The Full Wiki

Battle of Palikao: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Battle of Palikao

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Battle of Palikao
Part of Second Opium War
CousinMontaubanCampaignOf1860.jpg
Cousin-Montauban leading French forces during the 1860 campaign.
Date 21 September 1860
Location Baliqiao
Result Decisive Anglo-French victory
Belligerents
United Kingdom United Kingdom
France French Empire
Arms of the Qing Dynasty.svg Qing Dynasty
Commanders
United Kingdom:
James Hope Grant
France:
Charles Guillaume Cousin-Montauban
Sengge Rinchen
Strength
10,000 30,000
Casualties and losses
British:
unknown
French:
1,000 killed or wounded
25,000 killed or wounded

The Battle of Palikao or Battle of Baliqiao (French: Le Combat de Palikao, Chinese: 八里桥之战, lit. "Battle of the Eight-Mile Bridge") was fought at the bridge of Baliqiao by British and French forces during the Second Opium War on the morning of 21 September 1860. It allowed Western forces to take the capital Beijing and eventually defeat the Qing Empire.[1]

Contents

Battle

The combined Anglo-French force which had recently occupied Tianjin engaged a Chinese army numbering some 30,000-strong at Baliqiao. A fierce battle ensued, with the Anglo-French force inflicting massive losses on the Chinese Qing army. Beijing was invaded thereafter.[2]

On the Chinese side, Sengge Rinchen's 10,000 troops including elite Mongolian cavalry that were completely annihilated after several doomed frontal charges against concentrated firepower from the allied forces.

Historians estimate the losses on the Chinese side as about 25,000. The French, in contrast, lost only 1,000 soldiers. The French troops were led by Charles Guillaume Cousin-Montauban, who was then awarded the title of Count of Palikao by Napoléon III. The British land forces were commanded by Sir James Hope Grant.[3]

Aftermath

The British commander, James Hope Grant

With the Qing army devastated, Emperor Xianfeng fled the capital, leaving his brother, Prince Gong, to be in charge of negotiations.

The Anglo-French forces entered Beijing on 6 October. Anglo-French troops in Beijing began looting the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace. Harry Smith Parkes and the surviving diplomatic prisoners were freed, Lord Elgin ordered the Summer Palaces be burnt down, starting on 18 October. The destruction of the Forbidden City was even discussed, as proposed by Lord Elgin to discourage the Chinese from using kidnapping as a bargaining tool, and to exact revenge on the mistreatment of their prisoners.[4]

Charles Cousin-Montauban received the title Count of Palikao from Napoleon III after the battle.

The Qing court agreed to all Western demands, including the payment of indemnities, the acceptance of foreign diplomats at the imperial court in Beijing, and the liberalisation of the Opium trade.

Notes

  1. ^ Mourre, p. 500
  2. ^ Boulger, p. 383
  3. ^ Grant, Sir James Hope in Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition
  4. ^ Endacott, George Beer. Carroll, John M. [2005] (2005). A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. HK University press. ISBN 9622097421

References

  • Mourre, Michel (1968). Dictionnaire D'histoire Universelle. Éditions universitaires.
  • Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1893). China. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417916273.

Further reading

  • Luxembourg, Rosa The Accumulation of Capital Chapter 28: The introduction of the commodity economy [1]

External links

Advertisements

Battle of Palikao
Part of Second Opium War
File:La bataille de
The bridge of Palikao on the evening of the battle
Date 21 September 1860
Location Palikao, China
Result Decisive Anglo-French victory
Belligerents
United Kingdom
French Empire
File:Arms of the Qing Qing Dynasty
Commanders and leaders
James Hope Grant
Charles Cousin-Montauban
Sengge Rinchen
Strength
10,000[1] Thousands of cavalry and infantry[2]
Casualties and losses
British:[2]
2 killed,
29 wounded
French:[3]
3 killed,
18 wounded
1,200 casualties[3]

The Battle of Palikao (French: Le Combat de Palikao, Chinese: 八里桥之战, lit. "Battle of the Eight-Mile Bridge") was fought at the bridge of Palikao by Anglo-French forces against China during the Second Opium War on the morning of 21 September 1860. It allowed Western forces to take the capital Beijing and eventually defeat the Qing Empire.[4]

Contents

Battle

The combined Anglo-French force which had recently occupied Tianjin engaged a Chinese army numbering thousands at Baliqiao. A fierce battle ensued, with the Anglo-French force inflicting massive losses on the Chinese army. Beijing was invaded thereafter.[5]

On the Chinese side, Sengge Rinchen's troops including elite Mongolian cavalry that were completely annihilated after several doomed frontal charges against concentrated firepower from the allied forces.

The French troops were led by Charles Guillaume Cousin-Montauban, who was then awarded the title of Count of Palikao by Napoléon III. The British land forces were commanded by Sir James Hope Grant.[6]

Aftermath

With the Qing army devastated, Emperor Xianfeng fled the capital, leaving his brother, Prince Gong, to be in charge of negotiations.

The Anglo-French forces entered Beijing on 6 October. Anglo-French troops in Beijing began looting the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace. Harry Smith Parkes and the surviving diplomatic prisoners were freed, Lord Elgin ordered the Summer Palaces be burnt down, starting on 18 October. The destruction of the Forbidden City was even discussed, as proposed by Lord Elgin to discourage the Chinese from using kidnapping as a bargaining tool, and to exact revenge on the mistreatment of their prisoners.[7]

In the Treaty of Tientsin, the Qing court agreed to all Western demands, including the payment of indemnities, the acceptance of foreign diplomats at the imperial court in Beijing, and the liberalisation of the opium trade.

Notes

  1. ^ de Saint-Amand & Martin 1912, p. 273
  2. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 22452, pp. 4770–4771, 27 November 1860. Accessed 28 September 2010.
  3. ^ a b de Saint-Amand & Martin 1912, p. 277
  4. ^ Mourre 1968, p. 500
  5. ^ Boulger 1893, p. 383
  6. ^ Grant, Sir James Hope in Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition
  7. ^ Endacott, George Beer. Carroll, John M (2005). A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. HK University press. ISBN 9622097421

References

  • Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1893). China. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417916273.
  • de Saint-Amand, Imbert; Martin, Elizabeth Gilbert (1912). Napoleon III at the Height of His Power. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Mourre, Michel (1968). Dictionnaire D'histoire Universelle. Éditions universitaires.

Further reading

  • Luxembourg, Rosa The Accumulation of Capital Chapter 28: The introduction of the commodity economy [1]


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message