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Battle of River
Part of Islamic conquest of Persia and
Campaigns of Khalid ibn al-Walid
Date April 633
Location Mesopotamia (Iraq)
Result Decisive Rashidun Caliphate victory
Belligerents
Rashidun Caliphate Persian Empire,
Arab allies
Commanders
Khalid ibn al-Walid Karinz ibn Karianz,
Qubaz,
Anushjan
Strength
~17,000[1] 20,000-22,000
Casualties and losses
Unknown 6,000-7,000[2]

The Battle of River took place in Mesopotamia (Iraq) between the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Persian Empire. Muslims, under Khalid ibn al-Walid's command, defeated the numerically superior Persian army.

References

  1. ^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.135
  2. ^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.137
  • A.I. Akram, The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 0-7101-0104-X.

External links


Battle of River
Part of Islamic conquest of Persia and
Campaigns of Khalid ibn al-Walid
Date April 633
Location Mesopotamia (Iraq)
Result Decisive Rashidun Caliphate victory[citation needed]
Belligerents
Rashidun Caliphate Persian Empire,
Arab allies
Commanders and leaders
Khalid ibn al-Walid Karinz ibn Karianz†[citation needed],
Qubaz†[citation needed],
Anushjan†[citation needed]
Strength
~17,000[citation needed][1] unknown[citation needed]

(primary sources) 20,000-22,000[citation needed] (Modern Estimations)

Casualties and losses
Unknown 30,000(primary sources)[citation needed] [2]10,000-15,000[2]

According to Arab and Muslim sources, the Battle of River took place in Mesopotamia (Iraq) between the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Persian Empire. Muslims, under Khalid ibn al-Walid's command, defeated the numerically superior Persian army.

Contents

Prelude

Prophet Mohammad died on 8 June 632, Abu Bakr succeeded him as first Caliph. Abu Bakr's Caliphate lasted for 27 months, during which he crushed the rebellion of the Arab tribes throughout Arabia in the successful campaign against Apostasy and restore the authority of Madinah over Arabia. Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest. He launched campaigns against the Sassanid Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) and thus set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. After the Ridda Wars a Muslim tribal chief raided the Persian frontier towns in Iraq. After the success of these raids Abu Bakr planned to expand his empire. He started with Iraq, a rich Persian province. After centuries of Persian power and glory, it was important for Abu Bakr’s expedition to not to suffer a defeat, for that would confirm and strengthen the fear for the Persian military strength. To overcome these concerns he decided that the army that would invade Persia would consist entirely of volunteers. He put in command of the army his best general Khalid ibn al-Walid. Muslims invaded the Sassanid Persian Empire in April 633 A.D. and defeated the Sassanid army in the Battle of Chains where the Marzbān (provincial governor) Hormuz was killed by Khalid ibn al-Walid in a duel.

Background

Before the Battle of Chains the Marzbān Hormuz wrote to the emperor about the threat from Arabia and concentrated an army for the battle, consisting of a large number of Christian Arab auxiliaries, and before the battle the emperor sent a big army led by the general Karinz ibn Karianz, his role was to protect Uballa which was an important port of the Persian Empire in case Muslims defeat the Marzbān Hormuz.

Battle preparation

Persian preparation

After the Battle of Chains the small force of the Persian army led by the officers commanding the wings Qubaz and Anushjan joined to Karinz’s army, survivors were scared from the Battle of Chains ,they told Karinz about the power of Rashidun Army. Karinz panicked and chose to fight out of Uballa in a place called al Madhar. Karinz chose this place because it was near the Euphrates River A thousand ships were prepared to retreat from the battle in case Muslims overpowerd them.

Muslims preparation

Khalid ibn al-Walid knew that Persian organised their army in al madhar, so he led the army, and sent a small detachment led by Muthana ibn Haris. They arrived to the battlefield earlier than the Persian army thought.

When Khalid ibn al-Walid arrived, he saw ships at the edge of the river, and immediately understood that the Persian Army was still scared and would retreat from the battle.

The battle

Khalid faced the Persians with about 17.000 men[citation needed]; even the Persian army was stronger he was scared, before the battle, Karinz challenged Khalid bin Walid to a duel, Khalid accepted the challenge but when he moved to face Karinz, Another men called Maakal ibn el acha challenged Karinz and Khalid let him, Maakal ibn el acha came face to face with the Persian general Karinz and defeated him ,after, the commander Assim ibn amr killed the Persian commander Anushjan in another duel, finally addi ibn hatam killed Qubaz in a single combat between them , the death of the Persian Commanders was a psychological victory for the Muslims, and Khalid ordered a general attack, many thousands of Persian army were Killed, others were able to retreat and escape , this battle was the second Decisive Muslims victory.

Aftermath

After the Battle of River, Khalid defeated the Persian armies in three more battles (Walaja – Ullais – Hira ) and captured his objective: Al-Hirah. The first Muslim invasion of Iraq was completed within four months. Abu Bakr didn’t direct Khalid to move deeper into the Sassanid territory, and after nine months he sent him to command the invasion of Byzantine Empire on the Syrian front.

References

  1. ^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.135
  2. ^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.137
  • A.I. Akram, The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 0-7101-0104-X.


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