispersed fleet.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mikuma was eventually sunk by Dauntlesses[90], while Mogami survived severe damage to return home for repairs.^ CA sunk -- Mogami, Mikuma -- 3 or more others damaged, some severely.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One was shot down in the dive, seven force-landed from fuel exhaustion on the way home, and six returned to CV-6 - none were damaged.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimated results are 1 AK or AP sunk, 1 AK or AP damaged severely.
  • Battle of Midway: CinCPac Report 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Captain Richard E. Fleming, a U.S. Marine Corps aviator, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his attack on Mikuma.^ A posthumous Medal of Honor awarded to First Lieutenant George H. Cannon, 6th Defense Battalion .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was honorably discharged from the United States Marine Corps in 1969 and was retired from International Harvester.

^ He was posthumously awarded the first Medal of Honor awarded to a Marine in World War II. .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, salvage efforts on Yorktown were encouraging and she was taken in tow by USS Vireo, until late afternoon on 6 June when Yorktown was struck by two torpedoes from I-168.^ Efforts to salvage the crippled YORKTOWN continued.
  • THE BATTLE FOR MIDWAY ISLAND 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, salvage efforts on Yorktown were encouraging and she was taken in tow by USS Vireo , until late afternoon on 6 June when Yorktown was struck by two torpedoes from Japanese submarine I-168 .
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^ During an attempt to salvage Yorktown both it and the destroyer Hammann were struck by torpedoes from I-168 .
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.There were few casualties aboard Yorktown, since most of the crew had already been evacuated, but a third torpedo from this salvo also struck and sank the destroyer USS Hammann, which had been providing auxiliary power to Yorktown.^ On 6 June 1942, during the Battle of Midway, this submarine torpedoed the already crippled aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) and the destroyer USS Hammann (DD-412) , sinking the latter immediately and the carrier the following morning.

^ Moreover, since most of the ships were undergoing maintenance and repair work until only a few days before departure, the men's efficiency suffered greatly.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December The destroyer USS DRAYTON (DD 366) sank a full-sized Japanese submarine, while escorting a convoy near Pearl Harbor .
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.Hammann broke in two with the loss of 80 lives.^ Hammann broke in two with the loss of 80 lives.
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.Most of the lives lost were due to her own depth charges exploding.^ Most of the lives lost were due to her own depth charges exploding.
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^ When the Yorktown was torpedoed, a number of men were knocked over the side and were in the water when the Hammann's depth charges were exploded.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yorktown lingered until just after 06:00 on 7 June.^ Yorktown lingered until just after 6:00am on 7 June.
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^ Just before noon on 4 June, Admiral Fletcher launched ten Dauntless dive bombers from Yorktown to search for Hiryu.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Flight deck of the USS YORKTOWN on the morning of June 4, just before the attack on the Japanese carriers.
  • THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.midway2009.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aftermath

.After winning a clear victory, and as pursuit became too hazardous near Wake,[91] American forces retired.^ After winning a clear victory, and as pursuit became too hazardous near Wake, [ 90 ] American forces retired.
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^ The Japanese surface forces failed to make contact with the Americans due to Spruance's decision to briefly withdraw eastward, and Yamamoto ordered a general retirement to the west.
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^ American search planes failed to detect the retiring Japanese task forces on 5 June.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historian Samuel E. Morison wrote in 1949 that Spruance was subjected to much criticism for not pursuing the retreating Japanese, and allowing the retreating Japanese surface fleet to escape.^ Historian Samuel E. Morison wrote in 1949 that Spruance was subjected to much criticism for not pursuing the retreating Japanese, and allowing the retreating Japanese surface fleet to escape.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese surface forces failed to make contact with the Americans due to Spruance's decision to briefly withdraw eastward, and Yamamoto ordered a general retirement to the west.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Zeros pursued him and continued to fire at his plane until he was well clear of the Japanese fleet.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[92] .Clay Blair argued in 1975 that, had Spruance done so, he would have met Yamamoto's surface forces, including Yamato, at night, enabling the Japanese to overwhelm his cruiser escort while being unable to launch his aircraft.^ Clay Blair argued in 1975 that, had Spruance done so, he would have met Yamamoto's surface forces, including Yamato , at night, enabling the Japanese to overwhelm his cruiser escort while being unable to launch his aircraft.
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^ The advantage in night actions would lie with the Japanese who had developed a high degree of technical skill in night fighting at sea, and Yamamoto was aware that the American carriers would be hampered by the difficulty of launching and recovering aircraft at night.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may have been fortunate Spruance did not pursue, for had he come in contact with Yamamoto's heavy ships, including Yamato , in the dark, his cruisers would have been overwhelmed, and his carriers helpless.
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[91] .Japan's loss of four out of her six fleet carriers, as well as a large number of highly trained aircrew, ended Japanese expansion in the Pacific.^ Japan's loss of four out of her six fleet carriers, as well as a large number of highly trained aircrew, ended Japanese expansion in the Pacific.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, our losses numbered four carriers and the occupation of Midway was not carried out.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this attack 4 Japanese carriers were out of action.
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.Only Shōkaku and Zuikaku were left for offensive actions.^ Offensive action is not the only factor to win a war.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japan's other carriers, Ryūjō, Junyo, and Hiyo, were second-rate ships of comparatively limited effectiveness.^ Japan's other carriers, Ryūjō , Junyo , and Hiyo , were second-rate ships of comparatively limited effectiveness.
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^ Kami formed the view that Hawaii could be captured by Japan, but he also concluded that Japan lacked the shipping tonnage to maintain the importation of food and other supplies to Hawaii at 1941 levels.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as the bomb explosion had so slowed the ship as to prevent landing and flying off planes, the attack group planes in the air were directed to land on one of the other carriers.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 10 June, the Imperial Japanese Navy conveyed to the military liaison conference an incomplete picture of the results of the battle, on the ground the real extent of damage was a military secret not to be entrusted to all members.^ On 10 June, the Imperial Japanese Navy conveyed to the military liaison conference an incomplete picture of the results of the battle, on the ground the real extent of damage was a military secret not to be entrusted to all members.
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^ The Japanese Navy was very much optimistic and thought for a “decisive battle” to enjoy victory over US forces.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Midway permanently damaged the Japanese Navy's striking power, and the loss of operational capability during this critical phase of the campaign ultimately proved decisive.
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.Japanese news announced a great victory.^ Japanese news announced a great victory.
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^ While the material damage inflicted by the bombers was small, the psychological effect of an air raid on the Japanese capital was great our first really good news of the war.
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^ Spruance knew the United States had won a great victory, but was still unsure of what Japanese forces remained and was determined to safeguard both Midway and his carriers.
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.Only a few such as Emperor Hirohito were accurately informed of the carrier and pilot losses.^ Only a few such as Emperor Hirohito were accurately informed of the carrier and pilot losses.
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^ Its few surviving aircraft were all recovered aboard Hiryū , where they were prepared for a strike against what was believed to be the only remaining American carrier.
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^ Ushijima scored only a few crucial hits, including aircraft carriers Wasp and Franklin .
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So the Army planners continued to believe the fleet was healthy and secure for a short time.^ So the Army planners continued to believe the fleet was healthy and secure for a short time.
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^ I believe the conclusion was that they would not have repainted the aircraft in the short space of time.
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[93]

