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The Battle of St. John's was the French capture of St. John's, the capital of the British Colony of Newfoundland on 1 January 1709, during Queen Anne's War. A mixed and motley force of about 170 led by Joseph de Monbeton de Brouillan de Saint-Ovide, king's lieutenant to Philippe Pastour de Costebelle, the French governor of Plaisance, surprised the British garrison at St. John's, and took about 800 prisoners.

Costebelle, whose resources were too limited to hold St. John's, destroyed its fortifications and abandoned it in April 1709. It was later reoccupied by the British. French colonial outposts in Newfoundland were abandoned after France ceded control of the island to Britain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; most of the French settlers were relocated to Île-Royale, now known as Cape Breton Island.

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