Allegations of war crimes

.Three U.S. airmen, Ensign Wesley Osmus (pilot, Yorktown), Ensign Frank O'Flaherty (pilot, Enterprise) and Aviation Machinist's Mate B. F. (or B. P.) Gaido (radioman-gunner of O'Flaherty's SBD) were captured by the Japanese during the battle.^ The Battle of Midway permanently damaged the Japanese Navy's striking power, and the loss of operational capability during this critical phase of the campaign ultimately proved decisive.
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^ Meanwhile, the three remaining carriers are prepared for battle as the Japanese shifted to the JN-25C code books.
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^ The Japanese would not have expected that Yorktown could have been repaired in time to participate in the battle at Midway.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Osmus was held on the destroyer Arashi, with O'Flaherty and Gaido on the cruiser Nagara (or destroyer Makigumo, sources vary), and it is alleged they were later killed.^ Osmus was held on the destroyer Arashi , with O'Flaherty and Gaido on the cruiser Nagara (or destroyer Makigumo , sources vary), and it is alleged they were later killed.
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^ Coordinating various reports, the large enemy force is apparently composed of 2 carriers, 6 large cruisers accompanied by about 8 destroyers.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loses incurred by both the forces are as follows: Lost Carrier Sunk Heavy Cruiser Heavy Cruiser Wrecked Battle Ship Sunk Destroyer Sunk Aircraft Men Killed 50.
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[94] .The report filed by Admiral Nagumo states of Ensign Osmus, "He died on 6 June and was buried at sea". Nagumo records obtaining seven items of information, including Fletcher's strength, but does not mention the death of O'Flaherty or Gaido.^ The report filed by Admiral Nagumo states of Ensign Osmus, "He died on 6 June and was buried at sea".
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^ Admiral Fletcher searches for Nagumo's Carriers .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He died on 6 June and was buried at sea.
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[95] .Post-war testimony of Japanese Naval Officers revealed that after being interrogated — and also as a response to the loss of their aircraft carriers — O'Flaherty and Gaido were both tied up, weights were attached to their legs, and they were thrown overboard.^ They were then thrown overboard.
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^ Post-war testimony of Japanese Naval Officers revealed that after being interrogated - and also as a response to the loss of their aircraft carriers - O'Flaherty and Gaido were both tied up by the Japanese (with weights attached to their legs).
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^ Both of the 2 planes that did return were so badly shot up by the terrific fighter and AA fire encountered that they were unserviceable.
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[citation needed]

Impact

.The battle has often been called "the turning point of the Pacific".[96] However, the Japanese continued to try to advance in the South Pacific, and it was many more months before the U.S. moved from a state of naval parity to one of increasingly clear supremacy,[97] so Midway by itself did not change the direction of the war in the same sense as Salamis or Tsushima.^ The Japanese did not succeed in neutralizing Midway.
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^ Midway Atoll, several months before the battle.
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^ Named after the Battle of Midway Island, the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

.Nonetheless, Midway was the Allies' first major victory against the Japanese, and, along with the earlier inconclusive Battle of Coral Sea, it blunted Japan's strategic initiative and robbed them of their offensive capability.^ The battles in the Coral Sea on May 8, 1942.
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^ After the Battle of the Coral Sea it became evident that Japan was concentrating her fleet for movements of major importance against the Aleutians and Midway.
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^ Nonetheless, Midway was the Allies' first major victory against the Japanese, and, along with the earlier inconclusive Battle of Coral Sea , it blunted Japan's strategic initiative and robbed them of their offensive capability.
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[7] .It paved the way for the following campaigns around the Solomon Islands and Guadalcanal, which would see the Allies prevail after a prolonged attrition in combined arms and take the offensive in the Pacific War.^ It paved the way for the following campaigns around the Solomon Islands and Guadalcanal , which would see the Allies prevail after a prolonged attrition in combined arms and take the offensive in the Pacific War .
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^ He proposed to recapture the Philippines and for Nimitz to seize Iwo Jima and Okinawa (see Appendix A), thus "cutting off Japan from her oil supply lines and paving the way for an invasion of the enemy home islands."
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese offensive against America's Aleutian Islands off the western coast of Alaska would take place on 3 June 1942, and was intended by Navy General Staff to provide a northern anchor for Japan's eastern defensive perimeter in the Pacific.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The battle showed the worth of pre-war naval cryptologic training and efforts.^ The battle showed the worth of pre-war naval cryptologic training and efforts.
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^ The Battle of Midway is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II .
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^ Satisfactory training still shows up a one of the greatest difficulties in war operations, both for antiaircraft gunners and aircraft personnel.
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.These efforts continued and were expanded throughout the war in both the Pacific and Atlantic theaters.^ These efforts continued and were expanded throughout the war in both the Pacific and Atlantic theaters.
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^ For these reasons, Midway can fairly be assigned the status of the most important battle of the Pacific War.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this, the first edition of Rising Sun, you play a soldier in the Pacific theater of war,...
  • John Ford's Battle of Midway | SPIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Successes were numerous and significant.^ Successes were numerous and significant.
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.For instance, the shooting down of Admiral Yamamoto's airplane was only possible because of navy cryptanalysis.^ For instance, the shooting down of Admiral Yamamoto's airplane was only possible because of navy cryptanalysis.
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^ With the loss of Vice Admiral Nagumo's four fleet carriers, Admiral Yamamoto realised that his Midway offensive had turned into a disaster for the Japanese Navy.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the directives of Imperial Japanese Navy, Admiral Yamamoto favoured a campaign to the east.
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.The Battle of Midway permanently damaged the Japanese Navy's striking power, and the loss of operational capability during this critical phase of the campaign ultimately proved decisive.^ The Battle of Midway permanently damaged the Japanese Navy's striking power, and the loss of operational capability during this critical phase of the campaign ultimately proved decisive.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Midway was one of the decisive battles in the history.
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^ Damages sustained during Battle of Hawaii .
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, the battle inflicted irreparable damage on the Japanese carrier force, such that they could no longer put together a large number of fleet carriers with well-trained aircrews.^ Japan's loss of four out of her six fleet carriers, as well as a large number of highly trained aircrew, ended Japanese expansion in the Pacific.
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^ There is no record of any damage to the Japanese carrier fleet from the TBF attacks.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, the battle inflicted irreparable damage on the Japanese carrier force, such that they could no longer put together a large number of fleet carriers with well-trained aircrews.
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[7] .Japanese planners, who had hoped for a quick war[citation needed], were ill-prepared to replace the losses of ships, pilots, and sailors; at Midway, the Japanese lost as many aircrewmen in a single day as their pre-war training program had produced in a year.^ Many of the planes on Midway were discards from US Navy carriers whose performance fell far below that of aircraft Japanese fleet carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Navy planners expected to face about 750 US Marines, and that would have been the pre-war strength of the Midway Detachment, Fleet Marine Force.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Midway action the B-26 and TBF planes received their most serious losses from Japanese fighters when they slowed down to limiting torpedo dropping speed.
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[98] .Replacing their combat experience would be impossible.^ Replacing their combat experience would be impossible.
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^ He knew that his warships would be outnumbered by the Japanese, and that many of his Navy aircrews had little or no actual combat experience.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The following Battles of Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz would further decimate their veteran aircrews.^ The following Battles of Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz would further decimate their veteran aircrews.
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[99] .Also important was the loss of four of Japan's fleet carriers;[100] her carrier strength did not recover until 1944.[101] By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea, while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.^ The Americans prepare to ambush Japan's First Carrier Striking Force off Midway .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
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^ There before me was the target, the First Carrier Striking Force.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the same span of time, the U.S. Navy commissioned more than two dozen fleet and light fleet carriers, and numerous escort carriers.^ In the same span of time, the U.S. Navy commissioned more than two dozen fleet and light fleet carriers, and numerous escort carriers.
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^ Nimitz was aware, for example, that the vast Japanese numerical superiority had been divided into no less than four task forces, and the escort for the Carrier Striking Force was limited to just a few fast ships.
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^ Two other carriers (class undetermined) escorted by 5 cruisers and 6 destroyers sighted at 1516 in a position about 4 miles to the south of the others.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102] .By 1942, the United States was already three years into a shipbuilding program, mandated by the Second Vinson Act, intended to make the navy larger than Japan's.^ By 1942, the United States was already three years into a shipbuilding program, mandated by the Second Vinson Act , intended to make the navy larger than Japan's.
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^ He was raised in Pleasant Hill, and served in the United States Navy from June 1944 to June 1946.

^ With its lifeline to the United States severed, it is likely that the eastern coast of Australia would have been invaded and occupied by the Japanese before the end of 1942.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[103] .The greater part of USN aviators survived the Battle of Midway and subsequent battles of 1942, unlike their Japanese counterparts, and combined with the ramping up of training programs, the US was able to develop a large number of skilled pilots to complement its material advantages in ships and planes.^ The battles north of Midway on June 4, 1942.
  • Battle of Midway: USS Yorktown Action Report 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greater part of USN aviators survived the Battle of Midway and subsequent battles of 1942, unlike their Japanese counterparts, and combined with the ramping up of training programs, the US was able to develop a large number of skilled pilots to complement its material advantages in ships and planes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Discovery of sunken vessels

Mikuma shortly before sinking.
.Because of the extreme depth of the ocean in the area of the battle (more than 17,000 ft (5,200 m)), researching the battlefield has presented extraordinary difficulties.^ Because of the extreme depth of the ocean in the area of the battle (more than 17,000 feet/5200 m), researching the battlefield has presented extraordinary difficulties.
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^ Task Force 17 was delayed at Pearl Harbor for a further two days because Yorktown was still undergoing repairs to her battle damage.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the erroneous information, Americans estimated 65,000 Japanese troops; in reality, more than 100,000 troops awaited, hidden in a maze of tunnels and caves.
  • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, on 19 May 1998, Robert Ballard and a team of scientists and Midway veterans (including Japanese participants) located and photographed (artist's rendering) Yorktown.^ The Japanese would not have expected that Yorktown could have been repaired in time to participate in the battle at Midway.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Simard was a veteran naval aviator who would later play a key role in the defence of Midway against the Japanese attack on 4 June 1942.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of excellent leadership, Yorktown’s Air Group had no difficulty locating and destroying the Japanese fleet carrier Soryu.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ship was remarkably intact for a vessel that sank in 1942; much of the original equipment and even the original paint scheme were still visible.^ Other theaters, like the Ridgewood were minimally maintained, but since it was also sort of hap-hazardly cut up, much of the original interior was still there to be seen.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

^ According to your research, no alteration in the paint scheme was ordered on April 10 1942.
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incidentally, can you find directives issued before April 10 1942 that touches onto the alteration of paint schemes of Soryu and Shokaku's Vals and Shokaku's Kates?
  • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104]
.Ballard's subsequent search for the Japanese carriers was ultimately unsuccessful.^ Ballard's subsequent search for the Japanese carriers was ultimately unsuccessful.
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^ He had been engaged in a fruitless search for the Japanese carriers when he observed the Japanese destroyer Arashi speeding in a north-easterly direction.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequent searches failed to locate the carrier damaged by 5 ordinary bombs and 1 land bomb.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1999, a joint expedition between Nauticos Corp.^ In September 1999, a joint expedition between Nauticos Corp.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and the .U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office searched for the Japanese aircraft carriers.^ Four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser were sunk in exchange for one American aircraft carrier and a destroyer .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the planes on Midway were discards from US Navy carriers whose performance fell far below that of aircraft Japanese fleet carriers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tags: wwii • academy award • aircraft carrier • battle • bomb • early color • fighter planes • henry fonda • japanese • john ford Extras .
  • John Ford's Battle of Midway | SPIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Using advanced renavigation techniques in conjunction with the ship's log of the submarine USS Nautilus, the expedition located a large piece of wreckage, subsequently identified as having come from the upper hangar deck of Kaga.^ Using advanced renavigation techniques in conjunction with the ship's log of the submarine USS Nautilus , the expedition located a large piece of wreckage, subsequently identified as having come from the upper hangar deck of Kaga .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kaga Hangar Diagram Hope that's useful.
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^ The American bombs struck the flight decks of Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu, and penetrated to the hangars below that were crammed with fuelled and armed bombers.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

[105] .The main wreck, however, has yet to be located.^ The main wreck, however, has yet to be located.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In film

.The Battle of Midway has been featured in several motion pictures.^ Viewed purely as a geographical feature of the Pacific Ocean, Midway Atoll was an unlikely focus for the most important battle of the Pacific War.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first was a documentary directed by John Ford, a commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve at the time and on temporary duty at Midway Island during the battle as a photographic and intelligence officer.^ The first was a documentary directed by John Ford , a commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve at the time and on temporary duty at Midway Island during the battle as a photographic and intelligence officer.
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^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
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^ Admiral Nagumo launched his first strike of 108 aircraft against Midway Island at 0430.
  • Battle Of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While shooting 16 mm color footage from atop the island's power plant, Ford was exposed to enemy fire by attacking aircraft and wounded in the arm by shrapnel.^ While shooting 16 mm color footage from atop the island's power plant, Ford was exposed to enemy fire by attacking aircraft and wounded in the arm by shrapnel.
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^ Mission: Neutralization of AA fire; attacks on airfield and installations on Sand Island.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other squadron attacked airfield installations and anti-aircraft batteries on Eastern Island.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

.He received a Purple Heart and later the Legion of Merit.^ He received a Purple Heart and later the Legion of Merit.
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^ He was a 1943 graduate of Haviland Scott High School and served in the United States Army Air Force during WWII where he received the Air Medal and the Purple Heart.

.The footage Ford shot is included in his 1942 Academy Award-winning documentary, The Battle of Midway.^ The footage Ford shot is included in his 1942 Academy Award -winning documentary, The Battle of Midway .
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^ After decades as a single screen movie palace, the 1942 built; Midway Theatre (named for the famous Battle of Midway) was sold in June 1997 to the Heskel Group.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

^ Tags: wwii • academy award • aircraft carrier • battle • bomb • early color • fighter planes • henry fonda • japanese • john ford Extras .
  • John Ford's Battle of Midway | SPIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Subsequently, the battle was given in-depth coverage by the 1960 big-budget Japanese war film Storm Over the Pacific directed by Shūe Matsubayashi for Toho studios.^ Subsequently, the battle was given in-depth coverage by the 1960 big-budget Japanese war film Storm Over the Pacific directed by Shūe Matsubayashi for Toho studios.
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^ For these reasons, Midway can fairly be assigned the status of the most important battle of the Pacific War.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is suggested that the reader will benefit by reference to appropriate sections of "Interrogations of Japanese Officials" and "The Campaigns of the Pacific War" which have been published by the Naval Analysis Division of the Survey.
  • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The film focuses on a young Zero pilot aboard Hiryū who participates in both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway.^ The film focuses on a young Zero pilot aboard Hiryū who participates in both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway.
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^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time of the Battle of the Philippine Sea , while the Japanese had somewhat rebuilt their carrier forces, the planes largely were flown by inexperienced pilots so it was not as potent a striking force as it was before Midway.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was barely released in the United States in a dubbed, abridged version, under the sensationalized title I Bombed Pearl Harbor, in 1961.
The miniature and pyrotechnic effects from Storm Over the Pacific were considered by Universal Studios to be good enough to reuse 16 years later in the star-studded Midway, directed by Jack Smight, starring Charlton Heston, and released in 1976. Midway strongly fictionalized events and relied heavily on stock footage (for which it was criticized) from various World War II battles, as well as some footage previously filmed for Tora! Tora! .Tora!, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Away All Boats, as well as Storm over the Pacific.^ Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo , Away All Boats , and Storm over the Pacific .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other remembrances

.Chicago Municipal Airport, important to the war efforts in World War II, was renamed Chicago Midway International Airport (or simply Midway Airport) in 1949 in honor of the battle.^ Midway was the most important battle of the Pacific War .
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She was then employed in 1941 by the Curtiss Wright Corporation in Columbus, where she was involved in the design, weight distribution and bolt/rivet configuration of the Navy Helldrive aircraft, which was instrumental in the victory over the Japanese in the battle of Midway and utilized in World War II through 1945.

^ For these reasons, Midway can fairly be assigned the status of the most important battle of the Pacific War.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

An escort carrier, USS Midway (CVE-63) was commissioned on 17 August 1943. She was renamed St. Lo on 10 October 1944 to clear the name Midway for a large fleet aircraft carrier, USS Midway (CV-41), commissioned on 10 September 1945 (eight days after the Japanese surrender). .The latter ship is now docked in San Diego, California and is in use as the USS Midway Museum.^ The USS Yorktown battles for her life as the gallant ship takes the full brunt of the Japanese counter-attack at Midway.
  • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

Games

.The battle has been the subject of numerous games.^ The battle has been the subject of numerous games.
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.Avalon Hill has published two board wargames, both titled Midway, one in 1964, the other in 1991.^ Avalon Hill has published two board wargames, both titled Midway , one in 1964 , the other in 1991 .
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^ Other boardgame examples include Game Designers' Workshop 's Battle for Midway (1976) and Midway (1986) by Japanese publisher Sho-Kikaku.
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^ The three pilots Jon mentioned flew one watch, departing at 0710 with one aircraft returning at 0736 and the other two at 0859.
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.Other boardgame examples include Game Designers' Workshop's Battle for Midway (1976) and Midway (1986) by Japanese publisher Sho-Kikaku.^ Other boardgame examples include Game Designers' Workshop 's Battle for Midway (1976) and Midway (1986) by Japanese publisher Sho-Kikaku.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Midway memories include "Dr.
  • Cinema Treasures | UA Midway Stadium 9 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cinematreasures.org [Source type: General]

^ Avalon Hill has published two board wargames, both titled Midway , one in 1964 , the other in 1991 .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among video games, there is Battlestations: Midway (2007), in which the final mission is the battle.^ Among video games, there is Battlestations: Midway (2007), in which the final mission is the battle.
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^ Other boardgame examples include Game Designers' Workshop 's Battle for Midway (1976) and Midway (1986) by Japanese publisher Sho-Kikaku.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, despite its title, the popular arcade game 1943: The Battle of Midway has at best a tenuous connection to the historical battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, despite its title, the popular arcade game 1943: The Battle of Midway has at best a tenuous connection to the historical battle.^ However, despite its title, the popular arcade game 1943: The Battle of Midway has at best a tenuous connection to the historical battle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other boardgame examples include Game Designers' Workshop 's Battle for Midway (1976) and Midway (1986) by Japanese publisher Sho-Kikaku.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CAPCOM 1943 BATTLE OF MIDWAY VIDEO GAME FLYER MINT - eBay (item 390108436556 end time Feb-17-10 11:24:03 PST) .
  • 1987 CAPCOM 1943 BATTLE OF MIDWAY VIDEO GAME FLYER MINT - eBay (item 390108436556 end time Feb-17-10 11:24:03 PST) 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC cgi.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See Also

  • First Bombardment of Midway, a December 7, 1941 attack on Midway by two Japanese destroyers
  • Second Bombardment of Midway, a February 10, 1942 attack on Midway by a Japanese submarine

Notes

  1. ^ Note: Japanese names are traditionally listed as family name followed by given name(s), for example, Yamamoto Isoroku. This convention is followed in Japanese publications and in many recent English and American publications; eg: Parshall and Tulley Shattered Sword.
  2. ^ Parshall & Tully, p. 90-91
  3. ^ "The Battle of Midway". Office of Naval Intelligence. http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-CN-Midway/USN-CN-Midway-13.html#our. 
  4. ^ "Battle of Midway: June 4-7,1942". Naval History & Heritage Command. April 27, 2005. http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq81-1.htm. Retrieved February 20, 2009.  "...considered the decisive battle of the war in the Pacific."
  5. ^ Dull, Paul S. Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. .US Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 1-59114-219-9.
      "Midway was indeed "the" decisive battle of the war in the Pacific.", p. 166
  6. ^ "A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway". U.S. Navy. 2007. http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/ships/carriers/midway.html. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  7. ^ a b c U.S. Naval War College Analysis, p.1; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.416–430.
  8. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33; Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  9. ^ H.P. Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Lundstrom, First South Pacific Campaign; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 19–38.
  10. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin
  11. ^ Dull, The Imperial Japanese Navy: A Battle History, p.166; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp.519–523; Prange, Miracle at Midway p.395; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.416–430.
  12. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.13–15, 21–23; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 39–49; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 22–38.
  13. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33; Prange, Miracle at Midway, p. 23.
  14. ^ In fact, U.S. submarines were more dangerous to Japan's efforts. Blair, Silent Victory passim; Parillo, Japanese Merchant Marine.
  15. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 22–26. One wonders what the Japanese thought the presence of American submarines off their coast, beginning with Joe Grenfell's Gudgeon some three weeks after Pearl Harbor, represented; in light of how poor IJN ASW training and doctrine was, perhaps it should be no surprise this was ignored. Blair, Silent Victory, p.110; Parillo, Japanese Merchant Marine; Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  16. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33.
  17. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 66–67; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 33–34.
  18. ^ "After the Battle of Midway". Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. http://www.fws.gov/midway/postwar.html. 
  19. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 375–379, Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 110–117; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 52.
  20. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 53, derived from Japanese War History Series (Senshi Sōshō), Volume 43 ('Midowei Kaisen'), p. 118.
  21. ^ a b Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 51, 55.
  22. ^ a b Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 43–45, derived from Senshi Sōshō, p. 196.
  23. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  24. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 43–45, derived from Senshi Sōshō, pp. 119–121.
  25. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 80–81; Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, p. 37.
  26. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p.337.
  27. ^ Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp.37–45; Lord, Incredible Victory, pp.37–39.
  28. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p.338.
  29. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; p.337-40?
  30. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory, p.39; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p.340.
  31. ^ a b Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p.101.
  32. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 65–67.
  33. ^ Note: The code names "Val", "Kate" and "Zeke", which are often applied to these aircraft, were not introduced until late 1943 by the Allied forces. The D3A was normally referred to as Type 99 navy dive bomber, the B5N as the Type 97 navy torpedo bomber and the A6M as the Type 0 navy fighter; it was also known as the "Zero". Parshall and Tully Shattered Sword pp.78-80.
  34. ^ Parshall and Tulley Shattered Sword pp. 89-91.
  35. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p. 351; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 98–99.
  36. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory, pp. 37–39; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 99; Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets.
  37. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 102–104; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  38. ^ Isom, Midway Inquest: Why the Japanese Lost the Battle of Midway, pp.95-99
  39. ^ Michael Smith, p.134
  40. ^ Michael Smith, pp. 138-141
  41. ^ Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin. There are occasional references to "deception", notably in the film Midway, referring to the false traffic before Pearl Harbor; this reflects a complete misunderstanding of the issue.
  42. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway—Breaking the Secrets.
  43. ^ a b Admiral Nimitz's CinCPac report of the battle. From Hyperwar, retrieved 2008-02-13
  44. ^ a b Interrogation of: Captain TOYAMA, Yasumi, IJN; Chief of Staff Second Destroyer Squadron, flagship Jintsu (CL), at MIDWAY USSBS From Hyperwar, retrieved 2008-02-14
  45. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 107–112, 132–133.
  46. ^ Willmott, Barrier.
  47. ^ Stephen, Martin. Sea Battles in Close-up: World War Two (Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan, 1988), Volume 1, pp.166 & 167.
  48. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 200–204.
  49. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory, p. 110; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 149.
  50. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 207–212; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 149–152.
  51. ^ Parshall and Tulley Shattered Sword p.182
  52. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.130–132.
  53. ^ Lord, Walter. Incredible Victory; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Fuchida & Okumiya, Midway
  54. ^ Isom, Midway Inquest: Why the Japanese Lost the Battle of Midway, pp.129-139
  55. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.216–217; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.159–161 & 183.
  56. ^ Bicheno, Hugh. Midway (London: Orion Publishing Group, 2001), p.134.
  57. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.165–170.
  58. ^ Fuchida and Okumiya, Midway; Willmott, Barrier & the Javelin.
  59. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 231, derived from Senshi Sōshō, pp. 372–378.
  60. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.121–124.
  61. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, p.233.
  62. ^ Bicheno, p.163.
  63. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.217–218 & 372–373; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.170–173.
  64. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.231–237; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.170–173; Willmott, Barrier & the Javelin; Fuchida & Okumiya, Midway.
  65. ^ Willmott, Barrier & the Javelin; Fuchida & Okumiya, Midway.
  66. ^ Relayed via Nimitz who, unlike Yamamoto, had remained ashore.
  67. ^ Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 84–89; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 215–216; 226–227; Buehl, The Quiet Warrior (1987), p. 494ff.
  68. ^ Mrazek, Robert, "A Dawn Like Thunder", testimony from surviving pilots
  69. ^ Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 91–94.
  70. ^ Blair, Silent Victory, p.238.
  71. ^ Crenshaw Jr., Russell S. ‘’The Battle of Tassafaronga’’, p. 158.
  72. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 215–216; 226–227.
  73. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 226–227.
  74. ^ Bicheno, Midway, p.62.
  75. ^ "IJN KIRISHIMA: Tabular Record of Movement". Senkan!. combinedfleet.com. http://www.combinedfleet.com/Kirishima.html. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  76. ^ Tillman (1976) pp.69-73
  77. ^ "Accounts - C. Wade McClusky". cv6.org. http://www.cv6.org/company/accounts/wmcclusky/cv6.org. 
  78. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 259–261, 267–269; Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 96–97; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 215–216; 226–227.
  79. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 250.
  80. ^ Other sources claim a stern hit, but Parshall and Tully in Shattered Sword, pp.253–354 and 256–259, make a case for a near miss, because of rudder damage from a high explosive bomb.
  81. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.330–353.
  82. ^ Ballard, Robert D. and Archbold, Rick. Return to Midway. Madison Press Books: Toronto ISBN 0792275004
  83. ^ Potter & Nimitz 1960 p.682
  84. ^ Marc Mitscher, commanding Hornet, would two years later issue the same order as the carrier force commander under similar circumstances during the Battle of the Philippine Sea
  85. ^ a b Prange, Miracle at Midway, p. 320; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 345.
  86. ^ Blair, Silent Victory, chart p.240.
  87. ^ Blair, Silent Victory, pp.246–7.
  88. ^ Blair, Silent Victory, pp.246–7; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  89. ^ Thanks in part to the slow speed of the Fairey Swordfish. Stephen, Martin. Sea Battles in Close-up: World War 2 (Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan, 1988), Volume 1, p.34.
  90. ^ Allen, Thomas B. (April 1999). "Return to the Battle of MIDWAY". National Geographic, Journal of the National Geographic Society, Wash. D.C. 195 (4): 80–103 (p.89). ISSN: 0027-9358. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/midway. 
  91. ^ a b Blair, Silent Victory, p.247.
  92. ^ Morison, Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions: May 1942–August 1942. (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II), Volume IV, p. 142
  93. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p. 449
  94. ^ Robert E. Barde, "Midway: Tarnished Victory", Military Affairs, v. 47, no. 4 (December 1983), pp. 188–192.
  95. ^ "Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway". ONI Review. ibiblio.org. 1947. http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJN/rep/Midway/Nagumo/index.html#III-3. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  96. ^ Dull, p.166; Prange, p.395.
  97. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, pp.522–523; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.416–430.
  98. ^ Peattie, Sunburst, pp.131–134, 181–184, & 191–192..
  99. ^ Peattie, Sunburst, pp.176–186; Eric Bergerud, Fire in the Sky, p.668.
  100. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 416–421.
  101. ^ Shinano, commissioned on 19 November 1944, was only the fourth fleet carrier commissioned by Japan during the war, after Taihō, Unryū, and Amagi.
  102. ^ "Why Japan Really Lost The War - War Production". combinedfleet.com. http://www.combinedfleet.com/economic.htm. 
  103. ^ Hakim, A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz
  104. ^ "Titanic explorer finds Yorktown". CNN. 1998-06-04. http://www.cnn.com/TECH/science/9806/04/yorktown.found/index.html. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  105. ^ Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 491–493.

References

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    ^ The odds at Midway were stacked so heavily against the Americans that the distinguished military historian Walter Lord felt compelled to describe the battle in his book as "Midway: The incredible victory".
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    .^ Hi, I have read a lot of books on the Battle Of Midway June, 1942.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They were slow moving targets for the swarms of deadly Zero fighters that protected the Japanese carrier force that attacked Midway on 4 June 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This short extract is drawn from Commander Cheek's story of the action of Yorktown's Fighting Squadron Three at Midway on 4 June 1942 called "A Ring of Coral".
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Missoula, Mont.: Pictorial Histories Pub.^ Missoula, Mont.: Pictorial Histories Pub.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Co.. .ISBN 0-929521-40-4. 
  • Dull, Paul S. (1978).^ Dull, Paul S. (1978).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-929521-40-4 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy (1941-1945).^ The Battle of Midway permanently damaged the Japanese Navy's striking power, and the loss of operational capability during this critical phase of the campaign ultimately proved decisive.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The standard academic history of the battle based on massive research into American and Japanese sources.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin ^ Dull, The Imperial Japanese Navy: A Battle History, p.166; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp.519–523; Prange, Miracle at Midway p.395; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword , pp.416–430.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .US Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

     
  • Evans, David; Peattie, Mark R. (1997). .Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941.^ Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Teruo Kawamata, PO3c, Imperial Japanese Navy, would be listed as missing in action that night."
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That traditional Japanese strategy had failed repeatedly; this tactical change was long overdue.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-87021-192-7. 
  • Fuchida, Mitsuo; Masatake Okumiya (1955).^ ISBN 0-87021-192-7 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fuchida, Mitsuo ; Masatake Okumiya (1955).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan, the Japanese Navy's Story.^ Despite the overwhelming size and power of the Japanese Midway forces opposing them, and the significant advantages possessed by the Japanese Imperial Navy in number of aircraft carriers, training of pilots, battle experience, and superior equipment, advance knowledge of Japan's military plans gave the Americans a vital advantage.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Exact numbers are not known because the Japanese Navy went to extraordinary lengths to conceal the magnitude of its defeat at Midway, even to the extent of isolating survivors from their families.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy (1941-1945) .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thereafter, the naval establishments in Japan and the United States prepared for the possibility of armed conflict between their two countries.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ United States naval aviation .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-87021-372-5.  A Japanese account; numerous assertions in this work have been challenged by more recent sources.
  • Stephan, John J. (1984).^ Uses recent Japanese sources.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Japanese account; numerous assertions in this work have been challenged by more recent sources.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We (meaning mostly Tony Tully, really) have also been making headway by using other Japanese sources (survivor's accounts) to get an idea of relative bearings and distances from each other.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Hawaii Under the Rising Sun: Japan's Plans for Conquest after Pearl Harbor.^ See Dr John J. Stephan's "Hawaii under the Rising Sun" at page 99.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The orphaned TBFs had failed to reach Hawaii in time to fly aboard Hornet before it left Pearl Harbor for Midway.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Based on the same considerations, I would expect Yamamoto to appreciate the need to destroy the submarine servicing facilities at Pearl Harbor before withdrawing temporarily from Hawaii.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.^ Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-8248-2550-0. 
  • Bix, Herbert P. (2001).^ ISBN 0-8248-2550-0 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Herbert Bix , Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan , 2001, p.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bix, Herbert P. (2001).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan.^ Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Herbert Bix , Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan , 2001, p.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Perennial / HarperCollinsPublishers.^ New York: Perennial / HarperCollinsPublishers.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-06-019314-X. 
  • Holmes, W. (1979). .Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During World War II (Bluejacket Books).^ According to the Isom's article published in the Naval War College Review in 2000 all members of this crew were killed during the war.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Saboteur: World War II Redefined .
    • John Ford's Battle of Midway | SPIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For three decades after the end of World War II, Japan’s massive Midway Operation was believed to have had only two aims – completing the destruction of the US Pacific Fleet that had begun at Pearl Harbor, and capture of America’s Midway Atoll outpost in the central Pacific.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 1-55750-324-9. 
  • Hakim, Joy (1995).^ Hakim, Joy (1995).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 1-55750-324-9 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Studs Terkel, The Good War: An Oral History of World War Two (New York: the New Press, 1984), 524.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Garden City: Doubleday, 1955; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1986.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  • Layton, Rear Admiral Edwin T. (1985).^ Layton, Rear Admiral Edwin T. (1985).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-19-509514-6 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway, Konecky and Konecky.
  • Lord, Walter (1967).^ The film focuses on a young Zero pilot aboard Hiryū who participates in both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The orphaned TBFs had failed to reach Hawaii in time to fly aboard Hornet before it left Pearl Harbor for Midway.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    Incredible Victory. Burford. .ISBN 1-58080-059-9.  Focuses primarily on the human experience of the battle.
  • Lundstrom, John B. (2005 (new edition)).^ ISBN 1-58080-059-9 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lundstrom, John B. (2005 (New edition)).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Focuses primarily on the human experience of the battle.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway.^ The film focuses on a young Zero pilot aboard Hiryū who participates in both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pearl Harbor and the first Japanese attack on Midway - 7 December 1941 .
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The orphaned TBFs had failed to reach Hawaii in time to fly aboard Hornet before it left Pearl Harbor for Midway.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 159114471X. 
  • Parillo, Mark. .Japanese Merchant Marine in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute Press, 1993.
  • Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005).^ The Saboteur: World War II Redefined .
    • John Ford's Battle of Midway | SPIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ With its lifeline to the United States severed, it is likely that the eastern coast of Australia would have been invaded and occupied by the Japanese before the end of 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thereafter, the naval establishments in Japan and the United States prepared for the possibility of armed conflict between their two countries.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway.^ Prange, Miracle at Midway , pp.231–237; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword , pp.170–173; Willmott, Barrier & the Javelin ; Fuchida & Okumiya, Midway .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The full story of Commander Cheek's battle with the Zeros at Midway can be viewed on this web-site.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin ^ Dull, The Imperial Japanese Navy: A Battle History, p.166; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp.519–523; Prange, Miracle at Midway p.395; Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword , pp.416–430.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books. .ISBN 1-57488-923-0.  Uses recent Japanese sources.
  • Peattie, Mark R..^ We (meaning mostly Tony Tully, really) have also been making headway by using other Japanese sources (survivor's accounts) to get an idea of relative bearings and distances from each other.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Uses recent Japanese sources.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Japanese account; numerous assertions in this work have been challenged by more recent sources.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909-1941.^ A major step towards achieving that air support had occurred on 1 August 1941 when the Naval Air Station, Midway, was commissioned under the command of Commander Cyril T. Simard.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909-1941 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Japanese launched a second and more powerful amphibious assault on Wake Island under cover of darkness on the morning of 23 December 1941.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .US Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    pp. 392. .ISBN 1-59114-664-X. 
  • Potter, E. B. and Nimitz, Chester W. (1960).^ Potter, E. B. and Nimitz, Chester W. (1960).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 1-59114-664-X .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Sea Power. Prentice-Hall. 
  • Prange, Gordon W.; Goldstein, Donald M., and Dillon, Katherine V. (1982). Miracle at Midway. McGraw-Hill. .ISBN 0-07-050672-8.  The standard academic history of the battle based on massive research into American and Japanese sources.
  • Smith, Michael (2000).^ The standard academic history of the battle based on massive research into American and Japanese sources.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike many other sources, Leckie's narrative showed both the American and Japanese points of view.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On all four Japanese carriers frantic preparations were under way to launch a massive strike at the American carrier force discovered by the Tone scout seaplane.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Emperor's Codes: Bletchley Park and the breaking of Japan's secret ciphers, Bantam Press, ISBN 0593-046420. Chapter 11: "Midway: The battle that turned the tide"
  • Willmott, H.P. (1983).^ The Emperor's Codes: Bletchley Park and the breaking of Japan's secret ciphers , Bantam Press, ISBN 0593-046420 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I discovered general facts about major turning points in the Pacific theater such as the Battle of Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Here is documented evidence that the SORYU and HIRYU retained their Pearl Harbor era assigned codes as late as the Midway Battle.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Barrier and the Javelin: Japanese and Allied Strategies, February to June 1942.^ They were slow moving targets for the swarms of deadly Zero fighters that protected the Japanese carrier force that attacked Midway on 4 June 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A powerful Japanese aircraft carrier strike force has just attacked America's Midway Islands on the morning of 4 June 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The defenders of Midway Atoll bury their dead with full military honours after the Japanese air attack on 4 June 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .United States Naval Institute Press.^ Thereafter, the naval establishments in Japan and the United States prepared for the possibility of armed conflict between their two countries.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ United States naval aviation .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    pp. 616. ISBN 1-59114-949-5.  Broad-scale history of the naval war with detailed accounts of order of battle and dispositions.

Further reading

Books

  • Bess, Michael (2006). .Choices Under Fire: Moral Dimensions of World War II.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Saboteur: World War II Redefined .
    • John Ford's Battle of Midway | SPIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Considering the questions raised by this book helped me to realize that Okinawa was indeed a crucial turning point in World War II. .
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Alfred A. Knopf.^ New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1946; reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1989.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-307-26365-7. 
  • Ewing, Steve (2004).^ ISBN 0-307-26365-7 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ewing, Steve (2004).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Thach Weave: The Life of Jimmie Thach.^ John S. "Jimmy" Thach and his "beam defese tactic" ("weave") worked.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 1591142482. 
  • Hanson, Victor D. (2001). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power. Doubleday. .ISBN 0-385-50052-1. 
  • Hara, Tameichi (1961).^ Hara, Tameichi (1961).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-385-50052-1 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Japanese Destroyer Captain.^ Captain Simard was not going to repeat the mistakes of Pearl Harbor where so many American aircraft were destroyed by the Japanese on the ground.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Japanese Destroyer Captain .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The destroyers were now close enough to the reef for Captain Jean H. Buckner to see the Japanese Navy battle flag flying from the foremast of the lead destroyer.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-345-27894-1.  First-hand account by Japanese captain, often inaccurate.
  • Kahn, David.^ First-hand account by Japanese captain, often inaccurate.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At 0612, Captain Carey was first to sight the Japanese aircraft when they were about forty miles out from Midway.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I love reading first-hand accounts of veterans.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet.^ The Codebreakers : The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Scribner. .ISBN 0-684-83130-9.  Significant section on Midway
  • Kernan, Alvin (2005).^ Significant section on Midway Kernan, Alvin (2005).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-684-83130-9 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Unknown Battle of Midway.^ The Unknown Battle of Midway .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Yale University Press. .ISBN 0-300-10989-X.  An account of the blunders that led to the near total destruction of the American torpedo squadrons, and of what the author calls a cover-up by naval officers after the battle.
  • Lundstrom, John B. (2005 (New edition)).^ Many of the American aircrews were untried in battle; the American torpedo planes were obsolete; their torpedoes were unreliable; and the American F4F Wildcat fighter planes lacked the speed and agility of the deadly Japanese Zero fighter.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Led by Lieutenant Commander Lance E. Massey, the twelve torpedo bombers of Torpedo Squadron Three (VT-3) took off from Yorktown at 0845.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Torpedo Squadron VT-6 from USS Enterprise, led by Lieutenant Commander Eugene E. Lindsey, attacked the carrier Kaga with fourteen TBDs at 0940.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .First Team And the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942.^ First Team And the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American counter-offensive at Guadalcanal in August 1942 would not have been possible.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 1-59114-472-8. 
  • Morison, Samuel E. (1949).^ Historian Samuel E. Morison wrote in 1949 that Spruance was subjected to much criticism for not pursuing the retreating Japanese, and allowing the retreating Japanese surface fleet to escape.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 1-59114-472-8 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Morison, Samuel E. (1949).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions: May 1942–August 1942.  (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume 4) official U.S. history.
  • Smith, Douglas V. (2006).^ These changes may not have taken immediately before Midway as I indicated in the previous message, but if it did, it at least would have taken place sometime between Pearl Harbor and Coral Sea.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ With the fifth anniversary of the Battle of Midway approaching, the ONI Review publishes the official Japanese action report of this engagement, only now translated under the supervision of the Naval Analysis Division, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, and here available in English for the first time.
    • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Carrier Battles: Command Decision in Harm's Way.^ Carrier Battles: Command Decision in Harm's Way .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher was the commander of the American carrier task forces at the vital battles of Coral Sea and Midway.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was deemed that if under these conditions, the enemy chose to strike, we would be at a distinct disadvantage in that we would be unable to carry out a decisive battle.
    • HyperWar: The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .U.S. Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 1591147948. 
  • Smith, Peter C. (2007).^ Smith, Peter C. (2007).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Midway Dauntless Victory; Fresh perspectives on America's Seminal Naval Victory of 1942.^ Simard was a veteran naval aviator who would later play a key role in the defence of Midway against the Japanese attack on 4 June 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the great naval battle at Midway between 4 and 6 June 1942 the three American aircraft carriers Yorktown, Enterprise and Hornet won a remarkable and pivotal victory over the Imperial Japanese Navy.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fleeing from the Japanese defeat at Midway, the Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma was hit by Dauntless SBD dive bombers from American carriers on 6 June 1942.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Maritime.^ Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Maritime.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 184415583-8.  Detailed study of battle, from planning to the effects on WWII
  • Stille, Mark (2007).^ Detailed study of battle, from planning to the effects on WWII Stille, Mark (2007).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An in-depth study of the last months of the war, this source included Okinawa, Operation Olympic (the planned land invasion of Japan), the atomic bombs, and their effects.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A vivid account of the story of Okinawa, this book explored the naval aspects of the battle in detail, but still related a complete account.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .USN Carriers vs IJN Carriers: The Pacific 1942.^ Some think that luck,or fate, or devine intervention played a role in the USN dive bombers catching the IJN carriers in such a vernerable position.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ USN Carriers vs IJN Carriers: The Pacific 1942 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Osprey.^ New York: Osprey.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 978-1-84603-248-6. 
  • Tillman, Barrett (1976).^ Tillman, Barrett (1976).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 978-1-84603-248-6 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .the dauntless dive bomber of world war two.^ The attack by sixteen Dauntless SBD-2 dive-bombers of US Marine Scout-Bombing Squadron 241 (VMSB-241) .
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just before noon on 4 June, Admiral Fletcher launched ten Dauntless dive bombers from Yorktown to search for Hiryu.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This attack was launched by Major Lofton R. Henderson's Dauntless SBD-2 dive-bombers of VMSB-241.
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.^ The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1958.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ US Naval Institute Press.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-87021-569-8. 
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1994).^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1994).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-87021-569-8 .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II.^ He was posthumously awarded the first Medal of Honor awarded to a Marine in World War II. .
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "History of Marine Corps Aviation In World War II," Robert Sherrod, Presidio Press:1980, p.53.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A compelling reason to re-assess the status of Midway in World War II .
    • Adventure Kokoda - Battle of Midway - Naval Battles - History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kokodatreks.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge U P. 
  • Willmott, H.P.. .The Second World War in the Far East (Smithsonian History of Warfare).^ A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Operation Iceberg: The Invasion and Conquest of Okinawa in World War II--an Oral History .
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nathan Miller, War at Sea: A Naval History of World War II (New York: Scribner, 1995), 266.
    • Megan Tzeng | The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific | The History Teacher, 34.1 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Smithsonian Books. pp. 240. ISBN 1-58834-192-5.
     

Articles

Historic documents

Miscellaneous

  • Cook, Theodore F., Jr. (2000). ."Our Midway Disaster". in Robert Cowley (ed.^ Robert Cowley (ed.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ). What if?. London: Macmillan. .ISBN 0-333-75183-3.  Counterfactual fiction has the Japanese winning.
  • Schlesinger, James R., "Midway in Retrospect: The Still Under-Appreciated Victory", 5 June 2005. (An analysis by former Secretary of Defense Schlesinger.^ In Response To: Re: Japanese CAP at Midway (Andrew Johnson) Andrew: I think that carrier tactics were still being developed by both sides at this stage of the conflict.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Otherwise...I think you're analysis of the situation at Midway on the morning of June 4 seems completely logical to me.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Response To: Re: Japanese CAP at Midway (Andrew Johnson) I agree with George in that this was still early in the war and CAP tactics hadn't been refined to a high degree.
    • Midway aircraft 3 February 2010 14:34 UTC www.j-aircraft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) Available from the Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy.
  • WW2DB: The Battle of Midway
  • After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships by Bryan J. Dickerson
  • Animated History of The Battle of Midway
  • Midway Chronology 1
  • Midway Chronology 2

Simple English

Battle of Midway
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II
File:SBDs and
U.S. Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers from the USS Hornet about to attack the burning Japanese cruiser Mikuma for the third time on 6 June 1942.
Date 4–7 June 1942
Location Midway Atoll
28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.2°N 177.35°W / 28.2; -177.35Coordinates: 28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.2°N 177.35°W / 28.2; -177.35
Result Decisive American victory
Combatants
 United States File:Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Empire of Japan
Commanders
Chester W. Nimitz
Frank J. Fletcher
Raymond A. Spruance
Isoroku Yamamoto
Nobutake Kondo
Chūichi Nagumo
Tamon Yamaguchi (KIA)
Ryusaku Yanagimoto (KIA)[nb 1]
Strength
3 carriers,
~25 support ships,
233 carrier aircraft,
127 land-based aircraft
4 carriers,
2 battleships,
~15 support ships (heavy and light cruisers, destroyers),
248[1] carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes
Did not participate in battle:
2 light carriers,
5 battleships,
~41 support ships (Yamamoto "Main Body", Kondo "Strike Force" plus "Escort" and "Occupation Support Force")
Casualties
1 carrier sunk,
1 destroyer sunk,
150 aircraft destroyed[needs proof],
307 killed[2]
4 carriers sunk,
1 cruiser sunk,
248 carrier aircraft destroyed,[3]
3,057 killed.[4]

The Battle of Midway was an important naval battle of World War II, between the United States and the Empire of Japan. It took place from June 4, 1942 to June 7, 1942, more or less one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, and about six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that had made war break between the United States and Japan. During the battle, the United States Navy defeated a Japanese attack against Midway Atoll (located northwest of Hawaii) and destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers and a heavy cruiser, and losing a carrier and a destroyer.

The battle was a clear victory for the Americans, and usually considered the most important naval battle of World War II.[5] The battle weakened the Imperial Japanese Navy for the rest of the war, mostly because Japan lost more than 200 pilots.[6]

Both nations suffered losses in the battle, but Japan could not build up its forces again. The Japanese industry had little resources and was very poor compared to the American. For this reason, the United States replaced their lost ships and planes with better ones, very quickly; but Japan could only make few, and of poor quality.

The Japanese plan of attack was to bring America's carriers into a trap and sink them.[7] The Japanese also tried to take Midway Atoll, to build Japan's defenses as far away from their homeland as possible. This operation was considered a previous step before attacking Fiji and Samoa, as well as an invasion of Hawaii.[8]

The Midway operation, like the attack on Pearl Harbor, was not part of a campaign for the conquest of the United States, but was made by the Empire of Japan to destroy the American strength in the Pacific Ocean. This way, Japan could become the biggest power in the area and create a great government of Asia, under its rule. It was also hoped that another defeat would force the U.S. to ask for peace soon, with good terms for Japan.[9]

After the clear victory, the American forces retired. Japan's loss of four out of their six carriers, plus many number of their best air pilots, stopped the expansion of the Japanese Empire in the Pacific, and the Americans slowly began to advance towards Japan.

References

  1. Parshall & Tully, p. 90-91
  2. "The Battle of Midway". Office of Naval Intelligence. http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-CN-Midway/USN-CN-Midway-13.html#our. 
  3. Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, p.524.
  4. Parshall and Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.114, 365, 377-380, 476.
  5. "A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway". U.S. Navy. http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/ships/carriers/midway.html. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  6. Dull, The Imperial Japanese Navy: A Battle History, p. 166; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 519-523; Prange, Miracle at Midway p. 395; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 416-430
  7. H.P. Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Lundstrom, First South Pacific Campaign; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 19-38
  8. Parshall & Tully, pp. 43-45, & Stephan, Hawaii under the Rising Sun.
  9. Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33

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